Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 162

.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL


FOR 2 X 282.5 TPH

TRIPPLE PRESSURE NATURAL CIRCULATION, SINGLE DRUM,UNFIRED HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR WITH REHEAT

SUPPLIED TO

LANCO KONDAPALLI STAGE III

THERMAX PROJECT NO.: PH 0401/02

THERMAX BABCOCK & WILCOX A DIVISION OF THERMAX LIMITED PUNE, INDIA

0 REV

VSD

30.12.2011

AA

30.12.2011

NS

30.12.2011 APPROVED BY

0 REVISION DESC. / REMARK

PREPARED BY

CHECKED BY

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Contents
Volume 1 Boiler Description ....................................................................................................1 Section A................................................................................................................................2 1 Design Specications of Steam Generator ....................................................................3 2 Design Code...............................................................................................................4 3 Levels With Respect To Center Line .............................................................................4 4 Material Specications Pressure Parts .....................................................................4 5 Evaporating Heating Surface Area ...............................................................................6 6 Exhaust Gas Analysis .................................................................................................6 6.1 Continuous Blowdown........................................................................................6 7 Recommended Boiler Water Quality .............................................................................7 8 Recommended Feed Water Quality ..............................................................................7 9 Utilities .......................................................................................................................8 10 Chemicals for Dosing ................................................................................................9 11 Site Condition............................................................................................................9 12 Recirculation Pump ................................................................................................. 10 13 HP/IP/LP Dosing System ......................................................................................... 10 14 Gauge Glass .......................................................................................................... 12 15 Stack Damper ......................................................................................................... 13 16 Safety Valves .......................................................................................................... 13 17 Relief Valves ........................................................................................................... 15 Section B.............................................................................................................................. 16 1 Brief Description of the HRSG.................................................................................... 16 2 Description of HRSG Operation ................................................................................. 16 3 Steam & Water System ............................................................................................. 17 3.1 HP Boiler Components Description ................................................................... 17 3.2 IP Section Components Description .................................................................. 26 3.3 LP Section Components Description ................................................................. 33 3.4 Operational Control.......................................................................................... 39 3.5 Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring .............................................. 40 3.6 Maintaining Quality Of Steam .......................................................................... 42 4 Flue Gas System ...................................................................................................... 43 4.1 AIM................................................................................................................. 43 4.2 Detailed Description......................................................................................... 43 5 Drain & Dosing System.............................................................................................. 45 6 HRSG System Protection .......................................................................................... 51 7 Automatic Controls .................................................................................................... 53 7.1 Drum Level Control .......................................................................................... 53 7.2 CBD Drain Temperature Control ....................................................................... 59 7.3 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3- Way) Control ............................................. 59 7.4 LP Drum Pressure Control ............................................................................... 60 7.5 LP Drum Pressure Control ............................................................................... 60 7.6 HP Attemperator Control .................................................................................. 60 7.7 RH1 Attemperator Control ................................................................................ 60 7.8 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control ............................................................ 61 7.9 IP Line Back Pressure Control .......................................................................... 61 7.10 Start up Vent (HP, IP & LP) Control ................................................................. 61 Section C ............................................................................................................................. 63 1 Section Overview ...................................................................................................... 63 2 HRSG Start Up and Shut Down ................................................................................. 63 3 Startup of a Cold HRSG ............................................................................................ 63 3.1 Walk Down Check ........................................................................................... 63 3.2 Valve Lineup.................................................................................................... 64 3.3 System Lineup ................................................................................................ 65

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.4 Valve Positions Chart For HP, IP & LP Section (Before Light Up) ........................ 66 3.5 Filling Water in Boiler ....................................................................................... 75 3.6 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation....................................................................... 75 3.7 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve .............................................................................. 78 3.8 Taking Reheater On Line ................................................................................. 79 3.9 Charging & Operation of CPH........................................................................... 80 3.10 Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains ......................................................... 80 4 Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG ............................................................................... 81 5 HRSG Shutdown....................................................................................................... 86 5.1 Planned Shutdown........................................................................................... 86 5.2 HRSG Emergency Trips ................................................................................... 86 6 Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler ..................................................................................... 87 6.1 Natural Cooling................................................................................................ 87 6.2 Forced Cooling ................................................................................................ 87 7 HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks ........................................................................ 87 8 Dos and Donts For HRSG Operation........................................................................ 87 9 Boiler Log Sheet ....................................................................................................... 89 9.1 Log Sheet for HRSG ........................................................................................ 89 10 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures ....................................................................... 93 10.1 Emergency Procedures .................................................................................. 93 10.2 Alarms and Trips............................................................................................ 95 10.3 Operational Precautions for Safety ................................................................. 95 10.4 Tube Failures ................................................................................................ 95 10.5 Safety in Boiler House.................................................................................... 95 11 Trouble Shooting Chart ............................................................................................ 96 Section D ........................................................................................................................... 100 1 Section Overview .................................................................................................... 100 1.1 Recommended Maintenance Practices ........................................................... 100 2 Welding Procedure Specications (WPS) ................................................................. 107 3 Boiler Preservation Procedure.................................................................................. 107 3.1 Denitions of Water Quality ............................................................................ 107 3.2 Dry Storage Preservation ............................................................................... 108 3.3 Wet Storage .................................................................................................. 109 3.4 Nitrogen Blanket ............................................................................................ 110 3.5 Boiler Lay Up Procedures............................................................................... 111 3.6 Preservation of Rotating Equipments .............................................................. 111 3.7 Preservation of Instruments ........................................................................... 111 4 Tube Failures.......................................................................................................... 112 4.1 Tube Failure Investigation / Analysis Method ................................................... 112 4.2 Window Patch Welding .................................................................................. 114 5 General Principal of Weld Repairs ............................................................................ 116 6 Failure Reporting Format ......................................................................................... 127 7 Water Chemistry ..................................................................................................... 128 7.1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials ................................................... 128 7.2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals.......................................................................... 128 7.3 Dissolved Gases............................................................................................ 129 7.4 Other Materials.............................................................................................. 129 7.5 pH Value of the Water and its Importance........................................................ 129 7.6 Effects of Impurities ....................................................................................... 129 8 Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning............................................................................. 131 Section E............................................................................................................................ 134 Volume 2 Drawings.............................................................................................................. 135 List of Drawings .................................................................................................................. 135 Volume 3 E & I Specications.............................................................................................. 136

ii

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 1 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 2 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 3 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 4 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 5 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 6 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 7 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 8 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 9 ............................................................................................................................ 137 Section 10 .......................................................................................................................... 137 Section 11 .......................................................................................................................... 137 Section 12 .......................................................................................................................... 138 Section 13 .......................................................................................................................... 138 Volume 4 Vendor Manuals ................................................................................................... 139 Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 140 Recirculation Pump - Sulzer .......................................................................................... 140 Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 140 Dosing System - Metapow ............................................................................................ 140 Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 140 HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Hi tech. ......................................................................... 140 Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 140 IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass - Chemtrols............................................. 140 Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 141 Blow Down Tank Reex Level Gauge Glass - Chemtrols................................................ 141 Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 141 Stack Damper Indira Damper.................................................................................... 141 Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 141 Spring Hanger Pipe Support....................................................................................... 141 Section 08 .......................................................................................................................... 141 Flow Nozzle Micro Precision ..................................................................................... 141 Section 09 .......................................................................................................................... 141 Safety Valve Tyco Sanmar ........................................................................................ 141 Section 10 .......................................................................................................................... 142 Relief Valve Tyco Sanmar......................................................................................... 142 Volume 5 Vendor Manuals ................................................................................................... 143 Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 144 1.1 Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa.................................................. 144 1.2 Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa ...................................... 144 1.3 HART Protocol (EJA Series) - Yokogawa.................................................................. 144 Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 144 2.1 Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) - Yokogawa ................................................... 144 2.2 HART Protocol (EJA) Yokogawa ........................................................................... 144 Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 144 3.1 O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) Yokogawa ...................................................................... 144 3.2 HART Protocol Yokogawa ................................................................................... 144 Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 145 Motor for Recirculation Pump - Siemens ........................................................................ 145 Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 145 Thermocouple - Pyroelectric ......................................................................................... 145 Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 145 Electronic Level Switch Levelstate .............................................................................. 145 Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 145 DO2 Analyser - Emerson .............................................................................................. 145 Volume 6 Vendor Manuals .................................................................................................... 146

iii

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01 .......................................................................................................................... 147 In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers - CODEL .......................................................................... 147 Section 02 .......................................................................................................................... 147 Process Valve Xomox Sanmar ................................................................................... 147 Section 03 .......................................................................................................................... 147 Motorised Valve Xomox Sanmar ................................................................................. 147 Section 04 .......................................................................................................................... 147 Motorised Actuator - Auma ........................................................................................... 147 Section 05 .......................................................................................................................... 147 Blow Down Valve - BHEL.............................................................................................. 147 Section 06 .......................................................................................................................... 148 Pressure Gauge - Bourdon ........................................................................................... 148 Section 07 .......................................................................................................................... 148 Temperature Gauge General Instrument .................................................................... 148 Section 08 .......................................................................................................................... 148 Control Valve Fisher .................................................................................................. 148 Index.................................................................................................................................. 149

iv

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 1 Boiler Description


Chapters Covered in this Part Section Section Section Section Section A B C D E

Volume 1 Boiler Description

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section A
Topics Covered in this Chapter Design Specications of Steam Generator Design Code Levels With Respect To Center Line Material Specications Pressure Parts Evaporating Heating Surface Area Exhaust Gas Analysis Recommended Boiler Water Quality Recommended Feed Water Quality Utilities Chemicals for Dosing Site Condition Recirculation Pump HP/IP/LP Dosing System Gauge Glass Stack Damper Safety Valves Relief Valves

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Number and Type of Boiler 2X 282.5 TPH (HP) 98.7 Bar (a), 40.2 TPH (IP) 26.1 Bar (a) and 32.3 TPH (LP) 4.37 Bar (a) Triple Pressure, Natural Circulation, Single Drum, Unred Heat Recovery Steam Generator With Reheat

Design Specications of Steam Generator


UNIT TPH TPH TPH Bar (a) VALUE 282.5 40.2 32.3 98.7

PARAMETERS HP Boiler Rating [MCR] IP Boiler Rating [MCR] LP Boiler Rating [MCR] HP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR IP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR LP Steam Pressure at Main Steam Stop Valve Outlet from minimum Load upto MCR HP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR IP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR LP Steam Temperature at the Main Steam Stop valve at MCR Water temp at FW control valve inlet/Economiser inlet Design HP Pressure Design IP Pressure Design LP Pressure Boiler Performance Testing Procedure

