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2. .
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4.
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5.
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6.

7.
48
60
8.
II

9. .
64
68
10. .
11. .
71

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
III

18.
19.
20.
21. .
IV

22.
23.
.
24.
25. .
26.
27. .
28.
29.
V

30.

31.
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32. .
33.
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34.
35.
36.
37.

38.
VI

39.
40.

78
83
88
91
97
100

107
110
112
114
123
129
130
135
143
147
149
159
166
170
172
173
175
182
183
189
199
204
205

41.
42.
43.
VII

44. .

45.
46. .
47. .
48.
49. .
50. .
51. .
52.
53.
54.
VIII

55.
56.
57. ,

58.
59.
60.

61.
62.

IX

63.

64.

65.

66.
67.
68.
69.

209
213
222
230
233
236
245
249
263
269
282
288
294
297
302
311
314
317
321
323
325
331

333
337
347
349
353
357
360

70.
71.
72.
X

73.
74.
75.
76.

77.
78.
79.
80.
81.

82.
83.

84.

85.
XI

86. .
87.
88.
XII

89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94. .
95. .
96.
97. .

98.
99.
100. .
101.

366
372
376
379
381
384
390
392
394
397
400
408
415
421
423
426
429
431
436
440
445
448
456
459
460
467
471
477
482
487
491
495

102.
497
500
103.
506
104.
105.
512
514

515


66, 67, 321, 347, 357
64
339, 345, 353, 35, 375
12, 44?, 449, 453
63
191
77, 102
462, 464, 467, 468,
509, 511
470, 479, 491, 493, 494, 496, 501,
98
507
392, 428
368
87
427, 428, 442
44
495
276
372
98
464
93, 97, 135
280
512, 513
478
256
43
427, 428, 442
12, 9197, 216, 348, 368
376, 483
161, 227
115
19
378
310
11-15, 44, 63, 64, 71, 73, 75,
73, 205, 380, 385-387, 395, 397
78 85, 90, 98, 107, 114, 127,
12, 183, 185, 187, 211213,
162, 163, 174, 199, 202, 208, 304,
219, 250, 260
305, 307. 313, 324, 330 333, 334,
491, 492
346, 361, 364, 367, 368, 427, 428,
465
430, 434, 463
370, 371
191
19, 20
372
306
440
175177, 180182, 279,
149
341
466, 467
305
319
504
43
129, 130, 195
467, 501, 503
12, 302, 303, 305, 312, 322,
477-480
330, 332, 439
295, 299
491
388, 397, 421
141
321
465

483485, 487, 489, 490,


513
483486
495 497
282, 284 287, 357, 359, 360
370
116, 117, 129
287
183, 185, 187, 250, 260
496, 497
246, 247, 447, 452
177
11, 13, 2527, 97, 307,
483
372377
439
368, 370
503
385, 386, 388, 397, 426428,
310
438, 439
468

279
283
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98
22
223
25
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25
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451
, 222
457
78
472
72
479
360
479
457
223
435
204
38
299
124
197
48, 50
441
57
483
56
445
57
453
57
283
() 429
263
() 430
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349
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60
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86
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141
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504
266
490
2
451
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464
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104
()
185
264, 282
263

263
263, 283,
285 287
37
295
40
23, 40
34
304, 307

377
366
160, 161, 446
11
334
12
240
497
503
140, 314
12
334
334
64
32
32
64
128
140, 314
78
84, 308
380
397
397
() 379
379
( ) 124
75
63
()
466
27

175
448
304
73, 380, 386
302, 321
302, 321
302, 321
440
171
483
489

93
129
98
98
70, 80
98
99
168
137, 148
63, 72
63, 64
63, 78

367
100
156
68
466
444
61, 230
380
400
289
68
457
389
389
200
206
42, 54, 70
174

87
107, 109
107
107
57
51
17
68
283
351
283
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263

472
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302, 321
69
28
14
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63
63
50
299
299
117,
326
117, 326
117, 326, 327, 329

472
73
388
441
490
102, 104
73
506
485
485
406
489

466
397
494
459
150
491, 495
12
361
411
63, 68
366
68, 366
114
70
112
492
70
366
29
191
146
272
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292
210
209
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357
211
234
234
19, 118
450
450

354
11
24
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14
14
13
30
29
482
85
393
215, 397
394
395
385
428

172
167
174
184
401
- 451
172
166, 167
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349
381
381
381
384
32
204
89
351
77
298
400
401
149
443
( ) 75
63, 64
103, 494
61
61

348
345
446
388, 391, 393,
396, 397
26
287
200
200
497
393
393
160, 161

447
447
400
349

353
290
360

388
385
385
17
492
226

280
205
296
173
240
498
46
424
46
161
501
213

214
491, 495
86
375
459
86
360
466
466
299
298
303

43
498
140
140
497
498
140
17
48
437
284
379
406
92
93
291
270
291
275
275
267
361
360
363
() 365
365
365
276
376
43

96
94
97

304
415
387
415
415
415


374
321
204
78
345
57
57
465
198
123
123
123
251
251 430
490, 494
464
74 499
60
296
60
165 395
24 63, 64, 71
335
341
341
336
342
135
363
76
115

76
104
131
131
79
84
79
79
304
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135, 279
304
135
133
382, 445
134
382, 445
79
445
100
65
66
LMT 431
LMTI 431
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431
75, 431
66
66
66, 376
66
151
333
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57
52, 58
34
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115
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316
31
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423
422,
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424
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53
53
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60
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294
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247
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101
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466
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483
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310
125, 127
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. 9.

,
v = vs, s
. v
, * .
v
, , . .
s. , a no
ds
= -^-. (4.8),
ds
v
(4.9)
j 7 = .
dt

ds ,
dt .
ds vdt.

4]

37

.
,
.
.
s
. s -^-^
^ j , s ,
. ,
s, s + As As (. 10), .
As .
~
s.
, ,
s.

\
/s+As
,
.
4. (4.10)
.
- s
, ds
^
5

. ~

, .
(4.10),
1/
^ .
ds

,
, .

: 1/ . Mr
, , an
.
,
.
,

. ,
As. 1/
.
.

. (4.9)

38

[.


, v .
, (4.10) (4.9)
ds = vdt.

. ,
.
, , , ,
. ,
.
. ,
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
.

. (. . 7) .
.
, , ^.
.
, ,
.
.

.
5.
, . . .

,
. , .
,
v = vs.
,

d .

a^ {vs)

dv

ds

= -jrs + v Hi'

(4.9)
2

dv . V'

dt

'

(4.11)

4]

39

,
s , . . ;
.
.
(4.11)
a ^%s

(4.12)

, .
.

= ^

(4.13)

,
. .
,


:
a = a +a.

(4.14)


,

"
"
.
. 11
. v
t, .
v v + Av
t + At, (
). v
Av :
Av v Av ,
. At

ll

~~ ~ ^ .
, .


,
.
. ,
,
,
,

40

[. I


. ,
-
: , . .

1. , v,
h.
(
).
,
. , ,
v .
_
.

-|/~2 1 +
x v \

g 1

2. ,

= A cos at,

= sin at,

(4-15)

, , . ?
.
. t (4.15),
5 . - - =
3

. - = xl + yj,
= xl + yj.
= sin ",
= < cos (ot,

=
2

= a A cos cat = * ,
= w B sin ^ = .
2

,
2

= * (xt + yj) = ) .

(4.16)

/'.
= , (4.16)
.
3. .
, . . ,
, 365,2564
. ( ,
365,2422 -.
).
. / (. 12)
- ( )
D. 2,
,
{$. *
2, = + ,
1 2. ,
1CD, 2,
= $ + 2. i V = /(2)
N
= {3/2 . N =
+ 1.
3 B

zoa

3B

4]

41

,
, ,
N -T
= i V - T ,
. iV = ? + 1,

3B

3B

COJ1

C0J1

3B

24.60-60 = 86400 , /

= 235,9003

236 ,

= 365,2564,

^ 8 6 164 .

, ,
.

4. ,
.
. ,
.

, .

(. 13).
. , .
0 )
, R R , \ .
= qRq
' = / ? . ,
,
v = '.
. . 13 ,

X
w

c#c

"

:,!
, = R . , v = .
c

42

[. I


mR
c

# ~
'
= / ? ,

= R ,
.
c

"

_ -"

,
v = ; = ( - ) R - .

2
= ^=

'

2
, = ^=,

= 86400

'

CVT

,
= 29,6
.
= 3,8-10 , = 6400 ,

2nR
2
= - i i - - ==0,47 /.
(4.17)

'

'

, ,
. ,
,
, .
2 ;/?
= =
.

'

,
. -
2
v = =.
3

'

, (4.17).

5.



(
) v.
, . . = mv,
*).
,
.
,
.
. *) , .
10.

43

,
.


. -
8,
8,
.
8x&p^h,

(5.1)

h ,
(18581947).
.
h = 6,63- -

27

-.

(5.2)

(5.1)

(. 1901).

,
.
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,
.
.

(5.1). ,

.

x-mbv^>h.

(5.3)


.
, ,
= 1 .
.

, .
10~ . (5.1)
8

8v

1 0

-18

/.

8 8v
-

44

[. I

. ,
,

. , ,
. = 9,11 -' .

, . . 6 < 10" .

28

>

27

= 9,ll' 10-- 10- ~

1 0 8

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.
8

6.

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.
dx

.

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dx

x = -jj (3.4).
^ , , At
.
- .
,
- At
dx dt,
dx

/,
.

.
,
. , dx
dt, .

45

t, dx
dx xdt. ,
dx dt,
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.

,
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- 0,
0,
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.
: At,
. At ,
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. ~~

8

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At, , , ,
*


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,
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.
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. , ,

, . . 1/1000.

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^
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-
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0
. v =
,
~ .

46

[. I

At,
, . ,
At,
,
, , .
dx dt
. ,
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, .


.
,
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- (5.1)
, At ,
.

. ^ = . , ^ - > 0
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v.
2.
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- .
.
, AV.
Am , .

AV.
, , AV,
.
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,
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:

,.

dm

47

, ,
.
, . , (6.1)

, -
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,
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lim / (x ) [.
t

(, )
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. Ax
/ () ,
.
2 / () Axi ->
,
. , , -
2

48

[. I

(, -
) (, )
(
) .
* - v 0 ,
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,
2 / (,-) .

7.
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.

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2. ,
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S ,
(, ).
t

7]

49

,
v ()
S ().
,
v
,
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,
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2

*)
S ,
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S .
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S .
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2

lt

lt

50

[.

.
,
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,
,
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.
-

X, Y, Z. ,
. ,
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YZ.
X ,
.
a .
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. , , a S,
S',
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5 ,
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X', , Z' S'.
-, -, -,
.
.

, a , a ,
. (
, X,
Y, a Z.)
.
.
, a , a

.
, ,
,

.

7]

51

X, Y, Z,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, . .
, .
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. = ,
, =
= bi (i = , , ). ()
.
,
. . ai'-=bi< (i' =', ', '). ,

,

.
,
.
,
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, ,
- .
, X, , Z
.
, X, Y, Z
.

,
. ,
, . .

.
,
:
' = ' + > + ',
= > + , + ,
(7.1)
? = - + < > + - ,
' , ' ,
...
. , a '

Y' Z.

y Z

52

[. I

4. , ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, , .
,
.
. ,
,
\ + \ + d' .
, . .
(ab) ab cos ft, ) .
, ,
(ab) = a b + a b + a b (.
1 3 ).
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,

,
.
,
.
, b , a , a
b , b , b
= + b , = a + b , c a -\-b .
, ,
,
. ( , c , )
. ,
b
. .
b ,
d = b , d = b , d a b .

b ( ),
b .

.
, ,

.
. z

53

.
,
. , ,
,
.
,
- .

- ( ) .
.
-
(. . )

,
.
6. , , .

(. 14).

.
- ^
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.

.
, . .
.
. ,
v .
.
v ,
?
, .

, v .
,
- v
?
.
,
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.
,
v V.
x

54

[. I

.
,
.
,
,
.

, . . .
.
.
,
.
7. ( , , ) X
,
, , . ,
. X
. da
. t
dt.

da = ~ , t.
8.
, .
, -

. ,

, .
.
t ,
. ^

. v.
, v . v
=

. v,
= mv, .
, F =
.
, .
9. .
- L, . .
, .
XYZ.

55

L , L , L , YZ, ZX, XY
( . 15 L ,
). S , S ,, S , ^ ,
L,.
, ^L , ^
,
.
L , L , L - ,
.

L , L , L
,



X, Y, Z ,
.
, ,
'



L

. 15.
Z.
,
. S , S , S

x

61

CD

S = \ ydz,

\ z dx,

dy,

(7.2)

L , L , L , ,
.
, S , S , S ,
, .
, L
.
, S,
L,
,
, ,
(. 16).
- :
, .

, .
x

56

[. I

= A cos (, X), = A cos (A, Y), A = A cos (A, Z).


,
S = S cos (, X),
S = Scos (A, Y),
S = S COS (A, Z).

S,
S = A , S = A , S = A . ,
S , S , S ,
. S , S , S .
S
,
L.
,
.

.
16.


. L .

, . 17.
,
X

S 2 j ^'-v>
x

Si ,

S 2 j Siz>

Si , Si , S i'-
.
S;
.
/
,
\
t \
t
\
t
S- , S , S .

\
\ t
S , S , S ,

\ t

t
Si.
10. , ,
\
t *
t \
f
S , S , S
.
. 17.
,

,
, .
,
, .
S .
S X

iz

IX

iv

iz

7]

5?

,
.
, ,
.

, .
,
.
.

. ,
S , S , S
(7.2), , ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.

.
,
.
.
.
(
, ,
),
,
.
,
.
+ , ,
.
,
, .
11. ,
,
.
, .
,
, b
. .,
(. 18). , ,
.
x

58

[. I


,

.
, . . ab sin ,
.


. 18.

[ab], . . &
. : = X .
,
, .
.
.

1. , & ,
+ + .
. ( &
(ab) ab.)
. | + + |, b + * + \
( + b f + ( + )* + ( +
b f.
2. ,
().
3. , &
(ab) = ab cos # , .
. X .
=
= 0, b b cos # . (ab) = a b + + a b
, (ab) = a b = ab cos
4.
[be] , ,
([]). , ,
.
, (). ,
,
, , . , ,

(a [bc]) = (b []) = ( [ab}) = - ( [\) = -(

[]) = -

( []),

(7.3)

59

. .
, ,
5.
[a [bc]] = (ac)b (ab) .
. |
d =3 [be],
,
.
[a [bc\] = [ad] =

(7.4)
,

\a d\.
L

^,,

.
(. 19). d
, be sin ,
. 19.
b .
f a , d]
a the sin . ,
ft , . .
[ad]

= xb + .

:
xb
a^bc sin a

sin
sin a '

a , be sin a

sin
sin a '

= ^ sin p = cij_ccos ( a ^ , c) = (a^c) = (ac),


= a^b sin y a^bcos (a^,

b) = (o-^b) = (ab)

6.
([ab\[cd])

(ac)(bd)-(ad)(bc).

7. , [ab]

[ab] =

(7.5)

,
/, , k .
.
,
, () .
, .
8. ,

{ [])--

(7.6)

?
9. e , , , .

[\ ]
(7-7)
t

(e [ ]) '
t

[<?2<? ])
3

60

[.

. ,
. ,

, ,
e

= ,
8 , . . S; = 1 i = k b = 0 ('
.
ife

fe

1 1

+ + ,
2

( - )
ih

'.

= ** + ** + **.

,
() = * + * + *.
1

(7.10)

8.
1.
, , . .
,
- . , ,
,
,
, .
, .
,
. , ,
, ,
( ). ,

. ,

- . ,
. , ,
/ (, , z) = 0,
.
, .

/ (, , ) = 0. ,
.
-
, ,
, .
, ,
- ,
. ,
.

8]

61

2.
, .
,

( ).
, .
, , .
,
.
.
/.
/
.


.

/ q , q ,
q,


.

.
,


.
x


</> ><7
. 20.

. ,
,
-
(,
t = 0). = 6
.
q , q ,
q
,
.
/ .
.
3. , ,
.
,

. , ,
,
2

62

[. I

. ,
, -
, , , (. 20).
D.
AD, BD CD
,
. , ,
D
ABC,
. D,
AC, AD, CD ADC.
.
D, ADC
, D
. D D'.
,
ABC.
, , , ,
.
, ,
, , Z \ , , z ; > , ?- ,
, ,
A

( - x f + ( - ) + (z - z f = = const,
, ( - x f + ( - ) + (z - z f = = const,
(* - x f -V ( - ) + (z - z ) = * = const,

, . ^

.

. , ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
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-II


,
. ,
,
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.
.
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,
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( . . . ).

,
.
1. () ,
.
2. ,
.
3.
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1.
,

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2.
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64

II

3.
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), ,
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9]

65

, , , . .
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). ,

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),
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.
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(
).

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12

66

[.

.
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.
().
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.
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. IX.
2. .
.
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9]

67

.
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.

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.
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*).

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.
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. IX.

68

[. II

,

.
,
.
. IX , ,
.
10. .
1.

. .
. ,
,
. .

.
, ,
.
.
,
.
.
. v 1,
2, a A Av
At. ; Av

t

m Av
1

= m Av ,
2

(10.1)

.

1 2. ,
.
,

. . At
. Av .
, , ,
. ,
.

. , ,
/ 2.
, ,

69


. ,

.
2. ,
-
. .
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.
.
,
() .

4 . .
,
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.
.
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,
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,
.
,
.
1
.
(10.1) ^,

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2

2cp

(10.2)


= .
1

(10.3)


,
.
3. (10.1) . v v
, v\ v'i .
] = v[ v
= v' > .
(10.1),
x

lt

+ m v = m&l + '^.

(10.4)

70

[. II


, :
(10.5)
= mv.


, .
= p + = tn^i + tn v . (10.4)

(10.6)
t

= + , ' = '\ + '


. ,
, . .
, .
.
.
, mv
,
.
, , nPv,
.
,
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.
.

(10.5),

,
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(10.7), .
,
,
,
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0

01

02

(10.8)

11]

71

, / <^ 1,
, = .

.
, ,
, v =
0

V \^
=

\^

1 0

)
) ^ 7 - 1 0 ~ .
m = 5 = 5 10 ,
m m m = 3,5 -"" .

, , ,
, ,
.
3

11. .
1.

.
.
,
(,
, ).
, -
.

- = .

,
[ ,
. v

. F (, v).
p = F.

(11.1)

F (, v),
, *).
*) ,
, F ,

, (. 3 38).
.

72

[. II

,
t.
,
.
.
(11.1), ,
.


mv = F,

(11.2)

mr=F.
(11.3)
, , .
,
, , F
.
(11.1)
,
F (, v).

.
2.
.
, .
(. 21).
,
, .
. 21. .
.
,
.

. = (t)
,
x(t).
- .
(. 22)

x= 4cos^,

(11.4)

,
. ,
:
2

2nt

..

/2 \ ,

2^

73

(11.4),
/2\2

=-

! ) ,

= kx,

(.5)


(.6)
(11.5) (11.3),
F = kx.

(.7)

, F
,

t
. 22.

,
. ,
. ,

k . ,
F
, .
.
,
,
k ,
. ,
: , - .
.
, F
.
, .
, .
(16351703). k
.
, .

74

[. II

, ,
, .
, (11.5) .
, ,
, , .
( ) ,

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= kx bx,

( .8)

b ,
, . ,
, .
3.
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.

: 1)
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)
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, .

11)

75

4.
. (11.1) F ,
^ = 0. , = const, . .
,
. ,
.
? , (11.1),
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( ) .
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.
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(11.1).
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.
.
5. (11.2) .
, ,
,
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1960 . XI
( ).
*):
(), (),
(), (),
() ().
.
.
().
,
1 / .
.
: () ,
() , () .
(). ,
1 1 / . ,
1 = 10 .
2

.
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) ,
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, .

76

[. II

.

.
,
. ,
.
, .
.
6.
. , .
,
.
,
(. 7).
F F ,
,
F F . , , .
F F
.
,
2 + 3 = 5.
.
() .
,
.
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F F . ,
F ,
? , ,
:
.
,

.
?
.
x

,
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F -
F F
.
, -
. , F,
,
.
t

77

111


q, .
, q q .
q F.
F , q q :
F q q
q . ,
F F F.
, F ,
- t'-
( Ft),
(i = 1, 2,
). F,
? ,
. ,
F F F
F .

- . ,
. . ,
, ,
, .
, , F
F , ...
.
. ,
, F
,-, ,
i- .
,
.
F
F = mat. ,

.
, ,
,
F .
, ,
q q , .

- ,
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
x

it

lt

lt

78

[. II


1. = ag, | | < 1.
( ),
, .
. = (1 ) . ,
, , .
2. ,
(, , ).
, . . ,
(, , .).
.
3. ,
v . ,
.

,

.
gtga
. ,
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, . .
,

.
3

12.
1. ,
.

Pi + />2 = COnst.

= 0,

, (11.1),
Fi = -F*

(12.1)

F F ,
. ,
Fx F ,
.
:

, ,
.
, Fx F ,
, , x

S 12]

79

.
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a F , k- i-.
, ,
, F = F i-


. ,

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.
F i k,
, .
,
x

ik

ki

ik

ik

80

[ . II

. F
= Fki, . . F + Fki = 0. ,
, ,
.
ik

ik

FW + FW + ... + FV> = 0,

(12.2)

(i), ,
.
, .
, F[^, , ,
.
F^, F?\ ... ,
.

dt

dPl fil)

'
I We)


(12.2),
^ ( P i + P 2 + --.+Pn) = F^ + F^ + ... +

F^,

f =F^,

(12.3)

(e

, F >
, . ,

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.
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.
,
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= 0. .

:
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, = const.
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.

12]

81

, F<> ,
/
- , ,
X. (12.3) ,
()

= 0,

= const. ,

,
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, .

.
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.)
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82

[. II

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>

. 23.

. ,
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.
(. 23).
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.
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,
a F ,
.
x

ma F F,
A

m a F,
H

(12.4)

.
F = F . F F ,

F
j
,
+

F F :
x

'

13]

83

,
. ,
.
. ,
.
,
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. ,
, F\ F' .
(12.4) :
= F{ F?, .
F\ = F , F'2 = F ,
x

ma = F F .
(12.4),
L

F
i
1,
+ + '

F = ,
F = ( + ) .
F F , 0. , ,
.
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,
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().
.
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,
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, ,
2

13.

1.
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84

[.

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, (. . 23)
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.
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86

[. II

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88

[. II

. ,
.

.

. ,

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a S .
= -^-, . , ,
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( ), = Fx =
= / (. 18). , .
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(13.1)

=- -.

,
= ,
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= .

(13.2)

(13.2) .
,
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.
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,

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1. (11.3)
:
^L-F

d^~ - '

m^-F

m ~~-F
rz

dP~~ -

(11.3)
(14.1). ,

89

.
. (
, .)

,

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v -
/ = 0. .

.
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.

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;
9,83 / , 9,78 / .
g :
3 10 / .
,
g = 9,80 / . , ,
g
.
F = mg,
(11.8)
3

-6

% = g.

(14-2)

.
g
. , g
. (14.2) :
dv

dr

/ \
14

=
< ->
,
:
v = gt + v<>, r= ygt* + v t + r
0

(14.4)

90

. II

v .
(14.4) . ,
(14.2) (14.4).
, , , ,
v .
- ,
.
,
- .
, (14.4)
t = 0. v
(14.2),
(14.4)
. v .
v
.
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;
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0

3. . ,
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2/
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.

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?
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( = 0). , (14.4),
, g v .
XY, X ,
0

15]

91

Y . (14.4)
, , v = cos a, v v sin :
ox

v = "
x

x=

c o s

>

gy

v = v sin gtf,
y

cos a,

y = Vgt sin i - g< .

t/=*tga-

g*
2 cos a
2

.
v
= ~ sin 2a

3

v\ sin a
' 2g
a = 45
__v%

15.
1. ,
ma = F,

(15.1)

,
. , ,
, ,
. F
,

,

. ,
- ,
,
.
2. , S .
S',
V.
,
S. S'?

, ', ', '
S' , , S

92

[. II

.
S,
S'.

,
.
. ,


?
,
X',
Y',Z'

X, Y, Z

t = '
. ,
, V
X.
X'
X.

. 26.
,

.
t
(. 26). = 00' -f '. t
S' ',
00' = Vt.

(15.2)
r = r'+W,
t = t'.
, ' ' -
S S' . (15.2)
:
= ' ~\-Vt',
',
z = z',
t=
(15.3)

r' = r-Vt,

f = t,

(15.4)


' = Vt,

'=,

z' z,

t'

(15.5)

.
.

15]

93

f = t,
,
, .

.

.
t = t'.
. ,
(15.2), (15.3) (15.4) , ', , , , ', ', '
, 5 .
,
, , , S, ', ',
', ' S'.

.
.
.
.
,
,
V
. ( It? <^ 1)
.
.
3. (15.2) t,
1

dr_ __ dr^ .
'dt
dt

v
V

_ dr^
'dt'

v
+

,
'

v = v'+V,

(15.6)

v S, a v' S'.
(
). ,
V . ,
V . ^
V .
V ,

dv
dv'
dv'
~di ~~ ~&T ~ W'

a = '.

