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A MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON NATIONAL HIGHWAY- 2 CONSTRUCTIONS Session 2007-2011

Under guidance of
Er. CHANDAN KUMAR H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING)

SUBMITTED BY ARUN KUMAR CHAUDHARY JAVID KHAN MANOJ KUMAR MANOJ KUMAR PRINCE SHIV SHANKAR SUBMITTED TO Er. CHANDAN KUMAR H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING) (07CE08) (07CE27) (07CE36) (07CE37) (07CE44) (07CE51)

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY KHANDARI CAMPUS AGRA

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ARUN KUMAR CHAUDHARY (07CE08), JAVID KHAN (07CE27), MANOJ KUMAR (07CE36), MANOJ KUMAR (07CE37), PRINCE (07CE44), and SHIV SHANKAR (07CE51) has complied this report on NATIONAL HIGHWAY-2 CONSTRUCTION under our supervision. As a part of the course in B.E Final Year (7th Sem. Civil).

We are highly indelted to H.O.D CHANDAN KUMAR and all teachers of Department of CIVIL Engineering foe their valuable guidance and the wish counsel in the completion of this report.

Special thanks to our Parents and all our friends for the encouragement and support given to us in every phase of this report writing.

INTRODUCTION

In a National Highway-2 project, the engineer has to plan, design and construct either a network of new roads or road link. Once a highway is constructed, development takes along the adjoining land and subsequent changes in alignment in geometric standards become very difficult. A badly aligned highway is not only a source of potential traffic hazard, but also causes a considerable proper present increase in transportation planning well as cost are the and most future strain on the drivers and the passengers. Therefore, investigation day needs and as important in a road project, keeping in view the development of the region

NATIONAL HIGHWAY 2 PROJECT

DEFINITIONS
In the contract the following words and expressions shall have the meanings here by assigned to them, except where the context otherwise requires:

(i)

A BOLLARD is a short vertical post typically found where large

ships docks. While originally it only meant a post used on a quick for mooring, the word now also describes a variety of structure to control or direct road traffic. The term may be related to bole, meaning the lower trunk of a tree. (ii) A BYEPASS up area, town, is a road or highway that avoids or bypasses a built or village, to let through traffic flow without

interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built up area, and to improve road safety. If there are no strong land use controls, buildings are built a bypass, converting it into an avoid. (iii) A CURB or KERB is the edge where a raised pavement/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other ordinary town road, and the bypass may eventually become as congested as the local streets it was intended to

roadway. Typically made from concrete, asphalt, or long stones, the purpose is twofold: first as a gutter for proper drainage of the roadway, and second for safety, to kee p motorist from driving into the shoulder, median, sidewalk, or pavement. (iv) EMPLOYERS means the person named as such in part II of these conditions and the legal successors in title to such person. But not any assignee of such person. (V) CONTRACTOR means the person whose tender has been accepted by the employer and the legal successors in title to such person. But not any assignee of such person. Contract means the conditions, the specification, the drawings, the bill of quantity, the tender, the letter of acceptance; the contract agreement and such further documents as may be expressly incorporated in Letter of Acceptance or Contract Agreement. Specifications means the specification of the work included in the contract and any modification therefore or addition. Drawings means all drawings, calculations and technical information of a like nature provided by the Engineer to the contractor under the contract and all drawings, Calculations, Samples, Pattern, Models, Operations and maintenance, manuals and other technical information of a like nature submitted by the contractor and approved by the Engineer. Bill of Quantities means the priced and completed bill of quantities forming part of tender. Section means a part of the works specifically identified in the Contract as a section.

Site means the places provided by the Employer where the works are to be executed and any other places as may be specifically designated in the Contract as forming part of the site.

SETTING OUT
The contractor shall establish working Bench marks tied with the reference Bench Mark in the soon after taking possession of the site. The reference Bench Mark for the area shall be as indicated in the contract document of the values of the same shall be obtained by the Contractor from the Engineer. The working bench mark shall be at rate of 4 per km and also at or near all drainage structures, over bridges

and under passes. The working Bench Mark/levels should be got approved from the Engineer. Check must be based on this Bench Mark once every month and adjustments, if any, got agreed with the Engineer and recorded. An up-to-date record of all Bench Mark including approved adjustments, if any, shall be maintained by the contractor and also a copy supplied to the Engineer for his record. The lines and levels of formation, side slopes, drainage works,

carriageways and shoulders shall be carefully set out and frequently checked, care being taken to ensure that correct gradients and cross sections are obtained everywhere. In order to facilitate the setting out of the works, the centreline of the highway must be accurately established by the contractor and approved by the engineer. It must then be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to the engineer, every 50m intervals in plain and rolling terrains and 20m intervals in highly terrain and in all curve point as directed by the engineer, with marker pegs and chainage boards sets in or near the fence line, and schedule of reference dimensions shall be prepared and supplied by the Contractor to the Engineer. These markers shall be maintained until the works reach finished formation levels are accepted by the Engineer. On construction reaching the formation level stage, the centre line again be set out by the contractor and when approved by the Engineer, shall be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer by markers pegs set at the outer limits of the formation. No marker pegs or markers shall be moved without the approval of the Engineer and and no earth work shall be commenced until the centre line has been referenced.

The contractor will be the sole responsible party for safeguarding all survey monuments, bench marks, etc. The Engineer will provide the Contractor necessary for setting out of the centre line. All dimensions and levels shown on the drawing or mentioned in documents forming part of the or issued under the contract shall be verified by the Contractor on the site and he shall immediately inform the engineer of any apparent error in such dimensions. The Contractor shall in connection with the staking out of the canter line, survey the terrain along the road and shall submit the engineer for his approval, a profile along the road centre line and cross section at intervals as required by the Engineer. After obtaining approval of the engineer, work on earthwork can commence and the profile and cross section shall from the basis for measurements and payments. The work of setting out shall be deemed to be a part of general works preparatory to the execution of work and no separate payments shall be made for the same..

TOPOGRAPHICAL PLAN

THE SALIENT FEATURE OF NATIONAL HIGHWAY - 2 ARE :

STRETCH DELHI NH No. LENGTH (Kms) FOUNDED BY CONTRACTOR AND and NATIONALITY

: : : : :

MATHURA 2 145 ADB MORTH through Haryana & UP PWD (IRCON).

TEST DONE IN PROJECT LABORATORY


TEST ON SUB GRADE SOIL (I) GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION:
Most of the method for the soil identification and classification are based on certain physical properties of the soil. The commonly used properties for the classification are the grain size distribution liquid limit and plasticity index. These properties have also been used in empirical design method for flexible pavement; and in deciding the suitable of sub grad soil. Grain size analysis also known as mechanical analysis of soil is the determination of the percent of individual grain size present in the sample. The results of the test are of great value in soil classification. In mechanical stabilization of soil and for designing soil aggregates mixture the result of gradation test are used .correlation have also made between the grain size distribution of soil and the general soil behavior as the sub grade material and the performance such as susceptibility to frost action, pumping of rigid pavement etc.also permeability characteristics, bearing capacity and some other properties, are approximately estimated based on grain size distribution of the soil. The soil is generally divided into four parts on the particle size. The fraction of the soil which is larger than 2.00 mm size is called gravel, between 2.00 mm and 0.06 mm is sand 0.002mm silt and that is

smaller than 0.002 mm size is clay. Two type of sieves are available, one type with square perforation on plate to sieves course aggregate and gravel, the other type being mesh sieves made of woven wire mesh to sieves finer particle such fine aggregate and soil fraction consisting of sand silt and clay. However the sieves opening of the smallest mesh sieves commonly available is about 0.075 mm, which is commonly known as 200 mesh sieves therefore all soil particle consisting of silt and clay which are smaller than 0.06 mm size will pass through the fine mesh sieves with 0.075 mm opening. Therefore the grain size analysis of course fraction of soil is carried out using sieves the principle of sedimentation in water. The sieves analysis is a simple test consisting of sieving a measured quantity of material through successively smaller sieves. The weight retain on each sieves. The weight retain on each sieve is expressed as a percentage of the total sample. The sediment principle has been used for finding the grain size distribution of fine fraction; two methods are commonly used pipette method and the hydrometer method. The grain size distribution of soil particle of size greater than sieve opening placed one below the other and different size ranges. 63

micron is determine by sieving the soil on set of sieves of decreasing separating out the

APPARATUS:
Various apparatus set of standard sieves of different sieves size, balance, and rubber covered pestle mortar, oven, riffle, sieves shaker. Procedure For the fraction retained on 2.0 mm sieves.

Sufficient quantity of dry soil retained on 2.0 mm sieves is weighed out. The quantity of sample taken may be increased when the maximum size of particle is higher. The sample separated into various fraction by sieving through the set of sieves of size100, 63, 20, 6, 4.75, and 2 mm is sieves. After initial sieves, material retained on each sieves carefully collected and weighed. For fraction passing 2.0 mm sieves and retained on 0.63 mm size. The required quantity of soil sample is taken by riffling or quartering method, dried in oven at 105 to 110 c and is subjected to dry sieves analysis using a set of sieves with sieves opening 2.0, 0.6, 0.425, 0.15, and 0.075 mm, pan lid. The material collected on the each sieves and on the pan are separately collected and weighed.

