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3

4
12
14


Notes

Open Source

Interview

C NVIDIA Linux-

Success story
. Linux

Linux

18

Hardware

Linux
Familiar iPAQ.

22

Desktop

Fedora Core 3

30


Pocket PC

34

39


Linux

42


Audacity

46


Windows- Cedega

48


GNOME 2.10,

52

Advanced

, LVM

56

...

58


Unison

60


Linux

66

74


mutt

76


Stargazer

80


Python

82

FAQ

90

94

Review


. ,
, .
, . , , , .
.
,
, . , , ,
.

just for fun, Linux
,
. , .
. , ,
,

, Linux .
,

,
. , ,
,
RPM-,
.
, ,
, -, ,
.
, ,
Fedora Core 3,
,
, .
LiveCD- Knoppix 3.7. Linux.
, !
,

notes

Open

Source


, , ,
amaroK.
AmaroK Live

PCLinux
OS LiveCD,
,

amaroK, ,
Creative Comons
Wired CD.

AmaroK Live .
,

. ,

,

Beastie Boys
David Byrne,

.
amarok.kde.org


Adobe, ,
, Open Source. ,


.
Adam Eve . ,
. Eve


. Adam

. ,
, : ,
Adobe.
,

Adobe .
opensource.adobe.com

-

Beagle
,
, .

,

SuSE Linux. Beagle
, e-mail, IM- -

. Novell
Linux,
Beagle . SuSE Linux
Pro , Beagle

Open Source,
,
,
Novell.
www.gnome.org/projects/beagle


EMC
Centera
Centera Seek.
, , Centera.

, , ,
. . Centera

.

, API . Seek
.
Seek Centera
Chargeback Reporter,
Centera .
Red
Hat Linux Enterprise Server 3.0.
www.networkworld.com


Deutsche Bahn,
,
Lotus
Notes IBM eServer zSeries 990
SuSE Linux Enterprise
Server Version 8. I
.
( SAP R/3)
Linux .


Linux. Lotus Notes
Deutsche Bahn

5,5 . .
www.computerworld.com

Opera
LynuxWorks,
,
Opera Software. ,
BlueCat Linux (
LynuxWorks)

Opera. ,
BlueCat Linux

Roaring Penguin
Software
- CanIt AntiSpam. ,
50 ,
.
,
. CanIt, Linux
Unix, 2002 .

,
,
.

, .
www.roaringpenguin.com


.
LynuxWorks Opera

(
Lynx OS) Linux
(Application Binary Interface, ABI).
Linux-
Lynx OS -
.
www.rtsoft.ru


Novell
Open Enterprise Server,
NetWare SuSE Linux Enterprise
Server
, ,
.
, ,
Novell Linux.
-
, -
7 . .

, ,
Novell iManager, Novell Storage
Services, Novell Cluster Services,

. , Novell,
, NetWare.
www.novell.com


TransGaming
Win32- Cedega ( WineX). Cedega 4.3
Stilton
, Star Wars Battlefront,
Star Wars Knights of the Old Republic II
The Sith Lords Sid Meier's Pirates! Live
the Life, SimCity 4. ,

Half-life 2
World of Warcraft,

,

(prelinking),
exec shield . .
World of Warcraft
OpenGL.

.
Cedega 4.3 Point2Play Cedega.

, Cedega 4.3
( ),

System Test.
www.transgaming.com

notes

Open

Source

Linux
eWeek.com, Instant802 DeviceScape
UWP (Universal Wireless
Platform) 2.0,
Linux
Eclipse. Instant802

. ,

DeviceScape
Wi-Fi, . 20
(designs)
, Linux,
DeviceScape.
www.eWeek.com

?
Novell
Open Source Hula. ,
.
,
Novell, 200 Hula
Novell NetMail. Hula

Microsoft Exchange
IBM Domino,
Novell
GroupWise. ,
,
Hula
. Novell


Netline Internet
Service, Hula.

-

, Novell
,
. Novell
Open Source
,
. Hula
LGPL
Mozilla Public License.
www.novell.ru



Adobe Open Source

Adobe
. ,
Cnet News, , Adobe Systems,
Linux:

Linux


, Linux
. , ,
. , , Unix
, Linux.
,

, .
,
. ,
Linux
-,
.
news.com.com


Mozilla Foundation, Firefox
Mozilla Thunderbird
,

Microsoft. , Mozilla Europe, ,
, Firefox Thunderbird
100 000 :
, Firefox
Thunderbird, ,
Microsoft Office.
uk.news.yahoo.com

IBM- !
Computerworld,
IBM Unix-
.
eServer p5 510 Express
$4 .
, ,
1,5- -

Power5
512 .
IBM AIX, Linux

. IBM,
,
, Sun
Microsystems Hewlett-Packard.
www.computerworld.com


Wine ,

Windows Visual C++ 6.0

. ,
Wine
Visual C++, .

, Windows,
Linux,
Visual C++ Wine

, , , .
www.inehq.com

,

.
, ,

,


.

IconBox.

,
.

,
.
,
. ,
.
www.elrodeo.de/velopment/iconbox

notes

Open

Source




Linux.
, , O
Windows, Linux.

Nero. -



Linux. ,

, NeroLinux :
Nero Windows.
www.nero.com


(Free Software Foundation) BIOS.

BIOS , , , Phoenix. ,

,
BIOS
.
BIOS
.
,
BIOS.
BIOS (, LinuxBIOS), Free Software Foundation ,
.
BIOS,
, , .
www.fsf.org

RAD
Netscape
Netscape . America
Online -
Netscape 8.
AO Gecko (Mozilla
Netscape, Firefox) Trident, Internet Explorer.
, -
Netscape ,
- ,
. -

,


.

Netscape, , , ,
.
Firefox,


Internet Explorer.
-,
Gekko. Netscape
,
RSS- .
browser.netscape.com

, Interface,
Gupta Technologies,

-
Gupta Team Developer 2005.
(Rapid
Application Development RAD). Windows-,
Linux-.
Interface, Gupta Team
Developer 2005 RAD-,
, Windows,
Linux-.
www.osp.ru

-
IBM
,
.
,
, , Open Source. , ,
, IBM Academic
Initiative,
. , , IBM,
. ,
Academic Initiative
IBM/Linux.
www.ibm.com/us

-
Linux
. Puppy Linux
LiveCD-
(
,
CD), -,
.
Puppy Linux

, .

,
,
,
-. Puppy Linux
,
1.0.0 Alpha,


.
www.goosee.com/puppy


Linux
.
Open Source
: ,
.
, . Linux 2.6.x
() 2.5.x ().
2.5.x
,
,
2.6.x.
Linux 2.6.x Linux 2.6.x.y,

. , Linux,
Linux 2.6.x,
2.6.x.y
Open Source.
linux.slashdot.org



SuSE Linux R-Style .
,
Linux Professional
Institute Certification (LPIC). ,

Junior Level Administration
(LPIC1) Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC2),
Novell Business Partner Training
Provider (BPTP). -


ASPLinux . . . .
ASPLinux ,
Linux .
LPI.

, ASPLinux.
www.osp.ru

10

notes

Open

Source


RealPlayer
,
Windows, Linux Mac
OS X. WAV- SMIL-
. , SMIL-

RealPlayer
-. , ,
RealPlayer Windows
:
Internet Explorer
SMIL- .
RealPlayer
10.5, RealPlayer 10, RealOne Player V2,
RealOne Player V1, RealPlayer 8
RealPlayer Enterprise Windows;

RealPlayer 10 RealOne Player


Macintosh; RealPlayer 10 Helix Player
Linux.

RealNetworks. RealPlayer
Enterprise
service.real.com/help/faq/security/
security022405.html.
informationweek.com



StarOffice 8.

Sun
11 .

, .
-

LinuxWorld, .
StarOffice 8,
,
OpenOffice.org 2.0
Macro
Migration Tool (
Microsoft Office).
,
StarOffice,

,



.
- StarOffice

Sun.
www.sun.com



PalmSource,

, HotSync. , PalmSource,
HotSync
SyncML.
,
. ,
,
.
PalmSource ,
Palm OS Linux. Palm OS Linux ,
PalmSource.
www.palminfocenter.com


Mozilla Foundation ,
- Mozilla.

:
Firefox
Thunderbird. ,
Mozilla Suite 1.8 (
Seamonkey),
Mozilla , ,
1.7.x Mozilla .

1.7.6,
Mozilla
.
- - Seamonkey 1.8
, 1.8.
,
Mozilla Foundation, 1.8
.
www.mozilla.org



.

. :
,
,
.
.
. ,


,
;
,
IP-; .
,

. , Windows XP
2000, Mac OS X Panther, Red Hat
Debian Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD
Windows for Pocket PCs 2002.


Novell SuSE Linux
Professional 9.3
.
Xen Open Source, Microsoft EMC
VMware
. Xen -

, .
,
.
Xen
.
www.novell.com

Mac
Apple
Macintosh.
lkml.org , x86.

Linux- ,
x86 . ZDNet Australia
, , Unix
x86, .
, , : G5 (aka PowerPC 970), 2 .
Apple Mac, , , Linux,
, ;).
,
-
, , ,
, x86, ,
- ,
.
www.zdnet.com

11

12

interview

Linux
.
NVIDIA.
Linux Windows .
,
Linux,
NVIDIA.

, . , ?
,
NVIDIA. .
NVIDIA
,
.
, ,
,
?
, , .
,
.
, , , PR.

,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
, .
NVIDIA , , .
,
NVIDIA ?
, ,
API.
, API
, -

NVIDIA

. ,
Doom 3 Unreal Tournament.
, , ForceWare
,
SPEC Viewperf8, c Quadro Linux.
- ,
,
?
- NVIDIA , ,
,
. ,
. ,
, CD, ,
.
-, .

RPM-,
.
,
?
, OEM, , , Linux
.
, Linux,
, , Linux.
Linux Update (www.nvidia.
com/object/linux_update.html), .
,
. . Linux Update
Linux 32- 64-
nForce.
, Linux Update. ,
, , Windows,
. Linux, ,
, : ,

, , . NVIDIA
, .

Unreal Tournament!
Windows- . Linux-, -
, Linux?
, ! , ,
.
ForceWare Linux.
Linux NVIDIA
. ,
?
,
.
OEM Customer Design Linux,
, . , Linux,
NVIDIA Linux. , : .
? ?
NVIDIA
, 10 250 . (Unified
Driver Architecture UDA), , ,
95%. ,
, . ForceWare !
UDA,
.
Linux- , Open Source ?
Unified Driver Architecture,
, Linux.
Open Source NVIDIA.
: Linux Installer Open Source.

.
, , NVIDIA . |

13

14

success story

. Linux

Microsoft Windows XP Media
Center Edition. Linux
.

, Linux . .

,
, .
, . -,
, ,
, . -, , , . -,
.
, , . :
?
,
SDL. ,
, , ,
, .
Freevo,
- . , .
, . ?
.
.
Linux .
GeForce FX 5200. -
. /FM-
brooktree878 - Tekram Irmate 210. Freevo .

, ,
.

| |
Freevo ,
RPM-, Gentoo Linux,
Debian SuSE Linux. Fedora Core. yum,
Freevo . yum . /etc/yum.conf:
[freevo]
name = Freevo RPM Repository for Fedora Core
baseurl = http://freevo.sf.net/fedora
gpgkey = http://freevo.sourceforge.net/fedora/tcwan_freevo_key.asc
[dag]
name = Dag RPM Repository for Fedora Core
baseurl = http://apt.sw.be/fedora/$releasever/en/$basearch/dag
[freshrpms]
name = Fedora Linux $releasever - $basearch - freshrpms
baseurl = http://ayo.freshrpms.net/fedora/linux/$releasever/
$basearch/freshrpms
[updates]
name = Fedora Linux $releasever - $basearch - updates
baseurl = http://ayo.freshrpms.net/fedora/linux/$releasever/
$basearch/updates
Freevo :
yum install freevo

lirc pylirc:

Linux

yum install lirc pylirc xmltv


MPlayer XINE,
DVD, xmltv .

| |
/etc/freevo/freevo.conf, ,
~/.freevo/local_conf.py.
python .
/usr/share/freevo local_conf.py ~/.freevo .
. .


ROM_DRIVES = [('/mnt/cdrom','/dev/cdrom','CD')]

| |

| |

, Freevo
CD-Rom:

. ,
T-, :

PlayStation
,
,

Linux. .
:
/documentation/input/joystick_parport.txt.
: Sony
PlayStation, Sega Megadrive,
Super Nintendo, Dendy.

Sony PlayStation
60 .


