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..

, (, , , .) ,
. ,
. . ,
,
,
, . ,

m * m (r ) ,

S i ln
mc ds ,

(*)
(**)

. (**) S . (*) (**) ,


: 1) () ; 2)
2

ds (**). .,
, , 40 ( ). ,
,
, , , . , .
.

1.

S
1/ 2

dx i dx k
dt Ldt ,
S mc ds mc g ik
(1)
dt
dt

m , c , L , g ik
.

dx i dx k
L mc g ik
dt dt

1/ 2

T U.

(2)

U .
m , M m.

L T U

mv 2 mMG

,
2
r

(3)

v dx / dt 3D , U mMG / r
.
(3) , M
U ( )
L T U T .

(2)

dx i dx k

L mc ik
dt dt

1/ 2

T,

(4)

ik . , [1]
dx i dx k 1 / 2

U L L mc ik
dt dt

dx i dx k

g ik
dt dt

1/ 2

(5)

mc 2
g 00 1
2

(6)

g 00 1

2U
2MG
2
1
1 2 ,
2
r
mc
c

( 7)

MG / r . (7) ,
g 00 00 1 , ..
.

g ik ik ik ,

(8)

ik .
(8) (1) ,

d 2 xi
dx j dx k
i
jk
0,
ds ds
ds 2

i, j, k... 0,1,2,3,

(9)

i jk

k im
g ( g jm, k g km, j g jk ,m )
2

(10)

- .

ik


2
2 1 iik
c

(11)

.
, (5)
, .

2.
(11)

i ,
3

dx 0 c 2
dx
0 c

,
ds0 2
ds0

c2
dx 0
0 00
,
2
ds0

, 1,2,3.

(12)

, (1)

dx i dx k

ds g ik
dt dt

1/ 2

dt ik dx dx ik dx dx
i

k 1/ 2

dx i dx k

1 ik
ds0 ds0

1/ 2

ds0 ,

(13)

ds0 ik dx i dx k c 2 dt 2 (dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 ) .

, (13)
0

dx

00
ds

dx dx 0
dx dx

2 0

, , 1,2,3
ds0 ds0
ds0 ds0

(14)

, (12),
dx 0
dx
dx i

.
0
i
ds0
ds0
ds0

(15)

(13)

dx i

ds 1 i
ds
0

1/ 2

ds0 .

(16)

(16)
i

dx i
1.
ds0

(17)

(17) (16)

dx i
ds0 .
ds 1 i
ds0

(18)

(18) (1),

S mc ds mc ds0 mci dx i .

(19)

(19) S , 4D ,

du i m ik
uk ,
ds0 c 2

i, k 0,1,2,3,

(20)

ik k ,i i ,k

(21)

( )
u k dxk / ds0 4D . (21),
-

ik ,l kl ,i li ,k 0 ,

x k

(22)

dx i
j
,
dt
i

j i (c , j ) ,

(23)

m (r ) m, ,

j mv (r ) 3D , v 3D , -

1 1
1
( i j i
ik ik )d ,

c
16G

d cdtdxdydz .

(24)

ik ,k

4 G i
j ,
c

(25)

. (12)

1 2 i
4 G i
2 2
j ,
c
t

(26)

, (20),(22)
(26)

du i
0,
ds0

i, k 0,1,2,3,

00,

4 G i
j 0
c

. ,
. (. ). , ,
. . , . .

3.
(5) , U . , ,

g 00 1

2U
2Ze 2
e 2

1
,
2
2
m c2
mc
mc r

(6*)

. (6*) , g 00 00 1, .. .

g ik ik kaik ,

(7*)

k e / m , aik . (7*) , ,
, k e / m . .
(7*) (1) ,

d 2 xi
dx j dx k
i

0,
jk
ds ds
ds 2

i, j, k... 0,1,2,3,

(8*)

i jk

k im
e
g (a jm, k a km, j a jk ,m ) 2 E i jk
2
mc

(9*)

-
6

jk

c 2 im
g (a jm, k a km, j a jk ,m )
2

(10*)

- . , , (6*)
e 2
1
(11*)
m c2
. , (11*)

E, H 1016 . .