CALCULATION:
The weight of dry soil fraction retained on each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total dry weight of the sample taken. The gravel, sand , silt ,and clay contain in percentage.

RESULT:
The gravel, silt sand clay contents are marked as result.

(II)

CONSISTENCY LIMITS & INDICES

The physical properties of fine grained soil, especially of clay differ much at different water content. Clay may be almost in liquid state, or it may snow plastic behavior or may be very stiff depending on the moisture content. Plasticity is a property of outstanding importance for clayey soil, which may be explained as the ability to undergo changes in shape without rupture.

Liquid limit it may be defined as the minimum content at which soil will flow under the application of a very small shearing force. The liquid limit is usually determined in the laboratory using mechanical device. Plastic limit may define in general term, as minimum terms, as minimum moisture content at which the soil remain in a plastic state.

The lower limit is arbitrarily defined and determined in the laboratory by prescribed test procedure. Plastic index is defined as the numerical difference between the liquid and plastic limit. p.i thus indicates the range of moisture content over which the soil in

plastic condition. Consistency limit and plasticity index vary for different type. Hence properties are generally used in the identification and classification of soil

LIQUID LIMIT TEST:


Liquid limit is the moisture content at which 25 blow in standard liquid limit apparatus will just close a groove of standardized dimension cut in the sample by grooving tool by a specified amount.

APPARATUS:
Mechanical liquid limit device consists of a cup and arrangement for raising and dropping through a specified height, grooving tool. Other apparatus include spatula, moisture containers, and balance of capacity 200g sensitive to0.01 g oven to maintain 105 to110c.

PROCEDURE:
About 120 g of dry pulverized soil sample passing 425 micron sieve is weighted, and mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish to from a uniform thick paste. The liquid limit device is adjusted

to have a free fall of cup through 10mm.a portion of the paste is placed above the lowest spot, and squeezed down with the spatula to have a horizontal surface . the specimen is trimmed by firm strokes of spatula in a such a way that the maximum depth of soil sample in the cup is 10 mm. the soil in the cup is divided along the diameter through the center line pf the cam followed by firm strokes of the grooving tool. So as to get a clean and sharp groove. The crank is rotated at the rated at the rate of two revolutions per second by hand so that the cup is lifted and dropped. This continued till the two halves of the soil cake come in to contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of 10 mm, and the number of blows given is recorded . a representative soil is taken, placed in moisture container, lid placed over it and weighed. The container in dried in oven and the dry weight determined the next day for finding the moisture content of the soil. The operations are repeated for at least three more trial with slightly increased moisture content each time, nothing the number of blows so that there at least four uniformly distribute reading of number of blows between 10 and 40 blows.

CALCULATION:
the flow index The flow cure is plotted by taking the number of blows in the log scale on the x-axis, and the water content in arithmetic scale on the y-axis, of format sheet .the flow curve is straight line drawn on semi-logrithmetic plot. The moisture content corresponding to 25 blow is read from this curve rounding off the nearest whole number and is reported as the liquid formula; w1 of the soil. The slope of the straight line flow cure is flow index. It may be calculated from the following

For index, If=

=w

Hence if the flow curve is extrapolated and moisture w10 and w100 corresponding to 10and 100 blows respectively are found, then the difference in these water content would give of the soil.

PLASTIC LIMIT TEST

Plastic limit is the moisture content at which a soil when rolled in to thread of smallest diameter possible, start crumbling and has diameter of 3 mm.

APPARATUS:
Evaporating dish, spatula, glass plate, moisture containers, rod of 3 mm diameter , balance sensitive to 0.01 g, drying oven controlled at temperature 105 to110c.

PROCEDURE:
About 20 g of dry, pulverized soil passing 425 micron IS sieve is weighed out. The soil is mixed thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish till the soil paste is plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers. A small ball is formed glass plate to a thread. The pressure just sufficient to roll into a thread of uniform diameter should be used. The rate of rolling should be between 80 and 90 strokes per minute counting a stroke as one complete motion of hand forward and back to starting position again. The rolling is done till the diameterof thread
is 3 mm . then the soil

is kneaded together to a ball

and roller again to

from therad this process of alternate rolling and kneading is continude untill the thread. This process of alternate rolling and kneading is continude until th ethread crumbles under prassure required for rolling and the soil can no longer to roll into a thread.

If the crumbling start at diameter less than 3 mm, then moisture content is more than the plastic limit and if the diameter is greater while crumbling starts, the moisture content is lower.

CALCULATION:
The plastic limit (w0) is expressed as a whole number by obtaining the mean of the moisture content of the plastic limit. Plastic index is calculated as the diffrence between liquid limit and plastic limit. Plastic index = liquid limit plastic limit W1-wp

(III) COMPACTION TEST


Compaction of soil is a mechanical process by which by which the soil partical are constrained to be packed more closley together by reducing the air void. Soil compaction causes decreases ia air void and consequently an increase in dry density. This may result in increase in shearing strength., the possible of future settelment or compressibility decrease. Degree of compaction is usually measured quantitativily nby dry density.

APPARATUS:
(a) Cylindrical mould of capacity 1000 cc. with an internal diameter of 10 cm and height 12.73 cm. the mould is fitted with a detachable base plate and removable collar extension of about 6 cm hight. (b) For the light compaction, a metal rammer having 5 cmdiameter circular face, and weight 2.6 kg is used which has drop oif 31 cm. For heavy compaction, the rammer has 5 cm diameter circular face, but havin g weight 4.89 kh free drop of 45 cm.

(c) (d)

Steel straight edge having behaving beveled edge for trimming top Other accessories include moisture container, balance of capacity

of the specimen. 10kg and 200kg, oven, sieves, mixing tools.

PROCEDURE:
In case of soil sample has particle bigger than 4075 mm sieve, about 20 kg of the representstive soil is air dried, mixed pulerized and sieved through 20 mm and 4.75 m sieve is not use in the test the percentage passing 20 mm sieve and retained on 4075 mm sieve is noted and if this is less than 20 percen this sample is used as such. It is more than this phenomenon is repeated. In case the sample passes 4075 sieves, than the bdry pulverized sample is sieved through 4.75 mm sieve and the portion passing this sievesis only used for the test. About 16 kg of dry soil in total may be neccessery for the compaction test in the 1000 cc mould. For compaction the soil in the mould every time the required quantity quantity will depend on the soil type, size of mould, moisture content and amount of compaction. As arough guidance, for each test 2.5 kg of soil may taken for light compaction. As arough guidance, for each test 2.8 kg for heavy compaction, and than the required water ia added. The estimated weight to be added to the soil every time may be measured in in a jet graduated in cc. enough water is added to to the specimen to bearing the moisture content to about 7% less than the estimated o.m.c. for sandy soil and 10% less for clay soils. The processed soil stored in an air tight container for about 10 to 20 enable moisture to spread uniform in the soil mass.

The mould with base fitted in is weighed. The process soil water mixture throughly and divided into eight equal part. (1) For light compaction the wet soil is compacted into the mould in three equal layers, each layer being 25 blow of the 2.6kg rammer. (2) For heavy compaction the wet soil mix is compacted in the mould in five equal layer being 25 bloq of 4.89 kg hammer. The blow should be uniform ly disributed over the surface of each layer. Each layer of the compacted soil is scored with a spatula before placing the soil for the succeeding. The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mould leaving about 5 mm to strike off on the top after compacting the final layer. The coller is removed and the compacted soil is leveled to th top of the mould by mean of straight edge. The mould and the soil are then weighed. The soil is then ejected out of the mould and cut in the middle and a representative specimen the next day. is determine by finding the wet weight, keeping in the oven at 105c to 110c and finding the dry weight

CALCULATION:
Let weight of mould copacted soil be = W1 g Weight of empty mould =W2 g Volume of mould = W Wet density = Then dry density =
(

g/cc
)

RESULT:
The result are dry density and wet density.

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST


INTRODUCTION:

The California bearing ratio (CBR) test was developed by the California division of highway as a method of classification and evaluating soilsubgrade and base course material for flexible pavements. Just after world war-2, the U.S.Crops of engineers adopted the C.B.R. test for use in designing base course for air field pavement. The test is empirical and result can not be related accurately with any fundamental property of the material. The CBR is a measure of resistance of a material to penetration of a standard plunger under controlled density and moisture conditions. The test procedure should be strictly adhered if high degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test may be conducted in remould or undisturbed specimen in the laboratory. U.S. crops of engineers have also recommended a test procedure for in-situ test. Many methods exist today which utilize mainly CBR test value for designing pavement structures. The test is simple and has been extensive investigated for field correlation of flexible pavement thickness requirement briefly, the test consist of causing a cylindrical plunger of diameter 50 mm to penetrate component material at 1.25 mm/minute. The loads, for 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm are recorded. This load is expressed as a percentage of standard load value at a respective deformation level to obtain CBR value.