Bar (a)

26.1

Bar (a)

4.37

C C C C Bar (a) Bar (a) Bar (a)

567.3 3 313.7 286.5 151 112 31 9 ASME PTC 4.4

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Design Code
As per IBR 1950 with latest amendments IBR, ANSI B 31.3

Boiler & Economiser / Pressure Parts: Piping:

Levels With Respect To Center Line

For the High Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low Level Trip High High For the Intermediate Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low Level Trip High High For the Low Pressure Steam Drum PARAMETER Normal Water Level Level Alarm High Level Alarm Low Level Trip Low Low BFW Pump Trip Level Trip High High ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT FWPT HHLT VALUE + 300 (Center line of Drum) + 375 mm - 300 mm - 1050 mm - 1350 mm + 450 mm ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT HHLT VALUE 0 (Center line of Drum) + 125 mm 125 mm 215 mm + 215 mm ALARM NWL LAH LAL LLLT HHLT VALUE + 25 mm + 225 mm 225 mm 330 mm + 300 mm

Material Specications Pressure Parts


Description Details Shell Dished end for S.D. (Hemispherical) Shell Dished end for S.D. (Hemispherical) Shell Dished end for S.D. (Hemispherical) 24 Nos. of Tube 14 Nos. of Tube 30 Nos. of Tube Size In Mm 2000 I.D. x 100 Thk 2000 I.D. x 100 Thk 1375 I.D. x 25 Thk x 12500 L 1375 x 25 Thk 3000 I.D. x 20 Thk 3000 I.D. x 20 Thk 200 NB x SCH 120 150 NB x SCH 40 150 NB x SCH 40 Material SA 516 Gr.70 SA 516 Gr. 70 SA 516 Gr. 70 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B

HP Steam Drum IP Steam Drum LP Steam Drum HP Drum Risers IP Drum Risers LP Drum Risers

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Description HP Drum Downcomers IP Drum Downcomers LP Drum Downcomers HP Superheater 3 Reater 2 HP Superheater 2 Reater 1

Details 4 nos. of Tube 4 nos. of Tube 4 nos. of Tube Spiral Solid Tube Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top Header Bottom Header Top Header Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated

Size In Mm 350 NB x SCH 120 200 NB x SCH 40 300 NB x SCH 40 38.1 OD x 4.3 THK. 200 NB x 45 THK. 44.5 OD x 3 ThK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 38.1 OD x 3.2 THK. 200 NB x 30 THK. 44.5 OD x 3 THK. 200 NB x SCH 160 38.1 OD x 3 THK. 200 NB x 25 THK. 200 NB x 25 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 200 NB x SCH 100 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x SCH 80 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 200 NB x 25 THK. 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x SCH 80 200 NB x SCH 100 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x 30 THK. 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 200 NB x 25 THK. 200 NB x 120 SCH 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 200 NB x SCH 100 38.1 OD x 2.6 THK. 250 NB x SCH 100 250 NB x SCH 80

Material SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T91 SA 335 P91 SA 213 T22 SA 335 P22 SA 213 T11 SA 335 P22 SA 335 P11 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 201 A1 SA 106 Gr. B SA 106 Gr. B

HP Superheater 1

HP Evaporator IP Superheater LP Superheater

HP Economiser 3

Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header -1 & Bottom Header Top -2 Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header Top & Bottom Header Serrated Serrated Top & Bottom Header Serrated Top & Bottom Header (CPH A) Top & Bottom Header (CPH B)

IP Evaporator

HP Economiser 2 HP Economiser 1A HP Economiser 1B IP Economiser LP Evaporator

CPH

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Evaporating Heating Surface Area


Zone Unit M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 M 2 Value 2727.57 5150.00 4472.50 11274.00 7589.00 48730.00 3742.00 834.00 48670.00 24725.00 14846.50 7453.00 22270.00 33524.00 58805.00 294812.60

HP Superheater 3 Reheater 2 HP Superheater 2 Reheater 1 HP Superheater 1 HP Evaporator IP Superheater LP Superheater HP Economiser 3 IP Evaporator HP Economiser 2 IP Economiser HP Economiser 1 LP Evaporator CPH Total Heating Surface Area

Exhaust Gas Analysis

Exhaust Gas PARAMETERS N2 + AR O2 CO2 H2O CO SO2 UNIT % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL % VOL FIRED 100% GT 74.641 13.6367 4.2678 7.4448 0.0006 0.0018

6.1 Continuous Blowdown


Design Operating : 3 % / Hr : 0 %/ Hr

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Recommended Boiler Water Quality


Units ppm HP Section 16 13 IP Section 40 34 LP Section -

Parameter Sodium Phosphate as PO4 Alkalinity as CaCO3 pH Oil & Organic Total dissolved solids Silica as SiO2

ppm

< 10 9.7 10.2

< 60 10.8 11.4 Nil < 300 < 21

Nil Nil < 300 < 60

ppm ppm ppm

Nil < 50 < 0.9

Recommended Feed Water Quality


Units HP Section Clear & Colourless ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 9.3-9.5 ppm s/cm ppm < 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.02 IP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 8.5-9.5 < 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.02 LP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 8.5-9.5 < 0.1 < 0.2 <0.02

Parameter General Appearance Total Hardness as CaCO3 Total Fe Total Cu Oxygen Oil & organics pH Total Dissolved solids Electrical Conductivity Silica SiO2

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Utilities

Electrical Power Parameters For HT Motors (above 160 KW) Voltage Frequency Combined Variation Type For LT Motors (upto 160 KW) Voltage Frequency Combined Variation Type V Hz % 415 50 10 AC, 3 Phase V Hz % 6600 50 10 AC, 3 Phase Units Value

For Instrumentation (Field Switches, Level Gauge illumination, solenoid valves etc) Voltage Frequency Type For Field Transmitters Voltage Type Instrument Air Parameters Pressure Temperature Dew Point Quality Duty Nitrogen Unit Barg Deg C Deg C Value 7.0 26 20 Dry & Oil free Instruments V 24 DC V Hz 220 50 AC, 1 Phase

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Parameters Pressure (min/normal/design) Temperature (min/normal/max/design) Quality Duty Service Water for Quenching Parameters Pressure Duty

Unit Barg Deg C %

Value 6/7/10 0/30/35/40 99.9 % Pure HRSG Preservation

Unit Barg

Value 2.0 Quenching

10 Chemicals for Dosing


HP Dosing: IP Dosing: LP Dosing: Tri sodium phosphate Tri sodium phosphate Hydrazine

11 Site Condition
Parameter Site Location Temperatures Ambient Temperature (min/max/design) For Performance Testing Relative Humidity Relative Humidity (min/max/design) For Performance Testing Seismic Design Basic Horizontal Seismic co-efcient Importance Factor Soil Condition Factor Altitude Area Classication Environment HRSG Location Number of HRSGs m 0.05 1.75 1.0 35 m above MSL Safe & Non Hazardous Non-Corrosive Outside 2 % % 45/81/60 60 Deg. C Deg. C 15/45/30 30 Units Details Kondapalli, Andhra Pradesh

Section A

Operation & Maintenance Manual

12 Recirculation Pump
Description Pump Make Pump Type Pump Speed Flow Differential Head Temperature Suction Pressure Shut off Head at 50 HZ Rated power Efciency Motor Make Motor type Rating Speed Frame Size Coupling KW rpm Siemens Sqirrel Cage Induction Motor 90 2975 280M/2 Pole Unique Metaex, Size: 80 SPL-162 RPM m3/hr m C kg/cm2 m KW % Sulzer Pumps ZE 1003315 2980 191 100 148 11.7 115 64.32 74.4 Units Recirculation Pump

13 HP/IP/LP Dosing System


Description Make Reference Drawing No. Tank Details Chemical Dosed Dosing Pump Make Model Flow Discharge pressure Relief valve set pressure Motor for Dosing Pump VK Pump PR 20 015 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 110.5 kg/cm2 g (Normal), 118 kg/cm2 g (Design) 138 kg/cm2 g VK Pump PR 10 010 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 31.7 kg/cm2 g (Normal), 36 kg/cm2 g (Design) 46 kg/cm2 g VK Pump PR 10 015 LPH by Stroke Adjustment 8.5 kg/cm2 g (Normal), 14 kg/cm2 g (Design) 11 kg/cm2 g HP Dosing for HP Drum Metapow Industries A-1109 Rev 02 ID 950 X 1125 X 3 THK (Capacity 600 lit) Tri-Sodium Phosphate HP Dosing for IP Drum Metapow Industries A-1110 Rev 03 ID 700 X 1000 X 3 THK (Capacity 300 lit) Tri-Sodium Phosphate LP Dosing for LP Drum Metapow Industries A-1111 Rev 02 ID 950 X 1125 X 3 THK (Capacity 600 lit) Hydrazine

Section A

10

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Description Make Motor Rating Motor for Agitator Make Motor Rating

HP Dosing for HP Drum CGL M- 120A & M-120B, TEFC IP 55 1 HP, 1500 RPM, 415 10% V

HP Dosing for IP Drum CGL M- 123A & M-123B, TEFC IP 55 0.5HP, 1500 RPM, 415 10% V

LP Dosing for LP Drum CGL M- 126A & M-126B, TEFC IP 55 0.5 HP, 1500 RPM, 415 10% V

CGL M-120, Frame Size ND90L 1.5 HP, 1000 RPM, 41515% V

CGL M-123, Frame Size ND90S 1 HP, 1000 RPM, 41510% V

CGL M-126 1.5 HP, 1000 RPM, 415 10% V

Section A

11

Operation & Maintenance Manual

14 Gauge Glass
HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Description Make Type Tag No. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Design Temperature IP & LP Drum Level Gauge Glass Description Make Type Tag No. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Design Temperature Blow Down Tank Level Gauge GLass Description Make Tag No. Location Operating pressure Design pressure C/c distance Visibility range Operating temperature Details Chemtrols samil LI 096 Blow Down Tank 1.5 kg/cm2 3 kg/cm2 1900 mm 1468 mm 144 C IP Drum Level Gauge Glass Details Chemtrols samil Transparent Level Gauge Glass LI 059A & LI 059B IP Steam drum 26.7 kg/cm2 30 kg/cm2 550 mm 320 mm Saturated 236 C LP Drum Level Gauge Glass Details Chemtrols samil Transparent Level Gauge Glass LI 082A & LI 082B LP Steam drum 5.7 kg/cm2 8 kg/cm2 1900 mm 1650 mm Saturated 176 C Details Hi Tech System and Services Bicolour Duco Gauge Glass LI 016A & LI 016B HP Steam drum 103.5 Bar (g) 111 Bar (g) 1000 mm 606 mm Saturated 320 C