(12*)

(
) ,

Rik 0 ,

(13*)

, , (13*)
(7*). - (13*),
(6*) (7*), () [2]

e 2 2 2 e 2 2

ds 2 1
c dt 1
(dx dy 2 dz 2 ) .
2
2
mc
mc

(14*)

(8*) (14*) :
1)

e 2

E mc 1
2
mc
2

1/ 2

dx 0
e 2

mc 2 1
2
ds
mc

1/ 2

v2
1 2
c

1 / 2

const ;

(15*)

2)
L mr 2

d
const ,
ds

(16*)

3.1
(8*) (13*) aik
. ,

e
aik 1
m

(17*)
7

Ai ,

dx 0 c 2
dx
A a 0 c
a
,
ds 0
2
ds 0

c2
dx 0
A0
a00
,
2
ds 0

, 1,2,3.

(18*)

, (1)

dx i dx k

ds g ik
dt
dt

1/ 2

dt ik dx dx kaik dx dx
i

k 1/ 2

e
dx i dx k

1 a ik
m
ds
ds
0
0

1/ 2

ds 0 , (19*)

ds0 ik dx i dx k c 2 dt 2 (dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 ) .

, (19*)
2
e
dx dx 0
dx dx
dx 0

2a 0
a
a00
, , 1,2,3
m ds0
ds0 ds0
ds0 ds0

(20*)

, (18*),
2e
mc 2

dx 0
dx
2e
dx i
A

A
.
0

i
ds0 mc 2 ds0
ds0

(21*)

(19*)
1/ 2

2e
dx i

ds 1 2 Ai
ds0
mc

ds0 .

(22*)

(22*)
2e
dx i
A
1.
i
mc 2 ds0

(23*)

(23*) (22*)

e
dx i
ds0 .
ds 1 2 Ai
ds0
mc

(24*)

(24*) (1),

S mc ds mc ds0 Ai dx i .
c

(25*)

(25*) S , 4D -

du i
e

F ik uk ,
2
ds0 mc

i, k 0,1,2,3,

(26*)

F ik Ak ,i Ai ,k

(27*)

uk dxk / ds0 4D .

, , (8*) (26*) (.. ) (23*) (18*).

4.

(19)

ds
dx i
dt Ldt .
S mc ds mc ds0 mc i dx i mc 0 mc i
dt
dt

(27)

Pi

S
,
x i

i, k 0,1,2,3,

(28)

(27)

L mc 2 1

v2

v m T U ,
c2

(29)

m p m.

(30)

a 3D (28)

mv
1

v
c2

L
mc 2
H v L
m T U .
v
v2
1 2
c

(31)

pi p p 2 m 2 c 2 ,
c
2

(32)

(30) (31)

p P m ,

E T H U H m .

(33)

(33) (32),

H m 2 c 2 c 2 ( P m) 2 m ,

(34)

, ,

1
( P m) 2 m U .
2m

(35)

, . , (26*) ,

H g rot 0 ,

H .
t

(36)


(33)

E i

,
t

p i

( )

2 2

H
U ,
2m

(37)

10

( )

p x Et
( x , t ) 0 exp i
.

(38)

(23)

m * .

(39)

W *

(40)

, , , . (39) , , , . ,
(23)

m (r )

(41)

.1
(39) (41) , (41)
(.1), (38).
(

)
11

sin 2 Ax
( x) lim ( x, A) lim 2 2 lim * ( A, x) ( A, x) * ( x) ( x) ,
A x
A
A

(42)

sin Ax
1
( A, x)

x
2

sin Ax
1
Ae dk , * ( A, x) x 2
ikx

ikx

dk ,

(43)

(39) , (43)
,
.
,

H g rot 0 .