.
. :
CONFIG_INPUT_JOYDEV = m
CONFIG_INPUT_JOYSTICK = y
CONFIG_JOYSTICK_GAMECON = m

:
make modules modules_install
,
, ,
:
modprobe joydev
modprobe gamecon gc = 0,7


.

Freevo
MythTV www.mythtv.org
/FM-
Linux www.linuxlabs.biz/
articles/tvcard.html
LIRC www.lirc.org
,
,
xmltv eugene.renice.org/
onlytv.html

plugin.remove('tv')

| , |
, :
VIDEO_ITEMS = [ ('','/mnt/media/film')
AUDIO_ITEMS = [ ('','/mnt/muzik)]
IMAGE_ITEMS = [('','/mnt/media/foto')]

| |
c Freevo :
Blurr, Info Noia. - :
SKIN_XML_FILE = 'blurr'
XML, .

| - |
Freevo .
:
plugin.activate('www')
WWW_PORT = 10808
WWW_USERS = { test : password}
, Freevo . :

15

16

success story

TV_RECORD_SERVER_IP = 'localhost'
TV_RECORD_SERVER_PORT = 18001

| T- |
,
NVIDIA, .
, NVIDIA, . , .
, , : ,
, .
/etc/X11/xorg.conf :
Section "ServerLayout"
Identifier "m0sia configured"
Screen 0 "Screen0"
Screen 1 "Screen1"
InputDevice "Mouse0" "CorePointer"
InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection
Section "Monitor" #
Identifier "TV"
HorizSync 60
VertRefresh 30-150
VendorName "Thomson"
ModelName "Thomson TV"
EndSection
Section "Device" # T-
Identifier "Nvidia1"
Driver "nvidia"
Screen 1
BusID "PCI:1:0:0"
BoardName "Asus GeForce FX 5200"
Option "RenderAccel"
Option "ConnectedMonitor" "TV"
Option "TVOverScan" "0.692"
Option "TVStandart" "NTSC-M"
Option "TVOutFormat" "COMPOSITE"

Option "NoLogo" "True"


EndSection
Section "Screen" #
Identifier "Screen1"
Device "Nvidia1"
Monitor "TV"
DefaultDepth 16
Subsection "Display"
Depth 24
Modes "640x480"
EndSubSection
EndSection
X-.
.
Freevo :
DISPLAY = :0.1 freevo

| lirc |
lirc :
modprobe lirc_sir
lirc
. lirc :
irrecord -d /dev/lirc0 /etc/lircd.conf
, /etc/lircd.conf.
.
Freevo. /etc/freevo/lircrc. :
begin
prog = freevo
button = < /etc/lircd.conf>
config = <>
end

, Down Down:

Linux


:
freevo recordserver start

begin
prog = freevo
button = Down
config = Down
end
, , :
Up, Down, Left, Right, Play, Stop, Pause, Exit,
Select, FFWD, Rew, VOL+, VOL-, Enter Subtitle.
, , , ,
.
local_conf.py , :


. , Freevo:
TV_DRIVER = 'v4l2'
TV_DEVICE = '/dev/v4l/video0'
TV_INPUT = 0
TV_SETTINGS = '%s television %s %s' % (CONF.tv,
CONF.chanlist, TV_DEVICE)
, . |

LIRCRC = '/etc/freevo/lircrc'

| T-
|
Freevo

video4linux, .
, .
, tv, local_conf.py :
plugin.activate('tv')
Freevo ,
XMLTV.
tv_grab xmltv, -
, tv_grab . :
, ,
, onlytv, .
, onlytv.
:
export PYTHONPATH = PathToPython
./GuiConfiguration.py
:
./tv_grab_ru.py > /tmp/TV.xml
local_conf.py:
TV_CHANNELS =
[('1tv.ru','',''),('rutv.ru','',''),('ntv.ru','',''),('ctctv.ru','','')]


,
,
.

Unicode,


.

1.

Freevo ,
.
.

/usr/share/freevo/fonts/
,
.
UTF-8, Windows.
KOI8-R
:
ftp.vn.ua/pub/win/win3.x/fonts.

2.
ID3-
MP3- ID3- Windows-1251. ,
Freevo .

-

Unicode Rewriter.
: http://sourceforge.net/projects/unicoderewrite. Beep Media
Player XMMS
, ID3v2-.

3.
-
.
,
local_conf.py :
VIDEO_ITEMS = [ ('',
'/mnt/save/film')]
. ,

pygame,
Freevo.
TTF_RenderUTF8

TTF_RenderText. ,
pygame
ichip.ru.

17

18

hardware

Linux

Linux , ,
, . ,
, ,
. Linux.

Linux ,
.
. , , . !
!
.
Linux iPAQ,
.
, , Sharp Zaurus. , ,
iPAQ. , .

| |
Windows Mobile
Familiar, Debian OpenEmbedded. 0.8.1
iPAQ h3600, h3700, h3800, h3900, h5400, h5500, Siemens Simpad Sharp Zaurus. ,
, , , , ,
.
Linux iPAQ 5550. ,
Bluetooth. handhelds.org/mailman/listinfo/familiar,
. ,
Familiar,

Linux

iPAQ

,
. ,
, ,
Windows Mobile. Microsoft ,
Linux.

| Opie vs. GPE |


, , . Familiar
: Opie,
Qtopia, GPE, GTK. , , KDE
GNOME. ,
.
, GPE
. , Opie:
Minimo, ,
, . -
, 90.
Opie
Palm , , , , , . Familiar
. , ,
.
Opie, ,
. , familiar.handhelds.org
Familiar. ( ), . Opie GPE
bootstrap , . ,
TAR, ,
, .

| |
. BootBlaster .
: ActiveSync, Synce,
FTP . BootBlaster3900-2.6.exe bootldr-pxa-2.21.12.bin ( ). BootBlaster
. -, .
, Linux BootLoader Windows Mobile, ,

Familiar iPAQ.
Opie iPAQ h5550
.
wince.gz. -
. , iPAQ . , 40 , ,
.
.
. , iPAQ .
Flash p Program
(- bootldr.bin.gz). ,
15 , . ,
( Verify).
, ,
iPAQ.

19

20

hardware


Opie -
Palm OS

GPE
GTK, GNOME

Familiar,

Windows Mobile. Linux.

| Familiar |
Familiar . CF- .

51**, 54**, 55**,
. Windows HyperTerminal, Linux minicom.
, .
.
,
BootLoader. . , 55**,
. ( ),
iPAQ . HyperTerminal minicom ,
COM-.
minicom
, . , :

, , , , help. , :
load root
, HyperTerminal,
(Send File) jffs2. Ymodem-G.
minicom Ctrl+A, Z S. (
, Space).
, , 2030 . :
Erasing sector 00140000
Erasing sector 00180000
...
addr: 00360000 data: 781590DB
addr: 00370000 data: 642637AE
Erasing sector 00FC0000

minicom -s
Serial Port Setup
Enter.
E. I, 115 200 , Q (Data
bits 8, Parity None, Stop Bits 1) Enter . F G, (flow
control). .

BootBlaster

iPAQ 5***,

Linux handhelds.org
writing flash..
addr: 00100000 data: E0021985
addr: 00110000 data: E3BAD617
...
addr: 00600000 data: E0021985
addr: 00610000 data: FFFFFFFF
addr: 00620000 data: FFFFFFFF
addr: 00630000 data: FFFFFFFF
verifying ... formatting ... done.
boot>
-, , .

boot, , , Linux. ,
- , SSH-.

Linux

iPAQ

minicom ,
root_image 33 030 144 . :
gzip -9 root_image
:
boot wince
Microsoft Windows Powered
.
, :
load bootldr
saved_bootldr.gz.
, ,
iPAQ . |

| Windows Mobile |
- Linux
, iPAQ
. , . , handhelds.org/download/feeds/wince. Linux,
, ( ,
). , . Windows Unix-,
unxutils.sourceforge.net/UnxUtils.zip.
gunzip wince_image.gz
, :
dd bs = 1k count = 32256 if = wince_image of = root_image

Windows
HyperTerminal

21

22

desktop


Linux
, ,
, .
,
, .

? , , (,
, ). , , ,
. Fedora Core 3.

| |
, ,
, , , :
3 , Fedora Core Red Hat Linux.
3 , Red Hat Inc. Red Hat Linux
,
. , , Fedora Core .
3 , . Fedora

,
.

| |
, ,
. , .
:
. ,
.
Fedora Core 3 (FC3) , ,

. Anaconda (-
FC3) ,
.
, Fedora Core 3
Microsoft Windows,
Partition Magic, Acronis Partition Expert
Paragon Partition Manager.
FC3

Fedora

Core

memtest86
Linux, , .

| |
ReiserFS XFS Anaconda .
:
linux reiserfs xfs
Linux , .
? , mem. . ? -, , ,
,
. -, . , ,
mem :
linux mem = 196M
,
memtest86 ( , linux).
80
, :
cp /boot/memtest-3.0.bin /dev/fd0

| |
, Russian (Win). ,
, ,
Windows-. (KOI8-R,
CP1251, ISO8859-5 UTF-8) , FC3 Unicode. .

Disk Druid ,

| |
.
, .
. .

| |
Disk Druid , .
, : (swap)
(/). swap- .
3 (2,5 ).
/tmp, /var, /usr, /home
. , ?
. ,
.
, ,
, .
XFS. ,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
.
,
. , /tmp 777,

23

24

desktop

,

.
, SUID- , noexec, nodev, nosuid.
, /tmp,
EXT2.
. ,
, , ,
(, ), , . , , ,
, /var .
. . ? . : swap .
/tmp , , Audacity. -
. ?
, , . : /var/log

SELinux , firewall

, . logrotate (
),
.


. ,
. .
, .

| |
,
,
. Anaconda

.
? -, FC3
swap- LVM-. LVM
(Logical Volume Manager)?
, .

ReiserFS Ext3

/tmp

Ext2

/var

ReiserFS Ext3

( , . .)

/var/log

ReiserFS Ext3

/usr

ReiserFS Ext3

/home

ReiserFS Ext3

/video

XFS

( . .)



.
, LVM, , /dev/sda, /dev/hda.
, LVM , Fedora Core Team, ,
LVM . , , ( swap), /home, /usr, /tmp, /var,
/var/log . . ,
,
, LVM , ,
.
LVM, . VolGroup00
vg, LogVol00, , root. , LogVol01 swap. , , : /dev/vg/root /dev/vg/swap.
, , ,
(/dev/VolGroup00/
LogVol00 /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01).

| |
ethernet-,
. , :
, DHCP-
( ), ,
. , :
.
( ):

Fedora

Core

.
,
3 IP- (192.168.0.102);
3 (255.255.255.0);
3 (fc3.home.lg);
3 IP- (192.168.0.1);
3 IP- DNS- (192.168.0.1).
, IP-
, .
IP- DNS- IP-
, ,
IP- DNS- .

| |
SELinux , . ,
. SSH
, .

-.

|
|

. .
,
, ,
.

|
|
, , ,
, . ,

25

26

desktop



apg,
.
FC3
GNOME. KDE XFCE4,
. ,
, , . .

| |
,
, .
FC3 firstboot,
, ,
, NTP-, . , ,
. , .

| |
, FC3,
. , ,
, Microsoft Core Fonts
(corefonts.sf.net).
, : Arial, Courier
New, Times New Roman. Verdana ( , Tahoma ),
Impact, Webdings, Trebuchet, Comic Georgia.
KDE,
TTF-,
KDE, ,
. ,
,
. -

X-
.
(, /usr/share/fonts/TTF)
.

| |
.
, Fedora Core 3
, , ,
. ,
, .
system -config-services ( p p ).
ntsysv. , , , Linux
. (
), , .

. , , :
3 NetworkManager , . IP-, .
3 acpid , ACPI-, .
, .
3 anacron, crond , ( ,
) .
3 apmd ,
. , , .
3 atd , .
3 cpuspeed .


, NTP
3 autofs ,
.
3 bluetooth , bluetooth-.
3 chargen, chargen-udp xinetd,
.
3 cups .
3 cups-config-daemon cups.
3 cups-lpd xinetd, lpd cups.
3 daytime, daytime-udp xinetd,
Wed Nov 13 22:30:27 EST 2002.
3 diskdump , dump-
diskdump- . ().
3 gpm . , / -
. ,

, .
3 gssftp FTP-, xinetd Kerberos-.
3 echo, echo-udp xinetd,
- .
3 eklogin ,
Kerberos-.
3 haldaemon .
3 iptables , .
3 irda , -.
3 irqbalance ,
.
3 isdn , ISDN-.
3 klogin, kshell, krb5-telnet ,
xinetd,
Kerberos-.