(15.7)

94

[. II

S, '
S'. ,
. ,
.
S
, S .
(15.7) , S'
. , S'
. , ,
,
.
,
,
.
:
.

: F = F'. ,
. : =
= ', (15.1)
ma' = F'.

S'. , S. ,
,
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.

.
4.
. , 470

? , . ,
,
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,
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.

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95

,
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96

[ . II

,
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, .

5.
:


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16]

97

,
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^
:
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,
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,
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16.
1.
.

. ,

. ,
.
, = + . -
, .
.
-
5 . v v
, v
.

(16.1)
^ -f m v ~ mv.
S',
S
V.
S'

m v[ + m v' = mv'.
x

(16.2)

98

[. II


S' , S.
v[,
v' S'
5

m(v-V),

(16.3)
, ,
. .
.
,
. , ,
,
,
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(16.3),
,
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.
,
. (17111765)
(17431794),
,

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2. ,
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1 ,
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.

16]

99

.
.
10.
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.

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,

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,
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12 0
99 . = 99 -4,19 10
; 4 - . (13.2)
2

10

12

^ ^ ^ 0 , 5 - 1 <
,
= 12 + 32 = 44 .
8

0,5 " ^
~
44
=

,
JQ^

10


,
10~ .
10

100

[. II

,
.
(13.2) .

.
17.
1.
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.

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101

17]

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.

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.
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/,
( f ).
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, .
, /
/ (/ < /), .
,
/ ,
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. ,
, .
,
/. / .
,
v.
/ - / .

102

[. II

, .
/ , , v.

. 28. , ,
.
, / v .
v .
,
/ +/.

, , .
[/ ( + v) =
= / ( v)]. (17361806),

. 28.

. 29.

/
, ,
/, .

/-/-

(17.1)

.
.
, .
.
, .
, / / ,
. . ,
. . 28 \,
, v. ,
, , , ,
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. . 28

17]

. 29.
v, ,
v = 0 .
, , ,
. v.

. (, ),
,
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, .

3.
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/ / , .
.
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,
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/, ,
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,
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4. .
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0

30

104

[. II


().
> , ,
,
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5. ,
,

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,
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.
, ,
/ .
/
:
/ = -*!*.
(17-2)


,
:
f =-k xfl^
v

= -k w.

(17.3)

k
,
(17.2)
(17.3),
, ,
.
,
k k .
(. 8 ).
x

105

17]

1.
. .
, .
|.
:
| = tg .
2 . , ,
, , .
, ,
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3.
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.
4. , ,
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. .
5.
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.

, .

: / = .
, ,
, , (f < ).
.
. 28 ,.
.
.
, . = ()
, ' 0,

^ = | " |.
X

= A sin 2 -j- ( I ),
, :

- , g .
6. , ,
.
?
.

Bv*
.
.' = -, = - .

106

[. II

7. , . 30 ,
.
.

2k ^

^ ^ 2k '

, , k
(). .
8. .
70 ,
.
k 2 /.
100 , . . 200 /.
.
,
= mg .
2

"

t , ~1

60 / ;
6 / .

III

18.
1. 12,

|=>,

(18.1)

F& ,
. -
.
(18.1) ,
. , F .
(18.1)
p-p
= FV(t-t ),
(18.2)
0


t t .
F^
.
= m v + ... + m v ,

. ,
.
,
( ).
, .
,
= mv = m v + ... + tn v

,
,
. ,
.
2. (18.2) ,

, .
, / < .
, .
0

e)

108

[. III

t t
(^i ^). ( 4 4 ) . >(^ t -I) (. 31).
, / ' '
.
F<
F\ ,
F%\ (18.2)

0

e)

e)

P i - P o = ^i
p -p
2

e)

(ti-t ),
0

Ff (t -t ),
2

p-p -x
= Ff (*-*-i),
Pi, pi,.-, Pn-i
t t , ...Jn-x . ,
a

p-Po^ZF^Mt,

At; = t

,
t

. 31.
e)

F\ F^\
F&
.
, ,
At
t t .

{

- =

Mm
AT-,0

ZF^At,.
I

, , ,
F {t)
t t
(e)

> ( ) _

lim

AT.^o^f

to
e)

e)

F\ Ah.

F<- ,
, ,
t. -

18]

109

. ,
.

t t.
, (18.2)

p-p,=

\F^{x)dx.
(18.3)

, ,
jp< t t. ,
, ,
,


. , ,

,
.
e)

//////////

3. , , ,
, ,
.
. (. 32) ,
. ,
. .
,
: = .
> . ,
, .

^
,
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.
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.

,
.
~ 20 ~ 15 .
, .
1
23 .
. ,
( ) , .

. , .
,
, , .
2

[. III

19.
,
, = m v + m v + ...
.
,
, - R /*!, , ...
x

= -f + ... .
.
(19.1)
,

mR = 1+

-...,
2

mV=ffl o + m o -f...,
1

V = R . ,
p = mV.
(18.1),
m~ = F^.

(19.2)
(19.3)

,
, ,
,
.
.

. -
,
.
, ,
,
.
, . .
,
.

.
,
. -

111

,
. .
, F = 0. dV
(19.3) - ^ - = 0, V = const.

. (. 5
).
(e)

1. , ,
, ,
/. ,
.
,
.
, t-

-VI

2 . ,
, . 33,
. .
.
. -

3. I
,

.
,
,
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(. 75, 4).
. / < 8.
4. ABC ,
, ,
BED m (. 34). ,
,
, D
. BE
.
3

-z-r-(
).
+
5. ,
, -

, , . .
. 34.

/,-
.
,
.
, ,

112

[. III

,
.
,
, . ,

, , ,
, . ,
,

, . .
.

20.
1. ,
(. 35).

d-ri
dfi

F\

__

<Pt\
dt ~
2

F\
m'

(20.1)


F = F .
,
x

d* .

^w

,)

mi

1
m +
x

m~)
j
2



, =
-,
.
.

= + -1
mi

[I -

mi + m

(20.2)


d4

= F,,

(20.3)

.
F ,
, ,,
.
, (20.3)
(20.1).
2

20]

113

, (20.3)
, .
,
.

: 1)
; 2)
.

.
.
.
.
2. ,
. .
F=G-,

, , G .

.
_
Mm
Mm
, F= - - =
.

,
:
Mm ..
_
. M m
M+ m
r
r

, = V,

, .
, ,
T
t

( ),


1*
!

~\TJ

- -'
,

p V2

pas.

114

[. Ill

21. .

1.
, .

,
. ,
,
. ,

; ,
;
,
.
.
,
.
, .
2.
.
.
(), .
,

. ,
.
,
. , ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
(/) t,
a v (/) .
mv. dt
dm dv ( dm !).
( + dm) (v + dv).
,
dt. dm
v , dm ,
dt, a v
.
t + dt
t, dt.

F
, . ,
( -f- dm) (v + dv) + dm v
mv = F dt.
ra3

ra3

ca3

ra3

ra3

[a3

115

dt, dm dv
dm

, ^
~ . , ,
dm-dv, . ,
, dm -\- dm
= 0. ,
dm . , v
= v
.
.

ta3

n3

ma

mdv = v dm

+ Fdt.

ma

(21.1)

dt
dv
m

dm , _

/ 1 r>\

21

-dt= lu+ '

< ->

(21.2) ,
. ,
- . F
v ~,

01ll

, . . ,
. (21.2)
. . (18591935). ,
(21.1),

.
3. (21.1) ,
. F = 0,
mdv = v

0TU

dm.

, ,
v .
,

.
:
mdv = v dm,

. ,
om

o:lVi

d
dm

/ ] \


.
,
. , ,

01

116

[.

,
(21.3).
w = ^ ~

= - v \nm

+ C

0TH


. ,
, .
0 = v In + , = 1 .
,
0

0TH

= !;,

(21.4)

^ = ^.

(21.5)

(1857
1935). , . .
, v v

.
.
,
, (21.5)
tnjm. ,
.
,
(21.5).
0Tli

2|

-(fit)'"

<->

(. 2 22). {5 = . " <^ 1 ~

<^ 1

(21.6) . ,

+ P ~ 1

J.9R

, ,

5^(1+2)^^ = (1+2)

V
2

^.

2(3 ,
2

(1 + 2 p ) i / ( 0 > ^ lim (1 +2)/(2) = .

117

- = v/v
'

'

. . .
4. ,
v. . 1

vlv i .

(21.5).
0

0 H

V/V

m /m
0

'
54,6

2,72

7,39

148

403

20,1

1100

10

22000

2980

59900

8100

12

163000

, , ,
. . , .
v 8 /.
^
1 / / = 2980.
. t = 2 / 1= 54,6,
=
= 4 / / = 7,39 . . ,

. , ,
. ,
, ii
/, ,
.

. ,
4 /. ,
. ,
,
,
11,2 /. , ,
. ,
, ,
.
.

. 16,7 / (. 61).
. ,
"
4 /.
/ 1 = e */i = 17, / =
= / 4 = 64. . ,
,
.
mjm ( , )
. , ,
, . =

0TH

ox

iu

16,7

118

[ . III

tnjtn' = 60 (' ,
). '/ R=; 60, / = 3600.
,
.
, , -, .

. , ,
= 10 /, ,
-, . ( ,
,
5000 ).

4 .
, . . 2
/ ,
(21.6) (21.5) ,

/. , , ,
.
0

/
0

0,001

(21.6)
1

1,0690 10 ?

1,0686 10

1,963 10

0,1

1,79 1 0

1307

0,25

5,37 1 0

3327

1
3

2,84 10i5

13

1,942 10

13

0,01

(21.5)

7,64

1 3 0 2

325 7

1,62 - 8,81 1 0

42

, v
((5 = 0,25). / ^ 5 - 1 0 .
5 - 1 0
!
= 20 = 2-10 ,
- =
= 10
! , ,
.
.
:
3827

3327

33

29

3335

-28

9,11-
1,67-10~
5,98-10
1,99-10
3-
1 0 .
24

27

33

44

,
.
10 .


! .

, .
83

3329

21]

119


,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, .
, .

, .
= .
,
, .
, ,
.
.
, (
).
.

1,
, ,
Am.
Am v

, . v ,
N , .
, , Am -> , N - ,
N Am , v .
.
. v v , ... 1-, 2-, ...
. ( Am) + Am-w 0, w
Am .
=
= v w. w,
0TH

lt

v = -~v
.
(21.7)
'"
v . , v
,
v Vi. (21.7),
-* Am, v - v v
Am
1

0 T H

- i

(21.7), v . ,

Am ,
Am
,
,
Am
v N~
IIQ
m^ Am
"'
m (N I) Am
2

, Am -> , N ->oo, m (N 1) Am -> m, ,


, ,
0

dm'

120

[. III

.
(21.5).
2 . (t), v (t)
t, .
v
.
g .
\i (t) ,
.
.
0Tii

dv
-d7

dm
- -dT-

m8

,
I
(v+gt)

= - v ^ dm
0

d(v + gt)

dm

, (21.3),
v + gt. (21.5),
v v + gt.

v + gt

'

dm
, ,

. , -

^ = 0,

dt

0Ta

3. v.
,

,
. ,
, , .
. / = ,
v = const.

2 -

dv _
dm
" ~di
-1~
l

mvadt = n dm. , da = exit


dt, ,
OTH

4. , ,
,
, . :
1) , ;
2 ) , ,

121

.
?
.
. .
5. , . .
{(, , Q,
. , , = 9 /.
q = 4000 /,
= 3 /.

. 11 = --=13%.
2

6. () =
= 3 / ( ).



v
= 12 /.
. v
dv = v
dm.
, dv = dm, dm = d m ,
/ .

K0H

0TH

ra3

dK

ra3


(21.5),

1
= - 2 dmvl

a3

dv.

= v /u.

K0K

^ = / -4= /2 ^-,


_# _
=

~^~ *_(1+*)'

= 4 | = 45% .
7. .
( ) ( )
( ) ?
.
.

.
. .
,
. .

+ + =\.

(21.8)

^^.

122

[. III

( 1 a ) mi + m + m"
t

( 1 ) , .

v ,
v,/u^
+
(1 ) m + m '

, ,
.

. (21.8),

-^- = ln (1 ]) \ (1 aiffli)In [(1 a ) (1 ffli) + a m ] .


2

m , ,
v. ,

- + -~
1
= 0
mi 1
mi

(21-9)
'

= 1 ,
a

+_"*-.

? 5 = 1

'

1a

(21.9)
,

i=

i - / i + ( P y - P - y ) -

, 0 < < 1.
(21.8) , m /mi-
,

i - a

_ _

-
l - l / ^ ^ m

W

1 a
a 12

1.

, <; 1,
, . =
2

^- = ".
mi

(21.11)

IV

22.
1. F ds F
,
:
s

dA = F ds = Fds cos ,

(22.1)

F ds (. 36).
ds , dA

.
, ,
dA
F
ds:
dA = (Fds).
(22.2)
,
,
,
,

,
F ,
(22.1)
(22.2).
,
, ,

A = \(Fds)

(22.3)

F
L. , , F
L.
F = F + F ,
ds, F =
= F + F , ds: F ds = F ds + F ds,
x

ls

2S

dA = dA + dA .
x

ls

2s

(22.4)

124

[ . IV

,
.
,
:
= + .
(22.5)
1

().

,
. .

, . .
,
. ,
1 = 10' .
, , . .

= -^-,

(22.6)

.
, ().
,
. 37.

(22.3)

1 = 10 /.
F=-^-,

ds=

v dt,


A = \{vdp).

(22.7)

2. ,
.
= mv,
, vdp = mv dv. dv
v,
v (. 37).
v v, v = V .
, v
, ,
.
v = v , v do
vdv. do v.
,
. . | dv |.
, do
2

22]

125

, . . 37 dv AB,
dv = . v dv =
= vAB cos a = v AC = vdv.
vdv = vdv. ,
v, .

- ,
= ^ vdv = ~
Vt

v , y .
1, 2, ,

/ 2 (. . 36).
t

= ^

(22-8)

.

= / -#1.
1

(22.9)

,
.
, ,
.
3.
.

,
. (22.9)
, .
(22.9),
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
,

( 18).

.
.
. , ,
. , ,
1

126

[.

IV

, ,
F F .
, F F
.
.
.
. ,
,
.
4.
.
. (22.7)
, (22.7)
.

. =

. .
l 2/ 2
V

v = plm ,
2

+ ( ) = () .
0

(22.10)

pdp = dm.
pdp = pdp

= mv,
2

vdp = c dm.
,

12

mi
v dp = dm.
2

1 2

= ( ) = ,
2

(22.11)


.
,
.
.

(22.12)


( ).
A

= E -E
2

(22.13)

22]

127

, ,

2

=
0

(22.14)

.
, .
j
= -
= (- ) ,
(22.15)

= -==-\\.

(22.16)

1 2

= -!.

(22.17)

(22.10) ,
2

= El + () .

(22.18)


.
,
,
, .

, .
(22.16)
.
(22.8). ,
,
0

/ ,

V
2

_ 2 \ - 1 / 2 _
2

"

' 2

/ - 22

~ 8
1

v lc <J 1, .
(22.16) (22.8).
5. (). ,

:
1 = 1,602- 10- .
1

(), 1000 .
,
: (), 10 ,
6

128

[.

IV

(), 10 .

(1 = 10 ).
:
= 0,511 ,
= 938 .
12


= ,

.
, .
2

,
. , (
, ),
. (22.12)

( + v) ( v) =

= 2 2.

v , -j- v
.
v
?,
(22.19)

2 *
2

= 10
2

0.938
= 0,0044.
2 10 ~
2

= 1
cv

0,511
2- 10

2
-

1,3- .

10

"

^ - ~ -

19

= 10 .

. . 3- 10"" /.
10

1. , ,
.
, ,
,
. ?
,
, ,
?

P = ^ t ;

<= - -

'

(mg)

23]

129

2 . (21.6),
. ,
.
.
( ). . ,
,
. , , ,

(22.22), .

t,

,
. , ,
, m
= 0.
, dm
0.
( )

r a 3

ra3

S B = t

(22.20)

n t M t t

_|

"

(22.21)

(22.20) (22.21)

= 0,

dv + (v t> ) d

= 0.

ra3

"=

"

(22.22)



'

dv
_
~~

0TH

. t ,
ra3

dm
m

/ " "

(22 23)

\1-

23.
.
(22.8),
,
. ,
.

130

[. IV

.
,
.
- S,
' S', S
V. ( V ,
.)
v, v' V v = v' + V.
2

mv = ~ ,/' -f- ~ V
2

+ mv' V,

K = K' + ~mV

+ (p'V),

(23.1)

' = mv' S'.


(23.1)
. ,
(23.1) ,
. (23.1),
'
S', . . ' m v[ + m 2 +
' = mv' , v'
S', am
. ,
x

K = K' + ^mV

+ m(Vv' ).

(23.2)

S', . . v' = 0,
c

K = K' + - mV .
2

(23.3)

:

,
,


.
24.
1. , ,
.
, .
,
- / 2

24]

131

12 (. 38).

. , = mgs cos ,
1 2

X2

= mg{tx h ) = mgh -mgh ,


x

(24.1)

h h. ,
, -
, .
(24.1)
x

. 38.

. 39.

, 132 (. 39).
, 132
,
. (24.1)
,
(24.1). 132 142
/ 2,
,
h , .
, ,

.
2.
.
,
( )
, .
,
,
.
dA = Fds cos (F, ds). ds cos (F, ds)
ds , ,
, - (

x

132

[. IV

). , ds cos (F, ds) = dr, dr


, . .
(. 40). , dA = F () dr,
F .

12

\F(r)dr,

(24.2)

1 2
, ,
'2 / 2.
(24.2)
,
.
3. ,
(
),
, (

).
,
. (24.2)

.

.

,
.
.
/ 2, F F
.
- , -
.
dA = F dr + F dr . F =
= F , dA = F (dr dr ) = F d ( ).
Ho r r
- 2 1.
.

12

12

dA = F dr .
2

12

'

(24.3)

, ,
/ , 2
. , ,
2, 1 .

24]

133

. , , (24.3)

dA = F(r)dr.

(24.4)


dr.
(24.2), .
(24.2). ,
1 2 .


: dr = 0.
(24.2), /
2 .
,
.

, .

.
, ,
, .
.
, ,
. , , .


.
, ,
,
.
,
.
( )

.
4.
(. . )


,
, .
,
.
,
. 1 (. 41)

134

[ . IV

2 132. (
,
, ,
.)
. 2
142, .

= .
,
= ,

,
2
/ ,
, . . 241.
,
+
= 0.

+
,
,
/ .

. ,
. ,
,

.
. ,
,
.
132

142

1 3 2

142

1 3 2

1 3 2

2 4 1

2 4 1

5. , ,
. , ,
,
,
* -

.
V
,


.
. 42.
(.
17).
, .
(
, ,
, ). ,

,
, , .
,
. , , ,
(. 42)
v .
mH

25]

!35

, ,
. ,
v. v > ,
v
, . -.
=
= F (v f o T n ) - , ,
, ,
. , ,
, = F v.
A + = F -v ,
. .
.
. ,

.
6. , , ,


.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, . . ,
.
[vB\, . . v,
. ,
.
.
.
(
)
.
, ,

, (. . IX).

ip

Tp

Tp

orH

2 5 . .

1.
,
. - ,
,
. ,

136

[. IV


,
.
,

. ,
U
.
,
.
(. 43, ), 1
U = ,
/ .
1 0

. 43.

',
U' \>- ,
, 10'
100': Aw = Aw + ; U' = U + -- '
, . .
1.
'. ,

. ,

, -
.
.

,
.
,
, .
,

, .
.
0

25]

137

1 2 12 (. 43, ). ,
,
U U 1 2.
, , . .
102. , =
=
+
+ = -
Ui = \ + , U = + ,
. ,
12

0 2

1 0 2

1 0

12

= U -U ,
1

(25.1)

. .
.
2. , ,
(22.9).
(22.9) (25.1), Ki =
= Ui U ,
12

Ki + /i = tf,+ t/,.

. , ,

= / C + i V = const.

(25.2)

( )
.

, .
.
3.
.
) .
, h,
(. . , h 0),
= mgh. h
V = mgh + .
, ,
( ), . .
.
,
U = mgh.

(25.3)

) . ,
,
. ,
.
.

138

[ . IV

, . . = I 1
. F
. ,
: F = kx ( , . 11).

F
0

A=\^F

dx = k ^xdx

Y* -


,
U = ^kx*.

(25.4)

)
.

^ Mm
:
F = G^-,

(25.5)

G .
, , .
.
, ,
, .


00

Mm ,

Mm

.
:
A=
U -U(r).
m


.
U = G^-.

(25.6)

(25.6) . .

. -

25]

139

.
, . . .
4. ,
.
/
2 -
\-
* ^ .
: * = U V .
12

=-
12

^.

, / C . - / C i = / i - C / + 4?? ,

- = -,
(25.7)
c

= + U . ,

, ,
.
(25.7) .
. ,
U,
, , , .
. ,
, (25.7),

1 2

-
2

1 =

1 2

(25.8)

5 . ,
. (25.2).

, (25.2) ,
U.

,
. , V > , ,
.
,
.
X. X U
: U = U ().
, X,
U () ^ . , U () ,
. 44. -

140

[. IV

U = , - .
U = U ()
, , , , - ,
/ / / / .
/ / , IV.
/ / IV .

BNC
.

_ / /


SA___B_/__\
^ 1
, . .
,

.


,

. IV ,
, ,
. .
> ,
U =
D x .

x ,
X
1
0
.
,

, . 45.



. 45.
. =
U () , . .
. ,
,
, , .

U ()
.
,

\?

;_-._^/_

25]

141

U = U () (, , . 44).

.


U = U (),
.
, ,
.
,
, .
(. 44),

. D,
BNC .
6. ,
.
(18221888).

pr=

rF+

pv

w2 l 2 '

F, = v (
).
: 2. = Y>p"0 = Y,mv ,

2

*=-2

|?+

42<'>-

( 2 5

9 )

^ - ' ^ r F , .
f(t)
(t, /+ ) ,
t+ T
7(0 = 1

^ .

(25.10)

t
f (t) , .
/() , ,

1 ' +

/=

= \

Ht')dt',

(25.11)

, , . / (t) '
: /

^ ,

0- ,

t+T
,(<+)-(
/ = I [ g t f ' = I i m - S U
*' J at
^

142

[. IV

, (25.9) ,
. (25.9) ,

K= - ~ ^ r F .

(25.12)


,
. .

1. 1) U
fe k :)
(. 46, ); )
,
,
(. 46, ).

.

1
)
. 46.

.
. )
JJ---^.
U
k

,

) ,
) .
2 . =
= 0,5

. ,

?

,
. r = 2ft

= eV.

= 1,4-
2V
(2V' = 10 ). ,
.
, 0,5 ,
.
3.
a = 1 .
.
.
- 1 3

-13

v=

1 / -^ = 2,2- 10 /.

ma

4. 3 .
?

.
V

26]

143


> - ^ - = 2,8 1(
mc

13

5. 3 ?

. > - 1 0 .
2*
6.
= 1 .
. .
2

- 7

1 0 4

. = " ( + ^ ) ^ - = - / 7.
(. . 45). ,

.
8. (, )
F = kx X
. , ,
.
9.
, .
0 .
. ,
X .
, ,
0. F = mg ( ,
F , . . X).

^' tx==~^1 tngx = -^U.


26.
1. ,
,
. ,

.
, ,
. , ,
.
.

.

.
.
,

144

[. IV

, . .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.

.
,
. 47.
,
v (. 47). ,
. v
.

rtijV!

- f m v - (tn + ) v,
2

% , .
mxo.+m,^

Ki=-\m v\-\-~m v\,


1

= ~2 (m + ffl ) -' -

,
/ti - / = 4

. =

-),

(26.2)

. ,


,

.
2 .
. ,
,
: 1)
; 2)
, , .
.
.
,
,
.
.
(. ).
3. , (26.2)
. (25.7)
-

145

, .
, 24,
, .
= F,
. F
/ (v ) .
.
,
. ,
, / . ( t> ) .
.
,
. , ,
v, ,
,

mv2

4 - (i - )*=4- -- ( ) = >
2 \
<> 2 -\-
'
. . . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
2v.
!/ m (2vf = 2 , . . .
.
, , .
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
. , ,
, .
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
, (. . IV).
2

4.
,
.
, ,
.
,

146

[ . IV

(, ,
).

. .

,
. ,
, , .
.
,
.
&4
,
,
v
, .
, i
\
, (
), / , .
~"
t
,
, , .


,
,
. , ,
() (. 48),
.
v,
:

~ +

v
v

'

V . ,
() .
.
v ,
.
()
/ ( + ) v ,
( + ) gh. :
1

1
2g

\-\-

V.

h, V.

(26.3)

27]

.147

.
( ) iig mV .
( -f- ) gh.

2

1L V
2g +

<^ ,
( ) h.
, !> , ,
.
, .
h
, ,
. h I (1 cos ) = 21 sin (/2), I .
, (26.3)
A= J

= 2

J/g/ s i n - - 2 V g l s m ^ - .
2

(26.4)

27. .

1.
,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
. , ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
.
,
,
.
,
.
2. , ,
, - . , ,

, ,
. .
,
.
.
( 1 )
, , -

148

[. IV

( ). ,
- .
,
. ,
- .
. -
. ,
.
.
,
. .
,
. , .
. ,
.
. ,
, .