,
(20) (26):
1)

c2
dx 0
00
,
2
ds0

0 ,

, 1,2,3 ;

(44)

2) ,

c2
dx 0
00
,
2
ds0

0 c 2

dx 0
,
ds0

, 1,2,3 ;

(45)

3) ,

c2
dx 0
0 00
,
2
ds0

dx 0 c 2
dx
0 c

,
ds0 2
ds0
2

, 1,2,3.

(46)

, .

12

5. -

, .,
,
. ,

1
8G
Rik g ik R 4 Tik ,
2
c

(47)

( ). - (47) ,

(41) (39), (38) . ,
(39),
.

[1]:
[ k e aj] T[ik j]eia 0,

1
R g R T ,
ik 2 ik
ik
i
i
C jkm 2[ k T j m] 2Tsi[ k T sj m ] J i jkm ,

B.1

i, j , k ... 0,1,2,3,

(B.2)

a, b, c... 0,1,2,3.

(.1) Tik , T
, )
1

2
pn
Tik T n T n T s g g T i
T i T s .
s[i p n]
[n i k ] s[i n k] 2 ik
[i p n]

jk

(48)

13

- (.2) J ijkm
(48)
1
J ijkm 2g[ k (iT j ) m ] Tg i[ mg k ] j .
(49)
3

, ,

c2

jm

c2

jm

jm

Ti
T i T s .

[i j m] s[ j i m]
c2

2g

(50)

2
jm
i
i
s
1 / 2 dV ,
m ( g )1 / 2 dV
g [iT j m] Ts[ j T i m] ( g )
2

g det g jm , dV dx1dx 2 dx 3 .
() ()

T i jk ..i jk g im ( g js ..s mk g ks ..s mj ) ei a k e a j

(51)

52

g jk abe a j eb k , ab ab diag (1 1 1 1)
- , e
4D ),

i -

(10)

1
..i jk e i a e a [ j , k ] e i a e a j , k e a k , j ,
2

- .

,k

xk

(53)

(9),
, [1]

d 2 xi
dx j dx k
dx j dx k
i
i

T
0.
jk
jk
ds ds
ds ds
ds 2

(54)
14

jk

dx j dx k
ds ds

(55)

- ,

F i iner mT i jk

dx j dx k
ds ds

(56)

- . (54)
m M .
, (56) .
- (.1), ,
(), ().

6. ()

(), (56)
.

iner

mT

jk

dx j dx k
0.
ds ds

(57)

(51) (57)

Tijk T jik Tikj ijk ,

(58)

.. , , , , (53).
- (48)

T jm

1
..i
..s
..s
( sm ji g jm s .. ji ji ) ,

(59)

T
1
..s
2 s .. ji ji .
2
c
c

(60)
15

hm

ijk ijkm hm , .

ijk ijkm h m

(61)

(59)

T jm

1
1
(h j hm g jm h i hi ) .
2
2

(62)

T jm

2 ( x i )l j l m , l m l m 0 , hm ( x i )l m

(63)

1
1
T jm 2 ( x i )(u j u m g jm ) , u m u m 1 , hm ( x i )u m .

(64)

, (63) (64)
1
2 2 (xi ) ,
(65)
c

1 2 i
2
( x ) m * m .
2
c

(66)

( x i ) ( x i ) (61)

(xi )

1
(xi ) ,
mc 2

1
0
mc 2

(66)

*dV 1.

(39)-(43).

( x i ) (38), -

jm
1 , g g 4 , (64)
m
jm
1
1
1
1
1
2 ( x i )( g jm g jm u j u m g jm ) 2 ( x i ) g jm ( x i ) g jm ,. 2 ( x i ) . (64*)

4
2
4
4

T jm

(67)

u mu

, (66),

1
1
1
1
T jm 2 ( x i )( u j u m g jm g jm u j u m ) 2 ( x i )u j u m c 2 u j u m

4
2

(65*)
16

T jm m c 2 u j u m m 2 * u j u m .