Section A

12

Operation & Maintenance Manual

15 Stack Damper
Description Design Data Make Medium Gas Flow Gas Temperature Design Temperature Structural Design Pressure Sealing Efciency Flow Direction Operation Duty Pressure Drop Quantity Operating Time Gear Box Details Make Type Reduction Ratio Torque Actuator Details Make Type Rating Supply KW Auma (I) Pvt Limited SA12E180 1.1 41510% V, 505% Hz, 3Phase, AC Auma (I) Pvt Limited GSD 200+GZ16 424:1 mmWc no. Seconds kg/sec Deg C Deg C mmWc % Indira Damper Industries Exhaust Gas 624.83 100 200 500 99 Vertical Upward Electrical On Off 5 1 per boiler 60 Units Stack Damper Details

16 Safety Valves
HP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orice Set pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Bar (g) Deg.C kg/hr UNIT DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 006A 3.0 M2 6.0 117 Saturated 117200 DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 006B 3.0 M2 6.0 118 Saturated 117200 MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 027 3.0 L2 6.0 109.7 573 73300

Section A

13

Operation & Maintenance Manual

DESCRIPTION Quantity Fluid IP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Quantity Fluid LP Boiler DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity Quantity Fluid Reheater DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orice Set Pressure Relieving Temperature Required Valve Capacity

UNIT -

DRUM LHS 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

DRUM RHS 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

MAIN STEAM LINE 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam

UNIT -

DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar

DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 060B 3.0 L 4.0 30.59 Saturated 20300 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 062 3.0 K 4.0 28.96 350 12700 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam

Kg/Cm2 Deg.C kg/hr -

PSV 060A 3.0 L 4.0 29.57 Saturated 20300 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

UNIT -

DRUM LHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar

DRUM RHS Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 084B 4.0 P 6.0 8.16 Saturated 16500 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

MAIN STEAM LINE Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 085 6.0 Q 8.0 5.30 350 10500 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam

Kg/Cm2 Deg.C kg/hr -

PSV 084A 4.0 P 6.0 7.13 Saturated 15000 1 no. / Boiler Saturated Steam

UNIT -

REHEATER INLET Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 302A 6.0 RR 10.0 28.35 410 125000

REHEATER OUTLET Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 072 6.0 RR 10.0 24.58 572 90,000

Kg/Cm2 Deg.C kg/hr

PSV 302 6.0 RR 10.0 27.53 410 125000

Section A

14

Operation & Maintenance Manual

DESCRIPTION Quantity Fluid

UNIT -

REHEATER INLET 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam

REHEATER OUTLET 1 no. / Boiler Superheated Steam

17 Relief Valves
DESCRIPTION Type Make Tag No Size Orice Set pressure Required Valve Capacity Relieving Temperature Quantity Fluid Kg/Cm2 kg/hr Deg.C UNIT CPH Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 109 4.0 N 6.0 24.50 162681 250 1 no. / Boiler Water After Recirculation Pump Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 111 3.0 J 4.0 27.00 500940 250 1 no. / Boiler Water IP ECONOMISER Spring Loaded Tyco Sanmar PSV 078 2.0 H 3.0 71.30 78000 290 1 no. / Boiler Water

Section A

15

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section B
Topics Covered in this Chapter Brief Description of the HRSG Description of HRSG Operation Steam & Water System Flue Gas System Drain & Dosing System HRSG System Protection Automatic Controls

transmitter and proximity switches form a part of control system and act as nal control element to control the process variables. Position transmitters allow the monitoring of the controlling element position. Closed control loops are congured in DCS. Process switches and transmitters monitor the process variables and generate alarms and safe shutdown of HRSG. Analyzers are used for the measurement of Conductivity and pH of feed water, boiler water and steam to maintain the required quality.

Brief Description of the HRSG

The HRSG is designed to extract maximum recoverable heat from the exhaust gas of the gas turbine. For this purpose the exhaust gas ow from the gas turbine is arranged in a direction counter to the water / steam circuit of HRSG. The exhaust gas from the gas turbine enters HP, IP & LP section of the Boiler. All the three section include the secondary and primary superheaters, evaporators, economisers & nally through CPH module before exhausted to the atmosphere by the stack. The steam drum placed above the evaporators serves as a balancing vessel for water and steam. It receives feed water from the economiser and maintains positive water supply to the evaporator modules. Drum receives the mixture of steam and water from the evaporator modules by the heat transfer. After separating water from the steam / water mixture at drum, the saturated steam is supplied to the main steam line through superheaters.

Control Loops:
HP Steam Drum level control IP Steam Drum level control LP Steam Drum level control CBD Drain Temperature Control Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3- Way) Control LP Drum Pressure Control HP Attemperator Control RH1 Attemperator Control CPH Recirculation Temperature Control IP Line Back Pressure Control Control philosophy of these loops is described in section of Automatic control

Description of HRSG Operation

Generation Capacity
Generation capacity of the HRSG HP steam of 282.5 TPH / 98.7 Bar (a) at a temperature of 567.3 3C IP steam of 40.2 TPH /26.1 Bar (a) at a temperature of 313.7C LP steam of 32.3 TPH / 4.37Bar (a) at a temperature of 286.5C

HRSG Operation HRSG is lled with cold DM water through the back lling line provided at the drain headers. Valves line up and procedure for boiler ll up will be described later in operation instruction manual. On satisfying the necessary safety interlocks, gradually admit turbine exhaust gas into HRSG. Cold start up curve has to be followed to pressurize the boiler. HRSG is pressurized by modulating the GT load and by establishing the steam ow through the start up vent and also modulating it. On attaining the rated pressure and temperature of superheated steam, main steam stop valve can be opened and steam shall be admitted to header. Start up vent will be closed, once the ow through MSSV is established. Control loops will be selected into auto operation mode with their corresponding set points.

General Description Instrumentation

of

HRSG

The latest generation of the eld instruments is used to facilitate monitoring and control of the process variables, generating alarms and trips. Differential pressure Transmitters for the measurement of process variables like pressure, drum level and ow are used. Thermocouples with transmitters are used for the measurement of temperature. Control valves with position

Section B

16

Operation & Maintenance Manual

This is a brief overview of the HRSG. Details of equipments, their operational and maintenance features will be elaborated in the subsequent chapters of the manual.

The exhaust gas from the Gas Turbine ows in a direction counter to the water / steam ow path with the hottest gas entering the sequence below HP Superheater 3 Reheater 2 HP superheater 2 Reheater 1 HP Superheater 1 HP Evaporator IP Superheater LP Superheater HP Economiser 3 IP Evaporator HP Economiser 2 IP Economiser HP Economiser 1 LP Evaporator CPH

Steam & Water System

AIM
The water and steam system covered in this chapter describes the components of the HRSG which transfer heat from the exhaust gas of the gas turbine to the feed water owing from the feed water main to convert it to HP steam of 282.5 TPH / 98.7 Bar (a) at a temperature of 567.3 3C, IP steam of 40.2 TPH /26.1 Bar (a) at a temperature of 313.7C and LP steam of 32.3 TPH /4.37 Bar (a) at a temperature of 286.5C. The components in the serial order of water ow of path for HP section are, HP Boiler Feed water Control Station HP Economizer I HP Economiser II HP Economiser III HP Drum HP Evaporator HP Superheater I HP Superheater II Attemperator HP Superheater III The components in the serial order of water ow of path for IP section are, IP Economizer Boiler IP Feed water Control Station IP Drum IP Evaporator IP Superheater Reheater 1 Attemperator Reheater 2 The components in the serial order of water ow of path for LP section are, CPH Boiler LP Feed water Control Station LP Drum/Dearator LP Evaporator LP Superheater

3.1 HP Boiler Components Description


3.1.1HP Boiler Feed water Control Station During normal operating HRSG, it must be kept continuously supplied with feed water to maintain near normal level in the drum. The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high. Feed water is obtained from the HP BFW from the client. There are three feed control valves, out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational. HP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water ow control station consists 30% capacity control valve [FCV 003A] 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 003B] 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 003C] Both 30% & 100% control valves are provided with motorised isolation valves [M 003A ,M 003B & M 003C] and manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [GT 028, GT 027 & GT 026]. The feed water ow control valve is a globe type valve, pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the feed water ow indicating controller [HIC 003A,HIC 003B & HIC 003C] in order to maintain the normal water level at boiler steam drum. Out of the above, 30% level control [FCV 003A] is used during start up and is capable of feeding the boiler only when the steam ow from HRSG is less

Section B

17

Operation & Maintenance Manual

than 30%. A special feature of 30% level control valve [FCV 003A] is that it enables the regulation of feed water to the HRSG to be on auto mode from the very start of HRSG. The 100% ow control valve [FCV 003B] is capable of feeding the HRSG when the steam ow from HRSG is from 20% to MCR. [FCV 003C] is an identical stand by to [FCV 003B]. The following are installed in the common inlet line from the HP BFW line to the feed regulation Stations. Tap off for Attemperator spray water with electrically operator Isolating valve M 026A. An isolation valve GT 038. Temperature elements TE-001A & TE 001B for indicating temperature of inlet feed water. A signal is fed to the FX 003. Pressure elements PT-002A & PT 002B for indicating pressure of inlet feed water. A signal is fed to the FX 003. Flow nozzle FE 003A with impulse connections to ow transmitter FT-003A, FT-003B & FT-003C.