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
. :
, .

3.

, .
.
,
. -'

,
.
.
.
,
.


XIX .

, .
,
.
, :
, .
,
.
, -

28]

149

, , ,
.

. ,

. ,
.

.
.
4. ,
,
.
,
.
, , .
.

6- .
(19001958) ,
, -
( )
, .
.

. (, ,
, ,
- , .)
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
28.
1.
.
,
.
.
. , ,

. , -

150

[. IV


.
.
().

. .
,
,
,
.

.
, ,

.
.
2.
. v
, .
.
/ ( + ) V , ,
,
.
/ u- (v v f .

,
.
/ , (v )
.
,
.

.
,
. ,

, .
,
,
,
.
,
, .
() .

.
x

28]

151

3. v[ v
:
2

m v[ -f- m v'.J, = m v + m VO,


, 9 . 1
,
l
. "
x

+ Y

= 2

(28.1)

*"

,
, (28.1)
v\ v' . ,
v[ = v ,-v' = v .
. ,
, . . .
. ,

, - /.
,
. . .
,
, v[ = v , v' = v ,
. , ,
, , ,
. . v\=^=v , v' =fi=v . , (28.1)

2

{[ v ) = (v

Do),

(v? - v\) = m (v\ vf).

v[ v v v ,
.
x


. ,
v --v
x

+ 2-

v,--v

+ 2

, (28.2)

.
4. .

.
, . . ,
. (
)
+


, .

152

[. IV

,

"ii^lo + tn v'm = fnjV -f m y = 0,
l
,
l
,
l
. , 1
.
(28.4)
2

10

20

,
.
. ,

1Q>

1 0

2 0 -

,
.

1 2

. 49.


oi Vi V, v'oi =
; _ V) =

v\ =

(0

.
v[ . .
- (v - V),
(v' -V) = - (v - V),
x

v + 2V,
x

v: = v + 2V.
2

(28.5)

V (28.3),
(28.2).
5 . ,
( = 0).
2

,
,
V, =
m -\-m

,,

=
2

2,

m -\-m
1

Vl.
"

> ,
. <
. = ,
. , = (28.2)

v' = v ,
v'i = v ,
. .
.

,
(. 49).

153

28]

,
, -
. 1.
2 v, ,
. 2
3 , 3 v.

. v,
.
.
v ,

^.5

. 50.

, (. 50).
,
v, .
. 2 3.
2 , 3 v.
2 /
v. , 1
, 2 3
v. , ,
2, 3 4 . .
v ,
.
,
. . ,
v.
,
.
6.
. 51.
.
,
.
v
Vf , . .
(. 51).
.

n

iv[n

m v

+ m v'
2

-2 i K+<)+Y 2
m

2n

= i in
1

m
2

2 n t

1
+ ^ ) =

+ ^'^^

^,

1 ( 1 + ^ ) + ^ (

(2o.b)
v

* "

* ' ) -

154

[ . IV

v[ , v'
j)' , v' . , ,
. ,
,
. ,
(v = v ),
- , .
, v t = v .
, v v . ,
,
. ,
, , .
. ,
, (28.6)
v[ = v , v' = v .
, (28.1) .
.

- ,
. ,
. .
,
, .
n

2n

ltt

2t

lt

2f

lt

2t

2i

2t

2j

7. ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
,
. , :
,
.

1. m
k. (. 52).
,
lt

. 52.

. 53.

v. ?
..
.

k '

155

2 . ,
k (. 53).
, v,
, . 53.
, : 1)
; 2) ; 3)
. ,
.
?
1

3. D
4

D + T->-He + n + 1 7 , 6 ,
4

-, . . .
17,6 . ,
-. ,
, .
. 2,
3, 4.
, - 3,5 , 14,1 .
4 . D ,
.
3 .
? ,
, .
. 1 ;
4 .
5.
4

D + D - * - H e + n + 3,25 .
3

3?
, ,
.
. 2,44 , 0,81 .
6.
He + D - > H e + p
3

14,6 . -4
( ) ? ,
, .
. 3,7 ,
18,3 .
7.
. , ,
, .
?
. v , ^
v .

v Vx-\-v ,
i = yf + t)|.
4

,
= 0. v
,
, 90. v = 0,
i> = v, . . ,
(ViV )
2

156

[. IV

8. - 1 ,
60
. ,
.
. 1/4 3/4 .
9. ,
,
( > )
( < ) . ,
, , .
^/ ?
, ,
(, ), .

. ^-
_
. -=- = 4 ,
. . = .

(mi + nh)
10. ,
180 , , .
4

= ^_|_^^ ,

0,89

12

0,64 0,284

11. -
?
. (-
), v ; (
); v
(. 54).
:

> mjUj cos a -f - " cos ,


\ sin = m v sin ,
mv =
m vl+m v%.

,
Vi
3

{ + ) v\ 2m w
2

cos + ( ) = 0.
2

,
, sin a =g m /mi.
, ,

, sin # 1 .
- & = 1430',
ft = 30.
12. -, v ,
90
. - ?
- v V .

-.
. - : m < ;
2


+'

,.

mv

-.
+ '

28]

157

13. , V,
,
V/2,
, . .
. v ,
.
?
= 3 mV
_
.
\ _

.
8"\ ~~/' "
, < 3 .
14. ,
.
15 .
, ,
? ,
?
|
, ,
, ,

.

2~~'

+
5
. =
- = = 25 ,

= _ A J I = ~ = 37,5 .

15. .
,
= 20 , .
: ?
, ,
. ,
2

/ ( 1 + / / ) = 8 ,

, ,

/ ( 1 + / ) = 12 .

.
: =
4 - = 4 .
+
5
16.

* + He* = Oi' + p
1919 . = 1,13 .
-
(. . ), N
?
. - .
.

0

1 4

^ -

2 ( m

+ m

+ m

'

, *
,

158

[. IV

He +

+ m

H e

= 1 , 4 5 .
m
17.
,
,
, < , .
Li + * Be + ( )
=
= 1,88 .
?
.

,
.
.
,

. Be
,
.

0

= / ( " + '"),

,
= no /(2m ).

Be +

n -

m
p

= - j - !

(28.7)

"

.
,
, .
,

=/(2 ),

= */(2

).

, (28.7).
(28.7) (28.8),
m

_w e( B
B

+ m -m )
n

= ^

'1
^

49
= - 8 = 1.92 .

, , .

29 J

159

29.
1. ,

.
.
, (,
), .
.
, ,
,
.
,
. ,

.
2.
, .
.
25.
:

.
.
,
- . ,
U,
. U
- , , .

dr.. F , ,

:
Fdr= dU.
(29.1)
, dr.
, U () ,
F . ,
F, F , F , F
.
(29.1) :
F dx + F dy + F dz = dU.
(29.2)
x

, -
, X.
F dx = [dV] , ,
x

160

[, IV

, ,
, , , ,

. , U (, , )
;
, , ,
. ,
,
V. ,
,
.

Y Z. ,
29 3

< '>

U(, , ) ,
F , F , F
. , (29.3)
.
x

.
, , U l kx' ,

, a k . X ,
, . U
.
1

dU

F=- -

= -
= -(kxA

dx\2

-k

, F ,
, . . .

3. (29.3)
.
/, j , k .
F = gradU,
*
(29.4)
grad U

, (29.4), . ,
(29.5),
II. , grad U,
V{/. V ()

2 9 ]

161

(18051865) -. , VU
U. ,
U,
.

.

, . . , U
. 5
/ ,
grad U (. 55). . X
V = const,
/ U. Y
Z ,
.
,^

*S
U = const. ,

ra

DU

DU

^ ^~
,
(29.5)

2\

3/

: grad =
.
.
U = const
,
U U - f dU, ,
. . 1 2, dn. DU
DU
,
DU

-[^
^
U
. U, ,
. ,
(29.5)
0

grad U = .

(29.7)

, U ,
U const
U; U
.
(29.5) , ,
. . ,
, ,
.

162

[.

IV

, .
/ (. . 55) 13 .
3 U -\-dil'.
ds. 3 ,
2, U 12 13
. ,
, ,
, ds =

c o s a

dU
dU
- = - j - cos ,
ds
dn
'


dU

dU

dU.

s 13.
U " .
(29.7),
G=(sgradL/).

(29.8)


U. U
, (29.4)

^ = - S -

(29.9)

, , (29.1).
4. (29.3)

. U
.
(29.3)
F

i x = g .,
x

Fiy = Qy-.,

i z = ~ ~.
d

(29.10)

Xt, tji, z t'- ,


a F , Fig, F . i
, (29.10)
.
5.
. t

ix

iz

29]

163


? . ,
, ,

. ,

. ,

. ,
-
.
/ mu + U = const.
U
s, .
,
1

. dU .

mvv + ^ s = 0,
, v = s ^s = ^-,
v(mv-F )
s

= 0.

(29.11)

v
.
, , ,
,
. -,
. -, (29.11)
.
,
, v =?== 0. (29.11) ,
.
, v = 0, .
. v = 0
, F
.
6. ,
.

, .
.
(29.10). ,
U
. ,
,
. ,

164

[.

IV

,
8x 8
6z,
U . , U

,
. , ,
U , . .
.
,
. , U
.
,
U U . ,
< U U < , ,
.
,
< - .

+ U = +
) = - ,
U UQ <L ,
. ,
< U U <
. ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
, .
,
U, .
U. ,
,
( / ( + / )
( + U ) < 0 U U < -
.
.
,
.
U
,
, .
U (
, . 45).
.
.
lt

29]

165

, , ,
.
,
(. .
, N . 44),
, .
.
. ,
, , :
,
.
, , . .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.


- G

+ tf = 0,
x

- < |

^ = 0,

_ G + ^ = ,
0

(29.12)

R , . . ,
.
.
,
. 8, by, 8z
.
(29.12), ,
, W = - Sx -{- ~ / -\- ^ 8z = 0.
. ,
U .
,
.
, (
), (
).
U .
, .

30.

1.
.

.
,
. .

, .
,
^M=[rF]

.
,
.

*"*""* Bs
- ,


.
.
-,
F
(. 56). F
- F:

= [].

(30.1)

,
, F
, .
, ' ,
''.
.
, .
F = F + F ,

t

[rF] = [rFx] + [rF ].


2

(30.2)

30]

167

,

.

.
L = [].

(30.3)

2.
,
, .
, .
(30.3) ,
L = [rp) + [rp] ,
,
= mv.
= v mv.

= F. L = IrF),
1 = .

(30.4)

.
:

.
, .
(30.4) , . .
,
.
(30.4)
.


.
, ,
. ,
, ,
(30.2), ,
.
:
,
.
,
, .

168

[. V

(30.4),
. ,
, , .
,
.
, : F ,
k- t'-,
F , 1- k-.
.

. ,
.
,
(30.4) . (30.4)
:
ik

ki

=
,
(30.5)
. .


.
3.
,
.
. ,

.
,
, ,
.
.
, . . .
, .


.
. ,

, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .

30]

169

,
.
, ,
,
. ,

.

,
,
.


,
.

. 12 ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
F- F .
F, = F , :
x

[ ^ 1 ] + [^22]

= const.

[^] +

= 0,

[ ^ 2 ]

F F ,
t

[(r -r )F ]
1

= 0.

, r r F . F . , F F
,
.
4.
, .
, , , .
' . - '

L

170

[. V

R = 0'0 - '.


,
2 [rmv] = [r'mv] mv],

L^L'-[Rp],
(30.6)
p , L L'
' .
, L = L'.
.
,
M = M'-[RF],
(30.7)
' , ,
', a F .
F , = '. ,
, , . . ,
,
. ,
, .
31.
.
1. ,
.
t (. 57). dt
- vdt,

,
. 57.

dS=~[rv]dt,

,
.

DT

_ 1

(31.1)

, -
. .

L = m[rv],

171

L = 2mS.

(31.2)

,
L 5.
2. , ,
, L
.
5.
:
S = const.
(31.3)
. -,
, v,
S.
, . ,

. -, 5
, -
.
. , ,
,
, .
.
-,
,
,
. ,
, S .
L. (. (30.4)) L =
= = [] = 0. , F
- , ,
. , ,
,
, .
3.
.
.
,

(. 20).
,
. -,
,
.

172

[. V

32.

1. (30.5)
:
^

= ,

- ^ - =

(32.1)

(30.5)
. ,
,
,
. ,
.
L
X.
Y Z.
, L
X L
, .

~JT = M

(32.2)

X.
-
,
.
.
2. ,
F

= + ,

F=F

+ F.
}1

j_ , X,
, .
F F^.
,
= [rF] = [r F ]

+ {[r F ]

l{

+ [/-iiFJ} +

[r,F ].
v


. , ,
, X.
. , ,
X,
Al|| =

[/\j/i].

173

X. , L

L:
x


.


.



.

.

,
/1
, .
. 58, ,

.
,

, ,
.

5 8

33.
.
1.
.
.
(. 59),
L = tnvr.
, = , , , L = mr co.

, L = 2mr co,
.
-
.
2

L = /co,

(33.1)

/ = 2>/- .

(33.2)

174

[. V

/ ,
,
.
(33.1) ,

.

,
,
(33.1). ,
v
. v
,

.


.
, . 59.
/
,
.
(32.2)
(1<)=,

(33.3)

.

.
. / ,
, ,
L. L
.
, ,

.

, .
2.

. /
, (33.3)
1^

= .

(33.4)

175


.
(33.4) ,
.

dv
tn-y=F ,
F
.
x

. da>

v = wr, , , mr =rF .

, .
(33.4).
, (33.4)
. , ,
,
(33.4), (33.3).
x

3.

.
, dcp
dA = Fds = Fr dq> = Md(p.
,
, .
, ,
24, . ,

dA=Mdy.
(33.5)
,
.


2

K = J^mv -

J 2

J 2

'


.
- > / , ->,
p^-L.
34.
1.

(1847 1921).
, .

176

[. V


.
, ,
.
,
, .
,
,

. 60.

.
, ,
,
.
,
, .
.
.

. ,
/,
,
/.
, / ,
.
.

34]

177

.
(. 60) *).
2. , ,
.
, .

. ,
,
, .


. ,


. /
, ,
j ^ /

.
,

.
3. ,
,
. 61.

.
.
.
(. 61),
.
.
, .

.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
, (. 37).
4.
.
( , ,
.) ,
.
. *) . 60 . . ,

178

[. V


0,001 .
,
, .

1,640-" . 1,

, .
,

.
,
. ,

,
,
(. 1).
5. .

( , ).
(33.6),
L = /
.
- .
, .
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
F coV, ,
. ,
F .
.
F ,
.
3

.
, ,
. , ,
.
/ = / + 2/- , /
, a 2mr ( ,
). ,
.
.
.
2

34]

179

, , ,
< . 24,
.
.
mwV. , ,
2ma?rdr ( dr < 0).

f2

^2

= ^ 2mufirdr = 2 JJ ^- dr = 2m

ri

^2
j*rdr.

L , / = /
+ 2/- ,

= -

2ml

= - li

L_l

.
,
.

6. , , ,

.
, , ,
.

.
. .
.
,

.
.
,
.

, ,
.

. .
,
. , ,

180

[. V

.

.
64.
7.
.
.
,
. ,
30, L
. ,
L IQ, /

. 62.

, a Q . L
, ,
. ,
L /Q.
.

(. 62).
IQ.
X. X
, L
.
.
. X
= IQ cos , . .
/ ( 1 c o s ).

x

34]

181

KaM

L^
= /Q (1 cos ).

, / = IQ (1 cos ),
/ . = 90 * *

. = 180
, = 2L" ,
0

C>JI

= ^.

'

,
. , ,
,
.
,
.
.
,
. ,
X.
.
. VII.
8. .
( ),
-
() S.

,
? ,
.
.
.

,
. ,
, ,
.
(
).
^.
1 > + / = 0,

( / 1 ).

, / + / = 0.

182

=(+1]-

[. V

= 2 (

),
. , ,
.

.

.
. ,

: , 2,
.
, ,
, . .
.
, ,
.

, .

35.

. ,

.
dm
.
dm.
- ,

,
' .
( . 63
. 63.
,
dm
). ' = , - OA.
, ' = + 2 (),
2

\' dm

= \ r dm +

a \dm-2(a\rdm).

1
,
. ^ dm =mRc,

36]

183

R -
(, R - ,
). ,
c

I = Io + ma -2tn(aR ).
A

(35.1)

, .
Rc = 0, ,
2

1 = 1 + .

(35.2)


(17961863).
-
, ,
, .
2

36.
1. -
*).
,

2

l=\r dm,

(36.1)

dm .
.

.
.

, ,
,
, .

.

/.
,
.
/ ^> I ,

l = kml .
(36.2)
5

/ -
- .
*)
42.

184

[. V

k
.
2.
,
.
.
, .

, ,
R :
= HmR .

= R dm. ,
/
. / dm

, 0
.


, ,
. 64.

(. 64).
X, Y, Z + , z + ,
+ ,
2

I = m(y + z ),
x

I = m(z + x ),
!/

= (*

+ / ).

,
1 + 1 + / = 2( + * + *).
2

+ + = , R
.

/ , + / + / = 26

(36.3)


, ,
. ,

, ,
.
X, Y, Z ,
, 1 , I , I ,
, . ,
26, 0
. , 1 , 1 ,
1
,

36]

185

,
.

.
3.
. ,
.
, ,
.
XY. -
,

9 = 2 ( + ), . .
Z. ,
1 + h, + l = 21 , . .
2

Ix +

I =

(36.4)

Iz-

, , G
1 , 1 , 1 , ~Ss 1 (
).
21 ==s 2 0 (36.3), I + I I S== 0,

(36.4)
, ,
Ix, U}, I > .
( XY) (36.4)
(36.4).

.
z

4.
. (. 65).
1 = kmP, I .
. / = / + ( / / 2 ) .
/ ,
, 1/2, / 2 , ,

. , / = km(l/2) .

k = 1/3.
(36.5)
(36.6)

186

[. V

, .
.
. k
, , .
.
k
. (36.5) (36.6)
. ,
.
5.
. X Y
(. 66). ,
X


Y.

aL
-1/2-

~1/>

. 66.

. 65.

X .
1 X.
/, (36.6).

1 =\\\

= \ \

(36.7)

1 Z,
, (36.4),

1=^*

+ %

(36.8)

(36.8)
.
,

. (36.8)
,
. . 66
.
6. (). Z (. 67), ,
l = mR?,

(36.9)

R . 1 = 1 . (36.4)

l =*I
x

= ^mR\

(36.10)

36]

187

7. .
, , . .
. Z
(. 68).
+ dr. dS = 2nr'dr.
(36.9), dl = r dm.
/ = ^ dm.
2

dm= ^-=2 -^,


S = # .
S
,
2

mR*.

(36.11)

,
(36.4) :

= ' =

-mR\

(36.12)

(36.11)

.
8.

.


(. 69).
. 69.

dm,
.


d / . = d m . * 2 + -4j -

dm-R*.

x dm-\-jR*^

dm.

188

[. V


, Vs ml .
/ mR . ,
2

(36.13)
/ ,
, (36.13),
1/2 /2.

ml

12

(36.14)

R - 0 (36.13) (36.14) (36.5) (36.6)


.
9. .
. , = mR .
(36.3), l I = 1' I.

2

/=

R.

(36.15)

1 0 . .

dm (. . 68). , dm =

m-~,

4jt
.
dV=Anf dr
, a V = -^-R
(36.15)
2
dr
dl dm r = 2m -753-. , 2


/ = |-/?2.

(36.16)

1 1 . .
,
.

, Y >
(. 70).
. 70.
Y .
^/^ ( ,
, ).
X.
2

mb ,

I =jmdK
y

(36.17)

Z, ,
(36.4):
m

I = (a
z

+ b ).

(36.18)

(36.18)
.

189

12. . ,
. X, Y, Z
.
, , . Z.

,
X, , Z. . / = / .
Z,
(,
). 1 ,
1 1 .
(36.4) l = I / I = .
,
26. 1 , I
1 = / 6 . (36.4), I
l = l + l = i/ m (
)-
,
Z, , , .
I . ,
Z
2

= (

+ & ).

(36.19)

/*= J(6 +c ),

)-

37.

1. (30.5) ,
,
L , . (32.2)
. ,
,
. ,
. ,

(30.5).
2. .
v = mv
S,
-,
. ,
. Vo
(30.3), . . L = [].
,

190

[. V

v,

v . ,
0

L = [ ( v - v ) p \ + [rp\,
0

= F
v L [fF] [], , ,
L = NI-[VQP].
(37.1)

, t- L = Mi -f+ ["oPt], i.
(37.1).
,
.
, v
. ,
t

L = M-m[v v ].
(37.2)
.
,
v = t , (37.2) (30.5).

, . ,
v
S.
,
.
,
.
. ,
v = v + z> , v

.
0

0TH

ota

[rmv] = X [rmvc] + X

L = 1]
] . ,
v ,
- , [> 2
\ ~
[v r ]
2 > - . ,
.
,
c

m r

L = 2

[].

.
, , , (37.2)
(30.5), , v v
0

37]

191

. [v Vc\
. ,
,
(30.5). , ,
L
S,
.
3.
,
.
,


.
0

1. ,
, > (. 71).
/ , . .
. , ,
7 \ .

//T^N

m a = T m g,
= ,
1

dt

/ = r(r -r ).
2

'\

\,

,
da>
,
m rrti
2

'
\ .

, 7 \ = .
2. (. 72) ,
= 1 .
. 71.
k= 1 ,
. , . .
.
, _.
= 3 ai. m = 250
R = 30 .
.
.
Ma
Mrs

192

[.

/ ,
.
. .
0

v. =
v
2Mv. , ,

, . . (

Mg) . p^ =

Mg-J

1,42 .
3. m ,
,
.
.
0

. 72.

. 73.

. 74.

. ?
N ?
/ . d.
0

. /= _ ;

N= ^

t-, / = / +

( * +

4. ,
/,
. N ,
?
, ,
.
_
., '.
N = , .
4kg
5. m L (. 73)
.
/ .
.
? .
.
l=-^rz.

6. (. 74)
, .
.
, -

37]

193

. , .

?
. v \f2gH.
,
v.
:
a

mlv = mlv-\- /,
0

/ = V MP .
v = /,
3

ml

3m

,
.
v v -
h .

x

lt

*-v'i = 2gh

~ ~ { -vl)

lt

=Mg .

v' vi = 3ghx,
, v > .
. ,
. ,
. h
.
x

/+/
( + 2) gp

6/
.
( + 2) [ + )

7. ,
( ).
.

2 \ + '6
-
2
2

=
*
+
3

8. /
.
,

(. 75).

yg
/ .

, .
, ,
.
,

194

[.

. U
, .
6

. U = -
^
IT + / ^
.
9. L= 1,5
= 10 ,
. ,
V = 600 /.
V.
V,
= 0,1 . ~ .
0

V^

"

10. (. 76)
I L,
.
^
.


?

?
. ML = ml .
I,
s . > .
11. ,
(Oj, ,
.
/ / .
( ).
?
?
.
.
2

:=

1
2

2 /! + /,

(Wj ) .
2

12. (. 77).
R R .
x

. 77.
1 / . ,
,
.
. ,

37]

195

,
, . .
. .
.
. 7\
. (33.4),

rfco

dt

da>
~~dT
2

I.

R R , .

/
= const.
t

Rz

f^jRi,
=
, ~ 0- , (a^Rx /? .
, %
:
0

hRl
hRi + I^r '

0)! =

V 2

' ~'hRI

hRi'" -

'ihRl
2 hRi

ltRl

--

13.
?

14.
(. 78)
. 78.
,
.
, .

. , .

. > --

= 1 -

4(M rf + M o ) '
1

15. /
, .
.
, , ,
?
, v = V3^ / /
.
16. ,
,
?
?
.
V tnv v
/ / .
2

196

[.

1/2.
mgl/2, :
2

^
2

/ _ mgl
2 ~
2 *

, , v = / !<*> .
c

/ = V ^ < v
2

= V V^gl.
2

, . . v = | / 3 g / . ,
, .
.
.
. ,
,
.

. 79.

6)

. 80.

17. / (. 79)
/ ,
. F
F

, 2.
.
V / = / mgl.

//2.
rop

Bepr

2 (33.4),
da
dt


:
/ du> _ mgl*
3
= 2 dt " 4 /
4 '
,
= mg F,*

S

B e p T

= m (g a)--

mg.

18.
(. 80, ). .
, (. 80, ).
.
F= / P.
1

37]

197

,
/ . ,
, .
.
.
F .
19.
, . . , ,
. F ,
.
/
4 \
. F = ll-\-\mg,
, /
,
.
,
, F = Amg.
20.
,

/
.

,
, , I.
.

v* + 2gh = const.
(37.3)


~ .
.

.
, h , v
, ,
, . ,
vr . , h
,
, (. 81).
= - , (21 h) h.
, h ,

(21 ) = const.

(37.4)

(37.3) (37.4) , ,
h v, . :
(21-

z & ^) ^
.
:

,
.2g/Wc ( 2 / -h
2/-(
2gA
(21 h

\ '

MHH

(37.5)
(37.6)

/ (h -i-h \'

, h < /, (37.5)
, (37.6) .
h
/,

m n

-2gh ,
mKC

Kaa

= 2gh .
ma

(37.7)

198

[. V

21. , ,
(. 82).
h , . v ,
, ,
.
v.
2gh*
, _ 2ghj
. vf,=-.
ft+V
+ V
22. ( ) L
.
,
/.
,
.
, .
0

2 = _ _ _ -

\bi +

4rZ

P-(L-l

nr)*].