(66*)

7.
3D
, (), ()
m m(t ) - (63) m (t ) m const
(41).
(), (.1) (.2) ,
- .

x 0 u , x1 r , x 2 , x 3 ,
-,
[1] :

1. (
):

i 00 (0, 1 , 0 , 0) , i11 (1, U , 0 , 0) , i 01 (0, 0 , P , iP ) ,

1
00 (1, 0 , 0 , 0) , 11 (U , 0 , 0 , 0) , 01
(0, 0 , 1, i) ,
i
i
i
2 P
U (u) 1 2 0 (u) / r , P (2) 1/ 2 (1 / 4) , x 2 ix 3 ,

(68)

(69)

0 0 (u ) - .
2. :
1 / r , 0 / r , 0 (u ) / 2r 2 ,
1 / 2r 0 (u ) / r 2 , 0 / 4.

(70)

3. :
0
(u ) / r 2 1 .
0 (u ) / r 3 ,
2
22
u r 2

(71)
17

()

( )1 / 2
x3
0
1
ct x dr / 2U , r x , sin
, tg
,
(1 1 / 4 )
x4

(72)

ds 2 g dx i dx k ,
ik

ik

AB CD ,
AC B D i
k

(73)

AC AC BD BD
1 0

(28),

1
2 0 (t )
2 0 (t )
c 2 dt 2 1
dr 2 r 2 (d 2 sin 2 d 2 ) .
ds 2 1

r
r

(74)

. .

0 (t ) 0 const ,
(74) , .
(33) ,
m(t )G
0 (t )
,
2
c

(75)

m(t ) - , ( ).
(75) , (.1). - (.1) (68)-(74) (48)

c 2l l
jm
m
jm

0 (u )
2
l l ,
jm
2
r

0 0 ,

(76)

l m m 00 , l l m 0
- . ,
m
[1] , (76) 0 (t ) 0 const
18

8 0
(r ) m (r ),
c2

(77)

(r ) - 3D m const . (75) (77) ,


(.1)
0 (t ) 0 const

8 G
c4

3D , .
, (77)
, . , (), (.1) (.2),
. , . (76) m(t ) m const
(63)
(66*).

8.

(.1)
- (48). ,

[ n Ri | j|km] 0 ,

(78)

, (.1),
- (48)

m ( R mj

1 mj
g R) mT mj 0 .
2

(79)

- () , (66*)

T kj k m c 2 u k u j c 2 k m u k u j m c 2 u k k u j c 2 u k u j k m 0 ,

1)

k ( mu k ) k ( mu k ) m u n k nk 0 ;

(80)
19

2) ,

du j
m
m j kn u k u n 0 ;
ds

(81)

3)

k m m m 0.

(82)

8.1
(80), m const

j ( mu j ) j ( mu j ) j m div ( m v ) 0.

(83)

m m * , (83) .
*

*
div ( * v ) 0
t

(84)

. [3]

grad grad *

, * v C ( *grad grad *),


v Cgrad ln
C

C const.
, (84)

C *) *
C 0
t

C
t

*
*

C *)
t

(85)

(85)

20


C f 0 ,
t

*
C * f * 0 ,
t

(86)

f ( x, t ) - . ,

(38)

exp ( Et px ) .
0

(86)

2
i

U 0 ,
t 2m

* 2
i

* U * 0 ,
t
2m

(87)

2mC / i ,

2mCf U ,

U - f iU / . , (46) , ( )
(), (.1) (.2).

8.2
(61) , 4 , 4D . , (89) ,
(87) . [4] (87)
, exp(iS / ) ,
, ( , )

v 0
t

(88)

dv

U Q,
dt
m
m

m *

(89)

Q 2s 2 2 / m

(89*)

- , s / 2 . (89) ,
21

s / 2 0 (88) (89)
( )
s .
(), (), , .

x 0 u , x1 r , x 2 , x 3
[1]:
1. (
):

i 00 (0, 1 , 0 , 0) , i11 (, Y , 0 , a) , 00 (1, 0 , 0 , a sin 2 ) ,


i

i 01
(ia sin , 0 ,1, i cos ec ) , i10 i 01 ,
2

11 (Y , ( ) 1 , 0 , a sin 2 Y ) , 01
(ia sin , 0 , ( ) 1 , i sin ) ,
i
i
2

(90)

10 01 ,

r 2 a 2 , Y r 2 a 2 2 0 r / 2 , a const , 0 const.