Fedora

Core

3 ktalk KDE- talk- (


MS Windows 9x WinPoPup)
3 kudzu ,
.
3 lisa ,
Microsoft.
3 lm_sensors , , (, ).
3 mdmonitor , RAID.
3 messagebus , .
3 microcode_ctl .
.
3 netdump , .
oops- ,
.
3 netfs ,
(NFS, SMB, Netware).
3 netplugd , .
3 network , .
3 nfs, nfslock NFS-.


FC3
EXT2
EXT3,
ReiserFS.
EXT2/EXT3
.
,
ReiserFS

. ReiserFS
, EXT3.

. ,

100 . , , ( EXT3



1, 2
4 ). ReiserFS,
EXT2 ( EXT3,
), , .
,
. ReiserFS
EXT3,

( ), XFS, ReiserFS.

,
,
.

27

28

desktop

KDE
TrueType
3 nscd , LDAP, NIS, NIS+.
3 ntpd NTP-,
.
3 pcmcia , PCMCIA.
3 portmap , , ,
NFS- NIS-.
3 psacct .
3 readahead, readahead_early ,
.
3 rhnsd ,
Red Hat Network .
3 rpcgssd, rpcidmapd, rpcsvcgssd , NFS- NFSv4.
3 rsync , xinetd FTP-, .
3 saslauthd , .
3 sendmail .
3 smartd , ,
S.M.A.R.T.
3 snmpd, snmptrapd , SNMP-
.
3 spamassassin , .
3 sshd , .
3 syslog .
3 vncserver ,
.
3 winbind , Samba.
3 xfs .

.

3 xinetd ,
.
3 ypbind , NIS-.
3 yum , .
. ,
, ,
.

| |
, , . Fedora Core, Red Hat, RPM
(Red Hat Package Manager). , RPM,
system-config-packages. , ,
. , APT (Advanced Package Tools).
apt4rpm FC3.
: http://ftp.freshrpms.net/pub/freshrpms/fedora/linux/3/apt/apt-0.5.15cnc6-1.1.fc3.fr.i386.rpm
, , rpm- :
rpm -ivh apt-0.5.15cnc6-1.1.fc3.fr.i386.rpm
/etc/apt/sources.conf
/etc/apt/apt.conf, ( APT
- /mnt/cdrom) :
Acquire::CDROM::Copy "true";
Acquire::CDROM::mount "/media/cdrom";
, APT :
mkdir -p /var/state/apt/{apt,lists}

Fedora

Core

APT synaptic

- .
/mnt/cdrom, ,
LFS, /media/cdrom ( ,
):
mount /media/cdrom
RPMS.F3_CD1 (F3_CD1
- ):
ln -s /media/cdrom/Fedora/RPMS/
/var/state/apt/apt/RPMS.F3_CD1
, :
genbasedir --bloat --flat /var/state/apt/apt F3_CD1

(-, ,
):
mv /var/state/apt/apt/base/release.FC3_CD1
/var/state/apt/lists/FC3%5fCD1_.._.._.._.._var_state_apt_apt_
base_release.FC3%5fCD1
%5f,
, , .
,
%20. /var/state/
apt/cdroms.list :
CD::eaa3a6aea1bd513cb06ce1246f19648a-2 "FC3_CD1";
-
. , apt-cdrom
ident.

/etc/apt/source.list (
, -,
# , sources.list):
rpm cdrom:[FC3_CD1]/ ../../../../../var/state/apt/apt FC3_CD1
-
, .
. APT . , , synaptic, APT. FC3 :
http://ftp.freshrpms.net/pub/freshrpms/fedora/linux/3/synaptic/sy
naptic-0.55.3-1.1.fc3.fr.i386.rpm
, ,
, apt4rpm,
(apt-get update) APT. , /etc/apt/sources.list
freshrpms.net:
rpm http://ayo.freshrpms.net fedora/linux/3/i386
core updates freshrpms
, FC3 (core), (updates) , FC3 (freshrpms).
, , , apt-get update, , .

| |
, , , ,
, ,
,
. , : , , .
. , . |

29

30

desktop

.

: , , .

$250
.
MP3/OGG-, , , ,
.
, , ,
, .
,
- , .
: Palm OS PalmOne Windows
Mobile Microsoft.
Linux
Palm OS ,
Linux Windows Mobile .
:
3 PalmOne ;
3 PalmOne Linux.

Pocket PC Linux.

| SynCE |

SynCE,
Windows Mobile Linux.


http://synce.sourceforge.net/synce.
, .
, .
SynCE RPM, :
rpm -Uvh synce-0.9.0-1.i386.rpm
, . SynCE ,
:


USB-
Bluetooth
Ethernet/WLAN
.
USB-.
Fedora Core : USB .
,
:

Pocket

PC

Linux

VDCCM

Konqueror

dmesg
kernel: hub.c: new USB device 00:14.2-2, assigned address 3
kernel: usb.c: USB device 3 (vend/prod 0x49f/0x3) is not claimed
by any active driver.
kernel: usb.c: registered new driver serial
kernel: usbserial.c: USB Serial support registered for Generic
kernel: usbserial.c: USB Serial Driver core v1.4
kernel: ipaq.c: USB PocketPC PDA driver v0.5
kernel: usbserial.c: USB Serial support registered for PocketPC
PDA
kernel: usbserial.c: PocketPC PDA converter detected
kernel: usbserial.c: PocketPC PDA converter now attached to
ttyUSB0 (or usb/tts/0 for devfs)

ifconfig ppp0

,
. , ,
dccm. ,
Enter. ,
:

, . ,
SynCE:
pcp
pls
pmkdir
pmv ()
prm
prmdir
prun
pstatus
synce-install CAB-

, - . ,

, dccm.
,
:

synce-serial-config
synce-serial-abort
, . dmesg, . ttyUSB0. :
synce-serial-start
,
PPP-, . ,
,
, . :

,
FAQ , .
SynCE
,
, Pocket PC.

| Orange |
Pocket PC
, CAB- \Windows\AppMgr\Install, -

31

32

desktop


wceload.exe, .
,
, CAB-,
. Orange ,
CAB- .

http://synce.sourceforge.net/synce/orange.php.
CAB- .



Partnership creation succeeded, , . multisync
Evolution SynCE, .
gnome-vfs, GNOME ,
.

| SynCE-KDE |
KDE
, .

| Unshield |

| RAPIP |

CAB- InstallShield. ,
,
. Orange Unshield .

RAPI-Protocol
KDE, , Drag&Drop.

| Dynamite |

, PKWARE. Dynamite Orange.

, Pocket PC
Evolution. , , .
, multisync ( www.multisync.org)
Pocket PC.
.
:
synce-partnership create

| RAKI |
RemoteAccess-Kicker-applet. ,
KDE.
, KDE.

| VDCCM |
dccm, ,
. ,
RAKI.
KCEMirror.
, .
. |

34

desktop

,


.
,
, .

, Linux
Unix- , .
DOC LaTeX, HTML TXT, XLS Gnumeric
XML . . ,

, . Linux
,
.
,
. ,
, (- CP1251, - KOI8-R), , .
, Windows Mac OS X: Google Desktop Spotlight. ,

.
,
.

| |
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
cron, .

, ,
. , Fedora Core
updatedb,
,
. ,
-.
.
, . , ,
, .

Beagle ,
, -
, , Beagle.

| Beagle |
IT- Ars Technica 2005 .
Beagle Ximian
Novell, . Beagle

Novell, Mono Microsoft .NET.
Beagle . beagled. ,
, . ,
. inotify. , .
Beagle : DOC, XLS, PPT, SXW PDF, RTF; JPG,
PNG; MP3, OGG Vorbis, FLAC, MIDI,
Musepack, Monkey Audio; C,
C++, C#, Java, Python; Texinfo LyX. , - RSS- Blam
liferead - Gaim.
Beagled , Lucene, Java Mono.
. -

Swish-e -,

Beagle, . ,

. Beagle
DBUS, , , : www.freedesktop.org/Software/dbus.
B.E.S.T, Bleeding-Edge Search Tool. ,

. , ,
. ,
B.E.S.T , , ICQ .
.
, inotify
, ( ),
. ,
Linux . , beaglewiki.org
. . : gtk-sharp, glade-sharp, geckosharp, gnome-sharp, dbus-sharp, gconf-sharp, gmime-sharp mono
1.0.4. 0.0.6.1 Beagle dbus 0.23.1 CVS dbus.
, ./configure --help

35

36

desktop

Medusa

Optional Features . , ./configure
enable-epiphany-extension,
Beagle, Epiphany -.
Beagle mozillaextension,
Firefox, beagled
.

| Swish-e |
Swish :
Swish-e Swish++, , ,
Swish-e, . Swish-e : ,
, . ,
.
Beagle , Swish , Perl.
: ./configure; make; sudo make install.
,
.
indeces ( swish.conf ),
.


:
IndexDir /home/user
IndexOnly .html
IndexFile ./user_html.index



user
, Swish-e HTML . , , ,
, -t nfs -t smbfs.
,
:
$ swish-e -c user-html.conf
:
swish-e -f avp_html.index -w beagle
# SWISH format: 2.4.3
# Search words: beagle
# Removed stopwords:
# Number of hits: 5
# Search time: 0.001 seconds
# Run time: 0.034 seconds
1000 /home/avp/articles/search/beagle/msg00047.html "Beagle
roadmap." 18582
1000 /home/avp/Desktop/data/search/beagle/msg00047.html
"Beagle roadmap." 18582
791 /home/avp/articles/search/beagle/msg00039.html "Beagle
Networking" 5236
791 /home/avp/Desktop/data/search/beagle/msg00039.html
"Beagle Networking" 5236
608 /home/avp/cvs/beagle/Tiles/template-mockup.html "Beagle
List" 3713
, Perl, -,

.

Swish-e ,

. HTML, TXT,
.DOC .PDF
.
, *.pdf, Swish-e
,
.
,
(, catdoc
.DOC .XLS), Swish-e
Google Desktop.

| Medusa |
Medusa ,
GNOME. ,
medusa-indexd, URI
,
. (http://members.cox.net/sinzui/medusa/) 6.1,
6.3, , , .
:
export
CVSROOT = :pserver:anonymous@anoncvs.gnome.org:/cvs/gnome
cvs login

:
cvs -z3 -d :pserver:anonymous@anoncvs.gnome.org:/cvs/gnome
co medusa
medusa :
cvs update -Pd
GNOME
gnome-common, gnome-autogen.sh, - CVS GNOME
. ,
./configure . ,
, Medusa
/usr/local, -perfix = /_, : -prefix = /opt.
, . ,
.
~/.medusa .

medusa-gui ,

,
:
3 . , , , .
Medusa MIME- GNOME,
,
.
3 . , Medusa, ,
Nautilus. Nautilus ,
,
:
, , .

.
(,

ssh) msearch-gui msearch.

| |
,
-
, .

| slocate |
slocate
, . ,
, , updatedb,
. Slocate (secure locate) locate.
, locate ,
. slocate
:
updatedb -l 0.

, renice, /etc/cron.daily/
slocate.cron, ,
:
#!/bin/sh
./etc/updatedb.conf
renice +19 -p $$ >/dev/null 2>&1
/usr/bin/updated

37

38

desktop

, ,
. +5 ,
,
. slocate
. , :
slocate *search*.sxw
:
/home/avp/articles/search/search_v2.sxw
/home/avp/articles/linux_search/linux_search_0.3.sxw

| grep |
grep ( egrep fgrep)
, . ,
, grep
.
grep . ,
( ,
-binary-files = text,
). , , grep , Genesis genesis, sort:

| find |
find
. find :
find /home/fc3/ -name '*gnomeprint*.rpm' | sort
/home/fc3/cd2/Fedora/RPMS/libgnomeprint15-0.3710.i386.rpm
/home/fc3/cd4/Fedora/RPMS/libgnomeprintui22-devel-2.8.01.i386.rpm

/home/fc3 , *gnomeprint*. . ,
, ,
, *gnomeprint*.rpm,
:
sudo rpm -Uvh `find /home/fc3/ -name '*gnomeprint*.rpm'`
find ,
. , -amin n
, .
, ( ), ,
:
find . -amin 10 '*'

-atime -n, n , .
, find ,
.
-type,
. , *win* :
find . -type l '*win*'

grep '[Gg]enesis' -r ./ | sort


./Genesis/1970_Trespass/03 Genesis
Angels.ogg
./Genesis/1970_Trespass/04 Genesis
Stagnation.ogg
grep Linux
. , /root,
conf. :
ls /root | grep conf
grep find:
vi $(find) / -print | grep fooname
, find
,
grep, , fooname. vi ( , ).

| |
, , .
, . ,
,
, ( ) .
GNOME Storage DBFS. , , . |

desktop

Linux

Linux ,
-, .
,
.