and a manually operated outlet Isolating valve GT 028. The valve GT 028 is normally kept open. After the control valve [FCV 003A] , two drain valves (GT 025 & GT 024) are installed. The drain valves normally remain closed and opened only to drain the line when valve [FCV 003A] has to be opened for inspection/maintenance. The electrically operated 30% feed Isolating valve M 003A can be interlocked for opening or closing under the following conditions. The valve [M 003A] can be opened for using the valve [FCV 003A] if the HRSG steam ow is less than 25% MCR and if the drum level is not high. The valve [M 003A] closes automatically when there is a HRSG trip and closure of main steam stop valve M 029A. The valve [M 003A] gets a permission for closing when any of the Isolating valves [M 003B] or [M 003C] of the 100% feed regulating stations are open. The valve closes when the drum level is very high. The valve [FCV 003A] can be positioned on manual mode from the DCS to provide the required quantity of water to maintain normal water level. In the auto mode, the level indicating controller HIC-003A positions the valve [FCV 003A]. Level transmitters LT-003A , B & C continuously monitors the steam drum water level. A signal from two out of two of these transmitters feed a level signal to LIC-003A through a special drum level control macro. These level signals are compensated for drum steam pressure at the macro. The set point of the controller LIC-003A is 0 (i.e. normal level). When LIC-003A is switched on the auto mode, the controller compares the level signal with the set point and generates an error signal if there is a deviation and positions the valve FCV 003A through the positioner to correct the deviation. FCV 003A and its automatic control are adequate during HRSG startups & low steam ows, when rapid changes of drum level (except during swelling) is not envisaged. The operation of FCV 003A can be sluggish and cannot respond to rapid water level changes due to large load changes. 100% Feed Controller FCV 003B The inlet, outlet and drain arrangements of FCV 003B are similar to the low load control valve FCV 003A described earlier. Electrically operated valve M 003B is the inlet-isolating valve. GT 027 is the outlet-isolating

Pressure indicator PI 004 for indicating pressure of inlet HP feed water. The ow transmitters provide feed ow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-003 (which will be described later). After the above, the common inlet line branches into three parallel paths, on which are installed the three feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the HP Economizer 1. The feed regulating stations are now described. 30% or Start up Feed Regulation Station The 30% feed regulating valve [FCV 003A] is used during HRSG start up and up to 30% steam ow of HRSG. The valve can be operated either on auto or manual mode. The positioning of [FCV 003A] on auto is controlled only by the level signal from the Drum and the pressure transmitters, which is acceptable at low loads. Valve [FCV 003A] is a globe type control valve Pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator. The characteristic of the valve is linear, with equal increase in ow for equal valve opening. On loss of control air, the valve opens full. There is no manual override for controlling the valve. The valve [FCV 003A] is arranged between an electrically operated inlet Isolating valve M 003A

Section B

18

Operation & Maintenance Manual

valve, which normally remains open. Drain valves GT022 & GT 023 normally remain closed and are opened for draining only when the line is isolated for inspection/maintenance of valve FCV 003B The inlet isolating valve M 003B is interlocked in the following manner. The isolating valve M 003B (or M 003C as per operator choice) opens automatically when the HRSG steam ow exceeds 25% Valve M 003B (or M003C) closes when, There is an HRSG trip or MSV (M 029A) closes or When the drum level is very high. Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater owing into the boiler to maintain the required water level in the steam drum. In three-element control, the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters (elements) - drum level, feedwater ow & steam ow. The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 003A/B/C installed on the steam drum. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [LIC 003B]. This process variable (PV) is compared with the xed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam ow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. This is done to achieve a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water ow-indicating controller [FIC-003]. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water ow signal from [FE 003A], which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-003]. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-003] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. The valve position is transmitted to the DCS. On the DCS, current drum level, steam ow, feed ow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. The three element control adopted for the 100% ow control valves FCV 003B & C takes into account the drum level, steam ow and feed water ow for positioning the control valve whereas the 30% level controller FCV 003A takes only the drum level for its operation.

100% Feed Controller FCV 003C It is exactly similar to FCV 003B described above except for its valve tag numbers. The feed water control station is connected to the HP economizer 1 through a feed water control station. Pressure gauge [PI 008] installed in the line provide the economiser inlet feedwater pressure and a NRV 031 is provided in the inlet of the HP Economiser 1. 3.1.2HP Economiser HP Economiser 1 There are 2 modules of Economizer (HP Economizer- 1) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG, before LP Evaporator. The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 200 NB x 25.4 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk. The water leaving HP economiser 1 passes through the HP economiser 2. All the drains of Economizer-1 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. Inlet piping to HP Economiser 1 is provided with following: A pressure transmitter (PI 008) for local indication. A NRV 031 is provided. Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 1 is provided with following: A temperature transmitter (TE 009A & B ) for high temperature remote indication. A pressure and temperature indicator PI 010A & B and TI 047B for local indications HP Economiser 2 There is 1 module of Economizer (HP Economizer- 2) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG, before IP Economiser. The Economiser module consists of a top and bottom header of size 250 NB x 30 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk. The water leaving HP economiser 2 passes through the HP econmiser 3.

Section B

19

Operation & Maintenance Manual

All the drains of Economizer-2 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 2 is provided with following: A temperature transmitter (TE 011A & B) for high temperature remote indication. A pressure and temperature indicator PI 012A & B and TI 046B for local indications HP Economiser 3 There are 3 modules of Economizer (HP Economizer- 3 ) located on the last stages of the exhaust gas path of the HRSG, before IP Evaporator. The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 250 NB x 30 Thk and Serrated tubes of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk. The water leaving HP economiser 3 is fed to the HP Drum in two feed lines. All the drains of Economizer-3 have been grouped together and connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. Outlet piping of the HP Economiser 3 is provided with following: A temperature transmitter (TE 013A/B) for high temperature remote indication. A pressure and temperature indicator PI 014A/B and TI 042A/B for local indications 3.1.3HP Drum The Steam Drum is 14500mm long welded cylindrical vessel made of SA-516 Grade 70 material. The cylindrical portion and the two hemispherical dished ends are made of thick plates respectively. The steam drum is supported by a saddle and sliding arrangement on top of the HRSG structure over beams. The sliding arrangement permits a limited shift due to thermal expansion through the oblong holes for mounting the saddle. The drum is insulated by lightly resin bonded mineral wool mats. Two manholes at either end of the drum provide access to the drum. The drum is closed tight at either end by thick

cover plates bolted against the manhole rim by two holding bars. A gasket is tted between the cover plate and the mating machined surfaces in the dished ends. The cover plates swing inside, for convenience during opening. Steam Drum is tted with several components to perform important functions, which are listed below: Steam Drum receives feed water from the HP Economizer 3 outlet through two feed pipes & 4 nos. of (2 on each side) cyclone separators called hydroclones (to take care of economiser steaming) to maintain a near constant level (Normal water level) and for continuous supply to the evaporator through down comer pipes. While owing through the evaporator modules, by absorbing heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas, the hot water gets converted to water / steam mixture and ows back to the Drum behind the bafes through riser tubes. Steam drum receives the water steam mixture from the evaporator modules through the riser tubes behind the bafes. From the bafes, the water steam mixture ows tangentially through the 50 nos. cyclone separators installed in the steam drum. In this tangential ow, water, which is heavier, is separated from steam and trickle down to mix with the water in the steam drum. Steam rises upward to ow through the primary scrubber and secondary scrubber provided at the top portion of the steam drum. The scrubber provides a tortuous path to the steam and during its passage, strips any traces of moisture from steam. Saturated dry steam is collected at the top of the drum and distributed to the HP Superheater 1. Conditioning of Boiler Water: Due to continuous evaporation of boiler water in the drum, minor impurities present in the feed water, concentrate to high impermissible levels in the boiler water. Rise in hardness of water (conductivity), content of chlorides, silica etc., have to be kept to a minimum to prevent scale formation or deposits in the evaporator tubes and drum. While Quality Control of water is described in the manual, a brief outline of the control strategy is stated and the provisions made in the Drum to execute the control is indicated. Sample of Boiler water is collected from the continuous blow down line to the SWAS. An analyzer continuously analyses the sample for pH & conductivity. If the analysis indicate high conductivity (chlorides, silica) etc., small pre-determined amount of water is continuously drained from the steam drum

Section B

20

Operation & Maintenance Manual

through the continuous Blow down valve M 040 with isolating valves for controlling the ow to reduce their concentration to permissible levels in the steam drum. Tri-Sodium phosphate is dosed into steam in the boiler drum to maintain a phosphate concentration and a pH of 8 to 10. The Phosphate has the capacity to convert hardness producing insoluble calcium/ magnesium salts to soluble sodium salts, which are drained through the blow down. A typical reaction can be as follows. 3 CaSO4 + 2 Na3 PO4 Ca3 (PO4)2 + 3Na2 SO4 The dozed phosphate also provides desired alkalinity to the boiler water. An alkaline pH minimizes the possibilities of corrosion. The following facilities have been provided in the steam Drum for the above operations:

During HRSG startup situations arise resulting in high drum water levels. As high drum water levels are not permissible and may lead to a boiler trip, provision has been made for quickly draining some water from the boiler drum under this condition. The EBD line, drawn from the entire length of the drum consists of a manually operated inlet isolating valve GT 765, an inching type motor operated blow down valve M 039A & B followed by a non return valve NRV 677. The EBD line drains to the blow down tank. Manual isolating valves are normally kept closed and are opened only when emergency blow down has to be done by opening M 039A & B. GAUGES & TRANSMITTERS Level Gauges, Transmitters Level Indicators, Level

Continuous Blow Down (CBD) Line To enable the water drained from the drum to reect the true composition of Boiler water, a perforated is laid along the water space of the drum below the normal water level (axis of the drum) and connected through the CBD line to the Blow down tank. There is a isolating valves on the upstream of a blow down valve M 040 and a non-return valve NRV676 on the line. The valve for Boiler water continuous Blow down (CBD) is positioned to drain continuously a pre-calculated quantity. HP Steam drum is tted with several components to perform important functions, which are listed below: Sampling Line The CBD line provided to the SWAS through two isolating valves GT726 & GT727. Water & Steam quality control is described elsewhere in this manual. HP (Phosphate) Dosing Line Dosing of phosphate to the Boiler water is to be done in a manner that it quickly mixes with the whole of Boiler water. To enable this, a perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the HP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV 053 and an isolating valve GT 052. HP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. Emergency Blow Down (EBD)

As maintaining normal water level in the steam drum is one of the important parameters to be monitored and controlled, elaborate provisions for level instrumentation has been made on the Steam Drum. Brief mention of this instrumentation will be made in this section LEVEL GAUGES (LI 016A & LI 016B) The Level Gauges is of multiport type. The top of the gauge glass is connected to the steam side of the drum through two isolating valves. The bottom portion of the gauge glass is connected to the waterside of the drum through two isolating valves. Care is taken to ensure that the center line of the center port coincides with the center line of the drum, which is the required normal water level. Twin drain valves are tted to each gauge. The drains normally remain shut when the gauge is in service with steam side and waterside isolating valves open. The level gauges are simple direct reading instruments and serve for quick and accurate reading of the drum level. During the start up of HRSG, level gauges may be the only instruments, which can be relied upon, as other instruments may not be accurate. The level gauges are also used to verify the readings of other instruments. The level gauges being located at the drum level are not convenient for regular operation of the Boiler. The level gauges however must be maintained in service, as IBR requires that at least one of the level gauges must be in service to operate the HRSG. Control of water Level in the steam drum relies on the following Instruments. Level Transmitters LT 003A, B & C and indicators LI 016 A & B and LI 017 (Hydrastep).