.
.
23. = 10 , v = 50 /,
# = 60.
() , .
?
. ,
,
5

rnvR cos 0 _,
27
'

= 86164 , R = 6400 , =
= 6 - 1 0 , / .
, / = / MR ( -

/ = / MR ). / ~ 2-10" , AT ~ 2- lO" .
24. , v
m = 1000 ,
AT 1 ?
~~
.
.
21

10

5

25
m'W

18 ( ) ^ 3 6 ()

'

. ,
. . 22.
25. ,
, ,

3 - 1 0 4 .
,
. ,
.
,
10 / .
, ,
. ,
. - 2

14

381

199

,
= 1,41 / , = 2,2-10 .
3

26. 1
,
.
.
(, ,
). v,
.
/, ,
. ,
? ,
, ,
?
0

. M = C U -f- -.
0

\
> '=/
+

,
. .

38.

1.
,
,
.
. -
. ,
,
. .
( ,
),
. ,
,
.

. , ,
,
,
,
: ,
. ,

.
2. ,
, -

20

[. V

, ,
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, .
, ,
, .
,
?
,

,
.
' ,
,
,
,
.
,
.
, 15
.
. ,

. .

- .
, ,
() . ,
, ,
.
.
3.
.
,
= ,-
(38.1)
12

201

38]

. .
(. 22).
.
,
,
U, . ,
F , Fy, F , ,
U:
__dU
_
dU
_
dU
~
'
~>
~
'
x

U
, , ,
t: U = U (, , , t). , ,
,
. ,

1 2,
42

= - \ { f x

+ fy y

fz

)'

.
y^dt. ,
d

dU , , dU , . dU
= d x
+ Ty y+lTz +
d

dz

. dU
dt

,,
>

dt

dt

.
,
.

= / 1 - /

+ 5 ^ .

(38.2)

(38.1)
{* +

- ( + <) = $ % dt.

(38.3)


,
. ,
. U
, . . ^ = .
+ = + ,
2

(38.4)

202

[. V

. . ,
.
4. .
, . F , F ,
,
, .
1 2,

,'
.
.
(F + F + ...) . ,
, . ,
F + F + ... = 0.
,
(. 12).
5.
.
, ,
, , : M + + ... = 0
(. 2 46).
(. 30).
x

1. U (r )
- ,
. , ,
U .
.
. U
,
. , : U ( , r ) = U ( + ,
+ ) . , .
= , U = U (0, ), . . U f ( ), /
- .'
, ,
,
lt

U = f(r

r,
1

...).

,
. , U 1
: - - 1
- .
2 . U
?
. U
- 1 .
3.
, , 1 2
,
.

38]

203

.
, / =
.
S S'. /
5 ' , / = / ([, r' , v[, v' ). S' .
, 1
([ = 0), (v[ = 0).
/ : / =
" / ( 2 > ')-
, = r r[ = r v' =
v[ v i.

2

f=f(r

lt

V -Vj).
2

VI

39.

.
.
.
.

.

.
11.


. ,


(. 83). N
, X,

N
/ .
N
. , N
t. ,
t = 0 X .
t /
/ -4- . . 83 ,
t

= A cos (/ + 6).

(39.1)


N A/ ,/V .

.
. .
/ + , / = 0, . .
, . 6 = 0, = A cos /;
x

40]

205

= /2, = A sin ^ . . ,

t.

t,
(. 22).
.
.
8.
= 5

(39.2)

2,,

. .

(39.1) .
= = sin (at+ 8).

(39.3)

,
2

= > = cos(W + ),

(39.4)

, (39.1),
2

= *.

(39.5)

,
,
F~ma nvsPx.
(39.6)

. .

.
40.
1. ,
, m (. 84).
/ .

F,
.
= I / (16351703)
: F = kx.

0

mx = kx.

(40.1)

206

[. VI

k
. , F ,
, . . .
(40.1) ,
. ,
,
. X
, . . X = I /.
kX, .

=

kX-\~mg.


. kX -f- mg = 0. mg,
k (X ).

X ,
(39.1). -
.
. 84. . ,
kx.
.
.
, .
.
2. F = kx ,
(39.6). mco = k,
(40.1)
jc + eAe.= 0.
(40.2)
0

(39.5). (39.1)

. , , . .
(40.2)
(39.1).
. (
.) ,

0 - / 1

(40.3)
_

7 = 5 = 2 / | .

(40.4)

.
. , ,

40]

207

, . "
.
, . .
.

(40.2).
,
. (40.2)
.
,
.
.
3.

E =^kx ,

ncn

= ^-mv

KllH

=ymi .

(40.5)

.
:
2

= ~ kx -f- -j = const.

(40.6)

(39.1), (40.5)

kA cos (/ + ),

= ~ sin (/ + ),

(40.3)
2

^KHH = y ^ s i n ( c o / + ).

2

= | kA [ 1 + cos 2(/ + )],

= \ kA [ 1 - cos 2(/ + )].

,
,
/ kA
2.
, .
=
+


1

E=jkA .

(40.7)

,
(39.1)
(40.6) , (40.3),

208

[. VI

(40.7). ,
.
,
, 6.
, , ,
.
, (40.6) ,
(40.2), .
, (40.6)
, '
, .
(40.6) (40.2).
4.
.

- q,
, ,
. q
.

,
. . ,
,
,
. , ,

J<7 ,
3

= |-4 ,

(40.8)

|5 ( ).

2

= | - <7 + | - < = const.

(40.9)

(40.6) ,
.
(40.6) (40.9) ,
. ,
(40.9),
q = q cos(wt + 8),
(40.10)
0

. . q

(40.11)
5. ,
(40.2).

209

41]

(40.6). (40.6).
(40.3),
2

* + * = const.

(40.12)

,
. , '
.
2

= ( - ).

(40.13)

:> 0, .
= A cos ,

(40.14)

0 t.
(40.13),
= (1 cos ) =
sin ,

=
a A sin .

, (40.14) ,
= sin
= ,

= ^ + ,

.
=

c o s ( + ).

: A cos ( + ) = A cos ( + ) =
= A cos (/ ) ,
. , . ,

= A cos (^ + ),
(39.1).

41.
1. ,
.
,
, (. 85).

.
q.

/ .

= mgh, h
0

210

[. VI

.
.
2

= mga (1 cos cp) = 2tnga sin ~ .

</2
.

= ^

,
(40.8), = mga,
= /. ,


=*.

(41.1)


= 2 1 / .

mga

(41.2)
'


,
. ,
.
. 85.
,
.
.
.

. ,
.
,
.
= I, I = , I , (41.2)

= 2

(41.3)

(41.2) (41.3), ,
,

.

. ,

211

41]

. ,

. .
2. ',
/
(. . 85). ' .
,
,
. / = / + , /
, .
(41.4),
2

/= + ^ .
1

(41.5)
4

'

, -, / > , . .
'
, -, ,
,
/, , .

.
',
.
. '
' , ' .

'

' = I , (41.5) ' Icl{ma).

, /' = ^ + , V = /, . . ,
.
.
3. ,
.
, . ,
. ,
. .

. ,
. ,
.
. ,
, .

212

[. VI

', ,
,
,

,
.


/,
.



/
-
.

. 86.
,
/ . ,
. ,
,
. (41.5),

1 + -

(41.6)

:0.

1 . 86
/ = 1 . ,
/ . ,
.
, .

0

~-1 + ~ -=0.

(41.7)

/ > iV 1 1,
,
;
ai + a = / .
(41-8)

(. 87),
/ . ,
\
, / .
. 87.
/ = 2Yl lm,
(41.7) , . .
.
/ < 2~1 /, (41.7) .

,
lYI 1.
. ,
(41.8) , ' ,
[ /.
, .

213

. ,

. ,
/ = 2 1 / 1 /. .
\ '.

.
0

4.

.

. . 88
.
,
.
'
, .
D
( ),

.
,
.
' .

.
/.
, g (41.3).

42.
1. .
, CD (. 89) ,
BD.
0 0 ' ,
0
.
.
,
, BD
00',
.

=
= / / , /
0 0 ' .
= mgh,
h BD,
. /
00' , 2
, 2
DB. , ,
'
DB. h
CD.
, OA, Z 00',

214

[ . VI

Y .

= ,

= 0,

= 0.

*3' = *.

&'=,

22' = '-


* = 6coscp,

b sin ,

= /h.

(* - + ( -)

+ ( ~ ? = ( -

+ (*h -

+ ( - )

?,

( cos ) + & sin + (/ /) = ( ) + '

2&(1-)
27+"

4ab
21+

"

sin (/2) = /2. , h


h .

21

'

21,

,
(40.9),
9), = ,

f ' / .


.
BD .
.
. '
. . ,
, ,
, .
.

. , ,
. ,
.
2. (42.1)
(). . 90.
, , , D, N
.
'. (42.1) . ,

215

.
CD .
.
.

0

m gab
0

, /
.
.
00'

,
/ .
3.
,

.
,

,
(. 91).
,
,
. 90.
. 91.
.
,
: = /, f
, .

/ = /<.
- (40.1). ,

(42.2)
,
/ ' . -
'=2
/,
2

L (L\

~ \')

, /, ,
/' . /
.
, .
(42.2)
.

216

[. V I

1.
(. 92). ,
. (

.
ADB, ,
).
,
/ g.
(41.3).

. = 2>\/~2 . / (. 93)
, .

. 93

. 94.

.
, k,
.
. = 2 ] /

3. I,
.
.
. = 2
4 . / (
)
R,
(. 94). .
.
*) , v = .
v = (R ).
,

*) . 45.

42]

217

= ~ * +

(R - af

[+^

(R - ) <?*.


U = mg(R-a)

(1 -coscp)

~">(R-a)<.

, 40,

Ra
8
,

5. /
( ), .

, (. 95, ).

'////////////

///////////,,

-rsvmtmv-

I,m

. 96.

. 95.

' k,
, . ,
,
.
.

= ^-

' '

0 0 0

T=nV~3m/k.

6.
, I.
, ,
.
. = 2
, ,
,

/ ,
, .
7. / ,
. 96.

218

[. VI

, , .
, .
.
8. m
k
(. 97).

x

r = 2 n ] / m ( l

. ,
,

1

ki

9. ,
,
(. 98).
.
, .
,
.
. T=-VTi + Ti.
10. ,

.

. 98.

. 100.

(. 99). / ,
.
.
. = 2/

1 '
mga + ?
11. / ,
,
(. 100).
k.
= .
/ . (
) ,

219

.
.
. * o = ^ f ,

2 1 / 2

1 2 . 1
. ,
, (. 101).

.
,
k.
_ -. 2k mgl
.
f , - y
I2k+mgC
13.

k.
,
.

mm

14. 1 /
, .
f.
,
. .

15. R
^
k , . 102 ( ).
, ,

,
.
.
,
R
.

. = I/

1
|

-. ,

16. (,
. 2.
)
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
. , ,
, .
, .
, ,
( . 103 ). X
, 2.

220

[. VI

, ,
Y .
, >.
a sin
(1 cos ).

= ( sin ),
= (1 + ) .
.
,
. .
2

11= mgy, = -^ ( -\- )-

, ,
2

U = 2mga cos' -2-,

= 2ma sin ~
.
2

<j = cos-~ . q = - ~ sin

. q

,

,
q
.

U = 2mgaq' ,
= 8ma ^ .
i


. 103.
q,
q
.
,

17. , ,
.
?
, .
?
?
. .

, k .

.
18. ,
, ,
k

42]

221

. , ,
.

;Cosco ,/),
= ~ k/m.

,-, - "
< .
,
,
, .
19.
- *
|-
=
777777777777777777^777777777777, V77777777777777777777777
= 10 ,
,
. 104.
(. 104).

= 10 , v = 500 /,
.

= 10 . .
-
. = 2 ^
~ 1,26.
mv
20. Ha .
. ,
, ,
,
I
.
.
, .

,
F, ,
(. 105).
, .
, .
. 105.
, .


. ,

. , ,
k /.
21.
.
.

. / = /<) 1 +

= mga (cos cos ),


2

,
( ).
(41.4) ,
0

dt ,

222

[. VI

= 0 = .
= sin (/2)/ ( /2).
0

/2
2

g J yi-fe sin2

& = sin ( /2).


.
. . | k sin | <
< 1,

:
0

1
2

(1 - fe sin )- '* = 1 f e
2

1 *
1 *\
sin + - fe sin* + ' ' fe sin + . . . .
2-4
2-4-6
2

, .
,

'

'

(41.3).
0

43.
1. ,
.
, , . .
. , ,
, ,
, , . , ,
, .
/
g. ,
/.
, .
,
.
,
*)..
, ,
, .

. , ,
. ,
, , ,
*) .
, .

431

223

. ,
-
.
, ,

, .
,
.

. .
2.
, ,

. ,
/
g (,
= g/l).
, k
. ,
, .
.
,
k = mgll.
, ,
, .

2

, = v,
F = kx mv = F.
U = / kx ,
1

(43.1)
.
k .
, k -
.
, , ,
. ,
k .

224

[. VI

.
. k
, ,
klk . ,
,
klk
)

'

(k/k) -
, , , ,
k -> 0. ,
(43.1) t t -f- (k)
t.
0

AE = E(t + T)-E(t)

(|

$ U[x(t')]dt'

+ ?>

(43.3)

, k -> 0. (
f,
t.)
, . . ,
k .

. |3. ,
{k/k) .
,
. t+
= ~ U[x(t')]dt',
(43.4)
t
( )
k.
t , . .
t = 0. , , . = const
= cos (/ + ),

u

= - cos (at + ) = ~ [ 1 + cos (2/ + )],


= V2 kx\.
,

J Udt = ~ J [l + cos(2a>/ + 6 ) ] # =

43]

225

Tk
Ak k . ,
(43.4)
* = ~.

(43.5)

Ak
. ,
k, (43.5)

dk

7 2k
,
1
m

y l = const,


~ = const.

(43.6)

(40.3) (40.4),
:
= const,
(43.7)
~ = const.

(43.8)

, 7

.
,
, ,
k , . . (40.3) (40.4).
,
, ,
.
,
.
3.
,
k. ,
k . ,
(43.2).
, ,
,
,
.
,
-

226

[. V I

. ,
,
.
.
, ,
, .

. .
(43.7) (43.8) ,
k
. ,
(43.2). , (43.2)
, k
. ,
(43.7) (43.8) ,
.

, ,
,
(43.7) (43.8) .
4.
, . . ,
.
,
- .
, . (43.7)

= const,
(43.9)
,
( ),
. .
t+T

J K(t')dt'.

K(t) = Y

(43.10)

, ,

,
, . . = U = *1 . (43.9)
(43.7).
(43.10) (43.9)
, = V mv , = mv, dq = vdt, dq
, .

2

pdq = ,

(43.11)

43]

227


, ,
, .
(43.11) .
. .
5.
.
,
CD (. 106).
, .
CD . ,
.
, .
v .
, , . . v + .


( v + ) + = v + 2.

v + 2) v ] = 2

= V mv
,

).


(43.12)

. 106.
,
.
,
, . /
, = 2llv.
/ ,
2.

2{l + uT)
2(l + uT)(v + 2u)
' =
v Au
v 2
2

, ,
' =

2uTv-\-Alu
V

+ 4-

,
= 4 ^ =
v

- ^ .

, , AT
/ ,

dT.dK

,
= const,
. .

(43.13)
.

228

[. VI

6. . . v
(. 107).
v = v\ + 2gx. (43.11)

x

J = 2 ^ y~v\ + 2gx dx,

I .
, , . .
I.

vfi.
.
, , | v\
.
v .
v[ v' . ,
- ,
.
.
AT = uTh (
).

. 107.
gAT=g

. , -

2.

t>2 = l + g -g-.

v'[ = 2,

v'* = vl' + 2gl = ( 2 u ) + 2gl = tl - 4tf u,

.
,
2,
2


v'f v^

- vl 6 .

, v'/
v -V. v\ J' J = 0,
= . J' .l

dJ

Y

,
2

dJ
=
dt

Al\

43]

229

I . , J
I, ,
dl = Idt.

dl

^ -

'

I -
0.

dl
, J = const, I, . .
J . dJ
,

, / .

/, J
.

1. ,
, (
). ?
. .
2 . , ,
,
,
. ,
,
.
.
, v\
. I
(. 20 42).
= v^l. ,
, ,
v .
, =
+ v-^ = const. , = ( v ^)l
. / , / = ,
.
, 1 . I = 1 ,
.

VII

44. .

1.

.
.
,
, . .
,
. ,
,
,
,
.


.
.
,
.

. ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
2.
(. 8).
.
.

44]

231


dV

(44.1)


57 = 1 .
(44.2)

.
,

(. 37).
,
, . .
(44.1) (44.2) .

.
.
. ,
.
,
, . ,

F

, . . (44.1)
(44.2) .
,
.
3. , (44.1) (44.2)

F
= 0,

= 0.
(44.3)
1

Bueiu

.
.

,
.
F ein , 1

,
[. (30.7)].

,
.
BB

4.
, .
. .
1 2 (, 108).

232

[. VII

. F F ,
.
:
t

Fi + F = P,

F4 =

P.

(44.4)

I . ,
1.
F = F = /2. - .
.
.
x

ifi

7^

ZT

. 108.

. 109.

(. 109).
- :
Fi + F + F = P,
t

F x + F4 = P- -,
a

(44.5)

I 1 2, / 3. (
(44.5) ,
1.)
Fi, F , F . ,
(44.5) .
, ,
. ,
, .
,
.
. ,
,
. ,

. ,
,
.
, , ,
.

, . , ,
,
2

45]

233

.
, .
5. ,
. ,
(. . 109). .
, 3
3 .
3 ,
/ 2.
,
. .
3
-
.
3 ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
,
, .
, , . .
.
, , 1 2 (. 110).
.
3, . 3 ,
. 3
,
. 3
, 3.
,
.
. X (. 3 80).
.

45.
1. .
,
, , .
, .
. 111.
, , .
.

. ,
.
2.
. .
,
, .

234

[. V I I

(. 112),
, (r r ) = const.
, ( ) ( ) = 0,
( - ) = .
(45.1)
2


= . ,
,
. ( 47 ,

. 112.

.)
.
^

0.

. , VB
, . .
.
. ,
.
,
.
,

, ,
. .
! . , ,
,
.
. ,

235

- .
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,

. ,
( .
3.
.


.





,

.
,



. .
.
.
,
.
.

(. 113). , ,
,
. ,
,
.
. 113.
.
,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
= /?, R -,
2

236

[. V I I

. ,
v
Vc
> : v = v + v .

Bp

= 0,

dv p
B

= ^-. .
, , . .
= , - /" .
,
, .
2

46. .
1.
OA ) (. 114).
- ,
.

v = ar .
(46.1)
L

,

= .

(46.2)

/_[_ -,

.
, (46.1),

. 114.
,
.
,
,
(. 115).
. ,
'

= [<*/ J .

(46.3)

(46.1),
v, .
,
. ,
.
,

46]

237

,
.
(46.3) .

(. . 114). - ,
,
=
+ \\,
/*

[</-] = 0,

(46.3)

= [].

(46.4)

v = cor sin ,
(46.1),
sin "fr = _[_.
2.
,

. ,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,

.
,

, .
, j \
.
OA
% (. 116). OA

< . ,


.
. 116.
, (
) OA .
, (
) .
,
?
, OA .
2

238

[. V I I


(. 7; ,
,
).
- ( OA)
= \( ],
( ) = [].

= + > = [( + ( )].
1


= % + ) ,

(46.5)


= [/-].

(46.6)

<, . .
, ( ,
. v = 0.
. ,
,
.
.

.
(46.6). ,

. , ,
,
, .
, , %
< ( )
& = + .

, ( < .
.
.

3. .
2 /
(. 117 118).
. 1
OA
OA
, 0) .
. , ,
, , .
/ . 2

46]

239

, . .

. , . .
2.

4.
.

. 117.

. 118.

, 2)
. .

. 119.

<Oj , ,
(. 119 ). ft, = -tg ,
h = -tga .

,
. ,
2

j,

s i n a

'

sin ctj

??

<

coj'

(46.7)

240

[. VII

,

(. 119 ).
= % + .
1 2

, (
. a>i > , = coi > .

(. 120).
h h , ! .
2

. 120.

5. , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
.

, .
. ,
, .

.
,
. ,
- .

. ,

46]

241

0
(. 121).
,

h
~

'

0 v =
= (h + /ij), . 0
, ,
v .
0
v.
( .
. > \

^ _

_ (h-i + h) co hwi _

"(

-> 0,
v
h = .

(46.8)
v

. 121.

'


.
6.
, t,
da

=
,
(. 7).
rfcur

rfco

dco,

4x = -^f,

^ ~ 4 t ' ,
t
q> = J dt q> = dt, = ^ ,, dt, > =
= ^m dt.
(, )
, , , (
)
,
.
, < to, . .
.
.
.
, -
OA, ,
z

242

[. V I I

OA (. 122).
q>
, ^, , >
.

(. 7).
7.


(

) ,
-
.
,

. 122.
(. 7, . 6).

,
(. 123).
.

. -
.
,
.
,

?
,
,
.
.


Pi. >2> .
,
. 123.
.
. ,
.
,
! .
,
.
(. 124).
<p = 90, 2

$ 46]

243

. = 90
. ,
90.
, , , ,
.
.
^ , ,
, = (fj + / + (f k.
( ). ,
, / , / , q>zk

2

. 124.

( /

. 125.

8. , , , ,
. ABC (. . 123)
(. 125).
,
. , ,
ABC. (
, ,
.) , , ,
, (.
. 125). ,
. ,

( ), . .
. ,

.


1. , ,
<,

6 = (1),

(46.9)

[.

VII

,
, .
. 6 = 2 (F 6/- ).
. ; = [ rj],
. ,
Fj [ ,-] = [riFi\ = (1;), .
2. , ,
, ,
(. 38).
. , . ,---
, ,
.
,
.
.
( + + . . . ) .
, , .
, + + ... = 0.
3.
. ,

= [].
(46.10)
i

,
:
g - .

% = ,

ft

*=[*]

(4.)

.
. ,

.
(46.10) (46.4).
4.
(. 126).

.
. /, / , ft.
/ . J
.
. ft ( )
. \2.

/ j .
/ j
.= . ft, w = .
(46.11), i j ;
^=1*/]=,

% =

(46.12)

- =*= rl.
, :
D = r = ri + r~

= ri + r<fj.

, :
2

a = b = n-\-r~ + ^j + rifj + r<j>j = (- )


t

/ + (2 + rip) j .

47]

245

(
) ( J, . .
) :
v = r,
a = r ,

(46.13)
(46.14)

= 2 + (.

5. (46.10)
.
. ,
(. 127).
,
= / cos / + j sin cat.
t
=

C0S

sin

^
(
J Tt *
,
(46.10). w = >,

= [kA] =< cos / [ft/] + co sin / [kj] =


= < cos / / sin at.
,
. 127.
^ (sin /) = w c o s at,
-^(cosco/) = - sin /.
d/ """
.
, (46.10)
.
v

47. .
1. , . .
,
. ,
,
_
. -i
-?

-
.

-
.

(. 128).

. 128.
.

DO, . ,
A B
. , ,
A .

lt

246

[. VII

,
. ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
0 = 0 . ,
0 , ,
,
. ,
. , /_ = /_ ,
.
,

.
(17071783),
.

.
/ , 2, 3, 4,
.
/ 2
;
2 3
0 . .
1,2,3,...
,
,

, , .
2. .
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
- , ,
.
.
.
. (. . 128.
,
, , ,
. ,
.)

47]

247

.
A B .
. D
DO,
.
. ,
. ,
A
.
, . ,
.
,
. , 8
. ,
, \JOB \JOB .
,
^ 0 , ,
, , ,
.

. , LOA B
= Z.OA B ,

.
.

,

.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, , .
3.
. .
,
, ,
. )
,

X

== + [<'].

(47.1)

-, (. 129).
v , ,
. < ,
.
,
. .
0

248

[. VII

'
.
to'. v
:
v = v > + [''],
0

' -, ' .
,
(47.1).
> + [] = > ' + [''].
0

' = + R, R '.
, ,
'

', . .
v =
Vo+[(o'R].

0

vo' + [<a'R] + [&r] = Vo> + [' ( + R)],

[car] = [)'].

<' = to.

4. ,
. .
, ,

.
v = [tor], = (vv) = ([]),
== ( [rv]). to
,
2

/ =

~ to ^ [rv] dm,

K= (La),

(47.2)

L .
L to
.
,
. .
3

L = m [rv] = m[r [to/*]] = mrto m (rto) r.

48]

249

, , ,
L . ,
, .
L
. ,
L = L = /, /
. , (47.2) =
= / ( = / / .
, ,
,
. , (47.2)
(33.6), .

48.
1.
(. 130).
, . ,
.