Linux
. , ,
, .
Linux , , , Windows-. ,
Linux . ,
. ,
,
. , ,
, . , ,
. , ,
: , ?
, ,

, , .

| |
, ,
,
. , Linux
XINE MPlayer.
. , .

| MPlayer |
MPlayer ,
.
.
. : MPlayer
DivX 1:1 ,

39

40

desktop

MPlayer, ,
.
: SVCD (Super Video CD), DVD, MPEG-1/2, RIFF, ASF,
WMV, WMA, QT, MOV, MPEG-4, RealAudio, RealVideo, OGG,
VIVO, FLI, NuppelVideo, FILM, RoQ, PVA, Matroska, NSV,
HTTP, RTP,
RTSP, MMS, MMST, MPST SDP.

, .
. , -
,
,
.
, MPlayer
,

MoviX
MoviX

Linux,
, CD-,
-, , .

: , , .


,

.


MPlayer, ,


.
.
: http://movix.
sourceforge.net/Docs/MoviX/
README.ru.html.

XINE DVD-
KMplayer, GTK 2 Player . KMplayer KDE , Konqueror , MPlayer.

| XINE |
. , MPlayer.
, , : http://xinehq.hu/index.
php/features. , ,
API,

xinelib. , , XINE.
GNOME Totem. KDE xinelib. Noaton.

,
, ,
, Advanced.
.

| Totem |
, Totem xinelib , ,
, XINE. ,
Totem
GNOME , .
,

Linux

Rhytmbox
iTunes

XMMS
Winamp
. , ,
Totem .
GNOME, Totem , , GTK2.

,
, , ,
Winamp.

| Kaffeine |

, . , Noaton
KDE, ,
arts. KDE
.
,
. , ,
, Winamp,
.

| Noaton |
Kaffeine xinelib,
. ,
. Drag&Drop, , KDE,
Konqueror, Kaffeine , KDE.
, KDE, .

.

| |
Linux .
- , http://freshmeat.net, : audio player.
,
, Linux,
- .

| Rythmbox |
, ,

iTunes ,

. ,
ID- 8- , Unicode. MP3-
gstreamer.

| Helix |
| XMMS |
X MultiMedia System
Winamp.
, ,
,
. ,

,
XMMS
, .

Helix,

RealNetworks . Helix, ,
. , , , RealPlayer.
, ,
. |

41

42

desktop


Linux
.
, 90-
Linux
, , .

, Linux 800 .
, ,
: ReZound, Rosegarden Audacity.
,

Windows Linux: Audacity Cool Edit Pro. ,
, , , Audacity
, , .

| : |
, Audacity ,
. ,
,
. , , . , , ,
Play Shift, . . , ,
.
Copy, Paste, Undo, Redo
Zoom. ,

, .

| |
Audacity ,
.
WAV, OGG Vorbis, AU, AIFF MP3. ,

. ,
. ,
MP3 Audacity, .
MP3- . : /usr/lib/libmp3lame.so.

AUP Audacity,

, .

| |
, . , .

. , .
, -, , . ,
, ,

Audacity

. ,
, http://jamtracks.narod.ru, ,
, , . , -.
.
, . :
File p Open, Project p Import
Audio (Ctrl+I). Audacity
, . ,
File p Open ,
Project p Import Audio
, .
, , . , ,
, .

.
Audacity ,
.
,
.
View Plot spectrum
,
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
.
Project
, .
Project p New Lable
Track .
,

, Label Track

.

Audacity

,
,
Delete. , ,
, . , , ,
Edit p Silence. , ,
, .
: , , ,
. - .
,
, Selection.
, ,
, ,
(Edit p Select p All (Ctrl+A), (Ctrl+C)
(Ctrl+V) ).
, . File p Preferences, Audio I/O ,
Audacity / (
dev/dsp) Stereo.
, , , .
Play other
tracks while recording new one,
.

| |
, . Record (
R) . , . , .
, , , . , .
. -

43

44

desktop

Envelope

,
( Solo Mute)
,

Sample rate Sample format.

. , .
Envelope,
. , ,
. , Draw . ,
, , , , .
Time Shift.
, , .
,
. ,
Time Shift
, . , Multi-Tool. ,
Audacity , .

| |
, , , . Audacity , , , .
, , , - http://plugin.org.uk
LADSPA Linux Audio Developers Plugin API.
, ,
, -

Draw Tool

Audacity. ,
, ,
, , . ,
, Effects
.
BassBoost, WahWah , ,
,
- .
Fade in Fade out. . , .
. ,
.
Effect p Fade In.
.
,
.
Change Speed, Change Tempo Change Pitch.

.
,

, ,
,

Generate p Click Track. ,
.
,
. ,
,

.

:
, Wite Noise,
VST, Ladspa
Nyquist. Audacity,
.


Fade In

, , . ,
, - E A. ,
,
, .
Invert. ( )
. ,
, , .
, . .
Split Stereo Track, , ,
Invert. Mono
.
, ,
.

Audacity

Plot spectrum

| |

, Audacity, .
, , . -,
, Help p Online
Help.
, . , ,
, ,
. -, ,
http://audacity.sf.net, ,
, , . . , Audacity , .
. |


, Audacity

45

46

desktop


Cedega , Windows-,
DirectX. .
.


-
, . , , , ,
Windows-,
.
Windows ,

Need for Speed, .
, , : , -.
Cedega , WineX.
, , Cedega,
Wine. ,


,

Cedega
. ,
,
-


.
, . :
setarch i386 cedega

Windows Linux, ,
. , -
.
,
. Cedega,
, , ,
. , Cedega (
WineX) , Windows.
, , , , , Microsoft, DirectX,

.

| |
, .
- :
www.transgaming.com. $15.
, , 7 .
:
rpm ivh <_>

| Exec-Shield |
, , Cedega . -

Cedega

Half-Life 2 Need for Speed Underground 2 Linux


-
:

PRELINK_OPTS = -mR

can't exec "file": error = 21


PRELINK_OPTS = "-m --no-exec-shield"
error = 21,
Exec-Shield,
Cedega,
. , Cedega
, . , .
:
su

prelink -am --no-exec-shield

| |
,
.
, ,
cedega:
cedega <___>

:
prelink ua

/etc/sysconfig/prelink :


- Cedega

, , :

. , ,
.
, . ! |


prelink,


Point2Play

47

48

desktop

GNOME
, ,
.
,

.

GNOME , .
, . KDE, .
XFCE, ,
,
. , KDE
GNOME : ,
.
GNOME
, ,
. GNOME 2.10,
SoundJuicer, Totem, GnomeMeeting, ,
. .

| |
SoundJuicer,
, -.
, ,
, . , , - Rhythmbox,
, Rhythmbox
.
.
grip,
, ,
Goobox. , , Goobox, GStreamer. ,
, , ,
. Goobox

-.

GNOME

2.10



Totem
XINE,
GStreamer. , ,
, . GNOME
Totem, , DVD
, Totem . - ,
p p
DVD .
GnomeMeeting ,
- ,
H.323, Microsoft Netmeeting.
-
Video4Linux (V4L).
,
Evolution,
URL .
-,
, Skype, , GnomeMeeting
.

| Metacity |


KDE, ,
GNOME, Metacity Sawfish. , Metacity , -
- ICQ.
, Metacity , , Devil's Pie (www.burtonini.com/
blog/computers/devilspie), , , Metacity .

| |
Evolution,
GNOME, .




-, , .
, Exchange
Groupwise, , ,
,
. -, . ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
. -,
, - .

. -, Actions.
Places, Nautilus, Desktop. Places
, - .
,
GTK- . , Nautilus
. Desktop
Preferences Administration, Log out,
Lock screen GNOME.
Freedesktop, ,
.
, , Qt, GTK,
GNOME, .xml.
redhatmenus .
.
Nautilus,
Gthumbs .

49

50

desktop

GNOME

SoundJuicer
Rhytmbox


- CD-RW. , ,
. ,
, , , .
, ,
, . ,
, -
.
.
GNOME
: ,
, , .

CPU frequency scaling. ,
, .
, .
, Gedit , -
, , . , File Roller RAR-. .

| |
GNOME 2.10 .
CD-.
GNOME CD Player, .
, , .
, -

.
, , ,

Gmail ,
POP/IMAP .

| |
GNOME
, , . - ,
20 . , -

GNOME
.
GNOME
2.4. XFCE KDE .
, XFCE

GNOME,
.

GNOME 2.0
GNOME 2.10 , D-Bus,
Freedesktop, ,
GNOME,
, . ,
Novell Sun,
, , .

| |
Linux -
, GNOME
LiveCD (www.gnome.org/start/2.10)
. GNOME 2.10 Ubuntu Linux 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog.
yum, apt urpmi Fedora Core, Debian
Mandrake . |

52

advanced

,
LVM
LVM ,
.

.

.

, . LVM. ,
,
. , .
LVM.

| LVM |
LVM (Logical Volume Management)
.
:
? fdisk .
parted. ,
, ,

. , RAID. RAID
, LVM
. , LVM, , ,
.
, LVM
. -, - -
. -,
LVM, .

| |
, , Linux-, .
:
.
, , /test, :
df -h | grep test
/dev/sda1 241M 239M 0 100% /test
, , .
, , .
( , -
),
, ,
,
.
.
, RAID.

| PV VG |
,
LVM. , . ,
. , . ,
, . -

LVM, Physical Volume, PV.


PV , .
Logical Volume (LV), LV . PV LV , . ,
, .
Volume Group (VG). -
, .
. ,
.
, , LVM:
pvcreate -v /dev/hde
Set up physical volume for "/dev/hde" with 2001504 available sectors
Physical volume "/dev/hde" successfully created
, ,
(1 ). , .
, test, :
vgcreate test /dev/hde
Volume group "test" successfully created

| LV |
,
. , , LV :
vgchange -a y test
0 logical volume(s) in volume group "test" now active
C , .
. :
lvcreate -L768 -nstor test
Logical volume "stor" created
LV 768 stor ( -
). ,
. :
pvdisplay /dev/hde
Physical volume
PV Name /dev/hde
VG Name test
PV Size 976.00 MB / not usable 0
Allocatable yes
PE Size (KByte) 4096

Total PE 244
Free PE 52
Allocated PE 192
PV UUID 477bCS-EKut-Ql2b-OulY-F67k-uHJv-Vny5He
:
lvdisplay test
Logical volume
LV Name /dev/test/stor
VG Name test
LV UUID yaKBSz-lkLP-6AwM-JAvR-V7C7-omW4-mmAzJV
LV Write Access read/write
LV Status available
LV Size 768.00 MB
Current LE 192
Segments 1
Allocation inherit
Read ahead sectors 0
Block device 253:2
: ,
, .
, .
, :
mkfs.reiserfs /dev/test/stor
mkfs,
.
,
:
mkdir /newtest
mount /dev/test/stor /newtest
cd /test
cp -R * /newtest
cd
umount /newtest
, /test ,
/test :
umount /test
mount /dev/test/stor /test
rmdir /newtest
, :
mount | grep test && df -h | grep test
/dev/mapper/test-stor on /test type reiserfs (rw)
/dev/mapper/test-stor
768M 269M 500M 35% /test

53

54

advanced

| LV |
, . /test , .
( 1 ,
768 ) .
LV, , 300 .
, ,
. LVM
. ,
, :
vgdisplay test | grep Free
Free PE / Size 52 / 208.00 MB
, 208 .
LV :
lvextend -L+208M /dev/test/stor
Extending logical volume stor to 976.00 MB
Logical volume stor successfully resized

:
resize_reiserfs -f /dev/test/stor
resize_reiserfs 3.6.18 (2003 www.namesys.com)
resize_reiserfs: On-line resizing finished successfully.
df -h | grep test
/dev/mapper/test-stor
976M 269M 708M 28% /test
, , .
, EXT2/EXT3 , , , .