APPARATUS:
Loading machine: Any compression machine which can operate at a constant rate of 1.25 mm/minute can be used for this purpose. If such machine is not available then a calibrate hydraulic press with proving ring to measure load can be used. A metal penetration

piston or plunger of a diameter 50 mm is attached to the loading machine.

Cylindrical moulds: Mould of 150 mm diameter and 175 mm height provided with a collar of about 50 mm length and detachable perforated and base are used for this purpose. A spacer disc of 148 mm diameter and 47.7 mm thickness is used to obtain a exactly 127.3 mm height Compaction rammer: The material is usually compacted as specified for the work, either by dynamic compaction or ISI are given in table bellow:-

TYPE OF NUMBER COMPACTION OF LAYERS

WEIGHT OF HAMMER, Kg 2.6 4.89

FALL, cm

NUMBER OF BLOWS

Light compaction Heavy compaction Adjustable stem,

3 5

31 45

56 56

perforated plate,

tripod

and

dial

gauge: the

standard procedure require that the soil sample before testing should be soaked in water to measure swelling. Annular weight: in order to stimulate the effect of the overlying pavement weight, annular weight each of 2.5 kg and 147 mm diameter are placed on the top of the specimen, both at the time of soaking and testing the sample, as surcharge.

Beside above equipment, coarse filte r paper, sieves, oven, balance, etc. Required

TEST ON CEMENT
(1) FINENESS TEST: INTRODUCTION:
The object of this is to check the proper grinding of cement. The rate of hydration depends on the fineness of cement. The finer is the cement, the earlier the hydration and the faster and greater is the gaining of strength. This because of hydration starts at the surface. Larger the surface area (i.e. finer the cement), faster will be hydration. However, very fine cement is susceptible to air set and deteriorates earlier. The grinding of cement shall be as fine as to conform to the standard specification and also shall be uniformly fine .If the cement is not uniformly fine, the concrete made out of it will have poor workability and will require a large quantity of water while mixing. Also bleeding of concrete can occur i.e. even before the concrete is set , water will come out of the surface due to the settlement of concrete particle. To check the fineness of the cement IS: 4031-1998 gives three methods:

1. By drying sieving. 2. Blaine air permeability method. 3. By wet sieving.

First method is used to find the fineness of cement in the project laboratory.

DRY SIEVING METHOD:


The fineness of the cement depends on the particle size distribution. A small mass of fine cement may have surface area have large surface area than a large mass of coarser particle of cement. It is therefore necessary to reduce the percentage of coarse particles to get require fineness of cement .In this test mass of coarser cement particle is found out which is limited to specified percentage for various cements as per respective Indian standard. Take 100g of various cements from samples and breakdown any air set lumps with finger. Place it on a standard IS sieve no.9. Continuously sieve the sample with a gentle wrist motion for 15 minutes. The mass of residue shall not exceed 10g in case of ordinary Portland cement and 5g in case of rapid hardening cement.

CALCULATION AND RESULT:


The weight of cement retained is divided by weight taken and is multiplied by 100 so the percentage retained cement on 90 micron

sieve is calculated. Three trials are done and the average of percentage.

Cement retained is calculated. The average percentage of cement retained should not be more than the specified limit.

(II) TEST FOR ONSISTENCY, INITIAL & FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT

CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT PASTE:

INTRODUCTION:
This test determines the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency for the use of other test. The vicat apparatus is used for this purpose. The consistency of

standard cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit the vicat plunger 50mm long and having 10mm diameter to penetrate to a point 5mm to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould. The unit of the consistency is percentage of water by mass of dry cement and denoted by P.

PROCEDURE:
Take 400g cement and add to it 30% water on a glass plate or any non porous surface. Mix thoroughly and fill the mould of vicat apparatus. The interval from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould is known as the time of gauging and must be not less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes. Lower plunger gently to touch the surface of test block and quickly release it, allowing it to sink into the paste. Note the settlement of the plunger. The settlement of the plunger should be 5mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould. If not, repeat the procedure using fresh cement and other percentage of water until the described penetration of the plunger is obtained. The consistency of standard cement paste is expressed as the amount of water as percentage by mass of dry cement.

Let, m1= mass of cement taken m2= mass of water added when the plunger has a

penetration of 5mm to . 7mm from the bottom of the mould. Then the percentage of water or standard consistency is P = (m2/m1)x100 Usually standard consistency P lies between 26 to 33 percent.

TEST FOR SETTING TIMES


INTRODUCTION:
The change of the cement paste from fluid to rigid state may be referred to as setting. The gaining of strength of a cement of a set cement paste is known as hardening. During the setting, cement acquires some strength, however it is not considered in definition to distinguished setting from hardening, where hardening is gain of strength

of a set cement paste. Objects of these tests are:1. To find initial and final setting times of cement. 2. To distinguished between quick setting and normal setting types of

cement
3. To detect deterioration due to storage.

When water is added to cement and mixed properly. The chemical reaction soon starts and the paste of cement remains plastic for a short period. During this period, it is possible to remix the paste for a short period. During this period, it is possible to remix the paste. This period is called initial setting time. It is assumed that no hardening will starts in this period .As time lapses, the reaction is continued and cement begins to harden. At some stages it gardens also called finally set and the time elapsed since the water was added is called final setting time. It is not possible to express the exact state of hardening and hence empirical measurements are taken. This is purely a conventional one and does not relate to the setting and hardening of actual concrete.

PROCEDURE:
Mix 400g of cement with 0.85 P percentage of water where P is the consistency of standard cement paste. Start the stop watch at the instant when water is added to cement. Fill the vicat mould with this paste and smooth of the surface of the paste making it level with the

top of the mould attach 1mm* 1mm square cross section needle to the vicat rod. Lower the needle gently near the surface of the block. Note whether the needle pierces completely .If so, wait for a while drop the needle at a fresh place. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the block for 5 + 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The interval between the time when water was added to cement and the time at which the needle fails to pierce the block by 5 + 0.5mm is known as initial setting time.

Replace the needle by the needle which has a sharp pointing, projecting in the centre with a annular attachment and release it on the same test block as before. Note the time when needle makes an impression, but the attachment fails to do so. The interval between these time and the time when water was added is known as the final setting time.

The initial setting time for a ordinary Portland cement should not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time should not more than 10 hours. For quick setting cement, the initial setting time should not be less than 5 minutes and the final setting not more than 30 minutes. The minimum limits on initial setting are specified because: Concrete once placed should not be distributed after the initial setting has taken place. There must be sufficient time for placing of second batch which may be distribute the first batch of the concrete. The transportation of concrete from the place where concrete is prepared to the placing of concrete requires some finite time. The maximum limits of the final setting time are specified because the

concrete should achieve the desired strength as early as possible so that the shuttering can be remove and reused.

TEST ON ROAD AGGREGATES


(I) AGGREGATES IMPACT TEST INTRODUCTION:
Toughness is the property of the materials to resist impact. Due to traffic loads, the load stones are subjected to the pounding action or impacts and there possibility of stones breaking into smaller pieces. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of the stones therefore the resistance of the two fractures under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones. Impact test may either carry out cylindrical stone specimens as in page impact test or stone aggregates as in a aggregate impact test. The aggregate test has been standardized by the British Standard Institution and the Indian Standard Institution. The aggregate impact value indicates the a relative measure of the resistant of aggregate to sudden shock or an impact, which in some aggregate differ from its resistant to slow compressive load. The method of test covers the procedure for determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of an impact testing machine, a cylindrical measure temping rod, IS sieve, balance and oven.

Impact Testing Machine : The machine consist of a matter


base with a plane lower surface supported well on a firm flour, without rocking detachable cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10.2cm and depth 5.0cm is rigidly fastened centrally to the base plate. A matter hammer of weight between 13.5 and 14 kg having the lower and cylindrical in shape, 10cm in diameter and 5.0 cm long, with 2.0 mm chamber at the lower edge is capable of sliding freely between vertical guides, and fall concentric over the cup. There is an arrangement for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height of 38 cm on the test sample in the cup, the height fall being adjustable up to 0.5 cm a key is provided for supporting the hammer while fastening.

Measure: A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 7.5


cm and depth 5.0 cm for measuring aggregates.

Tamping rod: A straight metal tamping rod of circular cross


section, 1.0 cm in diameter and 23 m long, rounded at one end.

Sieve: IS sieve of size 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm for sieving the aggregates. Balance: A balance of capacity not less than 500g to weight
accurate up to 0.1g.

Oven: A thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of


maintaining constant temperature between 100oC and 110oC.