.
F
F .
F
.
F
0 kF , k
(. 17).
,
.
, , kF ,
.
.
1.
.
. ,
, ,

n

1~

= ,

(48.1)

1
,
. mg ,

250

[ . VII

. ,
,
. ,

da

IA

d t

=mgr sin a.

v .
v v = v + cor.
v == 0, v = cor.

dv
da r-
=
=*= ^ .
A

(48.2)

/ = 1 + , /
,
, ,

a=

" .

(48.3)

,
(48.1)
.
2. ,
.

.
, .
.
F ,
, . . . = rF ,

da

F .
:
x

^ = mg sin a F .

(48.4)

dv

da

= ^ = r - -
,
d(

48]

251

(48.3). ,
:
/

3. .
= V / - V / = mgh,
h ,
.
, h = sin , , ,
2

/ =

mgx

s i n

.
dx

, ^ =
(48.2).
2. ,
,

. ,
,
. ,


. F
,
.
,
.
3. Iclm, (48.3),
.
z

= ^
. (48.3)
_

gsin
+

.

.
.


. ,
.
.

252

[. VII

h, mgh
.
.
mgh, . .
h.
,
.

_ [?_ _

17W

~\)


.
,
36, ,
. .
2

( ): = , = sin .
2

/2

: = , a = -g g sin a.
2
3
: p = -g-r , a = - ^ g s i n a .
2

: p = -g-r , a = y g s i n a .
,
.
, .


, .
, .
,
(. 131).

. 131.
. /r ,
.
4. ,
. F ,
(48.5). , ,
, ,

,
.
. , ,
.
.
. ,
x

253

,481

,
.
,
. .
,
(. 17).

1. ,
, .
. 132, .
, a) =

r - g sin , ,
^>'-\-\R ft-)
R
2ft ; ) = ^ ^
g sin
2.
,

R .
2

)
. 132.
2

. 133.

v5 +-
= "' -R.
v

27
^R,

H =

3. ,
. ,
,
k.
, tg >

k ,

tg > / k, tg > / &.


tg > 3k, tg > 2k.
4.
(. 133).
,
.
. ,
, ,

2
2

254

[. VII

. .
cos = lyj, c o s a = / .
5.
(. 134).
, .
, .
_
2/
. a= ' ^^_ .
- ^ - g, .

4/

,. , _ , = . , , g.
+ 8
+ 2
6. , ,
.
lo

A 1

i i ) + 4

. 134.

. 135.


. , ,
.
. .

(. 135).
, .
, S,
v,
. L
/
mvh, h = (1 +~cos ) ,
S. ,
L=

/+

(1 + c o s ) ,

/
, . . 2 . - v = ,
L = [2 + (1 + cos a)] rv.
2

,
L
, . . ( + ) gr sin .
,
+
=
,
-;
r - g sin .
2Al + m ( l + c o s a )
s

7. ,
,
,

255

(-. 136).
. , .
: 1) ; 2)
F ; 3) t,
,
, , -

?
( ,
.)
mg sin

.., , .
. =2 + m ( l - f - c o s a ) '
' '
1
T p

t-- 2 +

(2 + )

8. , ,
, ,

'

. 136.

. 137.

(. 137).
.
.
.
v, .
I. = I + mRv,
R , 1
, . - v = ,

,
-

dL
f

II,
= l *
J

\ dv
j
=

M+m)R sma,

g sin a .

I + mR*
A

, ( = 0),
(48.2). ,
R, / = 2MR ,
2

= ,

f sin a.
6

256

[. VII

, ,
.

, .
9. (. 138).
/ = 50 ,
. ,
, .
,
. = 1 , R =
= 10 , = 0,5 .

. (
2 37.)
.
,

,
:
2
2

R + 2r* '
g




. 138.

. 139.
^ , ^ 4 , 8 3

AT,

-^

J~Mg^3,U
nr g

10. /
,
?
. F ,
(. 139).

,

dv
dt = F,
v , .
. F

/ day
dv
, = .

/=-^.

48]

257

, / ,
.
. ,
( ),
.
11. ,
? /,
.
. 2!/3.
12. ,
, . ,

mrv-\- la = const,

(48.7)

/ .
.

dv
dt

- F,

, da
_
_
I .-- + = + rF.
dt

, F
( , ),
F ( ,
). F dt, mr dv = I d<s>,
(48.7).
13. (48.7)
, ,
, .
?
. . ,
, . ,
, . 140
, F = .
,
, . . > rF (F
).
dv = F dt, I da = zfM dt

mrdv + Ida(rF/M) = 0.
rF <
mr dv + / da < 0,
(mry + /co) < 0 .

(48.8)

, mrv + la
.
14. ,
, = 0 v .
, , ,
.
.
. (48.7)
mrv = mrv -f- la = (mr -f- /) ,
0

v ,
. . '

258

[. V I I

15. ,
,
.
, , v
, .
.
0

= 7 + ^

KIT
0

T '

I7+^-

I
/

9
=

16.
v ,
.
, .
? ,
.
.
. v = / , v / .
/
.
17.
v .
,
, ,
.
.
, .
, .

= v ,

= v /r. (48.7)
mvr + la = tnv r + /> .
v = , ,
2

2 0

4 9

1-*

18. , v ,
.
, ,
v , .
1 *
3
.
_ _ = :
.
0

19. ,
: ) , ) ,
) ? ,
,
.
. ,
/ . .
, .
, .
. ,
,
.
2

259

20. ,
() : ) (
), ) , , )
, ( )?
,
. . ) , )
, ) .
21.

, ,
. ,
.
. F ,
(. 141).
. ,
, F .
F (). ,
,

dv

m^=F
mg s i n a
(
)

F,
dv
dt

d(a
dt

11

( = t = 0)

mrv = I ( )mgrt sin a.


0

,
, .
v = 0. ,
= 0.
. t ,
v = = 0.
t

/ <

<

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260

[. VII

,
.
22. k
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; 3) ,
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1
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2

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262

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266

[. VII

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49]

267

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268

[ . VII

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50]

269

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50]

271

(49.3) L
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272

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50]

273


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274

[. VII

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50]

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278

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280

[. VII

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1.
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281

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282

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, . 167.
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L = /

1 1

| |

+ /

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= / co s + /
||

||

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52]

289

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2

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s + /

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[sM].
2

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(52.4)

2. (52.3)
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290

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1

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x

+ / co [ss].
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52]

291

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= sin ,
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2aFI cos a

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aF

2
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cos a

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(52.16)

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292

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1

2
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| |

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V
V I .
=
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52]

293

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I
: = + ^.
I

/ = ^ \ dm = ij ( ?|) dm.

s OA, =(rs)
=
= xs + ys + zs . , ' = + + .
,
+ s* + s | = 1,

(53.1)

Ixx< Iyy> 1'zz> 1 I< lyz

I =\(y

+ z )dm,

xx

^ ,

J i/zdm,

I =i

yy

xv

I ^\{z +x )dm,
2

zx

(53.2)

yz

I z = Ux -\-y )dm,

zx

/ . = j z* dm.

7^, / , ... , / .
l , 1, 1 , ,
X, Y, Z .
2 2

x x

1 3

I
I
I zx

I
I
I zy

I
1 .
I

(53.3)

,
*). , . . 1 1.
.
(53.1) :

'= 2

5
34

<->

-
, (53.1) (53.4)
, .
,
, .
2. (53.4) .

*) ,
,
.

53]

295


1.
. .
- , ,
r= slV 1', { =

s,- (53.4),

V,-*/= 1.
(53.5)
, , ,
/, - ,
s.
, .
.
,
.
3. .,
.
. , ,
,
, (53.2). ,
.
(53.5) ,
,
Ix& + I iP + I,fi=*l
y

(53-6)

/ ?=1.

(53.7)

0
(53.8)
0
1,
.
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
. , , .
.
,
.
.
(17771859)
.
.
.
,
. , ,
.
,
. . , , .
,
, . .

296

[. VII

, , .
,
, , , .
,
, . .

, .
.
, ,
. , ,
.
. ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .
, .
4. ,
, , , .
.
, . F
.
F=

mai r

Ct

- ,

.
2

= ^ [ ] dm = co ^ [ | | ] dm.

X, = xl,
[ij\ = k, [Ik] = j ,
2

yj +

zk.

M = / ^zxdm co ft ^ xy dm,

M = co

(I k~I j).
xy

zx

,
, . . X.
, F = 0. ,
, , 1 = 1 = 0.
, .
. ,

. (
) .
5. ,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
,
.
, . .
,
,
.

54]

297

, . .
, ,
. ,

,
.
, .
, , ,
,
. ,
. ,
.

,
, .
.
6. , -
OA
. L
, -
L = ^ [rv] dm.
2

v = [cor] [ [cor]] = () .

= ^ r dm ^ (cor) dm.
2

L = L a> -f- L y(Oy -4- L (a ,


L = Ly o) -^-Lyy(Hy-\- Ly <n ,
Lz L a) -r-L y(i)y-)rL z<i> ,
x

xx

zx

xz

(53.9)

I =

2 //

(53.10)

( ' = 1 . 2, 3)

/=1

,
.
(53.9)

L = l (o ,
x

L = Iyy,
y

L = la.
z

(53.11)

, L
.
(47.2).

= (Lm) = 1 ^

V*/-

53

12

(->

54.

1.
.
.
(. , . 3).
, .

298

[. VII


.
1. -, ,
.
2 2 / ;0 - = = 2 = const.

Q - = - - .

V 2
, Q
22/: ' = 1. , Q
. , .
, -
= Y^Kr. .
2.
L
.

.
, . . I -\- 1 -\- / = 1.
F (, , ), . .
F (, , ) = 1. 29 ( 3),
(

dF

, , dF . . dF
dy
dz

. , N
, .

rV=2(l xi

+ I yJ +

I zk).
z


N = \i (I a i
x

+1 ]

+1 ,),

. .
A/=uX,
. . .

L .
, .
3. ,
, ,
.
(Leo) = 2 = const,
L(x> = 2 = const, ^
L. L , ,
. , 1,
L

co = ~]/ 2f(r .
, r , .
,
,
.
.
2. .
,
-
{

54]

299

. 2 3.

,
.
, -
(. . ), 1
( )
, .
3. ,
. ,
, , .
,
, . ,
, . ,
, .
,
, , , . ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
,
.
. .
.
, .
.

, -, ,
. , ,
.
4. ,
.

,
. ,
. ,
.
,
.
5.
, , ,
.
, .
. X ,
Z . , .
I >I >I .
x

(54.1)


. :
/ ^ + Vo + / , 0 ) ! = 2/C= ^nst.

(54.2)

,
L = I aJ
x

+ I /' +

I biji.
2

,
L

const

/ X + ^ + ^1 = ' = -

54

< -)

300

[. VII

(54.2) = L /(2K) (54.3),



12

'* { - *) >S+^ -* )
l

* + . *-* )

ffl

i= '

<

>

.
= ,
, . , , >
, ,


/ Ux-h )x
+ I (l -h )y
+ I (I -h )z ^0.
(54-5)

, (54.5), . .
. ,
,
.
6. (54.5) h =
L I(2K).
, (54.5) ,

, , . , I h > 0. , 1 -
, (54.1) 1 1

, . . (54.5)
. , , . , ,
:
1: (1 - )>0,
(/ - )<0;
2: (1 - )<0,
(/ ft )<0.
2

(54.5) + By Cz = 0, ,
, , > > .
= a const + By = ,
Z. ,
= const = const .
By Cz 0
, , .
, = const.
= const z = const .
, h
, .
.
7.
.
, .

.
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
. ,
.
8. - , X
Y, (1 = 1 ),
2

54]

301

Z.
( + ) = 0, .
, Z, .
, , . ,
, Z. ,
. ,
, , X
,
Z. ,
. Z
, 90. ,
.
Z. ,
,
.
1 , 1 1 ,
(54.5) . ,
, , .

VIII

55.
1.
(15461601) (1571
1630) .
:
1) ,
;
2) -
;
3)
,
.
1609 .,
1619 .
.
.
,
. ,
31, , ,
, .
,
.
, ,
, .
.
, ,
.

2

= =

, ,

\: Ti>: 7 1 : . . . = ?: \ ' :...,

55]

303

& .
.

=,

(55.1)

.
SK ,

, ,
F

_ W m

>

( 5 5

3 )

7-2

m .
, ,
,
. ,

, .
,
.
.
, ,

,
, . (55.2) (55.3)
,
,
,
.
2. 4 %\
(55.2) (55.3), ,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
.
. .
F ,
.

2

F = G~7T- >

(55-4)

304

[. VIII

G , ,
. (55.3),
:
(55.5)
3. ,
.
,
, ,
,
(55.4),
.
.
, (
) ,

.
.
G, (55.4), .
.
,
.

,
. ,
. , ,

-.
,
.
10 ,
, , 20 ,
.
,
, (55.4)
,
().
.
, - ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. .
, ,
,

55]

305

(. 2, 3,
4 ).
,
,
. .
700
.
, .

(. 62). ,
, ,
.
,
.

. 171.

4.

.
,
G
. (17311810) 1798 .

(. 171, ),
.
ab.
,
^-.
,
(. 171, ).

.
,
S. ,
/ , ,

306

[. VIII

Mm

, G
I.
fa.
( = ),
( = ) ,

Mm .

/ = G
r

Mm

.
I.

, Mm ,

a ) = 2G
n r

/ ,


//2

G = -

(i-aa)-

\ ,

5 .
(18091880) 1878 .

(. 172),

.
,

, .
,
Q = mg + F,
F
x

F =

kG^^-,


, k . 172.
, .

. k 1.
, F .
, , Q = mg F. Q Q
,
, ,
. ,
2

Q -Q^2F
L

2kG^-.

G.

55]

'

307

6. G

G = (6,6732 0,0031) 10- =


= (6,6732 0,0031) 10 - .
8

1 1

, , .
,
,
. ,
, 1 ,
F = 6,67 -10" = 6,67- .
,
. , , ,

(. 1 ).
,
, .
,
.
, , .
.
,
, .
,

.
. .
, .
,
,
.
11

-8

-13

7.
.
,
,
.

.
.

.
,
.
,

308

[. VIII


.
, . ,

,
,
.

. ,
.
- .

. .
.
, .

1.
( ) .
F,
Grrfi
10

, - = = 4,8 10~ . .
9,11 10~ =
= 1,67-
, F JF
= 2,4-10"" *,
)

2S

-24

BJ1

2.
.

. 173.
.
(25.6). ,
(. 173, ). ,
, OA,
-j- d".
dS = 2nr sin

dS

. dM = M
^ sin 0 dd.
2

,

dU = G-^

sin d&.

55]

309

. = R +
+ 2Rr cos
R OA
. R
,
2

2,

pdp = Rr sin d,
,
Mm

.,

Mm

,
= R ~~
= R .

U= - G ^ L .

(55.6)

,
, .
F, , (29.3) F

dU
=

- - d R ~ -

.
Q

Mm
l ? T -

, ,
. :
, .
.
(. 173, ),
=
/+/?,
= R,

(55.6) (55.7) . (55.7)


$,
. F, ,
, U = const, F =

^~

0-

3. ,
, .
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
., , ,
.
.
4. , ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, . . ,
.

310

[. VIII

5. , . . ,
, R,
.

. p a B H O g = G - - , .
(. 174),
, .
, ,
. , .
,
r

. G ~ , ,
. ,
G

= g ; p.

m
4R
G - = -g- Gpr,
2

r^R,
(55.8)
rs^R.

rR
.
6. U

R,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
.
.

^ , .
, ,
, . ,
. , a dm ,
m

, , dA = Q ^
--

M .

dA = ZG~~ * dr. , dA = dU ,
R*
2

1/=-3

GM

^ r*dr =

3 GM
5 R

(55.9)


.
(55.9).
, .
(18211894) (18241907)
,
. .
,
, ,

311

.
,
. , , .
. ,
(55.9). = 2 - ,
/? = 7 10 . ,
33

10

3 GM
| - ^ ~ = 2,28- 10* .
8

33

3,86-10 /.
( ),
,
2 28 10
t^'Z.3,86 10*
-= - 1,9-10' .
5

1 0 1 4

,
, t
6-10 . .
44,5- 10 .
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
. , ,
,

( ,
, , ,
).
. 175.
7.
,
(. 175).
.
. , ,
.- g

Oj .
. (55.8)
7

4.

g-Gpr-f--g-Gpr J = -g-Gp/?,
R -, CV
, . . .
i

56.

1.
.
, .
, . ,
,

312

[ . VIII

,
. ,
, .
. ,
. ,
, . .
. ,
. .
2. F\,
, ,
(. 176).
, ,
, .

dt

( )

(56.1)

(. 46).
(56.2)

, . . ,
-
.

, = - ^ - - ^ - (2) = 0. ,
, . .
. 31 .
, .
(56.2). /'

(1 ) = ,

(56.3)

,
, . ,
. < 1, = 1,
> 1. = 0 ~
. (56.3) ,
t (1 cos ) + /- sin = 0,
(56.2) (56.3)
pt + 2 sin = 0.

+ 2 cos = 0.

2
,

(56.1)
4

(56.4)

313

56j

, ,

.
3. ,
4 / . .
nab, b .
, 0 = nab/T,
. /.
(56.4)
2

-=

56

fS-TTi"-

< -)

( - 4 \
=
) (55.1),
2

->

(S - )

(55.2),

. , (55.2)
.
,




.
(56.6)
,
.

,

, (55.1).
4.
, .
, , .
.
(56.3), ,
, .
& , cos 0 = Me.
(. 177). | < | > , .
. | | < ft, .
,
, .
.
,
. ,
. , ()
F .

, ,
,
, F .
U =
lt

314

[ . V I I I

= -f- G.
, I I
. ,
U = G ~ .
,
, .
F
,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
.
58.
. . ,

. , ,
.
, .
x

5 7 . ,

1. ,
, . .
, . ,

,
. ,
.
,
2

mv
2

Mm

G
= = const.
(57.1)
, ,

.
. , L
,
> = L = const.
(57.2)
2

.
v v
.
r

mv

.
.,
~r I
. -
9

,
1

I?
2

(57.1)
f

v?-G^

+ J ^ = E = onst
C

(57.3)

57]

315


v .
.

r

V () =

Mm
U

,
L
- 2

2. V{r).
25.
. . 178


Mm

V, (>):

Z.

,
L 0.
V ()
.
-> 0 V ()
,
Vx ().
V () == Vi () +
+ ( )
+ ,
-+ 0. , -* V ()
, (). V ()
, /->- .
. 178 .
V () . L = 0,
V () = Vi (),
. ,
, .
/ mv ,
(57.3) , ,
, V () ag; .
V = = const. V (),
, ,
. < 0,
V = V ()
. ' ' .
' ',
2

316

[. VIII

V = V ().
,
. > 0, V ()
,
. ,

, .
, . , =
.
.
, > 0 ,
< , = 0 .
,
( ,
). -- V ()
,
= yi&,.

"

(57.4)

,
v ,
.
, ,
, .
(57.1),
= 0.
,
m

mvl

Mm

-o^-G

= 0,

2G ~ .

Vn=}/"

(57.5)


' v . ,
,
. ,
vllr
- ^ - , .
K

(57.6)
,
v = v V2.
n

(57.7)

58]

.317

1. , ,
, .
, .
: ,
?
. .
2.
.
?
. .

5 8 .
1.

. (. 179)
. ,
(57.3) v = 0,
r

Mm

0.

(58.1)

<
.
, .
+
.
2,

2-- : r

r, = -

= - 0 ^ - , ( 6 8 . 2 )

= Elm ,
.
< ,
(58.2) . 179.
, .

.
(58.2), = = .
2 = G - ^ - , 2 = U. = U

+ U,

-.

(58.3)

,
. ,
(57.6).

318

[. VIII

(58.3) ,
.
, ,
( 25, . 6).

is
1 j,
1-.
GMm [\
1 -.
* = - 2
=
=
\)
= - l !
r

, = + U,

=.
.

2. .

= S.
,
. ,
(. 179).
F F 2,
F B = .
x

a = \vb,

(58.4)

F H,
F . v
. =

= .

(58.2), v.

b
2a
-

= V^M-

( 5 8

5 )

3.
. , . 4
56. (. 177) ,
.
(57.3).
v , (58.1).
,
. ,
. + .
.
= 2,
r

(58.6)

319

58]

(58.2),
.
4. (58.4) .
F F 2, 6
= ~ . F ,
(. 180).
f
F M

^>
FjM. F M


F F
< ^
I V
,
F M .

F M = 2.
,
F M 26.
. 180.
, ,
,
. -
v 1\ = .
1

1 ,
=

~2

(58.7)

bv

oo

.
(57.4),

(58.8)

2
0

(58.9)

GM

5. =
/. b ,

(58.10)
,
, .
, .

6. , ,
, . .
, .
. S ,
(. 181). AS
. v
, AS. ,
v .
0

320

[. VIII

, . . v
v , . v
, S. v = v ,
.
. ( )
2 .
. v <; v 2 .
n

. 181.

S (), (
). > , , 2 ,
. . , D ( ).
v = v v^2 . v > v
.
:
0

" = 0

,



D

V <V
0

v = v
<v <v
^o = "n
0

Vo>Vn

321

59]

-
.
, ,
, -
8 6
6
^

mbv*
-

-, v , 2 , 7
( , Z ).
.
, ()
,
.
(58.11)
.
m

59.
1.
,
.
tnr ma 6c = F,
Sl

(59.1)

Mm

F= G^-r

, .
-
, .
.
,
. =
(. 20).

U T = 1 =
0

F.

[,
/na

(l

,
,
1 + / .
.
. (55.5)
G G (1 + 1).
3

322

[. vui

, (+)
, . .
, . ,
.
,
, ,
.

2

(59.1)
(59.2).
2. (55.5) (59.3)
, , .
,

(55.5).
,
.
G, (55.5)
. , ,
.

,
.

.
.
.
= 1,496 10 , = 365,26 , = 3,844 10 ,
= 27,32 . (55.5)

, (59.3),

+ |

-,.

+
3

, , ,

.
.
, ,
,
.

323

60]

1. R ,
Mi + ,
= 2 ,
. R = 1,5-10 .
2

: R ^ ^ - J
= 2* = 3 1 .
2. ,
, .
v . .
v
.
v ?

f
2GM

,
r^'.^prn
- 1 A ; V., = ~ Vu
\2GM rjvf
j _
' r
, :

60.

,

*).

, .
,
, . .
. ,
55,
, ,
. ,
g

a 6 c

= ^-,

(60.1)

.
:
(60.2)

=|~,

R . ,

= () .

(60.3)

*) , , ,
,
,
(. 66).

324

[.

v m

,
g
.
.
, R
( ).
R = 3,844 -10 , = 27,32 .
,
a6t

= 0,2723 / .

(60.4)

^ , = 6371 .
(60.3), g = 991,4 / .
:
= 983,2 / , g
= 981,4 / .

. , , ,
. (60.4)
() >
(60.3)
()- (59.4)

2

i6c

a 6 c

(#) = ^1 +

^(),

m . ,
g
(1 + mIM) .
mIM = 1/81. ,
g
= 979,3 / ,
.
.
, (60.1)
.
G.
a(5c

a 6 c

1. ,
R,

g^g

( l - 2 ~ ) ^g-o (1 -0.00314),

g g . , h
.
2. (18011892)
. g
0

325

g h. ,
h = 2,5 / . (
.) ^ g =
= 0,000052 g , Rlh 16 000 (R ). ,
. ( , g
! ?)
3

, =

-=- ~ 6,5 / .

8-go
R
go
h
3. ,
. ,
?
.
.
4
g
, >2 = <3 = - .
R

, g . ,
= 2nVRig 84 . ,
, .
8. v^,,
, , / (/ > R,
R ). / = 2R. (,
58.)
.
= ] / ^ . / = 2R v ^ } [ | g * ~ 6 , 5 /.
5. ,
-380. (
) = 102,2 , 210 ,
1548 . 6371 .
4
. = ^ 6 10 , .
0

27

61.
1. ,
57,
(,
). ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.

~
5 ,
2
'

(60.1)
.~

mv

E = -2--mrg,to.

, 1 1\
(61.1)

326

[. VIII

( g g .)
,
.
a6c

(61.2)
,
.
8 /.
,
, .

v - y2gr = v V2 ^ 11,2 /,
K

(61.3)

.
,
, ( ,

).
, , , . .
,
.
2.
.
150 .
^ 29,8 /.
,
,
29,8]/2 42,1 /. ,
29,8 /.
,

42,1 29,8 = 12,3 /
,

. ,

. ,
,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
.

327

,
; ,
.
,
. ,
*).
(v, IV. n) .
(V, V , V ).
, ,
.
,
v

mv

_ Mm

mvio

,
. y ^ = G M / r ,

, ,
. V


V . ,
v V. ,
K

= Vl
2

+t4o-f 2V

fooC08 .

v V ~ V = 2 V .
V ,
,
3

= ( 1 + cos cos ft) V .


K

( ,
v ,)
3

v% = (\ + cos - cos ) Vk + 2

(61.4)

# =
( ),
> = ( ).
(61.4)

/ " ^ 1 / , 1 7 1 + 2 1 4 R=16,7 /,
^

^ 5,828V

_
+2vk

(61-5)
=^72,7 /.

.
, ,
.
.
V . ,
4

*) (. 65),
,
,
.
, -
. ,
, .

