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Hydrological Cycle


Hydropower to Electric Power

Potential Energy Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy

Hydropower Calculations
P g Q H P 10 Q H
P = power in kilowatts (kW) g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2) = turbo-generator efficiency (0<n<1) Q = quantity of water flowing (m3/sec) H = effective head (m)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

Hydroelectric Installations

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

Inside a Typical Hydro Power Plant

3D Pictorial View of HEP Layout (partial)

Three Gorges Dam (China)

Itaip Dam (Brazil & Paraguay)

Itaipu, Wikipedia.org

Oldman River Dam

Hoover Dam, USA

Itaipu Dam, Brazil

Guri Dam, Venezuela

Worlds Biggest Hydro Power Plants

The Guri hydro electric power station in Venezuela has installed capacity of 10,000MW.
The Itaip hydroelectric power plant built from 1975 to 1991, in a joint development on the Paran River, Itaip in Brazil and Paraguay. It consists of 18 generating units adding to a total production capacity of 12,600 MW and a reliable output of 75 million MWh a year. By 2009, Three Gorges in China consisting 26 generating units adding to 18,200 MW.

Modern Trends in Hydro Power Plants

GIS Switchyard Remote Operation CFD Analysis Run of the River Schemes Generator Bearings- Teflon Coating SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) System Up Rating of existing Power plants through R&M