PROCEDURE:
The test sample consist of aggregates passing 12.5mm sieves and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven 4 hours at a temperature 100oC to 110oC and cooled. The aggregates are filled up to about one third full in the cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded and of the tampering rod. Further quantity of aggregates is then added up to about two third full in the cylinder and 25 strokes of the tamping rod are given. The measure is now filled with the aggregates to over flow, tamped 25 times. The surplus aggregates are stuck off using the tamping rod as straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the measures determined to the nearest gram this weight of the aggregates is used for carrying out duplicate test on the same materials. The impact machine is placed with its bottom plate on the flour so that the hammer guide columns are vertical. The cup is mixed firmly in position on the base of the test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to the cup and compacted by tamping with 25 strokes. The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup ,and allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected to a total 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. The crushed aggregates is then removed from the cup and whole of it sieve on the 2.36mm sieve until no further significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is also weighed accurate to 0.1gm.The fraction retained on the sieve is also weighed and if the total weight of the fraction passing and retained on the sieve is added, it should not be less than the original by 1g, the result should be discarded and a fresh test made

EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION
GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

These specification shall be apply to the construction of embankment including sub grade, earthen shoulders and miscellaneous backfills with improved material obtained from the road way and drain excavation, borrow pits and other resources. All the embankments, sub grades, earthen shoulders and miscellaneous backfills shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of these specification and in conformity with the lines, grade and cross section shown on the drawing or as directed by the engineer.

Material & general requirements:

Physical requirements:
The material used in the embankments, sub grades, earthen shoulders and miscellaneous backfills shall be soil, moorum, gravel, a mixture of these or any other material approved by the engineer. Such a material should be from log, stumps, roots, rubbish or any other intrigent likely to be deteriorate or effect the stability of the embankment/sub grade The following types of material shall be considered unsuitable for the embankment:

Material from swamps, marshes and bogs. Peat, log, stumps and perishable material; any soil that classifies as OL, OI, OH or Pt in accordance with IS:1498; Material susceptible to spontaneous combustion; Clay having liquid limit exceeding 70 and the plasticity index exceeding 45;

Material with salt resulting in leaching in the embankment; The size of coarse material in the mixture of earth shall ordinarily shall not exceeded 75mm when being placed in the embankment and 50mm when placed in sub grade. Ordinarily, only the material satisfying the density requirements given in the table 1 shall be employed for the construction of the embankment and for the sub grade.

Table 1.density requirement of embankment and sub-grade material.

S.No.

TYPES OF WORK

MAXIMUM LABORATORY DRY UNIT WEIGHT WHEN TESTED AS PER IS : 2720 (PART 8)

Embankment up to 3meter

Not less than 15.2kn/cu. m

height, not subjected to extensive flooding.

Embankment exceeding 3m height or embankment of any height subject to long period of inundation. Not less than 16.0kn/cu. m

Sub grade and earthen backfill/shoulder/verges Not less than 17.5kn/cu. m

GENERAL REQUIREMENT: Borrow material:


The contractor shall obtain representative sample from each of the identified borrow areas and have these tested at the site laboratory following a testing program approved by the engineer. It shall be ensured that sub grade material when compacted to the density requirements as in table 2 shall yield the design CBR values of sub grade.

TABLE 2. Compaction requirements for embankment and sub grade

S.No.

TYPE OF WORK/MATERIAL

RELATIVE COMPACTION AT % OF MAXIMUM LABORATORY DRY DENSITY AS PER IS:2720 (PART 8)

1 2

Sub grade earthen shoulders NOT LESS THAN 97 Embankment NOT LESS THAN95

Construction operations:

Setting out:
After the site has been cleared, the limits of embankment/sub grade shall be marked by fixing batter pegs on both sides of 10 meter intervals. The embankment/sub grade shall be built sufficiently wider than the design dimension so that surplus material may be trimmed, ensuring that the remaining material is to desire density & in the position specified and conforms to the specified of the slope.

Compaction ground supporting:

Embankment/sub grade:
In case where the difference between the sub grade level and ground level is less than .5 m and the ground does not have 97% relative compaction with respect to the dry density as given in table 2 the ground shall be loosened up to level .5 m below the sub grade level, watered and compacted in layer up to 97% of dry density.

Spreading material in layers and bringing to appropriate moisture content:


The embankment and the sub grade material shall be spread in layer of uniform thickness not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness over the entire width of the embankment by mechanical means.

Compaction:
The compaction shall be done with the help of vibratory roller of 80 to 100 KN static weight with plain or pad foot drum or heavy pneumatic typed roller of adequate capacity capable of achieving required compaction.

Finishing operation:

Finishing operation shall include the work of shaping and dressing the shoulder/verge/road bed and side slope to confirm to the alignment, levels and cross section dimension shown n the drawing or as directed by the engineer subject to the surface tolerance.

Surface finish and quality control of work


The surface finish of construction of surface of sub grade shall conform to the requirement of heading 10. Control on the quality of material and work shall be exercised in accordance with heading 11.

Measurement of payment
Earth embankment/sub grade construction shall be measured separately by taking cross at interval at the original position before the work starts and after it completion and the volume of the earthwork in cubic meter by the method of areas and average.

GRANULAR SUB-BASE
Scope:
The work shall be should be consists of laying and compacting well graded material on prepared sub grade in accordance with requirements of these specifications. The material shall be laid in one or more layer as sub base or lower sub-base and upper sub-base(termed as sub-base here in after) as necessary according to lines, grades and cross sections shown on the drawing or as directed by the engineer.

Material:
The material to be used for the work shall be natural sand, moorum, gravel, crushed stone or combination thereof depending upon the grading required. Material like crushed slag crushed concrete, brick metal and

kankar may be allowed only with the specific approval of the engineer. The material shall be free from organic and other deleterious constituents and confirm to one of the three grading in table 3.

Physical requirements:
The material shall have 10% fine value of 50 KN or more (for sample in soaked condition when tested in compliance with BS: 812 (part 111). The water absorption value of the coarse aggregate shall be determined as per IS:2386(part 3); if this value is greater than 2% the soundness test shall be carried out on the material delivered to site IS:383. For grading II and III material, the CBR shall be determined at the density and moisture content likely to be developed in equilibrium conditions which shall be taken as being the density relating to a uniform air void content of 5%.

TABLE 3 . GRADING FOR CLOSE-GRADED SUB-BASE MATERIAL

IS SIEVE DESIGNATION
75 mm 53 mm 26.5 mm 9.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 0.425 mm 0.075 mm

% by weight passing the sieve


GRADING I 100 80-100 55-90 35-65 25-55 20-40 10-25 3-10 30 GRADING II -------100 70-100 50-80 40-65 30-50 15-25 3-10 25

GRADING III
---------------100 65-95 50-80 40-65 20-35 3-10

CBR VALUE (MAX.)

20

Strength of sub-base:
It shall be ensured prior to actual execution that the material to be use in the sub base satisfied the requirements of the CBR and other physical requirement when compacted and finished.

When directed by the engineer , this shall verified by the performance CBR test in the laboratory as required on specimens remolded at the field dry density and moisture content and any other test for the quality of the material, as may be necessary.

Construction operation: Preparation of sub-grade:


Immediately prior for the laying of the sub base, the sub-grade already finished shall be prepared by removing all vegetation and other extraneous matter, lightly sprinkled with water if necessary and rolled with two passes of 80-100kN smooth wheeled roller.

Spreading and compacting:


Immediately thereafter, rolling shall start. If the thickness of the compacted layer does not exceed 100 mm, a smooth wheeled roller of 80kN to 100kN weight may be used. For compacted single layer up to 225 mm the compact shall be done with the help of the vibratory roller of minimum 80 to 100 kN static weight with plain drum or pad foot drum of heavy pneumatic tyred roller of minimum tyre pressure of 0.7kN/m2 or equivalent capacity roller capable of achieving the required compaction. Rolling shall commence at the lower edge and proceed toward the upper edge longitudinally for portion having unidirectional cross fall and super elevation and shall commence at the edges and progress toward the center portion having cross fall on both side s. Each pass of the roller shall uniformly over lap not less than one-third of the track made in the preceding pass. During the rolling, grade and cross fall (camber) shall be the checked and any high spots or depressions, which become apparent, corrected by removing of adding fresh material. The speed of roller shall not exceed 5 km/hr.

Rolling shall be continued till the density achieved is at least 98% of the maximum dry density for the material determined as per IS:2720 (par 8).The surface of any layer of material compaction shall be well closed, free from movement under compaction equipment and from compaction planes, ridges, crack or loose material. All loose, segregated or otherwise defected areas shall be made good to the full thickness layer and re-compacted.

Surface finish and quality control of work:


The surface of the compaction shall confirm to the requirements of heading 10. Control on the quality of material and work shall be exercised by the engineer and accordance with heading 11.

Measurement of payment:
Granular sub-base shall be measured as finished work in position in cum. The protection of edges of granular sub-base extended over the full formation as shown in drawing shall be considered incidental to the work providing granular sub-base and such no extra payment shall be made for the same.