| PV
PV VG |
,
, . .
PV ( ):
pvcreate /dev/sda
Physical volume "/dev/sda" successfully created
PV VG ( ):
vgextend test /dev/sda
Volume group "test" successfully extended
:

vgdisplay test | grep Free


Free PE / Size 61 / 244.00 MB
lvextend -L+244 /dev/test/stor
/dev/hde1: open failed: No such device or address
Extending logical volume stor to 1.19 GB
Logical volume stor successfully resized
resize_reiserfs -f /dev/test/stor
resize_reiserfs 3.6.18 (2003 www.namesys.com)
resize_reiserfs: On-line resizing finished successfully.
df -h | grep test
/dev/mapper/test-stor
1.2G 269M 952M 22% /test

| LV PV |
, ,
. ,
, . :
,
. /dev/sda.
, ,
LV ( ,
). LV . ,
. , , :
umount /test
resize_reiserfs -s-300M /dev/test/stor
resize_reiserfs: Resizing finished successfully.
mount /dev/test/stor /test
df -h|grep test
/dev/mapper/test-stor
920M 269M 652M 30% /test
. LV
( ).
,
. UPS:
lvreduce -L-300M /dev/test/stor
WARNING: Reducing active and open logical volume to 920.00 MB
THIS MAY DESTROY YOUR DATA (filesystem etc.)
Do you really want to reduce stor? [y/n]: y
Reducing logical volume stor to 920.00 MB
Logical volume stor successfully resized

(
):
vgreduce -v test /dev/sda
Finding volume group "test"
Using physical volume(s) on command line
Archiving volume group "test" metadata.
Removing "/dev/sda" from volume group "test"
Creating volume group backup "/etc/LVM/backup/test"
Removed "/dev/sda" from volume group "test"
,
/dev/sda . ( ) pvmove. , , :
pvscan | grep sda
PV /dev/sda LVM2 [244.00 MB]
, . , .
:
pvcreate /dev/sda
Physical volume "/dev/sda" successfully created
vgextend test /dev/sda
Volume group "test" successfully extended
lvextend -L+2G /dev/test/stor
Extending logical volume stor to 2.90 GB
Logical volume stor successfully resized
. /dev/hde , VG:
pvmove -v /dev/hde
Finding volume group "test"
Archiving volume group "test" metadata.
Creating logical volume pvmove0
Moving 244 extents of logical volume test/stor
Found volume group "test"
Updating volume group metadata
Creating volume group backup "/etc/LVM/backup/test"
Found volume group "test"
Loading test-pvmove0
Found volume group "test"
Loading test-stor
Checking progress every 15 seconds
Found volume group "test"
Loading test-pvmove0
Found volume group "test"
Found volume group "test"
Loading test-stor

Found volume group "test"


Removing temporary pvmove LV
Writing out final volume group after pvmove
Creating volume group backup "/etc/LVM/backup/test"
VG:
vgreduce test /dev/hde
Removed "/dev/hde" from volume group "test"
, ? , .
( ,
) . |



LVM .
.


, :
,
. ,
- ,

. LVM .
LV,
, ,
LVM,
. ,

LV,
,
.
, :
lvcreate -L1000M -s -nstorbackup /dev/test/stor
Logical volume "storbackup"
created


( )

,
:
mkdir /storbackup
mount /dev/test/storbackup
/storbackup/
,

:
ls /storbackup/
lost+found Photo
mkdir /test/testsnap
ls /storbackup/
lost+found Photo
, ,
,
.
,
LV
:
umount /storbackup/
lvremove /dev/test/storbackup
Do you really want to remove
active logical volume "storbackup"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "storbackup"
successfully removed

55

56

advanced

...
, .
,
, . ,
, .



- . ,
. - ,
, , , , ,
. , , . .

| |
.
( , ), .
- ,

exclude.conf. . ,
:

. , ,
. , ,
.
tar , . date,
date -help.
/home/user/work, , exclude.conf. gzip , .

| |
. , , .
cron , , :
crontab -e

#!/bin/sh
cd /home/user/backup && rm -f ./*.tar.gz
tar -vcf up'date +%F'.tar /home/user/work --excludefrom=./exclude.conf
gzip -9 ./up'date +%F'.tar

:
02 5 * * * /home/al/backup/backup.sh
:

exclude.conf :
:qw
/home/user/work/no
,
-

, , . |

58

advanced


- , ,
. , ,

Unison, rsync.

x . , (
, ,
, ), . , ,

. , - . 2056?
rsync, ,
, .
, rsync, , , ,
. -, , , ,

. -, rsync -
,

.
Unison, rsync,
, , , -

, ,
.

| Unison |
, . ,
. , ,
, , , .
, , , . ,

,
, .


SSH. ,
, ,
rsync. , .
, rsync, , - ,
-, , .

Unison

,
/.unison,
,
. default.prf:
# Unison preferences file
backup = Name *
maxbackups = 10
log = true
logfile = /home/user/.unison/unison.log
rshargs = -C

| |
,
: www.cis.upenn.
edu/~bcpierce/unison/download/stable/latest.
unison.linux-gtkui. , :
chmod +x ./unison.linux-gtkui
:

,
, , . ,
/home/user, , , :
# Unison preferences file
root = /home/user
root = ssh://server.ru/home/user2
ignore = Name *.mp3
ignore = Path .unison
include default

./unison.linux-gtkui
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
Restart, ,
Go .
,
. ,

. , ,

ignore , .

. ,
,
default.prf, .

| |

, ,
: www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/
download/stable/latest/unison-manual.html. , . |

59

60

advanced


Linux
.
,
.

Linux .
. Fedora Core 3.
NAT .
Pentium MMX,
64 , 3 , , ,
. , ADSL USB.
, ,
IP-
, IP- .

| |
p p
. , .
, , . , . IP-,
. ,
,
. ,
.

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts ifcfg-eth0 , ifcfg-eth1 . . ,
:

DEVICE =
IPADDR = IP-
NETMASK =
NETWORK = IP-
BROADCAST = IP-
ONBOOT =
BOOTPROTO = :
none
bootp BOOTP
dhcp DHCP
USERCTL = :
yes
no root
: /etc/hostname, ,
my.domain.ru, /etc/resolv.conf , IP- .
, , :
order bind,hosts DNS,
/etc/hosts
multi on
nospoof on IP- (IP spoofing)
/etc/hostname:
search domain.ru
nameserver IP-, DNS

order . , DNS-, /etc/hosts.
multi , ,
/etc/hosts, , (, ). ,

,
ON. nospoof
. IP spoofing
, , .
. /etc/sysconfig/network:
FORWARD_IPV4 = yes
/etc/sysctl.conf:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
, :
/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart

, ,
. , Modem.
. : ( COM1
Unix- ttyS0),
, (
115 200 /), ( ).
, p p .
.
. DNS , ,
.
.

(, , ). .

| |
ifconfig
lo
Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:1667 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1667 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

| |
. . ,
: ( ,
),

.
.
. ,
. , , WvDial.
/etc/wvdial.conf. , .
pppd.
/etc/ppp/
options, :
modem
crtscts
asyncmap 0

, ,

61

62

advanced

, IP-
pppd:
pppd ttyS0 57600 lock connect 'chat -V -f /etc/ppp/ISP1'
defaultroute noipdefault debug nodetach

,

.
, .

| |
, chat ( , , . .), /etc/ppp/ISP1:
ABORT "ERROR" ABORT , , chat
ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
TIMEOUT 5
AT ,
AT
OK ATZ
OK ATS7 = 120 ,

ABORT BUSY
ABORT NO ANSWER
ABORT NO CARRIER
ABORT Login Incorrect
OK ATDP(9)1234567 ,

TIMEOUT 125
CONNECT \c CONNECT
30 ; \c ,

TIMEOUT 30
login maksim
password 1234567
} \c
, ifconfig , ppp0,
ping -

, , , .
IP-
, , ?
NAT,
-.
.
Fedora Core
iptables. 1.2.11.
, . iptables
,
,
.
:
iptables -V
( loopback),
: ACCEPT , DROP , REJECT . , .

iptables, .
. iptables,
, /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall. -

,
.
:
chmod 744 /etc/rc.d/rc.firewall
iptables
:
iptables -L
. INPUT
, OUTPUT , FORWARD ,
.
(ACCEPT), (REJECT),
(DROP).
, .
, :

--sport
-s
-d
-i INPUT
--icmp-type icmp

| |
, :
3 .
3 ( ) .
3 , FTP (21) DNS (53).
rc.firewall :

-p
--dport

#!/bin/sh
# ( ppp0;
eth0)
INET_IFACE = "eth0"
# iptables
IPTABLES = "/sbin/iptables"
#

$IPTABLES -P INPUT DROP


$IPTABLES -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -P FORWARD DROP
# ,
$IPTABLES -F
$IPTABLES -X
# ,

# TCP
$IPTABLES -N bad_tcp_packets
# TCP,
$IPTABLES -N allowed

GNOME,
Modem

iptables -P
:
iptables -N
:
iptables -A -j
:

63

64

advanced



#
$IPTABLES -N tcp_packets
$IPTABLES -N udp_packets
$IPTABLES -N icmp_packets
#
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT
# DOS- SYN-
$IPTABLES -A bad_tcp_packets -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,ACK
SYN,ACK -m state --state NEW -j DROP
#
$IPTABLES -A allowed -p TCP --syn -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A allowed -p TCP -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
#
$IPTABLES -A allowed -j DROP
# ,
# 21- FTP
$IPTABLES -A tcp_packets -p TCP -s 0/0 --dport 21 -j allowed
# 53- DNS
$IPTABLES -A udp_packets -p UDP -s 0/0 --sport 53 -j
ACCEPT
# ICMP
$IPTABLES -A icmp_packets -p ICMP -s 0/0 --icmp-type 3 -j
ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A icmp_packets -p ICMP -s 0/0 --icmptype 11 -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A icmp_packets -p ICMP -s
0/0 --icmp-type 12 -j ACCEPT
#

$IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -i $INET_IFACE -m state -state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -p TCP -i $INET_IFACE -j tcp_packets
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -p UDP -i $INET_IFACE -j udp_packets
$IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ICMP -i $INET_IFACE -j
icmp_packets

ADSL-
,

| NAT masquerade |
(masquerade) (NAT)
Linux . , .
.
? (, www.ru) ,
(123.123.123.123). www.ru, (123.123.123.123).
, www.ru ,
. ,
. iptables, :
iptables -A FORWARD -s 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
192.168.1.0/24.
iptables -A FORWARD -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT

192.168.1.0/24. ,
192.168.1.0/24.
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s 192.168.1.0/24
-j MASQUERADE
, ?
cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
1, .
0 :
echo 1 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

NAT : , www.ru, , .
www.ru,
(123.123.123.123). , . NAT iptables :

--enable-useragent-log

--enable-err-language = lang

:

iptables -A FORWARD -s 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT


iptables -A FORWARD -d 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s 192.168.1.0/24
-j SNAT --to-source 123.123.123.123
iptables , Xwindow . Firewall Builder
,
iptables. : fwbuilder.sf.net.

| Squid |
,
-.
, ,

.
-?
, Squid. . Squid
www.squid-cache.org :
tar -zxvf squid-2.5.STABLE5.tar.gz
cd ./squid-2.5.STABLE5
./configure
:

make && make install


,
/usr/local/etc/squid.conf:
http_port 3128 ( 3128).
cache_mem 20 MB Squid

cache_dir /usr/local/squid/cache 500 16 256
Squid, ,
500 16 256 1- 2-
.
, Squid
cache_access_log /usr/local/squid/logs/access.log
cache_log /usr/local/squid/logs/cache.log
cache_store_log /usr/local/squid/logs/store.log
acl net src 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
acl all src 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
acl net src 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
http_access allow net
http_access deny all
Squid
, -z:
/usr/local/squid/bin/squid -z

--prefix = PREFIX
--enable-delay-pools

, , . Linux
Squid . |

, ,
firewall Firewall Builder

- Bifrost

65

66

advanced

,
? , ,
?
,
Postfix Courier-IMAP.

, , ISPMail-HOWTO.
, ,
.
:
3 ;
3
;
3 .

| |
, , Postfix
Courier-IMAP.
.

- , .
, . ,
Gentoo, Fedora Core FreeBSD.
, ,
. Fedora
Core 2 3

Linux. , , , RPM,
.
: .
MySQL, ,
:
yum install mysql
chkconfig mysql on
/etc/init.d/mysqld start
-
. - , .