328

[. VIII

. , ,
V = K +
( ).
, , ,
V
. V V
( ), ,
,
R

= V . (V - V )

- OM/R = 1/2 ( + 2 V

R =
(. 181). < 0,

WVI

GM

yz --2V v v* '

. = CP

.

. 181 .
,
,
. 2 = R + .
, v .

m

v
"".

v\ =

2~\
+ 2v%.
R + x)
, . (
)

t i = ( ^ + 2 ^ ) ^ ^ 3 1 , 8 /.
4

aKC

. ( )
, .

v**[vl

(l-^'

(1 - 2 ) + 2 , | ] ' /

:29,2 /,

= 4,65-1 .

1.
R 7\.
, ,
.
.
,
. ()
.
2

329

.
. (58.3) = , U = 2-
, ,
. ,
. ,

= ? + U = ( - 2) = (2 - ) .

(. (58.2)).
_
1
R
~ 2 - '
~ 2 -
, ' ^ 2.
( )

3J1

'

2. R ,
,
. (
).
. R =

(-S.\

R ^a 6,60i? .
0

R
a

, co R ,
, g . ca R /g= 1/288.
3. , ,
. ,

.
,
, .
= 7,29- 1( /,
L = 5,91 1 0 - /,
/ = 8,11 10
- , =
= 3,84-10 , ( )
= 27,3 , m = 7,35- . ,
.
. , :
/ = mag = 1,08-10 - (
),
= 2,67- /,
= / = 28,9-10
- /,
L = L + L =
= 34,8 10* - /.
( / + ma ) = L, , / , ma co = L.
a co = ajjcojj. .

0

44

10

25

47

-6

40

m ^
/ = (a /a)'

/s

(4

00=1,45 60= 5,58 1010

'

'

= 0,573, = 27,3/0,573 = 47,7 .

330

[. VIII

4. ,
.
, ,
= 4 /
.
, ? /? =
= 1738 , g = 1 6 2 / .
2

^ ^ = ( / 2 - 1 ) ^ ^ 0 , 1 7 .

5.
( ) .

?
. (58.3) = -
.
( ).
6 .
.
90 ( ),
?
.
.
7. .
(
), ?
. 2
, ' ,
. . .
,
, .
8 . .
efd > .
,
?
. Y2 .
9.
,
= 4 v = , v -~ ,
= 0,03? ( = ( )1 ,
, ,
.)
. ..

" ' ,
:
v = av = - - .
K

P.

av.

331

62.

.
, .
. , '
, . .
.
. ,
(. 59). (, ),
. v
v =
^ = . , v = + .

r

4"0

+ ' * ) - = ,

(62.1)

1 = ,

(62.2)

, ,
, ,
. .
/- , = ^ . (62.1)
(62.2),
1 dry

(,GM\
8+

-) +^ = ]
= ~ - - \ - ,

(62

. (62.3)
rfp\ , / _ \ _
I GM_ [__
1
V
) ~ 2
2 \

, ,
.
2

2 +

_ 4
~ GM

(62.4)

\ dif J

2 ~

, ~ -|- ^
2

, :


^ )

= - .

(62.6)

3= ,

/ = cos ,

332

[. VIII

.
r

dq>

dw
d&

= +

(62.6) A sin ,
1, =
. , A cos ( + ) = A cos (> ).
,
. ,
0

1 1_
[

)]

>

(62.7)

^-^-^-

= 0. ,
- ,
/ (1 ). (62.7)
1 cos '

(62.9)

.
< 0, < 1 (); = 0, = 1 (); > 0,
> 1 (). , 57 .

.
, .

IX

63.

1. -
.

, .

= /%

(63.1)

,
.
, . . ,
.


.

: 1) , . .
;
2) , . .
( )
. , ,

,
.
, .

.
,
.
. ,
. . , ,
,
.
2. -
, -

334

. .

[. IX

. (63.1)
.

- ,
.
, .
, ,
.
.
.
.

.

,


,

.


,
.

. 182.

, . . .
,

.
3. : 5
0 S

(. 182). /? - ,
0\ .
- .
- R,

- = . R, R ,

0

R = R +r.
(63.2)
,
0

R = R +r,
(63.3)
R = R + r.
(63.4)
,
, 5
0

63]

335

5 . R, ,
, R
. v = R
, = R
S.

S. , v
.

, . .
S. ,

= + .

(63.5)

= + .

(63.6)


= ,
= .
4. (63.6) (63.1)
, , .

ma

O7a

= Fma .

(63.7)

.

,
. ,
,

. ,
. ,
.
(63.7),

.
F nta
. F
, .

.

, .
F.
.

-
- , - -'
. ,
0

336

. .

[. IX

,
.

. .
,
. ,

. - ,
,
. ,
, .

.
5. ?
,
. ,

,
, .
.
.
,
- .
,
,
.
.

( ).
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
. .

.
,
, .

.
.
,

.

64]

337

, ,
,
. ,

.
,
, .
.

, .
, ,
, ,
- , ,
.
64.

1. , S (. . 182)
S
. :
,
, ,
.
to. , .
/, j , k ()
S,
. , ,
.
. .
.
(46.11). :
x

* = [/],

[</|,

- =

[**].

(64.1)

,
. .
(63.2), (63.3) (63.4), , .
R R .
,
. ,
.
2. , , z
S.
0

(64.2)

. .

[. IX

, , ,
J, ft, S
.
, S,
, . .
v^. ,
= xi +

yj'+

zk.

(64.3)

(64.1),

+ % + ft

xi

+ + ^ = [ ( +yj+ W

,
=

+ [/].

(64.4)


= + Hep*

. . ,

Vu

ep

(63.5).

(64.5)

= v + [&r].
0

(64.6)

,
, 5 . .
: ,
, [*], -
5 .
3. .

( 6 4 . 5 ) . ( 6 4 . 6 )

01

+ + [*>*] + [].

( 6 4 . 3 ) .
, ,
, , ,
/, , ft. ,
( 6 4 . 2 ) . ( 6 4 . 4 )

dtII

64]

339

.
, , ,
/, j , k .
,
5. . . -
(64.8) .
[/*] , (64.6)
.
[/-] = [<>] + [<> [>]].

=

+ 2 [ 0 ) ] + + [[0]] + [ ] .

(64.9)


= + + ,

(64.10)

= 2 [ ],

(64.11)

0 = + [ [ ] ] + [/-].

(64.12)

5
S j .
, S.

. ,

= 2 [ ] ,

.
(17921843),
. (64.10)
, ,
.

, .
.
(64.12).
,
S, .
5 . [/-]
,
. ( = const)
. [colcor]],
, ,
. , -
/*j_ + ),, -,
0

340

. .

[. IX


. [] = 0,
= [[(,-]] = [([(,- ]].


, (/"jJ = 0,
2

= _ /- .

(64.13)

.
4.
.
.
,
.
(. 183) ,
(,
.

:
, .
,
.
-
. , g =

">


= v
+ *> dt
d(f = tadt.
'.
,
) . ,
- a dt.
- >
[dq> > ].
>

0TH

mH

011

dv

0TU

dt.

= a dt+[<]
0Ta

> = [*>]. dv
= [d<or ] +
+ [ dr]. -
[] dt. ()
[ ^ ] dt = []
dt + [ftK> ] dt. ,

nep

n e p

nep

= [&r] dt + [etv ]
0TB

, v

OTa

= + 2 [ 0

dt + [> ] dt.

> ,

] + [> [ W ] ] +

[<-

,
. - >
. -
,
. , ,
.
2 [> ]
. ,

64]

341

.
2 [)> ], .
F = 2 [ ].
(. 184, ), F
. ,
,
. , (. 184, ),
F .

F-Zm

F-2m[i

)
184.

, ,
. ,
34 (. 60), ,
,
.
, .
,
.

5.
. ,
. (63.1) (64.10)
,
.
ma = F-ma -ma ,
0T

K09

(64.14)

nep


= F+2m

[v <a] - mv + /
0TH

m [cor].

(64.15)

F :

F

= 2m [ ]

(64.16)


Fne

= mv + mcoV_|_ m [cor].
Q

(64.17)

, ,

,
.

342

. .

[. IX

6.
. mv
. ,
- .
[<]
. .

F = m& r
(64.18)

. , ,
. ,

,
.
,
.
, .

.
7. , ,
()
.
, ,
.
. .
: F
, F ,
.
: F + F = 0.
. ,
()
.
. Fi,
. , ,
, .
,
.
,
. ,
.
- ,

. ,
, , ,
.
0

l9

64]

343

,
, . , ,
.
, .
,
. ,
.
, , .

, . . .
, ,
. .
,
, ,
. ,


. , *
.
, .
.
,

.
8. (64.1).
, S ,
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, .
.
.
, ,
(. 24, . 6).

1. : nycfb
, .

,^
: + .

344

. .

[. I X

= , () =
= atr = . = +
2 .
, F = 2mco r,
. ,
, ,
.
. . S,
+ .
.
' , :
> = [cor],
a
= a
= co r,
a
= 2 [> ] = 2co r.

0 T H

n e p

K o p

, a g = a
+ a
+ a
= 0.
2.
R = 5 , .
= 10 , v = 300 /.
coR
, ,
, .
, ,
.
a

0 T H

K o p

n e p

a = ^ = 0 , 0 2 0 9 = 1,2 .

3. I ,
( ).
2.
. ,
, .

.
.

2.

4. , ,
,
, .
' ,
() . ,

. ,
.
?
. = 2 "j/"g

^<-

.
5. ,
. F,
, , ,
. , , .
4
f~~R
. F = -j,- PxaQ,\2P,

, , R .
6. ( .)
, , ,
?

64]

345

. F
, F ,
, .
. ' L
L = [> ]
L = >. L, ,
, F + F .
Lj . ,
, ,
F .
L ,
2

L
mr

const

(64.19)

,
. , t o ,
, ,

F + F + mafir m [ t o r ] + 2m [
1

].

, ,
, =
.

F = m i o V -f- m [ t o r ] 2m [v <i>].
2

(64.20)

0Tli

(64.19) , L = const,

= _ 2 - ^ - ^ - = - 2 ^ .
mr*

: -

. -

to

O T H

= - ^ p . , "

= - - ' ' + [ * > ' ' ] -

(64.20),
,

/= ^=-{2 + 2() )},


2

(64.21)

const
^ = - m + 2(i /- )]~ = -f-r.
mr*

(64.22)

, F
.
7.
. ,
.
.
.
, ?
.
to,
Q ( ). ,
2

346

. .

[. IX

Q.
,
*> = [ * > / ] .

t ep = [Or],
n

= [0 []].

(64,23)

dm -
(. . 185). df () .
(64.9) ,
( to, ).
,
(64.9) (64.23),
df=dm

[ [cor]] + 2dm [Q [ w r ] ] - f d m )Q [Or]].

(64,24)

,
/
.
/ (64.24).
i
- . ,
, Jrdm = , -
.
/= {[ [ ]] + 2 [Q [cor ]] + [Q [ ] ] } .


,
,

.

/=[[ ]].
(64.25)

, ,

,
Y
[Q[Qr ]] ( . 185.
). /

.
. -
(64.24) .-
, dm [ [cor]]
. , ,
, , (64.24)
.
, , ,
,
.
(64.24),
, ,
. .

(64.24) .
ii
Q. (64-24)
Q. ,
(64.24). ,
,
= 2 j () [rco]rfm.
c

65]

347

. Z
, X ,
Q (. . 185).
2

= 2/coC> j dm 2 / ^ dm r2ia>Q
x

dm 2i(x>Q
r

J yz dm.

, , -
.
= ja>Q jj ( -f- ' ) dm = j[ jjuQ sin 0 ,
3

Q,
.

M = I [Q&].

(64.26)

[] ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

65.

1. (64.15)
. S
.
,
. .
, v , v
. ,
(64.15) . ,
,
(64.15) , . . v = ,
= .
F3 + F + F, F3 ,
F ,
, , , F
, .
F , , ,
, .
(64.15)
0

- (F + /racoVJ + 2 [] -\-F+{F 3

mv ).
0

(65.1)

2. ,

348

. .

[. IX

.
, ,
, .
, ,
, , .
.
, . ,
, .
3. F
. ,
, .
.
.

,

, . .
.
,
, .
,
,
, . . v . F mv 0.
, ,

(65.1).
, - ,
. , ,
.
0

4. Fz ,
Fs + mtoVj^,
, .

.
.

F -\-tna r
= mg'.
(65.2)
2


mg+2m

[] + F.

(65.3)

g"
.
g ,
(F = 0), v
. (65.3) # = g \ *

349

, gecmb
,
. ,
v
- . ,

(65.4)

= +g>V .
x

, g " = ^ F ,
. ,

, ,
, .
coVjL ,
.
3

a 6 c

66.
1. ,
,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
. ,

F. F
. :
F = . , ,
(65.3) v = , = , F = .

P = mg.
(66.1)
(65.4), , :
2

= mg

a6c

= F + m& r .
3

(66.2)

,
F > ^.
- ,
.
, , g.
.
2. g " 6 c .

2

350

. .

[. IX

, .
,
-, g "
.
g , . . ,
g
coV^ (. 186). ,
-,
.
-
.
,
. ,

,

. -


a 6 c

0 ,

sin =

sini? =
g

sin 2,

(66.3)
ft
(. 186).
. 186.
. (
) (66.3),
, . g .
coVj^ g c o s a ^ 1, [

a 6 s

g = g*6c-> r

COS'

; "

(66.4)

/" COS .

.
g
. ,
(. 41).
, g .
g = 983,2 / , g = 978,0 / . g,
(66.4) ga6c. ga6c = g 983,2 / .

2

= g + (o r = 978,0-

4
-6,378-108 = 981,4 / .
86 164
2

-
, ga6t
.

66]

g
, .
, .
, .
,
. ,
g
. .
3, ,
.
, ?
,
. ,
5 .
, , ,
,
.
.
,
S - ,
. ,
,
(65.3).
,
, mg
/ _]_ ( ).
,
, (65.3) F = 0. F
, .
, , . . ,
, .
,
.
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
w,
(65.3) mw. =
= mw.
. ,

.
a 6 c

352

. .

[. IX

1. ,
.

,
. ?
.
,
.
. _


/ /
| 0
\
, . /f *
j

1
() 2 ()
0

P ^=F
1

F (R - ) mat + mw,

= F + F (R + r) mafirmw
2

(. 187). F F

, R
, , w

. mw = F (R).
,
3

I mart*
J/0V6
. 187.

2 -

i = [ c + )- c

+ [? (R~r)-F


,
2

dF

-
2

dR

,
2

Mm

4n R

P = mg

( , ,
).
_

24
gT

12
sR

s = / gT , ,
g.
, s = 5 - 1 0
2

1 2

^6,5-

- 1 2

2.
,
. , , ? 1
2 (. ).
Po P
24
.
=
_ == 8 10 ,

RgT

, R ,
, ,
2

1 0

<t 67]

353

3.
& = 60. = 10 /. ,
. ,
, .
^ 2 cos ft + v /R
S ^ c o s t f Wp (17,5-10-6)
g
J
"\
g
J
(R ).
4. ,
. ,
?
, /,
.
. 0

=2]/"^.

.
5. R 25
v 2 5 0 /.
. /' ,
, , ( = 1 ?
. , ,
. t' = t( 1 +

56 .

67.
1. .
F = 0, (65.3)
fl

= g-+2[to].

(67.1)


.
. ,
mg" .
.
.
.
.

.

(67.1). g ,
(67.1)
.

, .
. , ,
,
(67.1) g .
, -

354

. .

[. I X

,
g .
,
.
.
.
2. (67.1) 2 [] eg .

.
:
a = g,
v = v + gt,
(67.2)
-

v .
,
. (67.1)

:
0

a = g+2[v<fu\

+ 2t[gei\.

(67.3)


:
v = v + gt + 2t[v0>] + P[gb>].
(67.4)

. , (67.1),
:
o

a = g+2 [ ] + 2t feco] + 4t [[ ] ] + 2t* [few] ],


0

(67.5)

t v
:
v = v + gt + 2t [ to] + [g-co] + 2t* [[ co] ] + J 0

[[g-co] ].

(67.6)


. .
(67.6) t, -
:
=

+ / + 4

g^+

[+-J + 4 1

[[*,>>]]+41W

<4

(67.7)

, ,
s =
0

67]

355

3. ,
, ,
(. 188).
X ,
, Z , . . g.
(67.8) .
[gxo] ,
[[g"(i)]o)] ,

.
,

2 = y g * - i-to / g cos
X = S

fl,

(67.10)

(67.11)

D0CT

= g- d)t g COS

9KB

= ~ co ^g-sin2v),

y= s

(67.9)


.
(67.9)

. 188.

.


(67.12)
, (67.10) (67.11).
= = 0.
:
(
, ).

S

BOCT =

th

cos

f>

4-

cos

ft,

(67.13)

h , a T = 2/
.
s
, (67.13)
. , h = 100 t = 4,5 ,
( = 56) s
= 1,2 .
B0CT

B0CT

356

. .

[. IX

h 500 s
= 13,8 .
,
XIX .

:
B0CT

/ s i n

BOCT-

(' 4)

- (at = 2nt/T
.

1. (. .
). v = 100 /,
& = 60. , ,
.
.
.
0

g*

- cos w 51 .

.
,
. ,
.
. , . , ,
, .
,
.
,
. ,
.
2. ,
, ?
.
.
! 2 , 4 5

10~ 0,85' s s 51".

3. ,
= 30, .
v = 500 /, (. .
) = 60.
,
.
: ? ( ,

.)
,
41 sin 0 cos a sin
. , =
^
71 .
0

68]

367

68.
1.
.
, .
. ,
;
.
, .
,
.: mg
F (
). .
,
,
. ,


,
. ,
.
,
,
to.
,
, : . (65.3).
2 []
. - .
2. , .
(65.3) .
,
.
mg F.

.
.
,
,
. ,
( ).
,

(65.3).

358

. .

[. IX

,
,
( ).
3. , I
>. /
: :\
= + . - \
: to;i CO_l,
, ^ (. 189).
(65.3)
ma = mg+ 2 [ ] -+- 2 [ ] + 2 [ ] + F.

2 [cojj
. ,
.


.


.
2 [ ]

.


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. 189.
2 [v<d\)

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,
.
.

ma = mg+ 2 [> ] + F.
(68.1)

{i


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359

681

to,,. ,
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= cosine.
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sin >

(68.3)

sin >


.

1850 1851 .
67 m
= 28 . ,

(68.2) (68.3),
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360

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^ = 0, #/_ = :,
0

=
Qt=

sin Q/.

/2,
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69.
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362

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.
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69]

363

, .

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,
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.

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/.
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(
), .

GM,
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=
4 R

4 ,

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,
N
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5(

,
/ =

Pnp

57-,

/ = - 5

6 9

< - )

( 0.) g = G fa

^1

g cos 2ft,

(69.3)

g sin.

(69.4)

ff


. 193.
3

/ = K / i + / f = 2~~

(69.5)
^

/
= 1/81, r/R ^=
1/60, f/g= 8,57-
, .
57 , 63,7

'364

. .

[. IX

. .
fig 7,2-10~ ( ) 10~ (
). , , . //g' = 3,8- *, . .
2V , .
10%.
5. , . ,
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,
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,
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() .
,
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8

GM,

/-2 cos 2ft = const.

(69.6)

(. 193).
0 = 0, = /2,

"

"*

(^4) () = gH, =
.
, = / = .
0

, g = G

(69.5),

H= L ,
(69.7)
g
= 0,55 ,
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69]

365

. 192, ,
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20 .

366

. .

[. IX

(69.1), (69.3), (69.4).


. , = + - Z
(. 191). w ,
.
mw w.
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-G2-.

. 191 = / ? | 2 # cos ft + .
,

GM ,

2R rcaau-r*

3n

'

~ ~
V

GM r

1
n

1 rj.

^ L

2R rcosft
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r
3 /2/-cosf}\2-|
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1

w = Gjr-, , ,
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g. .

3 GM
w cos 2v=
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s ' = - 4 -R

70.
1.
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70]

367

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m g,

(i)

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ig)

(70.2)

, = g.
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368

. .

[. IX


. .

.
,
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.
, (17841846)
.

(70.3)

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, (70.2).
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m co r^ cos > (. 194, ), >
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r COS '
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370

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[. IX

, (. 194, ),
.
2

Mj = (m<'> ''') ~ a r

sin

(/ ), .
cpj = (1//) M / .
180, . . )
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\.

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( i)
l

-
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372

. .

|. IX

.

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71]

373

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374

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[. IX


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g' = g . ,
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71]

375

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376

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[. IX

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72.
1.

, .
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300 /.
,
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-
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(. 196, ), ( ).
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0

Vv

v
'

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.

72]

377

t, iov=
at.
/ = ct = cut ,
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al

2. ,
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dr.


. dv

dr, (72.1)
dv _
~v~ ~

gdr
'

g,

,
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1 2,


, . .
(72.2)

6)
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1 2.

In

qi-qfr

(72.3)

378

. .

[. IX

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Va-Vi

q>i-q>2


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v
2-10" .
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74]

381

74.
1.
,
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(. 197).
/ , / /
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.
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dS. dF ,
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.

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/. = _.

, dS.
,
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,
X, , Z
.
Qnx> ,
.
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, .
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X.
, , a
.
3.
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1 9 7 -

xz

382

[.

,
.
, , .

,
,
(. 198).
ABC. ,
ABC ,
<TS, S . , ,
, a_ S , G_ S , a_ S , S , S , S
.

,
, .

/ . /
.
, ,
x

= / + 5 + a^ S

+ e- S

,
.
/ .
, ,
,
.
, S

. 198.

Sn ,

S = Sn ,

S = Sn .

, . = , _ = , a a .

= -\-

+ .

(74.1)

X, Y, Z ,
.
,
, ,

*>

v z,

zy>

(74.2)

74]

383


.
,
, . . .

.
4.
, . .

('> / = *>

Oij = ji

(74.3)

).


dx, dy, dz (. 199).
Z,
,

M = (
z

dy dz) dx ( dx dz) dy =
= (o y o )dV,

yx

dV
.

(<y y-o )dV
X

yx

= Iz

d(n

dt

I ^
Z. 1
,
. . ,
dV.


z

, . = .
: o

yz

zx

xz-

5. , X, Y, Z
,
, . . = 0 i j .
, ,
,

. ,

, o .
, . . , o .

.

zz

384

[. X

75.
1.
F (. 200, ).
, . . .
, .
,
F = F. ,
.
, .
,
F
.

. ,
,

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,

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,

X
)

S '

(75.1)

. 200.

S
. ,

(75.2)


, . .
= .
(75.3)

.
2. / .
F /
/ = / + /-
0

(75.4)

751

385

.
,
. ,
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(/)/7 .
.
,
( )
( )
0

(75.5)

,
. (1773
1829). (75.5) (16351703)
.
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, ,
. (75.3)
/ = / , = .
, ,
,
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: ,

.
3. , , ,

: = ().
= 0,
.
()
.
0

= + + 5 + . . . ,
, , , ... ,
.
,
. (75.5).

~ .
,
.

386

[. X

, ,

, . . ,
( 7 5 . 4 ) , (/)//.
,
2

_ _ (// ) _ (/f ^
0

Il

I1

, .
, ( 7 5 . 5 )
= ~,

= ~,

(75.6)

, ,

, , ,
,
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4. 7 \ . AJ

-~- =
,
h +
, ,
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. (
),
. ,
.
,

/, -f- = ^ . , ,
,
_ ,
2

'1

Al = 1

'

1,
2

1 _ 7\

/
^ / / /.

= 7 \ + . ,

75]

387

, =
.

, .
,
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,
( ),
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6.
.
/ ()
/ = 0 / = F.
= 0 = /.
/ () = kx, k , 1 (

388

[. X

.
0,

V =^(x)dx
= k'\ xdx = \k(Mf.
(75.8)

= /, F = / (/) = / .
,
]

U = jFM.

(75.9)


F, /
= FAL
, ,

.
,
.
.
(75.8) (75.9) V .
, . .
, (
) . (75.9)
V = SI.
2

" = 4 s f = 4
(7.)
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" =

7*2

/32
=

2-

<

7. ,
F ,
. F ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
0

. . F ,

^
( = ).

(17811840):
0

= - :

= -

- . - .

(75.12)

389

75]


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8. , , . ,
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1.
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l-k

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2SE
2. , I 5
(
). ,
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-

7 = -.
oES
3. ,
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10

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390

[. X

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, .
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,
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V = 3 10* ,
, ,
=
= 10" / .

. ~ (I ).

= V T

M a K C

=10

(. 3 19.)
5. S F,
. ,
. .

F
, = 45,
2ST = =

6. h, S
. ,
.
,
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7 .

76.

1. ,
,
F , Fy, F ,
Y
.

, , (. 201).
,

.
.

*
.
V,


. 201.
. , , z
.
F , , &

- ~ = - ~ . F ,
x

76]

391

, Y,
. ,
2

, = .
2

F -~ = ii -~.
,
; =
-- + + .
Y Z.

z

^^^-1-(

(76.1)

+ ),

2.
X = V S T /AX,
S = yz
, X.
2

/ xyz-T -y
= V
, V =

.
. Z.
,

:
1

" = J ( *** +

76

+ * *)-

( -)

(76.1)
= i

[% + + 71 - 2 ( , , + , + , ) ] .

(76.3)

, , ,
(75.10) (75.11).
(75.11)
( ). ,
(76.3),
, , T ( , , P ).
( )
. ,
.
( = ) ,
.