Wet mix macadam sub-Basel base

SCOPE this work shall consists of laying of compacting clean, crushed, graded aggregated and granular, premixed with water, to a dense mass on a prepared sub grade/sub-base or existing pavement as the case may be in accordance with the requirements of these specifications. The material shall be laid in one or more layer as necessary to line, grades and cross-section shown on the approved drawings or as directed by the engineer. The thickness of a single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer shall not be less than 75 mm. When vibrating or other approved types of compacting equipment are used, the compacted depth of a single layer of the sub-base course may be increased to 200 mm upon approval of the engineer.

Materials: Aggregates: Physical requirements:


Coarse aggregates shall be crushed stone. If crushed gravel/Shingle is used, not less than 90 percent by weight of the gravel/Shingle pieces retained on 4.75 mm sieve shall have at least two Fractured faces. The aggregates shall conform to the physical requirement set forth in table 4 below.

Table 4 physical requirements of coarse aggregate for wet mix macadam for sub-base /base coarse:

S.NO.

TEST
Los Angles Abrasion Value Or Aggregate Impact Value.

TEST REQUIREMENTS METHOD


IS:2386 (part 4) IS:5640 30% 40%

1.

2.

Combined Flakiness Elongation Test

IS:2386 (part1)

30%

Aggregate may satisfy requirements of either of the two tests. To determine this combined portion, the flaky stone from a representative sample should first be separate out. Flakiness index is weight of flaky stone metal divided by weight of stone sample. Only the elongated particles be separated out from the remaining (non-flaky) stone metal. Elongation index is weight of elongated particles divided by total nonflaky particle. The value of flakiness index and elongation index so found are added up. If the water absorption value of the coarse aggregate is greater than 2 percent, the soundness test shall be carried out on the material delivered to site as par IS: 2386 (part-S).

GRADING REQUIREMENTS:
The aggregate shall conform to the grading given in Table 5

TABLE 5. GRADING REQUIREMENTS OF AGGREGATES FOR WET MIX MACADAM:


Is sieve designation
% by weight passing the IS SIEVE

53.00 mm 45.00 mm 26.50 mm 22.40 mm

100 95-100 60-80

11.20 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 600.00 micron

40-60 25-40 15-30 8-22

75.00 micron

0-8

Material finer than 425 micron shall have plasticity index (PI) not exceeding 6.the final gradation approved within these limits shall be well graded from coarse to find and shall not very from the low limit on one sieve to high limit on the adjacent sieve or vice versa..

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION : Preparation of base:


The surface of the sub-base/ base to receive the mix wet mix macadam coarse shall be prepared to the specific lines & cross falls (camber) & made free of dust& other extraneous material.

PROVISION OF LATERAL CONFINEMENT OF AGGREGATES:


While constructing wet mix macadam, arrangement shall be made for the lateral confinement of wet mix. This shall be done by laying material in adjoining shoulder along with that of Wet Mix Macadam layer.

Preparation of mix:
Wet mix macadam shall be prepared in an approved mixing plant of suitable capacity having provision for controlled addition of water and forced! Positive mixing arrangement like pug mill or pan type mixer of concrete batching plant. Optimum moisture for mixing shall be determined in accordance with IS: 2720 (pait8) after replacing the aggregate fraction retail 1ed on 22.4 mm sieve with material of 4.75 mm to 22.4 mm size. While adding water, due to allowance should be made for evaporation losers. However, at the time of compaction, water in the wet mix should not vary from the optimum value by more than agreed limits. The mixed material should be uniformly wet and no segregation should be permitted.

Spreading of mix:
Immediately after mixing, the aggregates shall be spread uniformly and evenly upon the prepared sub-grade/sub-base/base in required quantities. In no case these be laid nor shall their hauling over a partly completed stretch be permitted. The mix may be spread either by a paver finisher or motor grader. For portions where mechanical means cannot be used, manual means are

approved by the: Engineer shell be used. The motor grade shall be capable For portions where mechanical means cannot be used, manual means are spreading the material uniformly all over the surface. Its blade shall have hydraulic control suitable for initial adjustments and maintaining the same so as to achieve the specified slope and grade.

The power finisher shall be self-propelled, having the following features:

(1) (2)

Loading hoppers and suitable distribution mechanism. The screed shall tamping and vibrating arrangement for initial compaction to the layer is it is spread without rutting or otherwise marring the surface profile.

(3)

The paver shall be equipped with necessary control mechanism so as to ensure that the finished surface is free from surface blemishes.

COMPACTION:
After the mix has been laid to the: required thickness, grade and cross fall/ camber the same shall be uniformly compacted, to the. Full depth with suitable roller. If the thickness of single compacted layer does not exceed 100 mm, a smooth wheel roller of 80 to 100kN weight may be used. for a compacted single layer up to 200 mm, the compaction shall be done with the help of vibratory roller of minimum static weight1 of 80 to 100kNor equivalent capacity roller. The speed of the roller shall not exceed 5 km/hr. In portions having unidirectional cross fall/ super elevation, rolling shall commence form the lower edge and progress gradually towards the upper edge. Thereafter, roller should progress parallel to the centerline of the road, uniformly over-lapping each preceding track by at least one-third width until the entire surface has been rolled.

Alternate trip of the roller shall be terminated at the stops at least 1 m away from any preceding stop. I portion in camber, rolling should begin at the edge with the roller running forward and backward until the edges have been firmly compacted. The roller shall than progress gradually towards the center line of the road uniformly overlapping each of the preceding track at least one-third width until entire surface has been rolled. Rolling shall be continued I till the density achieved is at least 98% of the maximum dry density of the material as determined by the method outlined in IS: 2720 (part 8).

SETTING AND DRYING:


After final compaction of wet mix macadam course, the road shall be allowed to dry for 24 hours.

Opening to traffic
Preferably no vehicular traffic of any kind should be allowed Dn the finished wet mix macadam surface till it has dried and the wearing course laid.

SURFACE FINISH AND QUALITY CONTROL OF WORK SURFACE EVENNESS:

The surface finish of construction shall conform to the requirements of heading 10.

QUALITY CONTROL:
Control on the quality of materials and work shall be exercised by the engineer in accordance with heading 11.

MEASURMENT FOR PAYMENT:


Wet mix macadam shall measure as finished work in position in cubic meters.

PRIME COAT OVER GRANULAR BASE

SCOPE:
This work shall consist of the application of angle coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous material to a porous granular surface. Preparatory to the superimposition of bituminous treatment or mix.

MATERIALS:

PRIMER:
the choice of the bituminous primer shall depend upon the porosity characteristic of the surface to be primed as classified in Ire:16.
These are

1. Surface of low porosity, such as wet mix macadam and water bound macadam. 2. Surface of medium porosity, such as cement stabilized soil base. 3. Surface of high porosity, such as gravel base.

Primer viscosity:
The type and viscosity of the primer shall comply with requirements of IS: 8887, as sampled and tested for bituminous primer in accordance with these standards. Guidance in viscosity and rate of spray is given in TABLE.

Table 6. viscosity requirements and quantity of liquid bituminous primer


Types of surface Kinematic viscosity Quantity of liquid of primer at bituminous material 60deg.C per 10 sq. m. centistokes

Low porosity medium Porosity

30-60

6 to9

70-140

9 to12

High porosity

250-500

12 to 15

Choice of primer:
The primer shall be bitumen emulsion, complying with of a type and grade as specified in the contract or as directed by the engineer. The use of medium curing cutback as per IS: 217 shall be restricted only for site at sub zero temperatures or for emergency application as per directed by the engineer.

Weather and seasonal limitations:


Bituminous primer shall not be applied to wet surface during a dust storm or weather is foggy, rainy or windy or when the temperature in shade is less than 10deg. C. surface which are to receive emulsion primer should be damp, but no force or standing water shall be present.

Construction:

Equipment:
The primer distributor shall be self-propelled or towed bitumen pressure sprayer equipped for spraying the material uniformly at the specified rates and temperatures. Hand spraying of small areas, inaccessible to the distributor, or in narrow strips shall be sprayed with a pressure hand sprayer, or as directed by the engineer.

Curing of primer and opening to traffic:


A primed surface shall be allowed to cure for at least 24 hrs. or such other period as is found to be necessary to allow all the volatiles evaporate before any subsequent surface treatment or mix is laid. Any unabsorbed primer shall first be blotted with an application of sand using the minimum quantity as possible. A primed surface shall not be opened to traffic or other than that necessary to lay the next course. A very thin layer of clean sand may be applied to the surface of the primer, to prevent primer of picking up under the wheels of the paver and the trucks delivering bituminous material to the paver.

Quality control of work


For control of the quality of material supplied and the work carried out, the relevant provision of heading 11 shall be applied.

Measurement of payment
Prime coat shall be measured in terms of surface area of application in square meters.

TACK COAT
SCOPE:
This work consists of the application of a single coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous material to an existing bituminous road surface preparatory to the superimposition of bituminous mix, when specified by the Contract or instructed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS: BINDER:
The binder used for tack coat shall be bitumen emulsion complying with IS: 8887 of a type and grade specified in the Contract of a directed by the Engineer. The use of cutback bitumen as per IS:217 shall be restricted only for sites sub-zero temperatures or for emergency applications as directed by the Engineer.

WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMITATIONS


Bituminous material shall not be applied to a wet surface of during a dust strom or when the weather is foggy, rainy or windy or when the temperature in the shade is less than 10c. Where the tack coat consists of emulsion, the surface should be slightly damp, but not wet. Where the tack coat is of cutback, the surface shall be dry.

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
The tack coat distributor shall be self-propelled or towed bitumen pressure sprayer, equipped for spraying the material uniformly at a specified rate. Hand spraying of small Areas, inaccessible to the distributor, of in narrow strips, shall be sprayed with a pressure hand sprayer, or as directed by the Engineer.

APPLICATION OF TACK COAT:


The application of tack coat shall be at the rate specified in the Contract, and shall be applied uniformly. If rate of application of tack coat is not specified in the Contract then it shall be at the rate specified in Table 7. The normal range of spraying temperature for a bituminous emulsion shall be 20C to 70C and for a cutback, 50C to 80C if RC-70/MC-70 is used. The method of application of the tack coat will depend on the type of equipment to be used, size of nozzles, pressure at spray bar, and speed of forward movement. The Contract r shall demonstrate at a spraying trial, that the equipment and the method to be used is capable of producing a uniform spray, within the tolerances specified.

TABLE 7 RATE OF APPLICATION OF TACK COAT

TYPE OF SURFACES

QUANTITY OF LIQUIDBITUMINOUS MATERIAL INKG. PER SQ. M. AREA

(I) Normal bituminous surface

0.20 to 0.25

(ii) Dry and hungry bituminous surface

0.25 to 0.30

(iii) Granular surfaces treated with primer

0.25 to 0.30

(iv) Non Bituminous surfaces) Granular base (not primed)b) Cement concrete pavement

0.35 to 0.400.30 to 0.3

Where the material to receive an overlay is a freshly laid bituminous dyer that has not been subjected to traffic of contaminated by dust, a tack coat is not mandatory where the overlay is completed with two days.

CURING OF TACK COAT:


The coat shall be left to cure until all the volatiles have evaporated before any subsequent construction is started. No plant of vehicles shall be allowed on the tack coat other than those essential for the construction.

QUALITY CONTROL OF WORK


For control the quality of materials supplied and the works carried out, the relevant provision of heading 11 shall apply.

MEASUREMENT OF PAYMENT
Tack coat shall be measured in terms of surface area of application in square meters.

DENSE GRADE BITUMINOUS MACADAM SCOPE


This clause specifies the construction of Dense Grade Bituminous Macadam, (DBM), for use mainly, but not exclusively, in base/binder and profile corrective course. DBM is also intended for use as road base material. This work shall consist of construction in a single of multiple layers of DBM on a previously prepared base of sub-base. The thickness of a single layer shall be 50 mm to 100mm.

MATERIALS BITUMEN:
The bitumen shall be paving bitumen of penetration Grade complying with Indian Standard Specifications for Paving Bitumen IS: 73, and of the penetration indicated in Table 10 for Dense Bituminous Macadam, or a appropriate grade of bitumen is given in the manual for construction and Supervision of Bituminous Works.

COARSE AGGREGATES:
The coarse aggregates shall consist of crushed rock, crushed grave! Or other hard material retained on the 2.36 mm sieve. They shall be clean, hard, durable, of cubical shape, free from dust and soft or friable

matter, organic of other deleterious substances. Where the Contractors selected sources of aggregates have poor affinity for bitumen , as a condition for the approved anti-stripping agent, as per the manufacturers recommendations, without additional payment. Before approval of the source, the aggregates shall be tested for stripping. The aggregate shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 8, for dense bituminous macadam. Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate, not less than 90% by weight of the crushed material retained on the 4.75 mm sieve shall have a least two fractured faces.

FINE AGGREGATES:
Fine aggregates shall consists of crushed or naturally occurring mineral material, or a combination of the two, passing the 2.36 mm sieve and retained on the 75 micron sieve. They shall be dean, hard, durable, dry and free from dust, and soft or friable matter, organic or other deleterious matter. The fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the requirement of IS: 2720 (Part 37). The plasticity index of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm sieve shall not exceed 4. When tested in accordance with IS: 2720 (Part 5)

TABLE 8. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COARSE

AGC REGA THE DENSE GRADE BITUMINOUS MACADA


PROPERTY Cleanliness(dust) TEST SPECIFICATION Grain size an analysis Flakiness Max 5% passing 0.075 and Elongation Index (Combined) Particle Shape Strength Durability Los Angles Abrasion value Aggregate Impact Value Soundness sodium sulphate Magnesium Water absorption Stripping Sulphate water Absorption Coatin and Stripping of Bitumen Water Sensitivity Aggregate Mixtures Retained Tensile Strength Max 80% Max 2%Max retained coating 95% max 35% Max 27% Max 12%Max 18% mm sieve Max 30%

FILLER:
Filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, hydrated lime or cement approved by the Engineer. The filler shall be graded within the limits indicated in Table 9

TABLE 9. GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR MINERAL

FILLER
ISSIEVE(MM) 0.6 0.6 0.075 CUMULATIVE PERCENT PASSINGBY WEIGHT OF TOTAL AGGREGATE 100 95-100 85-100

The filler shall be free from organic impurities and have a plasticity Index not greater than 4. The Plasticity Index requirement shall not apply if filler is cement or lime. When the coarse aggregate is gravel, 2 percent by weight of total aggregate, shall be Portland cement or hydrated lime and the percentage of fine aggregate reduce accordingly, Cement or hydrated lime is not required when the lime stone aggregate is used where the aggregates fail to meet requirements of the water sensitivity test in Table 8, then 2 percent by total weight of aggregate, of hydrated lime shall be added without additional cost.

AGREGATE GRADING AND DINDER CONTENT:


When tested in accordance with IS: 2386 Part 1 (wet sieving method), the combined grading of the coarse and fine aggregates and added filler for the particular mixture shall fall within the limits shown in Table 10, for dense bituminous macadam grading 1 of 2 as specified in the contract. The type and quantity of bitumen, and appropriate thickness, are also indicated for each mixture type.

MIXTURE DESIGN REQUIRMENT FOR THE MIXTURE:


A Part from conformity with the grading and quality requirements for individual ingredients, the mixture shall meet the requirements set out in Table 11. Notes: 1. The normal maximum particle size is one size larger than the first sieve to retain more than 10 percent. 2. Interpolate minimum voids in the mineral aggregate (YMA) for design air voids values between listed.

BINDER CONTENT:
The binder content shall be optimized to achieve the requirements of the mixture set out in Table: 11 and traffic volume specified in the Contract. The Marshall method for determining the optimum binger content shall be adopted as described in The Asphalt Institute Manual Ms-2, replacing the aggregates retained on the 22.4 mm sieve, where approved by the Engineer. Where 40 mm dense bituminous macadam mixture is specified, the modified Marshall method described in MS-2 shall be used. This method requires modified equipment and procedures; particularly the minimum stability value in Table 11 shall be multiplied by 2.25, and the minimum flow. Shall be 3 mm.

JOB MIX FORMULA:


The Contractor shall inform the Engineer in writing, at least 20 days before the start of the work, of the job mix formula proposed for use in the works, and shall give the following details:

Source and location of all materials; Proportions of all materials expressed as follows where each is applicable: Binder type, and percentage by weight of total mixture; Coarse aggregate/fine aggregate/mineral filler as percentage by weight of total aggregate: including mineral filler;

A single definite percentage passing each sieve Iv1 the mixed aggregate; The individual grading of the individual aggregate fractions, and the proportion of each in the combined grading.

The results of tests enumerated in Table 11 as obtained by the Contractor. Where the mixer is a batch mixer, the individual weights of each type of aggregate, and binder per batch. Test results of physical characteristics of aggregates to be used;

Maxing temperature and compacting temperature. While establishing the job mix formula, the contractor shall ensure that it is based 011 a correct and truly representative sample of the materials that will actually re used in the work and that the mixture and its different ingredients satisfy the physical and strength requirements of these specifications. Approval for mix formula shall be

based on independent testing by the engineer for which samples of all ingredients of the mix shall be furnished by the Contractor as required by the Engineer. The approved job mix formula shall remain effective unless and until a revised job Mix Formula is approved. Should a charge in the source of materials be proposed, a new job mix formula shall be forwarded to the Engineer for approval before the placing of the material.

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMTATIONS


Laying shall be done suspended while free-standing water is present on the surface to be covered, or during rain, fog and dust storms, After rain, the bituminous surface, Prime of tack coat, shall be blown off with a high pressure air jet to remove excess moisture, or the surface left to dry before laying shall start. Laying of bituminous mixtures shall not be carried out when the air temperature at the surface on which it is to be laid is below 100e or when the wind speed at any temperature exceed 40 km/h at 2m height unless specifically approved by the Engineer.