Section B

21

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Level transmitters LT 003A,B & C provide inputs for Drum level indication at DCS and Low Drum level, High drum level alarms, A median of the three level transmitters is taken. The level transmitter LT 003A,B & C provide drum level signal to the single element and three element controllers. The above level instruments are connected to the steam drum, steam and water space through twin isolating valves. The reading of the steam drum water level by the above instruments is sensitive to the drum pressure. Transmitters PT- 003A ,B & C (through twin isolating valves) mounted on the steam drum, provide a pressure compensation signal to the level transmitters, so that their signals represent true level neutralizing variations due to pressure changes. They also provide steam drum pressure signal to DCS. for low and high steam drum pressure. PI- 015A & B are two local instruments indicating Drum pressure at the drum level, A 4 nos. of Skin metal temperature transmitter TE 037A- TE 037D are provided on the drum to measure the Drum metal temperature and generate the high alarm in remote. Drum Safety Valves (PSV- 006A AND PSV006B)

To protect the boiler and personnel against consequences of abnormal pressure increases caused by sudden load decrease, malfunction of ring system, closure of steam valves etc., two spring loaded safety valves have been tted on the drum. On increase of steam pressure beyond a pre-determined set value (117 & 118 kg/cm2), the safety valves opens automatically to relieve steam from the drum to the atmosphere. The safety valve closes when the steam pressure falls by around 4% of the set value. IBR prescribes norms for installation, care and testing of the safety valves, which are mandatory. Safety valve, PSV- 006A and PSV- 006B along with the safety valve PSV- 027 (on the super heated steam line) have the capacity, as per IBR, to relieve steam from the HRSG in such a manner that pressure rise above 103% of the working pressure is prevented on any condition. As the spring-loaded safety valves result in high noise levels when they open, the exhaust of the safety valves are connected through a silencer to substantially reduce the noise level. Installation, adjustment and maintenance instructions for safety valves are enclosed which may be referred for a full understanding of the safety valves. Silencers

Figure 2 Figure 1

Exhaust of various safety valves, steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers.

Section B

22

Operation & Maintenance Manual

The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid y off of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high ow rates. The process uid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer. The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. As the silencer contain no moving parts, no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug provided in the drain line, once in three months to drain the line. Air Vent An air vent (with twin valves M 005A & M 005B ) has been tted on the drum to vent out air during initial boiler lling, before start up and during start up. During start up, the air vents are closed at a drum pressure of 2 Kg/cm (g) and when copious steam is passing. The air vents are opened after shut down of the boiler when the boiler pressure falls to 2 kg/cm2. N2 Filling The N2 lling line to the HP steam drum is provided with the Isolation valve GT 095 which is normally closed. A NRV 096 is provided after Isolation valve. The Saturated steam from the steam header is connected to the HP Superheater 1 with the following A temperature point TP 007 is provided for the indication of the temperature of the saturated steam entering to the HP superheater 1. 3.1.4HP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the HP Drum through four down comer pipes into a steam water mixture, by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. Evaporator consists of 3 modules. Two modules consists of four rows of tubes arranged between

a top and bottom header and one module consist of three rows of tubes. The modules are hung from the top headers in the ue gas path, on guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides. Finned Evaporator tubes are welded between the top & bottom headers of each module to form the heat absorption surface. Hot water ow to the evaporators from the drum and steam/water mixture ows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. The four down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. From the down comer header, interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: Heated Boiler water from the drum ows through the four down comer pipes to down comer header. From the down comer header, the hot water ows to the lower headers, and then through Evaporation module tubes, to the Evaporation module top headers. During its passage through the Evaporation module tubes, the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module, ows behind the bafe chamber in the steam drum.

In the steam drum, the steam/water mixture ows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam ows to the HP Superheater 1. Separated water mixes with boiler water to ow through the Evaporator modules again. Evaporator are of fully drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. These drains are connected to the HP drain header through three isolating valves. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules.

Section B

23

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.1.5HP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from drum is done in three stages in HP Superheater 1 , HP Superheater 2 & HP Superheater 3. Between HP Superheater 2 & HP Superheater 3 an attemperator is located to control the temperature of nal steam outlet at 567.3 5 C. Superheaters are made of modules, each consisting of a top header and a bottom header, with tubes between the headers. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. HP Superheater 1 HP Superheater 1 Consists of 1 modules. Saturated steam from the drum ows to the rst module of superheater 1 lower header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the rst module, through the module tubes to the top header of the same module, absorbing heat. There are Serrated tubes per row; 2 rows per module. The tubes are of size 38.1 O.D. x 3 Thk. and made of SA 213 T11 material. The HP Superheater 1 lower headers (Lowest point), are provided with manual drain valve GL 739 which is normally closed. HP Superheater drain line with two isolation valves GT680 & GT761 which are normally kept open connected to condensate drain pot. The condensate drain pot is operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 038D & M 038 H) on the principle of conductivity and drain the condensate to the BD Tank. A temperature element TE 038DH is provided in the drain line for the drain control. The outlet line of the HP superheater1 is provided with A temperature transmitter TE018A/B . A temperature indicator TI 045 before the HP Superheater 2. A temperature point TP 008. HP Superheater 2 HP Superheater 2 Consists of one modules. Steam from the HP superheater 1 ows to the rst module of HP superheater 2 lower header through steam supply pipes from the steam header. . Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the rst module, absorbing heat and travels to the top header of the HP Superheater 2..

There are Serrated tubes per row; 3 rows per module; 3 module in HP superheater 2. The tubes are of size 38.1 O.D. x 3.2 Thk. and made of SA213 T91 material. . The HP Superheater 2 header (Lowest point), are provided with drain line with two isolation valves each. These drains are operated to drain the HP Superheater 2 drain header. The drains are opened before light up of the boiler to drain HP Superheater 2 . They are closed at a drum pressure of 2 To 5 Kg/cm. The outlet line of the HP superheater 2 is provided with A temperature transmitter TE 020. It transmits the HP superheater 2 outlet temperature signal for the high alarm. A pressure Indicator PI 019. A temperature indicator TI 044 before the Atttemperation. A temperature point TP001. Attemporator The function of the attemporator is to control the temperature of main steam at HP Superheater 3outlet to 567.3 3C. Water sprayed into steam evaporates, drawing heat from the steam and completely mixes with steam. Attemporator is a header connecting from the bottom header of the module of HP Super-heater 2 to the lower header of the module of HP Super-heater 3 with an inner sleeve. Spray nozzle is held across the header on to the header nozzle . The spray nozzle at the blind end rests on a guide to with stand the force of steam. Holes are drilled on the spray nozzle in the direction of steam ow. The spray water for the Attemperator is obtained from the HP Boiler Feed water main, before the ow transmitter FT 034. The spray water line consists of the following. A Solenoid operated Shut off valve TV 034. A ow Element FE-034 to measure spray water ow and indicate on ow transmitter FT034. A Control station consists of the two Pneumatically operated ow control valve TV-026A & TV-026B (100 %). The ow control valve is provided with inlet/outlet isolating valves. Motorised inlet isolation valve M 026A & M 026B are provided before the control valves and manual outlet isolation valve GT 049 & GT 050 are provided and remain

Section B

24

Operation & Maintenance Manual

normally open. The are two drain valves GT 045 & GT 046 are provided after the control valve TCV 026A and two drain valves GT 047 & GT 048 are provided after the control valve TCV 026B, which remain normally closed. These drain valves are opened after closing inlet/outlet Isolating valves, when valve TCV 026A & B are to be taken for maintenance. A pressure indicator PI 033 with two isolation valve. The spray water line connects to the spray nozzle of the attemperator through a non-return valve NRV 051. Temperature transmitter TE 020 & TE- 042 provide steam temperature indication before and after the attemperator to judge the effectiveness of attemperation. . The temperature transmitter TE026A &B (1out of 2) indicate the high temperature alarm through TIC 026. A feed back signal from TIC 026 is provided to the controller HIC 026A & B which controls the pneumatically operated attempearation ow control valve TV-026A & B to maintain the temperature as required. An attemperator is provided with manual twin drain valve GL 739 & GT 683, which are normally closed. Attemperator drain line is connected to HP SH drain header through two isolation valves GT 764 & GT 694 which are normally kept open. A temperature element TE 038BF is provided in the drain line for the drain control. HP Superheater 3 HP Super-heater 3 does superheating of steam. third stage of

An air vent is provided on main steam piping just after HP Superheater 3 piping. Pressure & temperature indication is provided for main steam piping. 3.1.6HP Main Steam line The HP steam line connects the top header of HP Super-heater 3 module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following Electrically Operated HP Steam Stop Valve M 029AThis valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant HP steam main. This valve is provided with an electrically operated, integral by pass valve M 029B. Safety Valve PSV-027To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut, malfunctioning of ring system, closure of steam valves etc., a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. This is a spring-loaded, valve set at 110.6 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-006A & PSV-006B described earlier. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 028 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve. M 028 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up. It provides initial steam ow for the cooling of superheaters. HP Steam Line Drain The steam line drain consists of the following valves. Electrically operated motorised valve M 038A & M 038E, are normally closed are connected in the drain line with an isolation valve GT 698 which is normally open. Flow Nozzle FE 003BFlow nozzle FE- 003B is installed on the HP steam line after the main stop valve to provide steam ow indication. The ow transmitter reading after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following, 1. Steam ow reading. 2. Steam ow compensation for feed water ow

HP Super-heater 3 consists of one modules. The module are constructed out of Spiral Solid Tube These rows screen the radiation of ame coming from the combustion chamber and avoid n overheating in subsequent HRSG surface area. The HP Superheater 3 module tubes are made of SA213 T91 material. Steam after attemperation enters the lower header of the HP Super-heater 3 rst module and rises to the top header of the same module with absorbing heat and then to HP Main steam line. The HP Super-heater 3 lower headers (Lowest point), are provided with three drains with two isolation valves . These drains valves GT 682, 2 nos. are kept closed are connected to the HP Superheater drain header. Temperature element TE 035A to TE 035H (8nos.) are installed on the HP Superheater 3.