392

[. X

, , ., ^, ,
(76.1).
, , .
( - , = 0)
. , , e
.
, (
).


R 5 , 11 (
1 ). d 1 . =
= 10 / , = 0,3.
. ,
, .
, .

,
.
12

( , , ).
S V'^ , .
AV
3 AS _
-jy =
, ,
3

. 2xd/R (.
, II).
.

3 ( 1 - ^
V
2
Ed

77.
1. , , , , T
.
= = = .
(76.1),
*) >

e = e = e = ~(1 - 2 ) .
x

(77.1)


. ,
V = xyz,
AV

, Az

= * + ^-- .

(77.2)

77]

393

(77.1)


* = < -

<

7 7

'

4 )

.
(77.3) ,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
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(76.3)

^ 2 ^

= ^ -

(77.5)

,
1 2 > 0, . .
|i<2-

7 7

- >

2.
.

( X),
.

(. 83). ,
,
.
.
.
.
,
(76.1). .
T
Y Z.
(76.1) = = 0,

-11(

+ ) = 0,

-(

+ )=:.

394

[. X

z - j _

(1

(77.7)

Ix,
V

(77.8)


1 - __
l-H-2.il

LzJL

(77.9)

(1 + )(12)

(77.10)

~ ~ '

(77.11)

(75.7).
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,
X,
(. 202). Z
. ,
,
.
,

Z
Y.

=,

<1I*),

= ( 1 + ).

-2
"=2<'

78.
1.
.
eroAD

(. 203, ). ,
.
CD.
, .

CD
(. 74).

78]

395

,
ABCD A'B'C'D'.

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,
BD.
.
ABCD.
, A'D'
AD (. 203, ). ,
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6)

)
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AD,
, .
.
AD. 7
'
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CD .
, , 7 ( 7 - ^ 1 )
.
t = G7,

(78.1)

, .
G ,
.
2.
. AD (. 203, ),
. ,
, .
, , / 5, :
, a S .
, = , = J xSay = / Vxy,
1

396

[. X

V . ,

"=4t =.

(78.2)

3. ,
, ,

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(, . 203, ). F,
ACD ,
.
.
. , F, ,
2

F = a (x sin 45 + cos 45) = ] / 2 .


? \ z . F
, . ,
,
,
, .
,
, BD
, ,
,
.
4. ,


.
, ,

PQRS (. 204).
=,
BD = . ,
,
. X PQ SR,
QR PS. ,
(76.1) = , T = , T = 0, = 0, + = 0.
(77.2) AV = 0.
,
.
5 . (76.3)

(78.3)

79]

397

(78.2),
. ,

= 21]1)-

,
. G. ,
(77.10) (77.4),
G

' = /C + 4 -

(78.5)

79.
1. , ,
, . . ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
.

M=

fy,

. (79.1)

/ ,
. ,
, ', G .,
, .
2. /.
/, ,
.
28. ,
, = 2 -,
.
1

= / 4 = - .
V = 2nrl8r,

2

(79.2)

398

[. X

.
, . 205.
ABDC
''DC. . ,

.
(78.2).

(79.2),
3

26>

I j

7 Q

(/.)

,
/
.
(79.4)
,
.

f
1

^ , 4

~ 21

(79.5)

3. ,
,
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(79.6)
(. 42). / , ,
, /.

1. ,
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.
, ;

.
.
. 1)

16

= -

U,
-162. , ,
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, ,
R
.

. 7"
R*
2

399

3. ,
.
R. , ,
.
.
, (. 206, ).
Fx ,
. , Fx = F, F
, . F F
, ,
. FR.
- ,
.
, , ,
. F ,
x

. 206.
,
. dl .
do? = Mlf f
. / ( ).
1 , / =
dl
,
dt

..
= Ai ""i
= --. dl
'
/ '
,
,
MR dl
FR> dl
dtp dx = R dtp = - j - j - = - - .
lt

,
FR*

>

'

(79.7)

F = kx.
*= ^ .

(79.8)

4. ,
,
, .

400

[. X

.

(. 206, ). , ,
( ).
F, . , ,
, . , ,
= 2FR sin (/2).
^,
. , M
. , .
, ,
' ,
. sin (/2) =
t

= 2FR sin (/2). dl d<p = ^p- =


Mi dt
-j--
/ '

,
,
. .
,
AFR .
4FR . . ,
dx=AD.dqs=ABsm~fr--dq
= ~sm -^
d/ = --j s m - ^ da.

, .
,
2

3 FR
=

80.
1. ()
, , ,
. .
'', ,
'' (. 207, ),

V'

. 207.
,
', NN', ' , ,
, ,
(. 207, ). . ,
N N', , , / ',
. NN' .
. ()
7

401

80]

, . 207, ,
. , ,
. R NN'. l = Ra,
, NN'.
, . ( \
, (. 207, 6)
, .) ,
| | | <J R, / = (R + ) ,
/ = I 1 = \. , , '
.
, =
= , -.,
>
'
0

= | .

(80.1)

, , .
, . . .
, , .
,
.
, . ,
, ,
, . . ^ T d S = 0 (80.1) | | d S = 0 , rfledS
.
. ,
.
^ a\S = 0 , , ,
, .
,
N. ,

Alt = - -

(80-2)

/ = jg dS.

(80.3)

/
,
. , ,
, , (80.3)
.
,
36, S.
,
/ = f .

(80.4)


/ = ^-.

(80.5)

. . .

..

402

[. X

X . Y
.
().

1
('

"

1), .
M = Efy\

(80.7)

2. ( ) ,
.
, ,

, .

. 208.

. 209.

. , ,
.
1.
D (. 208).
F.
, . ,

F F.
.
, .
, (80.2). F , F
Fa,
F F. ,
, . ,
. . =
= IE/R= Fa. , R
. ,
, ,
. 208 .

', ', , D.
, .
,
(, ).
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(. 209).
F. .
F.

lt

80]

403

,
. () (
) . ,
Fx, ,
F. F F (I ),
/ .
(80.7), , .
EIy'=F

(1-).

( , . . .
" ,
.) ,

, = 0, . .
, .
, (. .
= 0) = 0,

= I,

8 0

* = -

< - >

3.
,

,
F,
(. 210). , ,
. F .
,
. ,
() ( ),
0 ( < 1/2, / ).
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, = (Fl2)x.

E / i , ' = -

( 8 0 0 )

Y , . . . "
. .
, ' = 0 = 1/2, 0 = 0,

4 7

'

= 1/2,
1-

-II-

4 8

(80.12)

(80.9). ,
'

404

[. X

(. 210). ,
', , ,
'
F/2, . ,
(80.9),
F -> F/2, I - 1/2.
F

Fl

(1 ^ -

3 / "2 \ 2

~'48/'

. . (80.12).
4.
F,
(. 211). .
(. 210), F/2
F/2, .
,
///

w
V/

. 212.

. 211.

- , - F/2.
, .
(80.10)
1'=-^

( ^ 4 ) '

( 8 0 )

.
: 1) ' = 0 = 0, 2) ' = 0 = 112,
3) = 0 =

Fx

7('-*).
.

< >

FP
192/'

5.
, , , (. 212).
,
, .
() ( = ).
2
.
.
, , , .

405

80]

F ,
. /1.
= F + /1 F = (1 /1). %
. ,

,
, .
, .

M,

= Fx+

~
1 ^I = ^21

,
. ,
, ,
2

= -^

+ .

(80.15)

OA.
. ,
(80.15) = /, , . I
2

, . .

Pl P ^--j-M =0.
2

= 1/2.
= -~'-~.

(80.16)


1=-+%+^.
: 1) ' = 0 = 0, 2) = 0 = 0,
(807)

=-"+ = I,

(80.18)
F,
, (80.16) (80.18)
M = F(x-l)
3

/ / F
= +

+ P x - P ~ \
8)-

t ,

(80.19)
(

, , ,
F .
, ,
.
6. /
F,

406

[. X

(. 213). , ,
. F
. ,
. . 213
. X
, Y
.

y"+k*y = 0,
(80.21)

( 8 0

*=]

'

2 2 )


= cos kx + D sin kx,
D .
, = 0.
, = 0
. , . . = /,
. , D sin kl 0 *). sin kl 0,
D = 0, = 0. ,
. sin kl = 0, . . kl = , 2, , ... ,
, ,
, .
= D sin kx,
D , . .
. / F,
(kl = ),
1 =

El
~F

F =

(80.23)


.
,
,
.
(. 214),
,
, , 4.
(80.21)
2

y" + k^y = k C,
.

, .
:

= A cos kx-j-B sin kx-\-C.


= 0 = 0 + = 0. '
= 0,
= (cos kx I).

0 = 0

*) , I ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
/ .

80]

407

, ' .
: 1) cos kl = 1, 2) sin kl = 0. kl =
= 2, 4, ... . ,
, :
(80.24)
, ,

1.
, .

.
5 /
384
2. , ,

,
1
0

3. , , ,
(. 215).
%
,
.
F,
. + +
=
3

, F , F , F ,
. ,
.
. (80.9)
(80.18). F
x

:
1

'1

. 215.

1
- .
2 SEI
. X.
</ =
2

24EIX
/

16

F =lPa

48EIX
/ '

,
F
-^ 16^'
-


,
(. 44). ,
.
4. , (. 215)
( = , = ).

408

[. X

.
, X , Y .
AC ( s c ) ( >= ) = 0
=0
= a-\-b = l, = X = ,

= (1-)

^1>-(1-)- ^ ^1-(1-

(^).

, , , . .
= . ,
, ,
, .
_37
? + -
cfib
8
(+)
'
_
3/
36 + & ?

8
b(a + b) '
3 / ( + 6) . , 3ab + a2 + t
3 =
+ .
6
8
ab
+

5. ,
,
.
] / ^ , , , R.
. -. =
- .
ht

6. ,
.
, ,
. .
/, / , / , .
( ) /, , h.
. I ^ ah ,
/ = ^() ,
I =^ o?h.
1

7. D
, .
h .
.

=^-,
3

b = ^~^ D.
2

ab + const.

81.

1. - ,
,
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.
,
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81]

409

, ,

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,
.
, ,
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.

-
.

. 216.

,
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2.
.
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,
, .
(. 217).

.

,
,
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v (. 217, ). .

410

[. X

:
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(. 28). ,
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,
.
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. ,

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,
v.


v.

, .

.


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,

- ,
,
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v
.
. 217, . ,
,
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,
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81]

411

, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
F (. 219).
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
F,

1 1 1, 0
11

WW

. 218.

. 219.

. ,
, ,
.
. ,
, .
v
.
,
,
.
.
3.
,
F,
(. 219).
, . . .
t
v,
.
t, mv.
dt, . . d (mv)

412

[. X

F dt .

^pW*).

(81.1)

t / = ct,
= pSct, S
, . , 5

-

, 5
.
.
(81.1) = pSct, F = PS,
,
P = pcv.
(81.2)

= . , t

, '
t vt.

/ = vt.
E = ^

(81,3)
81

= ~-

( ->

(81.2) (81.4),

(81.5)


.
4. , F t, = Fvt =
= PSect = PeV, V .
*) ,
m

di

( 8 1 )

= ~ Tf

(21,2).
,
, v
= v. (81.2), ,
(81.1), ,
0TH

dv
=Q

di -

din

=Spc

'dt '

81]

413

, , ,
U = / . , U = / .
.
.
.
, ,
, .
5 . F
, ,
. ,

(. 217)
. ,

.

1 II
F 1 f If |1
(81.5). III II LLTLL1 Hill 1 1

(. 220),

. ,
v. .
,
, F = PS. ,
,
. ,

, (81.5).
6. ,

. ,

. -
(81.5). ,
, , ,
. ,

.
7. ,
,
- .
. ,
,
.
,
1

Z M

414

[. X

.

(. 217). v
. ,
,
,
. v, ,
, .
,
. ,
(81.2)
(81.3), , (81.5). . 221

t t + dt. dt -

hi hi
. -+~

'

*~
t
'

ill
1[IU-cdt-A
.

t+di

221.

dt. ,
,
. v,
/. dt
', v dt,
.
dt. ,
.
D, dt. ,
D, t + dt
, t ,
. ,
,
' D, . . Sc dtpv.
PS dt, dt .
, (81.2).
(81.3).
A'D (. 221).
I = dt. '
dt , D. ,
, ' , v dt ,
, D. ,

415

82]

A'D / = v dt. /
/, (81.3).
w
=
KaH

= / . w = / ^ ~ .
(81.5),
=
= / . , w
= w .
, . . ,
,
.
2

ll0T

Kim

nm

82.
1. .

. - .
-
s (/", f). , . .
, . s (r , t)
.
, ?
,
x

s(r ,
0

Q = !(/, t) + s (r , t).
2

, , ,
.
, .
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
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. ,
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.
( ),
.
.

416

[. X

2. ,

.
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
. . ,
,

. ,
, ,
, . ,

.
, .
,
, +
+ = , i>i + 1> = 0,
. = = / -

. ,
, ,
. . .
,
.
,
/4,
72.
,
. ,

. ,
/4.

3. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,

.
,
.
,

82]

417

.
,
, ,
.
, .
t
ct. ,
, t ,
,
(. 222).
= = 1 -
, ,
,
, .
1

LV

* *-

'^

ct

. 222.

4. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
5. , , ,

. ,
,
. , ,
(. 221).
S. , ,
AS
SB, . . Pv > 0,
,
. v > 0, > 0, . .
5 . v < 0,
< 0, . . S
= . ,
Pv < 0.

, ,

418

.
.
, Pv > ,
, , , .
Pv '<; 0
. Pv = ,
.
6. ,
,
. ,
. ,

. , ,
. ,
, . . .
^

. 223.

. 224.

,
. ,
,
, .
.
.
, (. 223).
,

. , ,
,
, .
,
, . ,

.
.
(. 224).

, v
.

. :

82]

419

,
, .
, ,
.
. , (
) (),
. ,
, ,
.
, .

,
.

1. ,
(
, ),
. ,
, ,
, .
. ,
w
=v , w
= .
v
2

Rm

= + ,
1

n0T

v = v + v,

P v P , i> ,
. \ v'\, PI = vl.
, , P y, > 0, P v < 0. ,
lt

Pi =

1 =

, = - , =

t ) l

, ,

1-2^+

I \2

\ v

\V~a-l

2. / = 10 ,
v, ,
. ,
, .
v
? = 2 - 1 0 / , = 7,8 / , =
= 2- / .
12

420

[. X

. ,
, (. 225, 1).
,
( 2).
/2.
.
, /2 ( 3).
, ,
.
.
.
( 4).

.


,
.

,
,
,

v.
,
,
/2.
( 3)

.

:

,

.
.
( )
, ,
. , .
' . (,
.)
v'. ', .
R
/2 ' /2 + '.
, ,
/2 ' /2 + ' .
/

,\2

\2

my2

/ / 2 . , = /4,
' = /2. , ,
,
( 5).
, .
, .

S3]

421

,
()
* = |

= 2']/-4-10-5

.
/2,
V T .
= / v.
2

ye

v
~2'
P Ei^.-

, < , . .
0

2
yip

10 /.

83.

1. , 81,
. .
.

.
. ,
:
.
,
, . .
.

.
,
(
), ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
'.

^ = Yt

{83

422

[. X

(77.9) (78.5)

2. , ,
.
,
.

,
.
,
, . .
(. 226).



,
,
. 226.

, cj_.
, 81, ,
Cj_ v
= .
1

(83.3)

= Gy, .
. t
vt,
^t. v ^ c ,

= ] / | .

(83.5)

3. , ,
. ,
,
.

,
.
4. > 0, (83.2) (83.5)
c>c .
L

(83.6)

84]

423

-
, , ,
,
.
,

.

. = 21,2-10 / , G = 8,2 X
X 10 / , . = 0,29, = 7,8-10 / . ,
1 0

10

1. ,
^.
. ,
.
,
.
, .

. t, , ,

Mt = Ia>,
/ . , = / =
= fat. ft = I. / = V pi (r\ rf), t = lie {I
) (79.4),
2

: = G.
2. ,
. ,
,
(. 77).

84.

1.
,
. . ,
.

424

[. X

,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, .
(83.5).
,
G.
(. 227). ,
,
, .

,

.
,
,
. , ,
sin
.
= (T/S) ,
5 .

.
= Gy, , G = T/S.
(83.5)
6 = 5.

2 2 7

Yt-

( 8 4 )

, .
.
2. ,

, , .
.

. , , , . 228,
.
. -
, ,
, . ,
, ,
. , -

84]

425

, . -
.
, .

3. (84.1) ,
.
, , , (. 228)
. ,
.

,
.



.
. 228.

,
.
,
,
. ,
. ,
.
v
. ] / +
v .


.
, ,
.

= c*IR.
,
. - .
.
, s
(. 229).
R.
7\ .
(7 = = ).
.
,
.
2

F = 2Tsin

426

[. X

,
,

(84.1).
85.
1. ,
.
,
.

(81.5). ,
. ,

.
.
, .
,
.
, .
.
,
.
. . . = + ,
.
,
. ,
:
. ,
,

/. (///)
.
0

. , (75.7)
= - ^ , (/)
.
,
/. , ,

= Ej.

(85.1)

85]

427

, .
/ V,

= ~ .

(85.2)

,
, (85.1)
.
, V.

AP=%AV

, , (
)

V . Vp
, .
Vp = const
d V _ _ dp
V ~
'


= 9%.

(85.4)

(81.5),

~dP

<

8 5

>

2. (85.5)
. . ,

dP

: = , = const. j ~ =

= = .

Yj-

'

(85.6)

, ,
, .

428

[. X

(85.6) ,
. , ,

(85.7)
PV = RT,
R . ,
R
.
R = 8,31 -10 -" ^ . ,
,
,. ,
V . = pV.

7

(85.8)
(85.9)

( = 273 ). ,
. (. = 28) (. = 32).
, = 28,8.
(85.9) , =
= 280 /. = 330 /.
.
.
(17491827) XIX .
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
:
.

.
.
(81.5)
,
(. 79). II
.

XI

86.
1.
. , ,
.
, , .
,
,
.
,
, , ,
, .
.

. ( )
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
.

.
,
,
.
2. .
,
. . ,
. , , LMT,
(L),
() (). .
. ,
LFT.
(L), (F) ().
( )

430

[. XI

: , , , ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
s
t, .
s, t v = s/t,
,
. ,
s, t v .
= 1 v = sit. s
t, v .

, .
, , .
: \v] = LT' .
,
1

= ^ . = 1,
, , ,
, .

,
.
F = .
, F
. , = 1 F = .
, :
[F] = [] = MLT' . F =
,
, .
3. ,
.
. ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
, .
/ . ,
,
, .
2

87]

431

.
1 = 10 , 1 = 60
5

,1

1
60

1 /- = - ,, =
2

1000
36

. 2

/ .
2

, 1 /
/ 1000/36 .
, / ,
1000/36 , / .
2

87.
1. .

,
, .
LMT,
, .
LMTI,
, , /.

.
. LM ,
, ,
.
LMTI. , ,
, , .
.
,


, ,
.
. ,
, .
,
, .
= / ().
/ ().
,
X = .
,
Y = /. ,
X Y , ,
. . Y = / (X) $ = f ().
, 6.

432

XI

.
.
, .
= / ().
,
. ,

X = Y = \>. ,
,
X Y ,
, . . Y = f (X).
.
fiy = f (). ,

. .


. , ,
,
.
,
.


.
2.
. , ,
= f () = f (X),
X = , Y = /.
. ,
.

f (X)

= , = -- =

(*) _
}()

(X)
}()-

, X.
F, F () = F (X).

87]

433

X =
. F () = F (X)
, X. ,
F () . ,

,

/(*)

df ()
f(x)

dx

/ . , =
fx .
Y = f X
6/ = / () .
,

f> = a .
(87.1)
0

. ,


,
.
,

.
,
. ,

. , ,
, (L),
() ().

[] = ,
(87.2)

, q, . (87.2) ,
, ,
, a $iy
, ,
.
3. ,
, ,
, q, .
,
. , ,
v = sit
p

434

[. XI

, . = 1, q 0, = 1 .

, q, , (\/t)s^ .
= 2.
- ,
, .
.
4.
. , ,
, /, -/ .
, . ,
,
,
.
5. ,
, ,

, . ,
, LMT
/ = ,
.
LMT . .

.
,
. ( ), / = G ^ p ,
,
G
. / /W L~ ,
/ =
ML~ T\

.

( MLT),
,
.
,
.
-
, ,

.

.
2

87]

435



, .
.
,

.
,
, ,
, -
.
6.
,
.
.
.
, , , /
, .

,
: (L), () ().
, , ... ,

Pl

4l

L M T'\

....

1? \

Pn

rn

L M" T .

.
, . 2,
* ... .
1

Pi

qi

ai

qi

(L M T ')
p

. . L M"T ,

a2

(jf"-M T *) ...

qn

rn an

(i nM T ) ,
i

= Pi<Xi + <*> + + &,


2

q = q a + q a + ... + q a ,
l

+ + ...+

(87.3)

,
, =- q = = 0.

Pl<*>l + 2 2 - + Priori = 0,
q a + q a -\-... + q a = 0,
1

ria

+ r a -\--:..
2

(87.4)

+ ra

= 0

, ... , .
,
,
. , , .
1 ;

436

[. XI

1 ,
, ,
. , ( 1) 3 = 4
. (87.4).
4
.
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. .
88.
1.
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.
,

.
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= 0. , , ,
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, .)
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, |5, .
, fib, ,
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^,

2

lt

Pi

Xl

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66, , aP'^Y'-Xi,

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...) = 0,

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,

.
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f\\
1

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a *b^c > '


p

"')


.

F(

,fi,

. . . \ = 0, .

F . .

(88.1)

$ 88]

437

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(88.2)
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=
, .

.
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), =
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.

438

[. XI

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t, v, , , , (/ , t , v , ,
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.

l trfi a pV-E .
a

&

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. .
/+6+-- +-+^-6-2-2_

,
+ 8 + v = 0,
P + U. + V
=0,
Y-S-2^-2v
=0.

. , , u,, v,

< > ,
= A + 3u, + v,

= fx V,
7 = 6 + 2 \ + 2v.
S, X, p., V .

1 ) 6 = 1,
3)|=1,

. = = v = 0,
6 = b = v = 0,

2) , = 1, 8 = ii = v = 0,
4)v=l,
6 = ^ = = 0,

1)=1,
= 0, 7 = 1 ,
3)=3,
= 1, 7 = 0,

2) = 1.
4)=1,

= 0, 7 = 2,
= 1, = 2.

:
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at*

ol

..

88]

439

,
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(88.3) ,
.
2. h ,
?
. g
, , . v
g . (88.3)
/(/) v l(gh),
, . 2

(88.3) . / ^ ^ 1 = 0,
2

v /(gh) = = const, v = Cgh.


.
3. ,
/,
g .
. = () V Vg- ()
.
( ),
T = CYl/g,,
,
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.
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?
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,
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const.
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= const, T'fl^' = 7 1 / . = 1 = 2
= const /1 const. ,

.
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XII

89.
1.
*).
.
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(), .
,

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,
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,

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= . ,
, = PJ,
= P j, = PJt, /, " k .
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Pn = P nJ +
x

P nJ+P nJi.
y

ll

/, , k,

P = P = P = P .
(89.1)
x

,
( ) ,
. (16231662).
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*) .
.
. II .

89]

441

, ,
( ):
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.

(), + ().
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,
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,

:


(89.3)
,
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, (89.2) (89.3)

(89.2)
(89.3)

442

[.

XII


. ,
,
(. 75, . 8).

(77.3),
(89.3) , dP .
,
,
,
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, = 0.
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. (89.3),

. 85
.
,
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= 0.
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P = f{p, )

(89.4)

,
.

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.

(), , . .
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.

444

[. XII

.
.
,
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).
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),
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90]

445

90.

1. , ,
, ()
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dV , .
/ dV, /
.
(
).
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, . . .

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,
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, . .
.
. 230.
,

dV.
X.
dV
dS dx (. 230),
X.
+ dx. ,
, () dS, ( + dx) dS.
, . ,
, , t.

,
.

dx. z
, .
, ,
X,
. ,
X, ,

[ () - ( + .dx)] dS.

p ( x

d x ]

446

[. XII


:
P(x + dx)~P () = dP,

= (~)

=08(

z = const

\axjy

/ = const

dx.
= const
2 = C0nst
i = const

= const, const, t = const dP

,
dP
, t .
(, , z, t),
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g-. ,

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- dSdx
= - dV,
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dV,
s dV.
- ,
, -
.
dV. dV
,
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s
dV ,
Y Z. ,
s,
, ,
.

rx

r x

s x

~,

s z

,
(.
Qn


5 = grad .

(90.3)


gradP=,g/ + f /

+ g * .

(90.4)

(. 29).
, s
, , -

90]

447

, . , s
,
. .
.
3. s
/ .
gradP=/,
.

_ ,
~' '

_
~1 '

Fly

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(90.6)


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^ - = / - g r a d ,

(90.7)

dv

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f (, ,
)
.

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.


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) , j ,
,
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.

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, CuS0 ) (. 231).
.
.
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.
.
, , ,
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4

448

[. XII

91.
1. (. . / = 0), (90.6)


-Q
,
.
, f -= pg.
Z .