. home.multik.org. ,
, . ,
. , ,
multik.org.

multik.org. ,
, home.multik.org,
.
, , .

| MySQL |
, , MySQL. .
MySQL :
3

, , MySQL,
Postfix
. , Fedora (
SQL), . (rpmbuild -ba postfix.spec) Postfix.
(--nodeps) sendmail - .
Postfix , . /etc/postfix/main.cf :

DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE User = '';


3 root
UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpwd')
WHERE User = 'root';
3 ,
,

myhostname = home.multik.org
mydomain = home.multik.org
inet_interfaces = all
mydestination = $myhostname, localhost
mynetworks_style = host
in_flow_delay = 1s
smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name
:

grant USAGE on test.* to ping;


, MySQL
, /etc/init.d/mysqld
RESPONSE = '/usr/bin/mysqladmin uUNKNOWN_MYSQL_USER ping 2>&1'

RESPONSE = '/usr/bin/mysqladmin -uping ping 2>&1'


/etc/my.cnf , .
[mysqld]
bind-address = 127.0.0.1

.
InnoDB .

|
Postfix |
, Postfix, Fedora Core, SQL.
SRPM .
postfix.spec:
%define MYSQL 1
Epoch: 3

strict_rfc821_envelopes = yes
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
transport_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/transport.cf
virtual_mailbox_base = /
virtual_uid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/ids.cf
virtual_gid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/gids.cf
virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/aliases.cf
virtual_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/remote_aliases.cf
relay_domains = $transport_maps
smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
permit_mynetworks,permit_sasl_authenticated,check_relay_domains
disable_vrfy_command = yes
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_local_domain = home.multik.org
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
smtpd_sasl_application_name = smtpd
local_transport = virtual
local_recipient_maps = $virtual_mailbox_maps
smtpd_data_restrictions = reject_unauth_pipelining
,
smtpd_recipient_restrictions RBL-. ,

, . in_flow_delay, smtpd_data_restrictions,
strict_rfc821_envelopes. ,
, .
- ,

67

68

advanced

, Postfix . , .
3 transport.cf:
user = postfix
password = postfix
dbname = mail
table = transport
select_field = transport
where_field = domain
hosts = localhost

3 aliases.cf:
user = postfix
password = postfix
dbname = mail
table = aliases
select_field = maildir
where_field = alias
hosts = localhost
3 remote_aliases.cf:
user = postfix
password = postfix
dbname = mail
table = remote_aliases
select_field = rcpt
where_field = alias
hosts = localhost

3 ids.cf:
user = postfix
password = postfix
dbname = mail
table = aliases
select_field = id
where_field = alias
hosts = localhost


. .

| |

3 gids.cf:

.
user = postfix
password = postfix
dbname = mail
table = aliases
select_field = gid
where_field = alias
hosts = localhost

create database mail;


grant insert,select,delete,update on mail.* to postfix@localhost
identified by 'postfix'; use mail;
create table transport (domain varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY,
transport char(8));
create table aliases (id int(6), gid int(6), alias varchar(255) PRI-


,
,


. ,
.
, ,
,

.

-

. , , :
3 KAV (www.kav.ru);
3 ClamAV (www.clamav.net);
3 Dr.Web (www.antivir.ru);

, .
Dr.Web.

Yandex.ru
Mail.ru. ,
-

,

.
Dr.Web

, ,
,
. Unix-
( ).
,
, .

,

. , ,

.

:
rpm -Uvh drweb-4.31.4glibc.2.3.i586.rpm

:

MARY KEY,maildir varchar(255),password varchar(128), info


varchar(128));
create table remote_aliases (alias varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY,
rcpt varchar(255));

/etc/init.d/postfix start
newaliases
mail multik@home.multik.org
- :

, :
insert into transport values ('home.multik.org','virtual:');
:
insert into aliases values
(1000,12,'multik@home.multik.org','/var/spool/vmail/home.multik.org_multik/','password','multik@home.multik.org account');
1000 UID, Postfix
.
:
mkdir /var/spool/vmail
chown nobody.mail /var/spool/vmail
chmod 777 /var/spool/vmail
. Postfix
, .

Mar 13 14:49:14 home postfix/pickup[12804]: 96BC718E74B:


uid = 0 from = <root>
Mar 13 14:49:14 home postfix/cleanup[12811]: 96BC718E74B:
message-id = <20050313114914.96BC718E74B@home.multik.org>
Mar 13 14:49:14 home postfix/qmgr[12805]: 96BC718E74B:
from = <root@home.multik.org>, size = 300, nrcpt = 1 (queue active)
Mar 13 14:49:14 home postfix/virtual[12817]: 96BC718E74B:
to = <multik@home.multik.org>, relay = virtual, delay = 0,
status = sent (delivered to maildir)
Mar 13 14:49:14 home postfix/qmgr[12805]: 96BC718E74B:
removed
,
. , , www.google.com
. Postfix debug_peer_level, main.cf.
MySQL :
mysql> insert into mail.remote_aliases values('root@home.multik.org', 'multik@home.multik.org');

| |
.
:

tar xzvf drweb-postfix-4.31linux.tar.gz



/etc/postfix/master.cf,
:
filter unix - n n -- pipe
flags = R user = drweb argv =
/opt/drweb/drweb-postfix -f
${sender} -- ${recipient}
:
smtp inet n - n - - smtpd

smtp inet n - n - NN smtpd -o


content_filter = filter:dummy


NN -.

,
/etc/cron.hourly
, . :
$ touch drweb.update
/etc/cron.hourly

drweb.update :

#!/bin/bash
/opt/drweb/update/update.pl

:
chmod 777
/etc/cron.hourly/drweb.update

Dr.Web

www.antivir.ru/download, , ,

. ,

, -


. , -
.
-,
,
,
,
.

69

70

advanced

,
: MAILER-DAEMON, postmaster, abuse, noc.
.
/usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf
:
pwcheck_method: auxprop
mech_list: PLAIN CRAM-MD5 DIGEST-MD5 LOGIN
allowanonymouslogin: no
allowplaintext: no
sasl_auxprop_plugin: sql
sql_engine: mysql
sql_database: mail
sql_user: postfix
sql_passwd: postfix
sql_select: select password from aliases where alias = "%u@%r"
, , :
SASL authentication problem: unable to open Berkeley db
/etc/sasldb2: No such file or directory
:
saslpasswd2 -c test
saslpasswd2 -d test
.
, , .
, ( multik@home.multik.org
password ), . ,
:
Received: from 192.168.1.118 (ppp83-237-195-35.pppoe.mtunet.ru [83.237.195.35])
by multik.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id 8259E8F80D4
for <multik@multik.ru>; Sun, 13 Mar 2005 04:05:12 -0800
(PST)
ESMTP
. ,
, . ,
. ,
.

| IMAP |
www.courier-mta.org/imap, Courier-IMAP , -

FAQ, RPM-. , spec-, openldap


fam. ,
gamin.
,
- .
/etc/authlib/ Courier.
authdaemonrc authmysql:
authmodulelist = "authmysql"
authmysqlrc
:
MYSQL_SERVER
localhost
MYSQL_USERNAME
postfix
MYSQL_PASSWORD
postfix
MYSQL_SOCKET
/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
MYSQL_PORT
3306
MYSQL_OPT
0
MYSQL_DATABASE
mail
MYSQL_USER_TABLE
aliases
MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD password
DEFAULT_DOMAIN
home.multik.org
MYSQL_UID_FIELD
id
MYSQL_GID_FIELD
gid
MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD
alias
MYSQL_HOME_FIELD
maildir
MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir
MYSQL_NAME_FIELD
info
/usr/lib/courier-imap/etc
. POP3,
:
POP3DSSLSTART = NO
POP3_STARTTLS = NO
POP3DSTART = NO
ourier-IMAP.
/etc/init.d/courier-imap restart

- :
Mar 13 16:06:11 home imapd: onnection, ip = [::ffff:127.0.0.1]
Mar 13 16:06:11 home imapd: authdaemon: s_connect() failed:
No such file or directory

,
authdaemon , /etc/init.d/
courier-authlib start ,
:
Mar 13 16:39:14 home authdaemond: Authenticated:
sysusername = <null>, sysuserid = 1000, sysgroupid = 12,
homedir = /var/spool/vmail/home.multik.org_multik/,
address = multik@home.multik.org, fullname = multik@
home.multik.org account, maildir = <null>, quota = <null>,
options = <null>
, , .


openssl .
, ,
:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out multik-client.key 1024
openssl req -new -key multik-client.key -out multikclient.csrEnter pass phrase for multik-client.key:
openssl x509 -req -in multik-client.csr -out multik-client.crt
-sha1 -CA multik-ca.crt -CAkey multik-ca.key -CAcreateserial
-days 1825

, PKCS12:

| |
, , ,
. .
, SSL TLS.
, ,
. ,
VerySign , ,
, .
, ,
.
:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out multik-ca.key 2048
openssl req -new -x509 -days 1825 -key multik-ca.key
-out multik-ca.crt

multik-ca.crt .
.
multik.org:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out multik-server.key 1024
openssl req -new -key multik-server.key -out multik-server.csr
openssl x509 -req -in multik-server.csr -out multik-server.crt
-sha1 -CA multik-ca.crt -CAkey multik-ca.key
-CAcreateserial -days 1825
home.multik.org:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out home-multik-server.key 1024
openssl req -new -key home-multik-server.key
-out home-multik-server.csr
openssl x509 -req -in home-multik-server.csr
-out home-multik-server.crt -sha1 -CA multik-ca.crt
-CAkey multik-ca.key -CAcreateserial -days 1825

openssl pkcs12 -export -in multik-client.crt -inkey multikclient.key -name "Viacheslav Kaloshin cert" -out multik-client.p12

. ,

. , :
cp multik-server.key multik-server.key.orig
openssl rsa -in multik-server.key.orig -out multik-server.key
cp home-multik-server.key home-multik-server.key.orig
openssl rsa -in home-multik-server.key.orig -out home-multikserver.key
-
. , , apache /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt ssl.key.
main.cf
:
smtpd_use_tls = yes
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key/home-multik-server.key
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/home-multik-server.crt
smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/multik-ca.crt
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3
smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
Postfix, TLS .
- :
Mar 14 12:39:01 home postfix/smtpd[6851]: setting up TLS
connection from home.multik.org[127.0.0.1]
Mar 14 12:39:11 home postfix/smtpd[6851]: TLS connection
established from home.multik.org[127.0.0.1]: TLSv1 with cipher

71

72

advanced

DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA (256/256 bits)


Mar 14 12:39:11 home postfix/smtpd[6851]: 8D9C918E772:
client = home.multik.org[127.0.0.1], sasl_method = CRAM-MD5,
sasl_username = multik@home.multik.org

:
Received: from [127.0.0.1] (home.multik.org [127.0.0.1])
(using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
(256/256 bits))
(No client certificate requested)
by home.multik.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id 8D9C918E772
for <multik@home.multik.org>; Mon, 14 Mar 2005
12:39:11 +0300 (MSK)
TLS , -
, .
,
. ,
.
.

. Thunderbird
Options p Advanced p Certificates p Manage p
Certificates p Authorities Import. Your certificates multik-client.p12.
Postfix
, :

postmap relay_clientcerts
postfix reload
, -. , , :
Mar 14 12:50:48 home postfix/smtpd[6995]: Verified:
subject_CN = Viacheslav Kaloshin, issuer = multik.org
:
Received: from [127.0.0.1] (home.multik.org [127.0.0.1])
(using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
(256/256 bits))
(Client CN "Viacheslav Kaloshin", Issuer "multik.org" (verified OK))
by home.multik.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id 5D87E18E779
for <multik@home.multik.org>; Mon, 14 Mar 2005
12:50:48 +0300 (MSK)
.
, ,
, .
. ourier-IMAP :
cp home-multik-server.key /etc/cert/home-multik-server.pem
cat home-multik-server.crt >> /etc/cert/home-multik-server.pem
imapd-ssl :

smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1
smtpd_tls_ask_ccert = yes
relay_clientcerts = hash:/etc/postfix/relay_clientcerts
relay_clientcerts , .
:

TLS_TRUSTCERTS = /etc/cert/trusted.crt
TLS_CERTFILE = /etc/cert/home-multik-server.pem
TLS_VERIFYPEER = PEER
IMAP-. :

Mar 14 12:59:13 home imapd-ssl: couriertls: connect:


error:140890B2:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_CLIENT_CERTIFICATE:no certificate returned

MD5
Fingerprint = 90:B6:12:52:57:D3:35:93:5D:85:91:4A:04:0F:DA:5B

, ,
. :

openssl x509 -fingerprint -in multik-client.crt

relay_clientcerts :
90:B6:12:52:57:D3:35:93:5D:85:91:4A:04:0F:DA:5B multik
, ,
, . :

cat multik-client.crt > /etc/cert/trusted.crt


, .
, TLS c 143, SSL
465- . ourier , .