Section B

25

Operation & Maintenance Manual

HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT- 026A & 026B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. Temperature Indicating controller TIC-026 which controls positioning of the attemperator spray control valve as described earlier. 2. Temperature compensation signal to steam ow. A temperature gauge TI 024 is provided for the local indication. HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT- 025A & B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. Pressure compensation signal to steam ow. A pressure Indicator PI 022 for local indication. Air VentGT 107 &GT 108 are air vent valves on the HP steam line, which may be used during hydro test. Drum Metal Temperature MonitoringWhen a HRSG is started after lling water to normal level, initially drum metal temperatures on the steam side and water side may show considerable difference due to slow conductive heat transfer across the drum metal and difference of heat inputs across the water washed & steam washed parts of the drum. The temperature difference, if it exceeds 50C, may set up abnormal thermal stresses. To warn the operator of such a situation, four drum skin metal thermocouples have been installed, two on the water side & two on the steam side of the drum. These thermocouples connect to a monitor in the DCS. When the differential temperature exceeds 50C, an alarm is generated in the DCS. This alarm is an indication to the operator to slow down the startup rate. However, when the drum pressure reaches 5 to 10 Kg/cm, temperature differentials disappear. A similar caution is desired during cooling down of HRSG. A tapping from the HP Steam line is provided for the Steam turbine gland sealing system.

Serrated tubes of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk & material SA201 A1. The water leaving IP economiser through the Feed regulating Station to the IP Steam Drum. All the drains of Economizer have been grouped together and connected to the IP drain header through two isolating valves. Air vent valves are located on the cross over pipes of the top headers (which are the high points of the modules). Air vents of Economizers modules are individually grouped together. Inlet piping to IP Economiser is provided with following: A connection is provided for the attemperation after the reheater 1. A pressure transmitter ( PT 052) for remote indication. A temperature transmitter (TE 051 ) for high temperature remote indication. A pressure Indicator PI 053 for local indication. A non return valve NRV 209. Outlet piping to IP Economiser is provided with following: A pressure safety valve PSV 078 is provided. An Export Water Connection is provided through a valve (GT 211) & NRV (NRV 261) and pressure indicator PI 076 & temperature indicator TI 076 for local indication. A pressure relief valve PRV 050 is provided. The outlet of PRV 050 is connected to the LP steam drum for safe relief of hot water. A pressure transmitter ( PT 077A & B) for remote indication and also for the pressure compensation to maintain the IP drum level. A pressure transmitter ( PT 077A & B) is provided to measure the pressure at IP Eco Outlet. A Feed back control loop with the pressure indicating controller FIC 050 is provided for automatic pressure control to the ow control valve FCV 050A & B in the feed regulating station of the IP section.. A temperature transmitter ( TE 075A & B) for remote indication and also for the temperature compensation to maintain the IP drum level.. 3.2.2IP Boiler Feed water Control Station During normal operating HRSG, it must be kept continuously supplied with feed water to maintain near normal level in the drum. The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high.

3.2 IP Section Components Description


3.2.1IP Economiser There are 1 modules of Economizer (IP Economizer) located Before HP Economiser 1 in the HRSG ue gas path . The Economiser modules consist of a top and bottom header and

Section B

26

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Feed water is obtained from the IP feed water from the client. There are two feed control valve , out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational. IP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water ow control station consists 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 050A] 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 050B] Both 100% control valve are provided with motorised isolation valves [M050A & B] and manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [GT216 & GT 217]. The feed water ow control valve is a globe type valve, pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the feed water ow indicating controller [HIC 050A & 050B] order to maintain the normal water level at boiler steam drum. The 100% ow control valve [FCV050A] capable of feeding the HRSG. [FCV 050B] is an identical stand by to [FCV050A]. The following are installed in the common inlet line from the IP feed water line from IP Economiser to the IP feed regulation Stations. Temperature elements TE-075A &B for indicating temperature of inlet feed water. A signal is fed to the FI 050A. Pressure elements PE-077A & B for indicating pressure of inlet feed water. A signal is fed to the FI 050A. A temperature indicator TI 075 for indicating temperature. Flow nozzle FE 050A with impulse connections to ow transmitter FT-050A, FT-050B & FT-050C. Pressure indicator PI 056 for indicating pressure of inlet IP feed water. The ow transmitters provide feed ow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-050 (which will be described later). After the above, the common inlet line branches into two parallel paths, on which are installed the two feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the IP Drum. The feed regulating stations are now described. 100% Feed Controller FCV 050A The feed regulating valve [FCV 050A] is used for level controlling in the IP Drum. The valve can be operated either on auto or manual mode. The

positioning of [FCV 050A] on auto is controlled as discussed below. Valve [FCV 050A] is a globe type control valve Pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator. The characteristic of the valve is linear, with equal increase in ow for equal valve opening. On loss of control air, the valve opens full. There is no manual override for controlling the valve. The valve [FCV 050A] is arranged between an electrically operated inlet Isolating valve M 050A and a manually operated outlet Isolating valve GT 216. The valve GT 216 is normally kept open. After the control valve [FCV 050A] , one drain valve (GT 214 ) is installed. The drains normally remain closed and opened only to drain the line, when valve [FCV 050A] has to be opened for inspection/maintenance. The electrically operated 100% feed Isolating valve M 050A can be interlocked for opening or closing under the following conditions. The valve [M 050A] can be opened for using the valve [FCV 050A] if the HRSG steam ow is less than 25% MCR and if the drum level is not high. The valve [M 050A] closes automatically when there is a HRSG trip and closure of main steam stop valve. The valve [M 050A] gets a permission for closing when any of the Isolating valves [M 050B] of the 100% feed regulating stations are open. The valve closes when the drum level is very high. Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater owing into the boiler to maintain the required water level in the steam drum. In three-element control, the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters (elements) - drum level, feedwater ow & steam ow. The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 050A/B/C installed on the steam drum. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [LIC 050]. This process variable (PV) is compared with the xed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam ow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. This is done to achieve

Section B

27

Operation & Maintenance Manual

a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water ow-indicating controller [FIC-050]. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water ow signal from [FE 050A] with pressure and temperature compensation from the PT 077A & B and TE 075A & B, which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-050]. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-050] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. The valve position is transmitted to the DCS. On the DCS, current drum level, steam ow, feed ow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. The three element control adopted for the 100% ow control valves FCV 050A & B takes into account the drum level, steam ow and feed water ow for positioning the control valve. 100% Feed Controller FCV 050B It is exactly similar to FCV 050A described above except for its valve tag numbers. The feed water control station is connected to the IP Drum Pressure gauge [PI056] installed in the line provide the IP Drum inlet feedwater pressure and a temperature element TE 055 for remote indication of the inlet IP drum water temperature . 3.2.3IP Drum The Steam Drum is 12500mm long welded cylindrical vessel made of SA-516 Grade 70 material. The cylindrical portion and the two hemispherical dished ends are made of thick plates respectively. The steam drum is supported by a saddle and sliding arrangement on top of the HRSG structure over beams. The sliding arrangement permits a limited shift due to thermal expansion through the oblong holes for mounting the saddle. The drum is insulated by lightly resin bonded mineral wool mats. Two manholes at either end of the drum provide access to the drum. The drum is closed tight at either end by thick cover plates bolted against the manhole rim by two holding bars. A gasket is tted between the cover plate and the mating machined surfaces in the dished ends. The cover plates swing inside, for convenience during opening. Steam Drum is tted with several components to perform important functions, which are listed below:

Steam Drum receives feed water from the IP Economizer outlet through single feed pipes & 2nos. of (1 on each side) cyclone separators (to take care of economiser steaming) to maintain a near constant level (Normal water level) and for continuous supply to the evaporator through down comer pipes. While owing through the evaporator modules, by absorbing heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas, the hot water gets converted to water / steam mixture and ows back to the Drum behind the bafes through riser tubes. Steam drum receives the water steam mixture from the evaporator modules through the riser tubes behind the bafes. From the bafes, the water steam mixture ows tangentially through the 20 nos. cyclone separators installed in the steam drum. In this tangential ow, water, which is heavier, is separated from steam and trickle down to mix with the water in the steam drum. Steam rises upward to ow through the secondary scrubber provided at the top portion of the steam drum. The scrubber provides a tortuous path to the steam and during its passage, strips any traces of moisture from steam. Saturated dry steam is collected at the top of the drum and distributed to the IP Superheater . Conditioning of Boiler Water Due to continuous evaporation of boiler water in the drum, minor impurities present in the feed water, concentrate to high impermissible levels in the boiler water. Rise in hardness of water (conductivity), content of chlorides, silica etc., have to be kept to a minimum to prevent scale formation or deposits, in the evaporator tubes and drum. While Quality Control of water is described in the manual, a brief outline of the control strategy is stated and the provisions made in the Drum to execute the control is indicated. Sample of Boiler water is collected from the continuous blow down line to the SWAS. An analyzer continuously analyses the sample for pH & conductivity. If the analysis indicate high conductivity, (chlorides, silica) etc., small pre-determined amount of water is continuously drained from the steam drum through the continuous Blow down valve M 079 with isolating valves for controlling the ow to reduce their concentration to permissible levels in the steam drum. Tri-Sodium phosphate is dosed into steam in the boiler drum to maintain a phosphate concentration and a pH of 11. The Phosphate has the capacity to convert hardness producing insoluble calcium/ magnesium salts to soluble

Section B

28

Operation & Maintenance Manual

sodium salts, which are drained through the blow down. A typical reaction can be as follows. 3 CaSO4 + 2 Na3 PO4 Ca3 (PO4)2 + 3Na2 SO4 The dozed phosphate also provides desired alkalinity to the boiler water. An alkaline pH minimizes the possibilities of corrosion. The following facilities have been provided in the steam Drum for the above operations:

EBD line drains to the blow down tank. Manual isolating valves are normally kept closed and are opened only when emergency blow down has to be done by opening M 078. GAUGES & TRANSMITTERS Level Gauges, Transmitters Level Indicators, Level