= = '

=-8-

91

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,
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= const.
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,
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.
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),
, ,
. (89.4)
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,
.
2. ,
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g,
.
(91.1).

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(91.2)
0


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. (91.2)
,
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,
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3. (. 287212 ,
. .) .
, .
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91]

449

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450

[.

XII

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6)
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91]

451

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, . ,
,
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h ,
.
h
.
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,
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.
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AM, F, .
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,
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F ,
, AM.
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AM,
, . N
. ,
,
. ,
, AM. (
) Y,
.
. pgxy, N

n

N = pg<p\x*dS = pgI(p,
/
Y :I = ^x dS (. 80, . 1).
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2

ft = 4 - ,
V (Q/ pg)
.

(91.4)

, . .

452

[. X I I

5. ,
.
, ,
,
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, .
(90.5) / pg
pwV, -,
.
, 2
, (90.6)

&

,
=

9,

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, ,

==

^ '

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dl ~~ -

9 1 , 5 )

,
2

= ~ ( + ) - pgz + ,

(91.6)

/ J = A p c o V - p g z + Po-

(91.6)

const
Va ( + ) gz = const. ,
.
,
.
V ( + ) = gz.
2

, .
,
. ,
, .
(90.7) ,
,
dv
.
coV. ,
(90.7) / = pg,
2

p(> r = pggrad ,
(91.5).

,
(91. 6) z = h, h
(, Z
).
2

P-P

= pgh + y <i> r .
p

(91.7)

, ,
. , , .

91]

453

,
,
, . ,
.
,
.

.
V orV = gz (91.7)
= pg ( + ). ,

2

= Pg\(h + z)dS = pgV,

(91.8)

V . ,
.

1. ,
. ,
, .
. M^pgh^S,

, S .
2. .
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,
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,
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. 235.

. 236.

. , .
?
3.

.
.
(. 236). ,

454

XII

. (,
, .) dS, d S
, . ,
, dS
P dS .
rfS cos P r f S cos ,
da da, da = dS-i cos 0 = dS cos a
. , , dF
= ( ) da = pghda = pgdV, h , dV = Ma
. , F =
= pgV. ,
, . ,
, , .
.
X. = ^ dF g ^ dV = g ^ dm,
dm , .
, Y: M = g ^ dm. ,
2

^ dm= ^ dm = 0, . .
, . ,
.
,
.
. ,
, X,
, ,
, , g .
, ,
, .
4.
, ,
. ,
( > ). < 1.
. > 6 (1 ) .
5. 1,
.
, > 2 (1 ) / .
6. /,
.
2

. > ( 2 sin

J ,

sin a = 2 . , = / = ,
/ > \.

, a = /2 a =
= /2 = 1/4 1/(2) = 0,091 = 3/4 + 1/(2) =
= 0,841. , / > 2. / > 4
, < 1.
7. ,
.
(. 5 55).
2

. P = S- ( ),

= -? pgR,

R . ,
= -^

( , R

).

( = 5,5)
6

= 0,275= 1,75- 10 .

$ 91]

455

8. , ,
.
. ,

(. 5 55).
(90.6)

<
=

W ~

9
>

'

R , .
, Z .
,
B

,
( ,
).
. ,
, (/? , 0, 0) = (0, 0, R ), R R
.

R, + Rn

2g

,
R

2g

580

, / 9 .
, ,
. ,
*).
, ,
.
, , ,
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.
1

*)
2

5 a> R

456

[. XII

92.
1. .
.
. (90.5)
(91.1)
, .
(91.1) ,
, .

dP

- -

. (92.1) ,
.
.
,
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.
,
(17991864)
= ^ - ,

(92.2)

. , a R
.
1

i? = 8 , 3 M 0 ' - " -" = 8,31 " " .


(92.2) (92.1)
.

-
, ,

.
. , (92.3)
. ,

, .
2. , . .
, ,
.
. , , ,
.
,

92]

457

. ,
.
, .

. = const (92.3)
.

RT "

RT

= Rf

(92.4)

= (92.5)
(92.4) (92.5)
.
.
.

h=
(92.6)

. h
. ,
.
,
,
? ,
= p gH. (92.2),
, ,
0

RT

= . , =
0

RT

= , . . = h.
- = 28,8,
( = 273 ):

||^f|^

/i =
8000 = 8 .
h (92.4),

= -/.
(92.7)

.
0

458

[. XII

, .
, ,
.
3.
.
, ,
, .
,
,

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,

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,
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.
100
.
().
.

H j , ()
2 ?
. H
= h In 2 5,53 ( 0 ).
t

l/t

93]

459

- 93.
1. .

, . .
.
. .
,
. ,
,
.
, t,

.

,

. ,

,
,
.
, ,
. 237.

,
. ,
.

: v = v (, f).
,
: v = v (/*).
2. ,
, .
,
.
,
.

. -
(. 237). ( )
t . ,
4 , t .
, (^)
,
t . , ( )
.

460

[. (XII

t , ,
.
3.

(. 238).
, .
,

.
, .
,
.
, ,


. ,
dt ,

dm = pvSdt,

(93.1)

, a S (
) .
dm
. ,
S S ,
x

PiV S = p v S .
(93.2)
,
S S .

. , = , (93.2)

1

93

| = f< ->
,
.
.
94. .

1. ,
, .
.
,

94]

461

(. 89, . 6). ,
,
.
.
.
2.
- ,
. .
,

.
, MNDC (. 239).

MNDC.
,
.
,
,

.
MN
M N
= PxSJt, 1 MMt
.
A V = Sjli, A = P AVi
1

= Pi~,

MNN M .
CD C D
(
). , ,

CDDxC,.
X

,
yWjA/jDC ,
A m = . Am, ,
,
t


.
M NJ)C .
Am CDD^
MNN M. ,
, = ( ) Am.
Am,
X

8l+

= e2+

-p7

lf-

94

<>

462

[. XII

,
+ PI
:
e - j = = const.

(94.2)

(17001782), 1738 .

.
. ,
, .

,
.
, .
(94.2) .
,
, .
. -

v /2 gh .

2

^+gh

+~ =B

=const.

(94.3)

3. ,
. , ,
.
,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
. (94.3)
v = 0, = gh + PI . ,
, gh -f / =
= const. ,
.
,

v ,
,
, ,
.
. ,
0

94]

463

,
v .
4, ,
, . (
,
). h = const,
0

+ j = const.

(94.4)

, , v,
. , (93.3),
v , . ,
,
.
. ,
(. 240),
. ,
, . .
. 240 .
,

- . ,
, . . ,
, , .
5 . (94.4), ,
,

(94.2).
1 2

^ -?!
2

2 4

= -- ( | - ! ) .

(. 85, . 1).
,
| | < ;
1 2.
\vl-v\\<^c\
(94.5)
. .
.
, -
, (94.5)
v*<c\
(94.6)

464

[. XII

. .
.
h,
(94.3) , (94.5)

gM<c\
(94.7)
,
.
6. .
. 241 ,
.
, , . 241.
, , ,
, . ,
, .
(94.4).
,
, . . Q,
. (

. 241.
) . S S
,
, .
x

.2 .f A

= iLj.
2

, = pujSj = py S .
,

]/^=.

(94.8)

7. ,
, (. 242, ).

. ,
. , .
,
. ,
. .

94]

465

8. ,
,
(. 243, ). ,
.
. , ,
,
(. 243, ),
>
.
, ,
,
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. 242.
(.
243, ),
. ,
.
9.
(. 244) ,
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6)
. 243.

0)

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.
.
, .
,

.
, ,
0

. 244.

. 245.

, .
.
10. . 245 (. 1841) (17771862). ,

466

[. XII

. ,
. ,
, . ,
.
,

. ,
,
,
, .

, .

, .
. 246.
1 1 . ,
- (. 246).
. , ,
, - .
,
...

(94.9)

, ,
. ,
.
, ,

. /
, +
*).

,
.

(16951771).
,
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. 247.
, ,
. ,
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, , ,
j pv ,
v.
, , , ,
.
.
, , , .
. .
. ,
0

*)
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,
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, ,
,
1

95]

467

, , ,
, . 248.
,
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. -

. 248.

. 249.

, ,
, . ,
, , .
, , ,
. 249.
(18751953). .

95. .

1.
.
,
(. 250). -

. 250.

. 251.

. ,

(. 251).
,
*). ,
*) , ,
.

468

[. XII

, v
.
.
- (. 251).
, ,
v.

, h
.
0

v = V2gh.

(95.1)

(16081647). ,
,
, h. ,

,
.
- ,
.
2. ,
.
. 5
, pvS.
mv = pv*S, (95.1) mv = 2pghS.
F = 2 pghS.
, .
, ,
, .
.
S. ,

PS = pghS.
2 pghS. ,

. ,
. ,
pghS.

, pghS 2pghS.

1.
( ). S.
t, h

95]

469

( ), 0.
, .
,

{-Vh),

2. ,
. S,
. ,

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S
H-h
0

7 V W
3. R,
?
.
. = - I/ .
15 f
g
4. Ha ,
( ).
h ( )

,
?
, *
.

. = ^ ,

= .

5. ,

,

.
.

. ,

.
,

.
_
6.
. 252.
.
, ,
,
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/ . ,
. h,
.
2

f^_, },

. P
- g
g H {l - +
* -
i)]2
.
7.
, . /,
d d [d > r f ) .
,
?
=

lt

. - ^ - ^ - / ^ .

1-/<

470

[.

XII

8.
,
(. 253).
. = ] / 2 (~P )/p-\-2gh,
.
9.
, , . 254.
v .
.

,
v= Y2gh.
.
0

rlIS

h
LL

ft
. 253.

. 254.

10.
, ,
.

( ).
. , .
; .
.
,
(94.2).
.
J
u = gz 1 > , (94.2)
/i

1

L_ L
?

^_
*

1 2 ^_

const,

(95.2)

v (. . 255
).

,
, v . (95.2)
, (. 255).
, = r v = 0, =
= , v v, z = h, r = R,
v = V2(gh+PR?).
(95.3)
h ()
, a R .
.

96]

471

96.
1. , ,

, .
. ,
, ,
, .

,
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.

,
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,
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.
II .
2.
.
,
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.)
, CD
v (. 256). ,
CD
F, .
,
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0

472

[. XII

F,
, v , S
h :
0

F = r\S%.

(96.1)

,
(
).
.
) ,
, .
, .
.
v
CD v ,

(96.1)
f
f
1
lt

"

,S-5lzL.

(96.2)

~^

,
,
.
, CD
F,
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CD -\-F.

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. (96.2) F F
,
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.

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3. (96.2) ,
X,
:
v = v (y),
v = v = 0.
,
, .
Y + dy (. 257).
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96]

473

% ,

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,
(. 74, . 2). (96.2),

dv

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, (96.3)
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. 258.

4.
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, (. 74, . 4).
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.

dv

dv
dv
dv
dv
~dx' ~dz ' ~'~~'

dv
dz'

474

[. XII

dv

CD -,

X
^ = | ^ . ^,

dvy

= ]

CD

I dv

= ' -\- = y-gjj- + -fa j -



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+

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1 [-fa

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-
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5. ,

).
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dtp (. 259).
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rtf

475

$ 96]

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OA, dv = v^dy,
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- ~ = ,
r

(96.5)
v = r,
v

(96.6)

, ^ - - = 0 , . .

, . ,
1

dv.

dv

(96.7)

.
6. (96.5)

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Q . I

R Ri
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, .

(. 260).
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,
. 260.

.
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,
3

- ^ - = const.

2 ,

.
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, = R Q
= R .
x

R1

+ C= I

476

[. XII

1-/?

Rl-Ri

( 9 6

8 )

, ,
= 2|/( 2) = 4|/

l R

* , (Qg-Qt).

(96.9)

(96.9)
.
,
= Q.
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1.
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(96.7) (96.5).
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X Y,
. 261.

x=rsmy,

= cos ,
0

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x

v = sin ,
y

- ,
.

= 0 ( ),
dx = r d(p,
dy~dr.
0

dv = dv.
x

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dv

dv

~~5~

(96.7) (96.5).
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h = R R
R i? ?
. 261.

A4=-M^(Q

Q ).
x

(96.11)

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-477

97.
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1.
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.
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v
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v .
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dx
(. 262).

dF =
= 2nr.r\~
dx. , - Pfa) \

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x

\ Hx+da:)

2 6 2

= [ () - { + dx)] = /- ~ dx.

,
0

dv
dP
1 dr ~7=' dx
dv
dr

(), ~ .

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\
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2

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dr

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21

(97.1)

,
, . . = R v .

_JPL~FI

4)/

/>2_
(R
-r ).
2

,2

(97.2)

478

[. XII

v ,

= ^ 4 ^ -

v
.
2. , . . ,
.
,
+ dr, dQ = 2nrdr pv.
v ,

Q ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ i R ' - r ^ r d r ,

,

.

1839 . 1840 . (17991869).
,
. (97.4) , ,
.

.
(97.4) Q = pnR -VJ2.
, v,
Q = pnR v.
,

S=4u .
0

(97.5)


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, 98.
.

$ 7]

479

3. ,
,

R
/= J
^--2nrvdr.

v ,

rX = -Qvl = Q(v)\

(97.6).

,
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X 2nr dr,

? 1

Q.

(97.7)

,
,
:
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(97.8)

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(97.10)

), v,
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480

[. XII

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Q = C^=-^pS\

(97.11)

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97]

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R /.
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,
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| dr Jr+dr

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, = R = R ,
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.._Pi- *

In.

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in (/?,//?,)

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d*v

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x

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.)
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. (97.13),
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: v = 0. 2

v = + + v .
(97.13),
1

2 + 2--

482

[. XII
2

v = , . . Ay* + S z +
+ v = 0.

^ +
1 = 0,

0

A-

, , v
,

v -

i -

"

.
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^ - s - )

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9 7 5

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,
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'

>2

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fc'

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v

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= dv. :

Q p ^ vdS = - ^ - ^ v dv,

Q = -f4-

(97.16)

98.
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0

v,

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0

.
.
vlv , rll :
0

R e =

L =

F = f,
= ^-,
S=^.

( 9 8 1 )

(98.2)
(98.3)
(98.4)


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^-=/(f,

Re, F, , S),

(98.5)

=fo/(f,

Re, F, M, S).

(98.6)

,
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2. (98.1) (18421912),
(96.2) , (96.3) , (98.4)
.

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484

[. XII

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~ V pv'll .
, v /l
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3

ptv

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XII

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1. 1 5
Pj = 5 v = 15 /.
/ = 80 ,
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. v = 0,010 /.
,

Re = - ^ - = 2 , 1 - 1 0 ' ,

0,022.

,
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5 /

/ 2

P = p c r 2 / V / ( R e , F) = p F /

7 / 2

3 / 2

/ ( R e , F).

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= , ( / /

7 7 2

^ 80000 . .

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487

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x

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2
=

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*

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~ /fcof ~~
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99.
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: = v(r).
,
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(96.8).

488

[. XII

v = v(r)
.
(/-) = ^ - ^ . -
, .
F = mco (r )r ,
. L(r) = mr co,
0

L ( )
2

F
,
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,
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,
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F < F' , . . L () < L (/),"
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IJ () > L ( ) .

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dl
~ - > 0 ,

(99.1)

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). ,
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R e , R e 25 .
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K p

K p

K p

K p

6. , ,
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,
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Q/ , . ,
Q .

Q,

, .
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1

Q
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JL
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2

v , Q = pvS,
, v = |/ .

490

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.

Q = C(Re)

~ *

pS .

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1-2

MRe) _p|i

( 9 9

4 )

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2

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. .

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ABB'',
x

2 6 4

492

:
/ = A'B'DC +
-f-

[. XII

CDD'C.


''DC .

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. , ,

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.)
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5 . ,
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( ).

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. 265.


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F,
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*),
F . ,
F = 0. ,
,
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6. ,
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,
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(18241887). ,
x

*) (. . 494).
F .
.
x

494

[. XII

MCDN (. 266).
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,
.
. MCDN
,
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MCDN
,
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, .
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,
-
.


MCDN (.

98).
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MCDN.
(. . , ) ,
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F *).
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*) , F
. F , . .
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IUL]

495


, .
.
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.

,
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101.
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,
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, v (
), .
, . .
.
, ,
, .

). ,
F, v, , ), S, 5
. / = Y~S
.

.
Re = ^.

.
F = -^SC(Re),

(101.1)

F =

(101.2)

-^SC (Re),

(101.3)

F =^SC (Re).
y

(Re) (Re)

.

496

[. XII

.
,
.
2. F
.
,
,
. ( ,
.
.)
,
v. ,

(. 265). ,
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,
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Re, .
3. .

F . ,
, F .
(101.2).
,
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x

.
Re,
F = Ai\lv.
(101.4)
x

(Re < ; 1),


,
.

.
.
. (1819
1903) , = 6, /
. ,

F = 6nr\av.
(101.5)
x

102]

497

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.),
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4
3

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|
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3

< -
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] = 0,010 /(-),

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102.
1.
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.

(. 267). ,
a ds ,
.
T = v ds = (vds)
(102.1)

.

, .
.
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498

[. XII


, .
(, , ),
.
,
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.

, .

. 267.

. 268.

, .
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0, .
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^ ( ds),

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,
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a = gradcp
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499

102]

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= 2nrv = 2 . 2

= 2,
2

. . .
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,
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v, ,
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v
.

Y
AS
. rot
- ,

r o t o = lim

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v
.
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X,
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v = (. 270).
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x

= ( - ) (i>i - v ) = ( - ) ( - ).
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v
^ " ,
2

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500

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XII

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v ,
, (102.4) , rot^ v
.
, v

~2~ ~2 '
x

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zx

2 2 '
_

iy

2'

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= [ * ] = 0* -

2"

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~~

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,
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= grad (. 90).
,

. ,
, . .
. =
/ pv ,
grad = (/2) grad v . ,
/
/
~ //, /
.
/ /.

(103.1)

(103.2)

502

[. XII

, D = 10 ,
v - 30 /, Re =
= vDIv = 2-10 ( 20 v =
= 0,15 /), D/\/Re^
0,2 .
3.
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. (103.2)
,
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1935. . 271 .

504

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(1881
1963) , .
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[. XII

.
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; X , Y
.
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,
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.
- ABCD,

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Voo
v', .
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v' (
), CD ().
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, ,
A'B'C'D'.
dl.

104]

511


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,
.
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BB'N .
MDD' NCC.
dl ,
CC'D'D ''.

lv,*, dt, / = CD;



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,

dl = 2/foopy' dt.
y

2lv' = v' ABCD,


AD .
v' ,
ABCD .
ABCD
v = Vod + v', , v
. ,
w

dl

= TpVoo

dt.


, . ,
ABCD,
,
. ,
.
F . ,
y

F = Tpv .
u

(104.1)

,
ABCD.
. ,
.
, ,
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(104.1) . (104.1)
.

512

[. XII

105.
1.
, ,
,
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(18021870)
, .
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64
12, 44?, 449, 453
191
462, 464, 467, 468, 470,
479, 491, 493, 494, 496, 501, 507
368
427, 428, 442
495
372
464
280

512, 513
256
427, 428, 442
376, 483
115
378
1 1 - 1 5 , 44, 63, 64, 71, 73, 75,
85, 90, 98, 107, 114, 127, 162, 163.
199, 202, 208, 304, 305, 307. 313, 324,
333, 334, 346, 361, 364, 367, 368,
428, 430, 434, 463

78
174,
330,
427,

191
478
43
12, 9197, 216, 348, 368
161, 227
19
310
73, 205, 380, 3 8 5 - 3 8 7 , 395, 397
12, 183, 185, 187, 211213, 219,
250, 260
491, 492
465
370, 371
19, 20
306
175177, 1 8 0 - 1 8 2 , 279, 341
305
504
129, 130, 195
12, 302, 303, 305, 312, 322, 330,
332, 439
491
141
465
66, 67, 321, 347, 357
339, 345, 353, 358, 375
63
77, 102
509, 511
98
392, 428
87
44
276
98
93, 97, 135

372
440
149
466, 467
319
43
467, 501, 503
477480
295, 299
388, 397, 421
321
483485, 487, 489, 490, 495
497
370
287
496, 497
177
483
439
503
310
468
513
483486
282, 284 287, 357, 359, 360
116, 117, 129
183, 185, 187, 250, 260
246, 247, 447, 452
11, 13, 2527, 97, 307, 372
377
368, 370
385, 386, 388, 397, 426428,
439

438,


* *

283
98
223
, 389
, 389
, 222
78
72
360

457
435
38

124
48, 50
57
56
57
57
() 429
() 430
349
60
86
141
504
490
451
464
104
195
263
279
, 279
22
25
25
451
457
472
479
479

223
204
299
197
441
483
44 5
453
283
263
, 266, 288
, 263
, 284
, 263

, 270
266
263
, 263
, 288
() 264,
282
263
263, 283, 285
287
37
295
40
23, 40
34
304, 307

377
366
180, 161, 446

11
334
12
240
497
503
140, 314
12
334
334
64
32
32
64
128
140, 314
78
84, 308
380
397
397
() 379
379
( ) 124
75
63
() 466
27

175

448
304
73, 380, 386
302, 321
302, 321
302, 321

516

440
171
483
489

93
129
98
98
70, 80
98
99
168
137, 148
63, 72
63, 64
63, 78

367
100
156
68
466

444
61, 230
380
400
289
68
457
389
389
200
206
42, 54, 70
174
87
107, 109
107
107
57
51
17
68
283
351
283
- 441
263
472
387
302, 321
69
28
14
51
63
63
50
299
299
117, 326
117, 326
117, 326, 327, 329
472
73
388
441
490
102, 104
73
506

485
485
406
489
466
397
494
459
150
491, 495
12
361
411
63, 68
366
68, 366
114
70
112
492
70
366
29
191
146
272
, 273
292
210
209
, 211
, 210
, 211
, 209
, 211
357
211
234
234
19, 118
450
450
354
11
24
11
14
14
13
30
29
482
85
393
215, 397
394
395
3.85
428
172
167
174
184
401
4 51
172
166, 167
- 160, 161
349
381


381
381
384
32
204
89
351
77
298
400
401
149
443
( ) 75
63, 64

103, 494
61
61
348
34 5
446
388, 391, 393, 396,
397
26
287
200
200
497
393
393
160, 161

447
447
400
349

353
290
360
388
385
385
17

492
226

280
205
296
173
240
498
46
424
46
161
501
213
214
491, 495
86
375
459
86
360
466
466
299
298
303

517

43
498
140
140
497
498
140
17
48
437
284
379
406
92
93
291
270
291
275
275
267
361
360
363
() 365
365
365
276
376
43
96
94
97

304
415
387
415
415
415

374
321
204
78
345
57
57
465
198
123
123
123
251
251
430
490, 494
464
74
499

60
296
60
165
395
24
63, 64, 71
335
341
341
336
342

518

135
363
76
115
76
104
131
131
79
84
79
- 79
304
472
135, 279
304
135
133
382, 445
134
382, 445
79
445
100
65
66
LMT 431
LMTI 431
() 75
MKCA 431
75, 431
66
- 66
66, 376
66
151
333
16
- 24
151
48, 52
57
52, 58
34
() 466
335
115
427
31
, 34
316
31
, 34
32
335
316
335

423
422, 423

424
421, 422
170
34
33
, 236
65
505
53

53
237
76
58
455
364
232
60

61
22
23

490
230
444
380
380
294
294
383
141
211
183
130
339
, 111
247
432
432
456
478, 487
478, 487
140
100
100, 471
101
101
101
101
101
101
18
464
466
467
460

241
495
395
143
149
258
153
- 258
258
258
258
411
268
379
462
72, 334
456
115
167

190
443
447
31
, 34
335
39
339
39
335
335
349
33
, 236


36, 339
145,
158
164

204
47
511
427
478
431, 433
496
468
116
116, 129
119


264
211
110, 111
449
131
110
257

204
497
22
483
483
, 489
483
483
295
148
310
125, 127
127
127, 137
157
' 136
12G
387
124
376
512
105
103


* *

11

1.
2.
3.


.
.



4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

16
28
30
33
42
44
48
60


9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

.
.
.






.

64
68
71
78
83
88
91
97
100


18.
19.
20.
21.




. . . . .

107

112
114

IV


22.
23.
.

123
129

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.


. .
. . . .

.


130
135
143
147
149
159


30.

31.
.
32. . . .
33.
.
34.
35.
36.
37.

38. . . . .

166
170
172
173
175
182
183
189
199

VI

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

204
205
209
213
222

VII


44. .

45.
46. .
47. .
48.
49. .
50. .
51.
52.
53.
54.

230
233
236
245
249
263
269
282
288
294
297

VIII

55.
56.
57. ,

302
311
314

58.
59.
60.

61.
62.

317
321
323
325
331

IX


63.

64.

65.

66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71. . . .
72.

333
337
347
349
353
357
360
366
372
376

73.
74.
75.
76.

77.
78.
79.
80.
81.

82.
83.
84.
85.

379
381
384
390
392
394
397
400
408
415
421
423
426

XI


86.
87.
88.

429
431
436

XII

89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.






.
.
96.
97. .

98.
99.
100. .
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.

440
445
448
456
459
460
467
471
477
482
487
491
495
497
500
506
512
514
515

M., 1979 ., 520 . .