(91)

2. :

(r ia cos ) 1 , ctg /( 2)3 / 2 , , ia sin 2 /( 2)1 / 2 ,

(92)

(r 0 ) / 2 , Y 2 , ia sin /( 2)1 / 2 .
3.

g 00

(93)
0 / 3 .
2
(90)-(92)

00

2 0 r
r 2 a 2 cos 2

(94)

22

.
, (), a .
( ) m ,
(94) (5)


0
0
2
mc 2
mc 2
2 0 r
2
2 a
( g 1)

mc

mc
U Q,
00
2
2 r 2 a 2 cos 2
r
r r2

U*

(95)

r a , cos 1..

(95) , . (81) (66)

dv

U Q,
dt
m
m
, (75) (77)

U mc 2

(96)

,
m const

0
m 2G
0 a 2 m 2G a 2

, Q mc 2

.
r
r
r r2
r r2

(97)

(97) (89*) , :

1. ,
a m c;

2.

(98)

(66*) (96)

2 rg
2U
2
2 2mG
2 2 2 3 3 0.
mc r
c r
r

(99)

(97)
(90)-(94).
, , ,
(87) (98) (99).
23


( ) .

8.3
() ,
[1]

( A s .1)

( A s . 2)

, ... 0,1 , , ... 0 ,1 ,


- ,
. (68)-(74)

, ( As .1) ( A s .2)

0
1
2 ,
r
2r

2 0 r
0
2
,
2
2
r
2
r

(100)

(101)

mG / c ,
0

,
mc

(102)

m 2G
g
c

(103)

0 g

- , ,
24

mc

(104)

- . ,
,

1
,
r

(105)

1
,
2r

(106)

, . (105) (106) .
(105) (106)

( ),
2

(107)

s / 2

(108)

, (100), (101) (105), (106),


(),().

9.

(90)-(94) , () .
. , . ,
25

3 , , . ( ).
,

1 e
i

p
t 2m
c

(e / mc) s

A H e .

(109)

- (

1/2 ), s / 2 - , . (109) . (109)

e e * e ,

* ,

(110)

- ( ), , ,

e e e
dv

eE v H
s H
s rot H ,
x
m
c
mc
mc
dt

(111)

, , ... 1,2.3 .


ds
e
s


sH ,
s

x
dt x m
mc

(112)

. (111)
2
1
s s

Tik

xi xk
2m xi xk xi xr
2

(113)

- .
* , (111) ()

E H
26

dv e
e e
m
eE v H
s H
s rot H .
dt
c
mc
mc

(114)

e e
Ftor
s H
s rot H
mc
mc

(115)

.
, (112)

ds
e

sH
dt mc

, (116) e / m ,


d
H ,
dt

(116)

(117)

e
mc

- . (116) ,
(117)
.

2

ie
( *) * ( ) e *A e rot( * ) ,
J
2m
mc
2mc

(118)

:
1)
ie
( *) * ( ) ;
J1
2m

2) (, )

e2
J 2 * A ;
mc
3)
27

e
e
J3
rot ( * )
rot ( * s ) .
2mc
mc

, , ,
, .

, ,
, . ,
, , ( ) . (*) (**), , ,
, . . , ,
(13*). (), ().
9.04.2011.

1. ..// , , .,
, 1997. 450 .
2. .. //
. , , 1972, 10, . 98102.
3. . // , ., , 1961, .618.
4. Madelung E.// Quantum Theory in Hydrodynamic Form, Z. Physic, 40 (1926), p.p. 332 336.

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