Continuous Blow Down (CBD) Line To enable the water drained from the drum to reect the true composition of Boiler water, a perforated is laid along the water space of the drum below the normal water level (axis of the drum) and connected through the CBD line to the Blow down tank. There is a isolating valves on the upstream of a blow down valve M 079 and a non-return valve NRV633 on the line. The valve for Boiler water continuous Blow down (CBD) is positioned to drain continuously a pre-calculated quantity. IP Steam drum is tted with several components to perform important functions, which are listed below: Sampling Line The CBD line provided to the SWAS through two isolating valves GT723 & GT724. Water & Steam quality control is described elsewhere in this manual. IP (Phosphate) Dosing Line Dosing of phosphate to the Boiler water is to be done in a manner that it quickly mixes with the whole of Boiler water. To enable this, a perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the IP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV 256 and an isolating valve GT 257. IP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. Emergency Blow Down (EBD) During HRSG startup situations arise resulting in high drum water levels. As high drum water levels are not permissible and may lead to a boiler trip, provision has been made for quickly draining some water from the boiler drum under this condition. The EBD line, drawn from the entire length of the drum consists of a manually operated inlet isolating valve GT 628, an inching type motor operated blow down valve M 078 followed by a non return valve NRV 634. The

As maintaining normal water level in the steam drum is one of the important parameters to be monitored and controlled, elaborate provisions for level instrumentation has been made on the Steam Drum. Brief mention of this instrumentation will be made in this section LEVEL GAUGES (LI 059A & LI 059B) The Level Gauges is of multiport type. The top of the gauge glass is connected to the steam side of the drum through two isolating valves. The bottom portion of the gauge glass is connected to the waterside of the drum through two isolating valves. Care is taken to ensure that the center line of the center port coincides with the center line of the drum, which is the required normal water level. Twin drain valves are tted to each gauge. The drains normally remain shut when the gauge is in service with steam side and waterside isolating valves open. The level gauges are simple direct reading instruments and serve for quick and accurate reading of the drum level. During the start up of HRSG, level gauges may be the only instruments, which can be relied upon, as other instruments may not be accurate. The level gauges are also used to verify the readings of other instruments. The level gauges being located at the drum level are not convenient for regular operation of the Boiler. The level gauges however must be maintained in service, as IBR requires that at least one of the level gauges must be in service to operate the HRSG. Control of water Level in the steam drum relies on the following Instruments. Level Transmitters LT 050A, B & C and indicators LI 059 A & B . Level transmitters LT 050 A, B & C provide inputs for Drum level indication at DCS and very Low Drum level, very High drum level alarms. The level transmitter LT 050A, B & C provide drum level signal to the three element controllers. The above level instruments are connected to the steam drum, steam and water space through twin isolating valves. The

Section B

29

Operation & Maintenance Manual

reading of the steam drum water level by the above instruments is sensitive to the drum pressure. Transmitters PT 057A, B & C (through twin isolating valves) mounted on the steam drum, provide steam drum pressure signal to DCS. for low and high steam drum pressure. PI- 058A & B are two local instruments indicating Drum pressure at the drum level Drum Safety Valves (PSV- 060A AND PSV060B)

As the spring-loaded safety valves result in high noise levels when they open, the exhaust of the safety valves are connected through a silencer to substantially reduce the noise level. Installation, adjustment and maintenance instructions for safety valves are enclosed which may be referred for a full understanding of the safety valves. Silencers

Figure 4

Figure 3

To protect the boiler and personnel against consequences of abnormal pressure increases caused by sudden load decrease, malfunction of ring system, closure of steam valves etc., two spring loaded safety valves have been tted on the drum. On increase of steam pressure beyond a pre-determined set value (30 & 31 Bar g), the safety valves opens automatically to relieve steam from the drum to the atmosphere. The safety valve closes when the steam pressure falls by around 4% of the set value. IBR prescribes norms for installation, care and testing of the safety valves, which are mandatory. Safety valve, PSV060A and PSV- 060B along with the safety valve PSV- 062 (on the super heated steam line) have the capacity, as per IBR, to relieve steam from the HRSG in such a manner that pressure rise above 103% of the working pressure is prevented on any condition.

Exhaust of various safety valves, steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers. The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid y off of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high ow rates. The process uid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer. The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. As the silencer contain no moving parts, no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug

Section B

30

Operation & Maintenance Manual

provided in the drain line, once in three months to drain the line. Air Vent An air vent (with valves M 061 ) has been tted on the drum to vent out air during initial boiler lling, before start up and during start up. During start up, the air vents are closed at a drum pressure of 2 Kg/cm (g) and when copious steam is passing. The air vents are opened after shut down of the boiler when the boiler pressure falls to 2 kg/cm2. N2 Filling The N2 lling line to the HP steam drum is provided with the Isolation valve GT 228 which is normally closed. A NRV 227 is provided after the Isolation valve. 3.2.4IP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the IP Drum through down comer pipes into a steam water mixture, by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. Evaporator consists of 2 modules. Two modules consists of three rows of tubes arranged between a top and bottom header. The modules are hung from the top headers in the ue gas path, on guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides. Serrated Evaporator tubes are welded between the top & bottom headers of each module to form the heat absorption surface. Hot water ow to the evaporators from the drum; and steam/water mixture ows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. The down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. From the down comer header, interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: Heated Boiler water from the drum ows through the down comer pipes to down comer header. From the down comer header, the hot water ows to the lower headers, and then through Evaporation module tubes, to the Evaporation module top headers. During its passage

through the Evaporation module tubes, the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module, ows behind the bafe chamber in the steam drum.

In the steam drum, the steam/water mixture ows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam ows to the IP Superheater. Separated water mixes with boiler water to ow through the Evaporator modules again. Evaporator are of fully drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. These drains are connected to the IP drain header through two isolating valves. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules. 3.2.5IP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from drum is done in IP Superheater , to control the temperature of nal steam outlet at 313.7 C. Superheaters are made of single module, it consists of a top header and a bottom header, with tubes between the headers. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. IP Superheater IP Superheater Consists of 1 modules. Saturated steam from the drum ows to the module of superheater lower header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the module, through the module tubes to the top header of the same module, absorbing heat. There are Serrated tubes per row; 1 rows per module. The tubes are of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk. and made of SA210 A1 material. The IP Superheater lower headers (Lowest point), are provided with manual drain valve GT 637

Section B

31

Operation & Maintenance Manual

.The drains are operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 076) and drain to the IP RSH drain header. 3.2.6IP Main Steam line The IP steam line connects the top header of IP Super-heater module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following Electrically Operated HP Steam Stop Valve M 064This valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant IP steam main. This valve is with an electrically operated valve which connects the IP main Steam to the Reheater 1. Safety Valve PSV-062To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut, malfunctioning of ring system, closure of steam valves etc., a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. This is a spring-loaded, valve set at 29.4 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-060A & PSV-060B described earlier. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 063 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve M 063 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up. It provides initial steam ow for the cooling of superheater. IP Steam Line DrainThe steam line drain consists of the following valves: Electrically operated motorised valve M 077 is normally closed connected in the drain line with an isolation valve GT 264 which is normally open. IP Pressure Control valveA PCV 129 is provided for controlling the IP main steam pressure. The pressure controller PIC 129 receives a feed back signal from the Pressure transmitter PT 129A & B . Air VentGL255 is manual air vent valves on the IP steam line, which may be used during hydro test. Flow Nozzle FE 050BFlow nozzle FE- 050B is installed on the IP steam line before the main

stop valve to provide steam ow indication. The ow transmitter reading after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following, 1. Steam ow reading. 2. Steam ow compensation for feed water ow HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT- 130A & 130B (1out of 2) provide the IP steam temperature input for the following 1. Temperature compensation signal to steam ow. HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT- 129A & B (1out of 2) provide the HP steam temperature input for the following 1. Pressure compensation signal to steam ow. 2. Pressure High and Low Alarms for the remote indications. A Cold reheat line is connected to the IP Main Steam line .The steam pass through the Reheater 1 for further heating the steam. 3.2.7Reheaters Superheated steam from the IP Superheater and the Cold reheat steam from the HP turbine exhaust is again Superheated in the Reheaters to control the temperature of nal steam outlet at 567 3C (Hot reheat line to IP Superheater). Reheater are made of single module, it consists of a top header and a bottom header, with tubes between the headers. Reheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. Reheater 1 Reheater 1 Consists of 1 modules. Superheated steam from the IP Superheater and the Cold reheat steam from the HP turbine passes through the module of reheater upper header through steam supply pipes. Steam travels down from both the ends of upper header of the module through the module tubes to the top header of the same module, absorbing heat. There are Serrated tubes per row; 3 rows per module. The tubes are of size 44.5 O.D. x 3 Thk. and made of SA213 T22 material. The inlet line of the Reheater1 is provided with a temperature indicator TI 303. Attemporator

Section B

32

Operation & Maintenance Manual

The function of the attemperator is to control the temperature of main steam at reheater 2 outlet to 567 3C. Water sprayed into steam from the reheater 1, drawing heat from the steam and completely mixes with steam. Attemperator is a header connecting from the bottom header of the module of Reheater 1 to the lower header of the module of reheater 2 . Spray nozzle is held across the header . The spray nozzle at the blind end rests on a guide to with stand the force of steam. Holes are drilled on the spray nozzle in the direction of steam ow. The spray water for the Attemperator is obtained from the IP Boiler Feed water main, before the ow transmitter FE 050A. The spray water line consists of the following: A Solenoid operated Shut off valve TV 074. A ow transmitter FE-073 to measure spray water ow and indicate on ow indicator FI-073. A Control station consists of the two Pneumatically operated ow control valve TCV-068A & TCV-068B (100 %). The ow control valve is provided with inlet/outlet isolating valves. Motorised inlet isolation valve M 068A & M 068B are provided before the control valves and manual outlet isolation valve GT 248 & GT 249 are provided and remain normally open. The drain valve GT246 are provided after the control valve TCV 068A and drain valves GT 247 are provided after the control valve TCV 068B, which remain normally closed. These drain valves are opened after closing inlet/outlet Isolating valves, when valve TCV 068A & B are to be taken for maintenance.

The temperature point TP 004. A temperature Element TE 065 for high alarm . The Inlet line to the Reheater 2 after the attemperation consists of A temperature Element TE 066 for high alarm . The temperature point TP005. The Pressure indicator PI 066. The Temperature indicator TI 066. The Attemperator header is provided with manual drain valve GL 738 which is normally closed. The attemperator drain line is connected to reheater drain header through GT646 isolation valve which is normally open. Reheater 2 Reheater 2 does second stage of reheating of steam. Reheater 2 consists of one modules. The module following the burner/combustion chamber are constructed out of Serrated tubes .Each module consists of 3 rows of tubes. The Reheater 2 module tubes 44.5 O.D. x 3 Thk are made of SA213 T91 material. Steam after attemperation enters the lower header of the Reheater 2 module and rises to the top header of the same module with absorbing heat. and then to Hot reheat line. The Reheater 2 lower headers (Lowest point), are provided with three drains with two isolation valves . These drains valves GT 642, 2 no. are kept closed connected to the Reheater 2 drain header through NRV 643 to Blowdown tank.. The outlet line to Hot Reheat Line consists of The temperature indicator TI 067. The temperature transmitters TE 068A & B.