, :
Mar 14 15:22:33 home imapd-ssl: Connection, ip = [::ffff:127.0.0.1]
Mar 14 15:22:33 home imapd-ssl: LOGIN,
user = multik@home.multik.org, ip = [::ffff:127.0.0.1],
protocol = IMAP
, IMAP, imap-ssl.
.
,
.
starttls.
TLS IMAP , , :
error:1408F10B:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_RECORD:wrong
version number
,
-, , TLS IMAP, .

| |
|
, ,
. ,
.
home.multik.org :
smtp_use_tls = yes
smtp_tls_key_file = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.key
/home-multik-server.key
smtp_tls_cert_file = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt
/home-multik-server.crt
smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/httpd/conf/ssl.crt/multik-ca.crt

Postfix , .
. , , :
Received: from home.multik.org (unknown [195.166.171.193])
(using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
(256/256 bits))
(Client CN "home.multik.org", Issuer "multik.org"
(verified OK))
by multik.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id B04E28F80D4
for <multik@multik.org>; Mon, 14 Mar 2005 04:53:02
-0800 (PST)
Received: from [127.0.0.1] (home.multik.org [127.0.0.1])
(using TLSv1 with cipher DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
(256/256 bits))
(Client CN "Viacheslav Kaloshin", Issuer "multik.org" (verified OK))
by home.multik.org (Postfix) with ESMTP id 0326B18E77D
for <multik@multik.org>; Mon, 14 Mar 2005 15:53:01
+0300 (MSK)
,
,

, ,
, .

| |
.
:
.
,
(ClamAV, KAV Dr.Web, ), SPF
SpamAssassin. . |

e-mail

,

-.

IMAP,
-

Squirrelmail.

.
:
yum install squirrelmail
-
:
http://<hostname>/webmail

.

mail.company.com.
-
Apache.

/etc/httpd/conf.d/squirrel-

mail.conf Alias , /mail. ,



-.
Squirrelmail

www.squirrelmail.org.

73

74

advanced


Linux-
. , ,
Evolution,
GNOME.

Evolution . ,
, , , , ,
, . .

| |
: ,
,
.
. , . , , SSH.
, . , ,
:
- , , -.
- SSH,

.
, mutt.
Linux, : www.mutt.org.

Mutt ,
.

Mbox, MH DF. POP3, IMAP. , $MAIL.

| mutt |
, .
,
IMAP.
,

. , mutt ,
.muttrc,
(/home/_):
set spoolfile = imap://mail.firma.ru/INBOX
mutt.
,
. :

,
.
.
, .muttrc:
set imap_user = name
set imap_pass = pass
set certificate_file = ~/.mutt/certificates
, ,
.
, .mutt ,
.
, mutt,
IMAP.
, . .muttrc :
set sort = threads
color hdrdefault white black
color header brightyellow black ^date: *
color header brightyellow black ^from: *
color header brightyellow black ^subject: *
color header brightyellow black ^to: *
color header brightyellow black ^delivered-to: *
color header brightyellow black ^cc: *
color header brightyellow black ^bcc: *
color header yellow black ^reply-to: *
color header yellow black ^mail-followup-to: *
color header yellow black ^old-return-path: *
color header brightblue black ^x-mailer: *
color header brightblue black ^user-agent: *
color header brightblue black ^x-operating-system: *
color header red black ^x-mailing-list: *
color header red black ^in-reply-to: *
ignore *
unignore From: To: Date: Subject:

mutt

(r)eject, accept (o)nce, (a)ccept always

hdr_order Date: From: To: Cc: Subject:


set sort = threads
; color header
; ignore * ; unignore From: To: Date: Subject: .
hdr_order .
:
. Enter
. ,
R. , ,
,
.
.muttrc:
set editor = vim
, vim.

, mcedit.
, ( ) . vim
:
Esc :wq Enter
.
Y, sendmail,
.

| |
, .
,
. , ,
,
: , . |

75

76

advanced


. ,
. ,
?
.

, , , ,
, . , ,
. , - ( , ), .

| |
: trafd, MySQL .


, .
. NetUP UTM (www.netup.ru) ,
, -

. $200 $700,
,
. ,
.
,
, LANBilling (www.lanbilling.ru).
,
.

Stargazer,
: http://stargazer.dp.ua. , ,
. , Stargazer
.

| |
, , ,
,
. Stargazer
-.
Linux FreeBSD

Stargazer

make make install. ,


inetaccess.2.44.6.win.rar
.
/sbin/stargazer.
.

| |


Windows.

, iptables.

.
.
,

, .
, , ,
.
. MySQL - .

. , MySQL , , Stargazer,
.

Stargazer :
/etc/stargazer/stargazer.conf
/etc/stargazer/rules
/etc/stargazer/OnConnect
/etc/stargazer/OnDisconnect
/etc/stargazer/OnUserAdd
/etc/stargazer/OnUserDel
/etc/stargazer/OnChange

iptables. , ,
. rules,
stargazer.conf OnConnect OnDisconnect.

. , OnConnect,

.
iptables , IP-
.
OnDisconnect, ,
.
, , OnUserAdd OnUserDel
. ,
, . .
/var/stargazer/users/username. ,

| |
. ,
, all_in_one_2004_12_28.zip.
sgconfig.1.55.7.win.exe stargazer.2.011.7.6.src.tgz.
Windows,
. . , ,
libexpat
(sourceforge.net/projects/expat).
,
./configure --prefix = /usr, make make install. Stargazer

77

78

advanced

,
, , ,
, .
stargazer.conf
. , . ,
IP-,
. AdminAllowFrom. DirNameN, N ( 0 9), .
, Stargazer. , , , .
rules .
. (TCP, UDP,
ICMP, TCP_UDP ALL), . - , .
,
.
, , .
.

, ,
.

| |
, ( 5555),
SMTP- , ,
( 5 ). ,
,
. , , , .
admin, 123456.

| |
, .
, IP- .
, ,

|
|
,
, .

| |
,
Windows.

Stargazer


IP-

.
, IP- . .
. Stargazer
, . IP- ,
.

| |
. .
,
, , : , , .

| |
,
. : . .
.
, .
, , , .

| |
, , .
.

| |
, , ,
.
,



Windows,
. , ,
.

| |

IP- ( 5555).
.

.

| |
,
, .
.
.

| |
Stargazer
.
,
. , , , ,
. -
. .

,
,
, IP-
. Stargazer
.

.

,
, . |

79

80

advanced


, ,
, .
, , , ,
.
.

, . ,
. , . , C++ Java. 80% . C++
,
, , Java
-.
, , .
, , , , .
Perl, - PHP,
Python, .

| Python |
Python
Basic.
, . Python, , ,
Python, . , Python
,
, .
Python ,
C++ Java? Python , , ,
.

Python ,
. Java,
.
-
, , , , Lisp.

| |
Python . .
python. Enter, :
python
Python 2.3.4 (#1, Feb 2 2005, 12:11:53)
[GCC 3.4.2 20041017 (Red Hat 3.4.2-6.fc3)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>
, . ,
10 103030:
>>> (30 * 30 * 10) / (10 * 10 * 10)
9
>>>
.
, ,
. .

, ,
, :
>>> v_korobke = (30 * 30 * 10) / (10 * 10 * 10)
>>> v_korobke
9
, :
>>> v_korobke * 6
54
>>>
,
. , print:
#!/usr/bin/python
v_korobke = (30 * 30 * 10) / (10 * 10 * 10)
print v_korobke * 6
. , Python.
. - .
shop.py :
1. #!/usr/bin/python
2. v_korobke = (30 * 30 * 10) / (10 * 10 * 10)
3. print " ?"
4. korobok_bylo = int ( raw_input() )
5. kubikov_bylo = korobok_bylo * v_korobke
6. print " ?"
7. korobok_stalo = int ( raw_input() )
8. kubikov_stalo = korobok_stalo * v_korobke
9. rezultat = kubikov_bylo kubikov_stalo
10. if rezultat > 0 :
11.
print " %d , "
% rezultat
12. elif rezultat < 0 :
13.
print " %d ,
." % (-rezultat)
14. else:
15.
print " , , "

Python

: raw_input()
, int ,
.
rezultat
. 1015
. ,
, .

, , , , rezultat
. 11 . 11, %d . Python , % .
rezultat. 12 :
rezultat , :.
, 13
. - rezultat 13.
. rezultat
(, -9), -
. 14 12 , , .
, , rezultat 0.

. .
(, begin end
Pascal "{" "}" C++). Python , .
, ,
rezultat . 11 12 :
11.75 print " %d ." %((1
float (kubikov_stalo) / kubikov_bylo)*100)
float
kubikov_stalo ,
, , , .

| |
. ,
, print. , , print
, .
korobok_bylo , .

, Python .
. . ,
, , . |

81

82

advanced


,
,
. , ,
FTP ( ).
. , NFS!

(NFS Network File System) Unix.


Windows Mac OS , ,
.
NFS , , .

| |
Windows
NetBIOS, Mac OS AppleTalk.
:
,
,
. NFS -

, , ,
. , ,
NFS. ,

. , , ,
IP-. NFS
,
,
.
, . ,
NFS , .
Linux NFS
, . NFS

,
.

, , , (
).
Linux , NFS .

| NFS |
Linux NFS,
, , ntsysv
p p .
, portmap.
NFS, NFS-
,
.
Linux NFS ,
/etc/exports. , NFS, ,
. /etc/exports ,
NFS - .
/etc/exports man exports.
, ( ), (, IP-,
, ), . ,
/home
:
/home -alldirs
, -alldirs
,
(, /usr /home).
.
, ( ) , :
/usr -ro -alldirs office.domain.ru managers.domain.ru
192.168.0.16

, NFS-
, ntsysv

, showmount. , /etc/exports,
:
showmount -e
Exports list on localhost:
/usr
Everyone
/home/lena
192.168.0.47
/home/vasya 192.168.0.49
/
192.168.0.1

| NFS |
NFS ,
.
NFS , . NFS

.

|
|
NFS
mount. ,
, :
mount -t nfs office:/home /home2

/etc/exports
NFS. :
/etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs restart

. , , df:

83

84

advanced

ntsysv
p
p .

:
amd -a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net
/etc/amd.map
amd cd /host . , ,
:
cd /host
ls
#

Samba
df
Filesystem 1K-blocks
/dev/hda1 992239
/dev/hda2 26704179
procfs
4
office:/home 9924475

Used
54353
4872963
4
1642343

Avail
Capacity
858597 6%
19694882 20%
0
100%
7488174 18%

Mounted on
/
/home
/proc
/home2


,
umount:
umount /home2
, NFS /etc/fstab,
:
Device
Mountpoint Fstype
office:/home /home2
nfs

Options
Dump Pass#
rw,-T,-i,noauto 0
0


NFS :
mount /home2

man mount.

| |
amd NFS
. ( )
, .


, , NFS :
ls office
# homes
/host office,
homes, , office:/homes.
/host
.

:
ln -s /host/office/homes /home2
/home2 office:/homes ,
.
.
amd, /etc/amd.conf.

man amd.conf.

| Windows |
, Windows? NFS

Unix-, . Windows

.
Linux
, -

, Windows.
- Linux. , Samba, -
Windows
Windows.

| Samba |
Samba
,
Windows. SMB ,
. , ,
named pipes
(mailslots). SMB
NetBIOS,
IBM 1985 , , ,
layer 3 TCP/IP, SPX/IPX,
DECnet;
NetBIOS- NetBEUI. NetBIOS/
SMB ,
(browsing) SMB-, . , ,
,
.
SMB (share level) (user level). (share) ,

, .
, UID ( ),
.
(well-known) TCP/UDP- (135, 137-139, 445),
. ,

Microsoft. ,
.

, . , , Linux,
Windows-, .
Fedora Core 3 smbfs, SMB-.

Samba SWAT
Samba smbclient, , FTP,
. Samba-
Linux NT-
(, ), Windows-
Unix- , .

(, ,
). SMB , Samba- SWAT
(- ,
Samba)
.

| Samba |
Samba
smb.conf,
,
:
workgroup = MY_WORKGROUP
Samba
.

| -SWAT |
Samba
/usr/local/etc/smb.conf, .

smb.conf.default,
: ( man
smb.conf), .

85

86

advanced


smb.conf. SWAT (Samba
Web Administration Tools), Samba
-.
,
. , ,
- . SWAT
Linux, /etc/master.passwd,
, -
.
, .
3 SWAT
(localhost). .
3 , , .
3 smb.conf ,
SWAT, root, HTTP-
SWAT. , .
3 (, smbowner)
smb.conf ( -

chown). SWAT,
smbowner, root.
, ,
.
SWAT
/etc/services :
swat 901/tcp
/etc/xinetd.conf :
swat stream tcp nowait root /usr/local/sbin/swat swat
, , inetd:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/xinitd restart
SWAT
http://localhost:901. .
SWAT , Samba. .
, Samba
smb.conf.

