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Advocating and Collaborating through Culturally Competent Consultation ASCA 2007, Denver Grothaus, Christensen, & Sikes Old

Dominion University, Norfolk, VA Some broad and brief assumptions and definitions : There is growing empirical support for the effectiveness of consulting as a means of remediating problems (Whitson, in Erford, 2007, p. 47). Lewis (2003) notes The multicultural perspective is not only theoretically sound but also practical, not only right but necessary. Undoubtedly multiculturalism is at the heart of everything we do as counselors and as counselor educators (p.261). Culture refers to any group of people who identify or associate with one another on the basis of some common purpose, need, or similarity of background (Lee, 2006, p. 5) Cultures commonly cited groups (not all inclusive): Gender, Race, Ethnicity, SES, Sexual Orientation, Ability/Disability, Age, Religion &/or Spirituality Within group differences are often greater than between group differences Each of us is a constellation or intersection of multiple cultural identities; some are socially privileged (e.g., Heterosexuals); others are socially oppressed (e.g., GLBT) School counselors are expected to specifically address the needs of every student, particularly students of culturally diverse, low social-economic status and other underserved or underperforming populations (ASCA, 2005, p. 77) The consultee characteristic that can have the most significant impact on the consultation process is sociocultural background (Brown, et al., 2006, p. 189) The multiple models and/or theoretical approaches for consultation commonly promulgated tend to be Euro-centric (Brown, Pryzwansky, & Schulte, 2006; Holcomb-McCoy, 2004) Studying and applying multicultural strategies to consultation should be a requirement of school counselor training (Holcomb-McCoy, 2004, p. 179) The consultant has the responsibility to broach or introduce discussion/exploration of cultural factors that may be relevant to the situation While it is important and effective to broach potential cultural issues, dont assume that cultural factors are always the most salient factors to be considered Culturally competent collaborative consultation involves a school counselor working in an egalitarian relationship with a consultee(s) and client or client system to assist and empower the parties involved in defining a concern and implementing a plan with consideration for the cultural values of those involved At its most elementary level school consultation is all about advocacy (Kampwirth, 2006, p. 148)

Multicultural Consultation Skills build on the foundational aspects of multicultural counseling competence, namely counselor self-awareness and counselor knowledge of consultee and client worldviews. As Parsons and Kahn (2005) point out it is the quality of the person of the consultant that is far more important than any skill or strategy (p. 352). We need to examine our own commitment to multiculturalism. The authors listed below offer this definition of someone with a multicultural personality: an individual who embraces diversity in her or his personal life and makes active attempts to learn about other cultures and interact with culturally different people (e.g., friends, colleagues); possesses the ability to live and work effectively among different groups and types of people; understands the biases inherent in his or her own worldview and actively learns about alternative worldviews and is a social activist, empowered to speak out against all forms of social injustice (e.g., racism, homophobia, sexism, ageism, domestic violence, religious stereotyping) Ponterotto, Utsey, and Pedersen, 2006, p. 130. Improving our multicultural competence is a lifelong journey. Participating in workshops and culturally competent supervision, reading culturally diverse literature, and actively seeking diverse social and professional relationships can enhance our awareness, knowledge, and skill. In addition, specific skills include:

Being accessible- which includes: making sure we are available at times that consultees are able to see us, having our office space and materials accessible to persons with disabilities, being able to communicate (through a translator if necessary) and having materials in consultees preferred language Broach the topic of cultural differences when consulting; this can indicate that these important aspects of each of us are open for discussion/exploration (vs. being silent about culture, which may indicate a lack of awareness, sensitivity, or willingness to examine cultural aspects of the situation at hand) Creating a welcoming, inclusive climate in the school where cultural richness and strengths are celebrated and inclusive language and cultural recognition is promoted (e.g., using humankind vs. mankind, celebrating various holidays- not just those of Christian or European-American origins) Use a respectful, collaborative style that emphasizes empowerment and accesses the strengths of the parties involved Being active in the community in which your school is located via advocacy, networking, and knowing the cultural resources available Adapting consultation techniques to be culturally appropriate Training faculty and staff to be culturally sensitive and skilled (e.g., not emphasizing the terms proper or correct English- implying that a students home language is improper; instead request that students use school or formal English) Advocate and advise using your knowledge of cultural bias in testing Create a multicultural advisory committee with representative membership from the school and community Fixing the system, not the student- advocating for removal of barriers to student success and promoting a just and equitable school system