PREPARATION OF BASE:
The surface to which the bituminous work is to be laid shall be cleaned of all loose and extraneous matter by means of a mechanical broom or any other approver equipment / method as specified in the contract. The use of a high-pressure air jet from a compressor to remove dust or loose matter shall be available full time on the site. Unless otherwise specified in the contract.

PRIME COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam is to be laid is other than bitumen bound layer, a prime coat shall be applied, as per specifications, of as directed by the Engineer.

TACK COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam is to be placed is bitumen bound surface, a tack coat shall be applied, as per specifications, or as directed by the Engineer.

SPREADING:
Except in areas where a mechanical paver cannot access, bituminous materials shall be spread, levelled and tamped by an approved selfpropelled paving machine. As soon as possible after arrival at site, the materials shall be supplied continuously to the paver and laid without delay. The rate of delivery of material to the paver shall be regulated to enable the paver to operate continuously. The travel rate of the paver: and its method of operations shall be adjusted to ensure and even and uniform flow of bituminous material across the screen, free from dragging, tearing and segregation of the materials. In areas with restricted space where the mechanical paver cannot be used, the material shall be spread, raked and levelled with suitable hand tools by experienced staff, and compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The minimum thickness of material laid in each paver pass shall be in accordance with the minimum values given in the relevant of these Specifications. When laying blinder course or wearing course approaching

an expansion joint of a structure, machine lying shall stop 300 mm short of the joint. The remainder of the pavement up to the joint, and the corresponding area beyond it, shall be laid by hand, and the joint or joint cavity shall be kept clear 6f surfacing materials. Bituminous material, with a temperature greater than 145C shall not be laid or deposited on bridge deck waterproofing systems, unless precautions against heat damage have been approved by the Engineer.

ROLLING:
Bituminous materials shall be laid and compacted in layers which enable the specified thickness, surface level, surface regularity requirements and compaction to be achieved. Compaction of bituminous materials shall commence as soon as possible after lying. Compaction shall be substantially completed before the temperature falls below the minimum rolling temperature started in the relevant part of these specifications. Rolling of the longitudinal points shall be done immediately behind the paving operation. After this, rolling shall commence at the edges end progress toward the centre portions; it shall progress from the lower to the upper edge parallel to the centre line of the pavement. Rolling shall continue until all roller marks have been removed from the surface. All deficiencies in the paver before initial rolling is commenced. The initial or breakdown rolling shall be done with 8-10 tones dead weight smooth-wheeled rollers. The intermediate rolling shall be done with 8- 10 tones dead weight or vibratory roller On with a pneumatic typed roller of 12 to 15 tonnes weight having nine wheels, with a tyre pressure of at least 5.6 kg/cm2 the finish rolling shall be done with 6 to 8 tonnes smooth wheeled tandem rollers.

Bituminous materials shall be rolled in a longitudinal direction, with the driven rolls nearest the paver. The roller shall first compact material adjacent to joints and then work from the lower to the upper side of the layer, overlapping on successive passes by at least one-third of the width of the near roll or, in the case of a pneumatic-tried roller, at least the nominal width of 300 mm. In portions with super-elevated and unidirectional camber, after the edge has been rolled, the roller shall progress from the lower to the upper edge. Rollers should move at a speed of not more than 5 km per hour. The roller shall not be permitted to stand on pavement which has not been fully compacted, and necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent dropping of oil, grease, petrol or other foreign matter on the pavement either when the rollers are operation or standing. The wheels of rollers shall be taken moist with water, and the spray system provided with the machine shall be in good working order, to prevent the mixture from adhering to the wheels only sufficient moisture to prevent adhesions between the wheels of rollers and mixture should be used. Surplus water shall not be allowed to stand on the partially compacted pavement.

OPENING TO TRAFFIC
The newly laid surface shall not be open to traffic for at least 24hrs after laying and complete on of compaction, without the express approval of the Engineer in writing.

MEASUREMENT FOR PAYMENT


Dense Grade Bituminous Materials, shall be measured as finished work either in cubic meters, tons or by the square meter at a specified thickness as detailed an Contract drawings, or documents, or as directed

by the Engineer.

BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SCOPE


This clause specifies the construction of bituminous concrete, for use in wearing and profile corrective courses. This work shall consist of construction in a single or multiple layers of bituminous concrete on a previously prepared bituminous bound surface. A single layer shall be 25 mm to 100 mm in thickness.

MATERIALS BITUMEN:
The bitumen shall be paving of bitumen of penetration grade complying with Indian Standard Specification for Paving Bitumen, IS: 73 and of the penetration indicated in Table 15, for bituminous concrete, or as otherwise specified in the Contract. Guidance on the selection of an appropriate grade of bitumen is given in The Manual for Construction and Supervision of Bituminous Works.

COARSE AGGREGATES:
The coarse aggregates shall consist of crushed rock, crushed gravel or other hard material retained on the 2.36 mm sieve. They shall be clean, hard, and durable, of cubical shape, free from dust and soft or friable matter, organic or other deleterious substances. Where the Contractors selected source of aggregates have poor affinity for

bitumen, as a condition for the approval of that source the bitumen shall be treated with an approved anti-stripping agent, as per the manufacturers recommendations, without additional payment. Before approval of the source, the aggregates shall be tested for stripping. The aggregates shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 13, for bituminous concrete.

FINE AGGREGATES:
Fine aggregates shall consists of crushed or naturally occurring mineral material, of a combination of the two, passing the 2.36 mm sieve and retained on the 75 micron sieve. They shall be clean, hard, durable, dry and free from dust, and soft or friable matter, organic or other deleterious matter. The fine aggregate shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than 50 when tested in accordance with the requirement of IS: 2720(Part 37). The plasticity index of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm sieve shall not exceed 4. When tested in accordance with IS: 2720 (part 5).

FILLER:
Filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, hydrated lime or cement approved by the Engineer. The filler shall be graded within the limits indicated in Table 9. The filler shall be free from organic impurities and have a Plasticity Index rot greater than 4. The plasticity Index requirement shall not apply if filler is cement or lime. When the coarse aggregate is gravel, 2 percent by weight of total aggregate, shall be Portland cement or hydrated lime and the percentage of fine aggregate reduce accordingly. Cement or

hydrated lime is not required when the lime stone aggregate is used. Where the aggregates fail to meet the requirements of the water sensitivity test in Table 13, then 2 percent by total weight of aggregate, of hydrated lime shall be added without additional cost.

AGGREGATE GRADING AND BINDER CONTENT:


When tested in accordance with IS: 238C Part 1 (Wet grading method), the combined grading of the coarse and fine aggregates and adder filler shall fall within the limits shown in Table 15 for grading 1 or 2 as specified in the Contract.

MIXTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MIXTURE:


Apart from conformity with the grading and quality requirements for individual ingredients, he mixture shall meet the requirements set out in Table 16. The requirements for minimum in percent voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) are set out in Table 12.

BINDER CONTENT:
The binder content shall be optimized to achieve the requirements of the mixture set out in Table 16 and the traffic volume as specified in the Contract. The Marshall method for determining the optimum binder content shall be adopted as described in the Asphalt Institute Manual

MS-2, replacing the aggregates retained on the 26.5 mm sieve and retained on the 22.4 sieve, where approved by the Engineer.

JOB MIX FORMULA:


The Contractor shall inform the Engineer in writing, at least 20 days before the star of the work, of the job mix formula proposed for us, in the works, and shall give the following details: Source and location of all materials; Proportions of all materials expressed as follows where each is applicable: Binder type, and percentage by weight of total mixture; Coarse aggregate (fine aggregate/mineral filler as percentage by weight of total aggregate including mineral filler; A single definite percentage passing each sieve for the mixed aggregate; The individual grading of the individual aggregate factions, and the proportion of each in the combined grading. The results of tests enumerated in Table 16 as obtained by the Contractor; Where the mixer id a batch mixer, the individual weights of each type of aggregate, and binder per patch; Test results of physical characteristics of aggregates to be used; Mixing temperature and compaction temperature. While establishing the job mix formula, the contractor shall ensure that it is based on a correct and truly representative sample of the materials that will actually be used in the work and that the mixture and its different ingredients satisfy the physical and strength requirements of these specifications Approval of the job mix formula shall be based on independent testing by the engineer for which samples

of all ingredients of the mix shall be furnished by the Contractor as required by a Engineer. The approved job mix formula shall remain effective unless and until a revised Job Mix Formula is approved. Should a charge in the source of materials be proposed, a new job mix formula shall be forwarded to the Engineer for approval before the placing of the material.