NFS

Unix
1985 Sun
Microsystems NFS (Network
File System).


, RPC
,
,
,
Unix,
.
UDP-
TCP

.

NFS ,


NFS-
.
,
. NFS


2 .
:
3

/
32 (large block file
transfers);
3 (
NVRAM,
);
3 readdirplus (



N ,
N+1 );
3 TCP-,


.

,

.
.
NFS Unix Unix-
.

,
, FTP,

, . ,
, ,

. NFS-
11024,

Unix.
UID , .

:
3 root_squash all_squash
, ,
UID = 0
(root_squash)
UID (all_squash),
-

| |
smb.conf.default. ,
( ) smb.conf, Samba:

, Samba:
[homes]
comment =
browseable = no
writeable = yes

/etc/rc.d/init.d/smb restart
- , :
[public]
comment =
path = /usr/local/share/samba-public
public = yes
writeable = yes
printable = no
write list = @users

public . ,

Unix- users, .
[homes] , -


nobody.

readonly-
(, , , , ,
/usr/share . .);
3 uid mapping UID
UID ,
, ,


UID ;
3 insecure mounting RPC

11024.
,
,
.

NFS
,

,
: rpc.statd (
-o), rpc.mountd ( -p),
rpc.rquotad ( -p),
rpc.nfsd ( -p).
NFS-, . , , sNFS
(www.crufty.net/ftp/pub/sjg/
help/sNFS.html). ,
NFS TCP,

,

SSL- (, , openssl,
SSH stunnel (http://
www.stunnel.org). NFSv4
(http://nfsv4.org) -


(browseable = no),
,
Samba, [homes] . .

| |
[home], [printers] , . Linux , /etc/printcap, .
[printers] :
[printers]
comment = samba-
path = /var/spool/samba
browseable = no
# public = yes,
guest

Kerberos-
.
NFS-
Windows,

(http://hummingbird.com/products/nc/nfs/index.html?cks=y).
Microsoft
Services For Unix
v3.5 (www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu),
NFS-,
NFS-.
NFS ,
-

.


( all_squash

/etc/exports).

/home.

(www.linuxcenter.ru/lib/networking/
nfs_root_minihowto.phtml;
www.remoteboot.ru/ru/remote
boot/dskless.html).

chroot - ,
readonly:

, , /usr.
NFS
.

87

88

advanced

.
, guest
account smb.conf :
guest account = pcguest

pcguest adduser.

| smbfs |

Nautilus
Windows
guest ok = no
writeable = no
printable = yes

| |
Samba .
security smb.conf:

SMB
. SMB
, .
smbfs, /usr/ports/net/smbfs.
SMB smbfs,
mount_smbfs . , -I IP-, (
//@< NETBIOS>/< >) . , public Windows- office
/mnt/public :
mount -t smbfs -o username = somename, password = somepass
//office/public /mnt/public

SMB /etc/fstab :

security = user
.
,
.

Samba . ,
IP- smb.conf ( hosts allow).

, public = yes, .
/usr/share/doc/samba.

| |
Samba,
, , .
,

.
Samba,
,

//guest@office/public /smb/public smbfs rw,noauto 0 0


.

| |

Windows-
GNOME KDE. samba-. , ,
:
smb://_

. ,
guest.
Nautilus
. , , Linux.
, Linux
.
. |

90

FAQ


,
.
Linux , ,
- .

RPM

# ,
# , GPL, BSD . .

# .
4-5 ,
#

, . ,
RPM-?
.

Group:
# ,

# /usr/share/doc/rpm*/GROUPS

spec, , .
:

Source: http://url/%{name}%{version}.tar.gz
#
# ,
#

# ( , /)

%prep
%setup -q
# ,
# Source.
.
#
Maximum RPM

# spec-
# ,

Summary: Short Summary


#

Name: ProgramName
#
Version: 0.0.0
#
Release: 0
#
Copyright: License

URL: http://url
#

Requires: something > = version


# ,

bash > = 2.0


BuildRoot: %{_tmppath}/%{name}-root
# .

%description
Full program description

%build
#
# , ,
LSB (Linux Standard Base),
#

/usr /opt
%install
# ,
# buildroot,
# %{buildroot}
%clean
#
buildroot
#
:
[ %{buildroot} != / ] && rm -rf %{buildroot}

%files
#
%defattr(-,root,root)
# ,

# , , .
,
# , -

1 0, yum .
. ,
, :
yum install <>

APT

apt Fedora Core



,
/usr/src/redhat/
SOURCES.
spec- :

, , , yum. ,
-
Fedora Core apt?
?

Flash-. , :
, ?
,
, Linux
, Firefox - Flash-. , ,

. , :
http://macromedia.rediris.es.

:
rpm -ivh <>

rpmbuild -bb ./<spec->


,
RPM- /usr/src/redhat/RPMS. |

YUM


,
yum?
. ,
,
.
:
createrepo ./
.

, /etc/yum.conf .
, :
[personal]
name = Our files repository
baseurl = file:///media/storage/repo

, , . , apt Fedora Core.



,
:
http://download.fedora.us/fedora/fedora/2/i386/RPMS.stable.
Fedora

. |

Fedora Project

,
Fedora Red Hat
,

,
Red Hat Linux. ,
- , Fedora Core?
, .
Fedora
,
, ,
.
: http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/extras. |

gpgcheck = 1

Windows-
Fedora Core
.

Windows? , , - ?
Fedora Core Windows, .
Nautilus
:
fonts:

. Windows , , , , corefonts.sf.net.

Microsoft
. |

RPM


Firefox

,
:

Fedora Core

Flash-
, Linux


src.rpm RPM-?
, ,
src.rpm
?

91

92

FAQ

, .
spec-, . ,
,
:
rpmbuild -rebuild <>

/usr/src/redhat/RPMS. |


RPM-
Windows,
RPM Linux-.
rpm, ,
.
?

linux acpi = off


linux i8042.nomux
linux acpi = off apm = off

CD. i8042
,
. |

Nautilus

Nautilus ?
: , .
, Browser Mode.
:
gconftool-2 --type bool --set /apps/nautilus/preferences/always_use_browser true
, Nautilus.
:
gconftool-2 --type bool --set /apps/nautilus/preferences/always_use_browser false

ISO-
. , - , ?

,
loopback-:
mount -o loop /path/filename.iso
/mount/newiso
/path/filename.iso ISO. /media/newiso,
:
mkdir /mount/newiso

Internet Explorer . RPM


,
,
.
- ,
mv:
mv kernel-2\[1\].4.21-20.EL.i686.rpm
kernel-2.4.21-20.EL.i686.rpm
,

.
,
( Tab).
:
mv 'kernel-2[1].4.21-20.EL.i686.rpm'
kernel-2.4.21-20.EL.i686.rpm


Fedora Core
Fedora Core. ,
- ,
. ?

,
Release Notes ,
.
:
linux ide = nodma
linux allowcddma

NTFS
ASPLinux,

Windows-. Fedora
Core, , NTFS.
Windows?
- Fedora Core
NTFS . Linux-NTFS , .
RPM,
.
http://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net
, , :
uname -r
:
rpm -ivh kernel-ntfs-version-cpu.rpm
:
/sbin/modprobe ntfs
, Windows-
/dev/hda1.
:
mkdir /mnt/windows
mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows -t ntfs -r
-o umask = 0222
, NTFS
Windows

lilo grub.
/etc/lilo.conf
:

KDE, , :
yum install kdemultimedia-extras

other = /dev/hda1
table = /dev/hda
label = Windows


grub, /boot/grub/grub.conf.
, grub
hd0, hd1, .
.
, hda1
hd0,0:
title Windows
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

MP3
MP3-
XMMS Fedora Core?
, MP3
.
XMMS Fedora
Core
.
,
/etc/yum, :
[livna-stable]
name = Livna.org Fedora Compatible
Packages (stable)
baseurl = http://rpm.livna.org/fedora/
$releasever/$basearch/RPMS.stable
http://livna.cat.pdx.edu/fedora/$releasever/$basearch/RPMS.stable
gpgcheck = 1

:
yum install xmms-mp3

.

-?
, ,
. Windows Norton Ghost Symantec.
Linux
mkCDrec (http://mkcdrec.ota.be). ,
,

CD, (NFS).
MkCDrec EXT2, EXT3, MINIX,
JFS, XFS, Reiser FS, LVM
RAID.
MSDOS, FAT, VFAT NTFS.

. |

-
-,
Linux.
?

(Documentation/video4linux/bttv/CARD
LIST) .
, 8x8,
saa7134
cx88. , , /etc/modules.conf , , , ,
/lib/modules/_/modules.dep :
alias char-major-81 cx8800


(. dmesg),
.
modprobe:
modprobe cx8800 card = 34 tuner = 38
, CARDLIST,
Insmod-options,
. : linux.bytesex.org/


, .
,
?
, . .
, ,
memtest86,

. ,
256 . 190

. Linux
190 ,
mem=189M. 4-, 188. lilo.conf:
image = /boot/vmlinuz-up
label = linux-up
root = /dev/hda4
initrd = /boot/initrd-up.img
append = "mem = 188M"
read-only
GRUB:
title linux-up
kernel (hd0,3)/boot/vmlinuz-up root =
/dev/hda4 vga = 788 mem = 188M
initrd (hd0,3)/boot/initrd-up.img

badmem (badmem.sourceforge.net/). |

93

94

review

c-

BEAST/BSE
- ? BEAST , , , .
. ,
.
, , .
, BEAST

F-Spot
. , ,
. Mono
,
, F-Spot.
,
Gthump GQview,
, F-Spot . , .

Liferea
-
,
? , ? - ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. -

:
, , ,
,
LADSPA (www.ladspa.org).
BEAST BSE (Bedevilled Sound Engine).
,
.
BEAST MAD
Ogg/Vorbis,
,
MP3 OGG Vorbis.

:
: GPL
:
http://beast.gtk.org

-, .
F-Spot , ,
, .

. , ,

. , .
, F-Spot
. , ,
, .
:
: GPL
: www.gnome.org/
projects/f-spot

,
. ,
RSS. Liferea

.
, , . ,
Evolution, ,
RSS. Liferea RSS .
Liferea.
RSS .

:
: GPL
: ttp://liferea.
sourceforge.net

c-

, CD , ,
. ,

, , -

, , - . ,
,
. ?

, .

,
,
. DiskSearch

.

- ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
. 10
Geek
Code. ,

, . -


.
Geek Code . ( ) ,

-
: ,
, ? Unix

diff, , , ,
.
.
Meld , diff.
.
CVS
, .
,
,
, , -

DiskSearch
. DiskSearch
, . -
, , ,
.
:
: GPL
:
http://disksearch.sourceforge.net

Geek Code Wizard


. ,
Geek Code,
. Geek Code
Wizard .
,
,
.
:
: GPL
:
www.geocities.com/kraker64/geekcodewizard

Meld
. Meld ,
, , . Drag&Drop,

Meld.
:
: GPL
:
http://meld.sourceforge.net

95

96

review

www.zaurususergroup.org

http://tuxmobil.org

Linux

Sharp.
HOWTO. ,
ROM,
. |

www.linuxfocus.org


Linux, .

:
Linux, , . |

Linux , ,

. ,
.
, , , , ,

BAR- GPS-.
.
, :
Bluetooth, Infra Red . . ,
, ,
, -

. . , HOWTO, CD-,
Debian . ,

WAP, .

http://samag.ru


.
DjVu. |

www.linuxdevices.com


Linux
:
, MP3-,
, ,
.

.
Linux,

.
embedded-,

. |

www.nixp.ru


,

Linux.
,
. ,
.
FAQ ,
, -

. ,

.
, /bin/soft/vote (
, Unix),
.
,
, KDE . ,

, ,
.
Open Source.
, Subscribe.ru.

www.opennet.ru


,
,
Apache ,
,
, , .
,
, . , ,
,
, .
, .

www.redhat.com/magazine


Linux , ,
, , -
.
.
c Fedora Core Enterprise Linux.
, , .
Linux. , . . ,

, .

www.linuxcenter.ru

www.linux.org.ru

http://freshrpms.net

-, ,
- Unix-:
Linux .
Linux
.

, . |


, ? ,
, ,
, . ,
,

Linux. |

- ,
Fedora Core,
. , ,
,
Download. apt, . |

97