Advocacy as an essential element Advocating for the academic success of every student is a key role of school counselors School counselors work proactively with students to remove barriers to learning (ASCA, 2005, p. 24). Advocacy is the act of empowering individuals or groups through actions that increase self-efficacy, remove barriers to needed services, and promote systemic change (McAuliffe, Grothaus, Pare, & Wininger, 2008, p. 613). Current perspectives on school counseling place advocacy at the core of the new vision of the profession (Brown & Trusty, 2005, p. 270).

To paraphrase a sage, old phrase when were not engaging in advocacy, were part of the problem. Advocacy is an attitude; it is also actions and the process of empowering others. No system is completely equitable; no school or community satisfactorily serves all of its stakeholders. There is vital work to be done in every school. We are fortunate to have the skills and are in a position to address the injustices in our school and stakeholder communities. There are many models of advocacy. Key pieces of the process that are included in most models are congruent with essential consultation stages. Essential Stages or Steps in Consultation and Advocacy 1. Clear identification of the problem - ideally with data to support this 2. Gather collaborators, information, and resources 3. Choose goal(s) and plan(s) to achieve them (with an aim to empower participants to be successful advocates for themselves) 4. Act- use your counseling, communication, and collaboration skills; be persistent and non-defensive; recognize the need for self-care in this challenging work 5. Evaluate and celebrate (and/or regroup and retry)

Select MC Consultation Resources Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S.P., Jones, J., Locke, D., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 24, 42-78. Brown, D., Pryzwansky, W. B., & Schulte, A. C. (2006). Psychological consultation and collaboration: Introduction to theory and practice (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Day-Vines, N., Woods, S., Grothaus, T., Holman, A., Douglas, M., & Dotson-Blake, K., Craigen, L. (in press). Broaching the issues of race and culture in the counseling process. Journal of Counseling and Development. Hill, N. R. (2003). Promoting and celebrating multicultural competence in counselor trainees. Counselor Education & Supervision, 43, 39-51. Hoffman, M. A., Phillips, E. L., Noumair, D. A., Shullman, S., Geisler, C., Gray, J., Homer, J., Horne, S., Paulk, D. L., Remer, R., Robinson, S., Rocha-Singh, I., Tinsley, D. J., Toporek, R., & Ziegler, D. (2006). Toward a feminist and multicultural model of consultation and advocacy. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34, 116-128. Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2004). Assessing the multicultural competence of school counselors: A checklist. Professional School Counseling, 7, 178-186. Horne, S. G., & Mathews, S. S. (2004). Collaborative consultation: International applications of a multicultural feminist approach. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 366-379. Kampwirth, T. J. (2006). Collaborative consultation in the schools: Effective practices for students with learning and behavioral problems (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Lewis, J., Arnold, M., House, R., & Toporek, R. (2002). Advocacy competencies. American Counseling Association websitehttp://www.counseling.org/Content/NavigationMenu/RESOURCES/ADVOCACYCOMPETEN CIES/advocacy_competencies1.pdf. McAuliffe, G., Grothaus, T., Pare, D., Wininger, A. (2008). The practice of culturally alert counseling. In G. McAuliffe & Associates Culturally alert counseling: A comprehensive introduction (pp. 570-631). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Paniagua, F. A. (2005). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Parsons, R. D., & Kahn, W. J. (2005). The school counselor as consultant: An integrated model for school-based consultation. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Ponterotto, J. G., Utsey, S. O., Pedersen, P. B. (2006). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Sue, D.W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 477486. The School Psychology Review (2000). Several articles in Volume 29, #3. Vera, E. M., Buhin, L. & Shin, R. Q. (2006). The pursuit of social justice and the elimination of racism. In M. G. Constantine & D. W. Sue (Eds.), Addressing racism: Facilitating cultural competence in mental health and educational settings (pp. 271-287). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Film Clip: IISD Appreciative InquiryA Beginning. Can be seen at: http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?id=404