TABLE 13. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE FOR BITUMIENOUS CONCRETE PAVEMENT LAYERS
PROPERTY Particle shape TEST Flakiness and Elongation Index Los Angeles Abrasion Polishing Durability Value Soundness Sodium Sulphate Magnesium Sulphate Water absorption Max 30%Max 24%Max 55% Water absorption Stripping Water Sensitivity TEST 0.075mm sieve Max 30% Cleanliness (dust) Strength Grain Size analysis Value Aggregate Impact Caules Polished Stone Coation and Stripping of Bitumen Aggregate Mixture Retained Tensile Strength

CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS: WEATHER AND SEASONAL LIMITATIONS:

Lying shall be done suspended while free-standing water IS present on the surface to be covered, or during rain, fog and dust storms. After rain the bituminous surface, prime of tack coat shall be blown off with a high pressure air jet to remove excess moisture of the surface left to dry before lying shall start. Laying of bituminous mixture shall not be carried out when the air temperature at the surface on which it is to be laid is below 10 c or when the wind speed at any temperature exceeds 40 km/h at 2 m height unless specifically approved by the Engineer.

PREPARATION OF BASE:
The surface to which the bituminous work is to be laid shall be cleaned of all loose and extraneous matter by means of a mechanical broom or any other approved equipment / method as specified in the contract. The use of a high-pressure air jet jorum a compressor to remove dust or loose matter shall be available full time on the site, unless otherwise specified in the contract.

TACK COAT:
Where the material on which the dense bituminous macadam is to Be placed is bitumen bound surface, a tack coat shall be applied as per specifications, or as directed by the Engineer.

MIXING AND TRANSPROTING OF THE MIXTURE:


Pre-mixed bituminous concrete shall be prepared in a hot mix plant of

adequate capacity and capable of yielding a mix of proper and uniform quality with thoroughly coated aggregates. Appropriate mixing temperatures can be found in Table 14 of these specifications; the difference in temperature between the binder and aggregate should at no time exceed 14C. In order to ensure uniform quality of the mix and better coating of aggregates, the hot mix plant shall be calibrated from time to time.

TABLE MANUFACTURING AND ROLLING TEMPRATURES


BITUMEN PENETRAT 35 65 90 BITUME MIXING 160-170 150-165 140-160 AGGREAGAT MIXING 160-175 150-170 140-165 MIXEDMATE ROLING LAYING 170 165 155 100 min 130 min 90 min 125 min 80 min 115 min

Bituminous materials shall be transported in clean insulated vehicles, I and unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, shall be covered while in transit or awaiting tipping. Subject to the approval of the Engineer, a thin coation of diesel of lubrication oil may be applied to the interior of the vehicle to prevent sticking and to facilitate discharge of the material.

TABLE 15. COMPOSION OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

PAVEMENT LAYERS
GRADING NOMINALAGGREGATE SIZE LAYER THICKNESS 1 19MM 50-65 MM 2 13MM 35-45 MM IS SIEVE(MM) COMMULATIVE % BY WEIGHT OF TOTAL AGGREGATE POASSING 45 37.5 26.5 19 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 100 79-100 59-79 52-72 35-55 28-44 20-34 15-27 13-20 13-14 100 79-100 79-88 53-71 42-58 34-48 26-38 18-28 13-20

SPREADING:
Except in areas where a mechanical paver cannot access, bituminous materials shall be spread, levelled and tamped by a n approved selfpropelled paving machine. As soon as possible after arrived at site, the materials shall be supplied continuously to the paver and laid without delay. The rate of delivery of Material to the paver shall be regulated to enable the paver to operate continuously. The travel rate of the paver and its method of operations shall be adjusted to ensure an even and uniform flow of bituminous material across the screed free from dragging, tearing and segregation of the materials. In areas with restricted space where the mechanical paver cannot, be used, the material shall be spread, raked and levelled with suitable hand tools by experienced staff and compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The minimum thickness of Material laid in each paver pass shall be in accordance with the minimum values given in the relevant parts of these Specifications. When laying binder course of wearing course approaching an expansion joint of a structure, machine lying shall stop 300 m short of the joint. The remainder of the pavement up to the joint, and the corresponding area beyond it, shall be laid by hand, and the joint of joining cavity shall be kept clear of surfacing materials. Bituminous material, with a temperature greater than 145C, shall not be laid or deposited on bridge deck waterproofing systems, unless precautions against heat damage have been approved by the Engineer.

ROLLING:
Bituminous materials shall be laid and compacted in layers which enable the specified thickness, surface level, regularity requirements and compaction to be achieved. Compaction of bituminous materials shall commerce as soon as possible after laying. Compaction shall be substantially completed before the temperature falls below the minimum rolling temperature started in the relevant part of these specifications. Rolling of the longitudinal joints shall be done immediately behind the paving operation. After this, rolling shall commence at the edges and progress towards the centre longitudinally except that on super elevated and unidirectional cambered portions, it shall progress from the lower to the upper edge parallel to the centre line of the pavement. Rolling shall continue until all roller marks have been removed from the surface. All deficiencies in the surface after lying shall be made good by the attendants behind the paver, before initial rolling is commenced. The initial of breakdown rolling shall be done with 8-10 tones dead weight smooth-wheeled rollers. The intermediate rolling shall be done with 8-10 tones dead weight cr vibratory roller or with a pneumatic type roller of 12 to15 tones weight having nine wheels, with a tyre pressure of at least 506 kg/sq.cm. The finish rolling shall be done with 6 to 8 tonnes smooth wheeled tandem rollers. Bituminous materials shall be rolled in a longitudinal direction, with the driven rolls nearest the paver. The roller shall first compact material adjacent to joints and then work from the lower to the upper side of the layer, overlapping on successive passes by at least one-third of the

width of the rear roll or, in the case of a pneumatic-tried roller, at least the nominal width of 300 mm. In portions with super-elevated and uni-directional camber, after the edge; has been rolled, the roller shall progress from the lower to the upper edge. Rollers should move at a speed of not more than 5 km per hour. The roller shall not be permitted to stand on pavement which has not been fully compacted, and necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent dropping of oil, grease, petrol of other foreign matter on the pavement either when the rollers are operating of standing. The wheels of rollers shall be taken moist with water, and the spray system provided with the machine shall be in good working order, to prevent the mixture from adhering to the wheels. Only sufficient moisture to prevent adhesion between the wheels of rollers and the mixture should be used. Surplus water shall not be allowed to stand on the partially compacted pavement.

OPENING TO TRAFFIC
The newly laid surface should not be open to traffic for at least 24 hours after laying and completion of compaction, without the express approval of the Engineer in wirting.

SURFACE FINISH AND QUALITY CONTROL


The surface finish of the completed construction shall conform to the requirements of heading 10. All materials and workmanship should comply with the provisions set out in heading 11 of this specification.

MEASUREMENT OF PAYMENT
Dense Grade Bituminous M.1 trials, shall be measured as finished work either in cubic meters, tons or by the square meter at a specified thick ness as detailed the Contract drawings, or documents, or as directed by the Engineer.

METHODOLOGY OF PQC. SCOPE:


The work shall consist of construction of un-reinforced, dowel jointed plain cement concrete pavements in accordance with the requirements of MOST specification and in conformity with the lines grades and cross sections as shown on the approved drawings. The work shall include furnishing of all plant and equipment, materials and labour as directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS: CEMENT:
Ordinary part land cement 43 grade confirming IS: 8112.

ADMIXTURES:
Admixtures used conforming to IS: 9625 and IS: 9103.

COARSE AGGREGATE:
The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm. the coarse aggregate complying with IS: 383

FINE AGGREGATE:
As approved in mix design confirm to IS: 383.

WATER:
It shall meet the requirement as stipulated in IS: 456.

MACHINERY USED IN CONSTRUCTION


LIST OF PLANT & MACHINERY DEVELOPED AT SITE:

WMM Mixing plant Tailor Stone Crusher unit 100TPH Tipper (6/8) GSB Crusher unit 100 TPH Tipper (14cum) Weight Bridge Tractor

Concrete Batching Plant Plate Compactor Transit Mixer Concrete Mixer Motor Grader Generator set 250KVA Front end loader Generator set 180KVA Generator set 125KVA Generator set 100KVA Generator set 22KVA Generator set 17.5KVA Generator set 5KVA Excavator J.C.B Soil Compactor Sensor Pavers WMM Pavers Vibratory Tandem Roller Static Roller Hydra Air Compressor Needle Vibrator Water Pump Bitumen Spryer Welding set with Generator 8KVA Mechanical Boomer Vehicles Water Tanks

SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

1. Civil engineer should perform the work at their level best so that it will give better result and improve the production of the company. 2. Infrastructure of Civil Contractor Cell should be more developed for giving the contract to the best contractor. 3. Welfare facilities should be increase in for civil engineers of Construction Company. 4. For the safety of civil engineers at the construction, company should give the best equipments of safety to the civil engineers. 5. The hostel facility and amenities should be improved so that the civil engineers could work with more efficiency. 6. The civil engineers are advised to do their work in slot as they do it bulk which create adverse problems for example the road was dug during the rainy season in one flow which resulted in heavy loss of material, money and machinery of the company. The work should have been done in small phases and according

to the circumstances. The clipping can be seen on the next page as to how destruction was made during the time when I was undergoing my training.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. I.S. specification book on highway. 2. Highway material testing book by 3. S.K.Khanna, C.E.G Justo. 4. Organizations Laboratory. 5. Organizations Engineers.