The spray water line connects to the spray nozzle of the attemporator through a non-return valve NRV 250. Temperature transmitter TE 068A & B provide steam temperature indication after the Reheater 2 to judge the effectiveness of attemperation. . The temperature transmitter TE- 068A &B (1 out of 2) indicate the high & low temperature alarm through TIC 068. A feed back signal from TIC 068 is provided to the controller HIC 068A & B which controls the pneumatically operated attemperation ow control valve TCV-068A & B to maintain the temperature as required. The Outlet line of the Reheater 1 before the attemperation consists of The Temperature indicator TI 065. The Pressure indicator PI 065.

The pressure Indicator PI 069. The Pressure transmitter PT 070 for low pressure alarm. The ow transmitter FE 071 for ow measurement of the Hot reheat Steam.

3.3 LP Section Components Description


3.3.1Condensate Pre heater (CPH) A Condensate preheater (CPH) assembly is last module assembly in ue gas path to the stack from the boiler to recover economically feasible

Section B

33

Operation & Maintenance Manual

heat from the ue gas before discharging to the atmosphere. The recovered heat increases the temperature of DM water entering the LP Drum/deaerator. Thus overall efciency of the boiler is increased. The CPH modules consist of a top and bottom header of size 200 NB x SCH.100 and also 250 NB x SCH.80 and segmented nned tubes of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk. The CPH assembly is fully drainable by the drain valve provided on the bottom header. The drain line is connected to the LP drain header. To expel air from the CPH during charging and while draining air Individual vent valves are provided on the each module and the common vent GT 609 is provided on the top header. DM Water from Client enters to CPH through a three-way temperature control valve TCV 102. This three-way control valve is to be throttled suitably to maintain LP drum/deaerator water outlet temperature. DM water I/L piping is provided with following: Pressure control valve PCV 100 at CPH inlet is provided to delivered 15 bar pressure (at outlet of PCV 100) at inlet of three way control valve TCV 102. Pressure transmitter PT 100 for indication /control of water pressure at the outlet of PCV 100. Temperature Element TE 100 for remote temperature indication . Pressure gauge PI 101 for local pressure indication. 3-way control valve TV 102 (Stack Temperature is fed to (TIC-102) where the process variable is compared with the local set point for generating the manipulated variable. Depending upon the set point three way control valve (TCV- 102) regulates the ow of DM water through bypass & CPH to control the outlet temperature.) NRV valve NRV304 is provided in the inlet of the CPH inlet header. Temperature transmitter TT 108A & TT 108B are provided in the inlet of CPH. The signal is fed to the Recirculation pump discharge line control valve TCV 108 which regulates the control valve position accordingly to maintain the inlet temperature of DM water to CPH around 57C. Temperature Indicator TI 048 is provided before an isolation valve GT 305 and a NRV 328.

The 3 way control valve (TCV- 102) Bypass line is provided with the NRV (NRV 313) and isolation valve GT 314. A recirculation line is provided parallel to the 3 way control valve (TCV- 102) Bypass line, the recirculation line is provided to controls the inlet temperature of the DM water entering the CPH module. The recirculation line consists of the following Isolation valve GT 306. Pressure transmitter PT 103 for remote indication of the pressure. Pressure indicator PI 105 for local indication of the pressure. Recirculation pump FW3-PP- 302 with a motor M 106. A safety valve PSV 111 is provided in the discharge line of the recirculation pump. Pressure indicator PI 110 for local indication of the pressure. Flow element FT 107 is used to measure the ow of the recirculating water. A control valve TCV 108 is provided in the discharge of the recirculation pump. A NRV valve NRV 311. An Isolation valve GT 312. DM water O/L piping from CPH is provided with following: A Temperature indicator TI 049 after the tapping of the recirculation line. A NRV 315 is provided in the discharge of the CPH. An isolation valve GT327. Pressure transmitter PT 131 A & B are provided for remote pressure low indication. A signal is fed to the feed regulating Controller HIC 080A. Temperature transmitter TE 132 A & B are provided for remote temperature low indication. A signal is fed to the feed regulating Controller HIC 080A. Flow element FE 104 is used to measure the ow of the CPH discharge line to the Dearetor /LP Drum.. Level control regulating station is provided with the two control valves FCV 080A & B in parallel with a motorized isolation valve M-080A & B and manual isolation valve GT 322 & GT325

Section B

34

Operation & Maintenance Manual

for LP Drum /deaerator level control . Both the control valves controller HIC 080A & HIC 080B are fed with the signal from the FIC 080. A NRV 329 is provided after the control valve . 3.3.2LP Feed Regulating Station When HRSG is in service, must be kept continuously supplied with DM water to maintain near normal level in the LP drum / Deareter . The HRSG trips if water level in the drum is either too low or too high. DM water is obtained from the client There are two feed control stations, out of which at least one must be in service when the HRSG is operational. LP Boiler Feedwater Regulating Station The feed water ow control station consists 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 080A] 100 % capacity control valve [FCV 080B] Both 100% control valve are provided with manual isolation valve at downstream of control valve [ GT322 & GT325]. The DM water ow control valve is a globe type valve, pneumatically actuated by a spring opposed diaphragm actuator and positioned by the DM water ow indicating controller [FIC-080] in order to maintain the normal water level at LP steam drum. The 100% ow control valve FCV 080A is capable of feeding the HRSG . FCV 080B is an identical stand by to FCV 080A is provided. The ow transmitters (FE104) provide feed ow signal to the feed Indicating controller FIC-080. After the above, the common inlet line branches into two parallel paths, on which are installed the two feed regulating stations mentioned earlier to be connected to a common line for feeding water to the LP Drum /Deaerator. The feed regulating stations are now described. 100% Feed Controller FCV-080A Motorized operated valve M080A is the inlet-isolating valve. GT322 is the outlet-isolating valve, which are normally open. Drain valves GT321 normally remain closed and are opened for draining only when the line is isolated for inspection/maintenance of valve FCV-080A. Three-element feed water control system is provided to regulate the quantity of feedwater owing into the LP drum to maintain the required water level in the LP steam drum. In three-element control, the drum level is controlled by the measurement of three process parameters

(elements) - drum level, feedwater ow & steam ow. The drum level is measured by using differential pressure type level-transmitter LT 080A, B & C installed on the LP steam drum. The measured signal is taken as the process variable (PV) to the drum level controller [FIC 080]. This process variable (PV) is compared with the xed set point (SP) in the drum level indicating controller block and a control signal (CV) is generated. The level controller control output (CV) is added with steam ow signal from the main steam line in a feed forward block. This is done to achieve a better level control by taking corrective action in anticipation. The output of the feed forward block is used as a variable set point to the water ow-indicating controller [FIC 080]. This variable set point is compared to the actual feed water ow signal from [FE 104], which acts as the measured variable for the controller [FIC-080]. The control output signal (CV) from the controller [FIC-080] will position the feed water control valve through a current-pneumatic converter. Action of the control valve is air/ signal FAIL to OPEN. The valve position is transmitted. In remote, current drum level, steam ow, feed ow & the feed control valve position can be monitored. The three element control adopted for the 100% ow control valves FCV-080A takes into account the drum level, steam ow and feed water ow for positioning the control valve for its operation. 100% Feed Controller FCV-080B It is exactly similar to FCV-080A described above except for its valve tag numbers. The feed water control station is connected to the LP Steam Drum/ Deaerator through a feed water control station. 3.3.3LP Drum / Deaerator

Figure 5

Section B

35

Operation & Maintenance Manual

LP Drum/deaerator is Integral type of Dearator. The LP Drum is connected to the LP Evaporator. Condensate from CPH ows into LP Drum /deaerator. The level control valve FCV 080A & B control the deaerater level. LP Drum /deaerator in this boiler is L.P. integral type. Deaeration removes the corrosive gases such as dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide from the boiler feed water. This ensures protection of the feed water lines, steam lines, boiler tubes and other pressure parts of the boiler against corrosion and pitting, saves costly boiler re-tubing and expensive plant shutdowns. Further as the temperature of feed water/condensate is raised from 57 C temp. to LP Drum /deaerator operating temperature of 147 C and then fed to the LP Drum , the overall boiler thermal efciency also increases. Deaeration is done by heating the feed water/condensate with steam. Vigorously scrubbing the water with this steam removes the last traces of dissolved O2 and brings down well below the recommended level in feed water. LP Drum /deaerator in which DM water/ condensate is heated to its boiling temperature at the operating pressure by steam. At boiling point all the dissolved gases such as Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, etc. are liberated as solubility of gases decreases with increase in temperature. The mechanical scrubbing between water and heating steam ensures release of the dissolved gases. LP Drum /deaerator is of spray type, consists of a storage tank and a vapour tank. Water is sprayed from the top of the vapour tank by spray nozzles . Partial scrubbing of the steam and water takes place in the storage tank water and the rest is taking place in the vapour tank with the incoming water spray. Vapour tank is mounted upon the Deaeretor . Both the tanks are connected with steam connection Nozzle at the middle. This interconnection nozzle is ushed with inner wall of the vapour tanks dished end and embedded inside the water level of storage tank to facilitate the feed water ow from vapour tank to the storage tank. Interconnection accommodates concentrically the steam balancing connection assembly. This steam connection is projected inside the vapour tank and masked from the water ow direction by a hood tted at the top, thus facilitates the steam ow from Deaertor tank to vapour tank. DM water from CPH enters into the vapour tank through the topside nozzle to the distribution

header. Spray nozzles are xed on the header to spray the water into ne particles covering the entire cross section of the tank so that easy and complete scrubbing with steam is possible. Perforated stainless steel trays at levels are placed inside the vapour tank to provide enough delay time to scrub the feed water with the upcoming steam. Feed water from vapour tank ows into the storage tank through the interconnection pipe. LP Drum /deaerator storage tank is a LP steam drum having downcomers & riser bank tubes . Feed water/condensate after spray at vapour tank enters to LP Drum /deaerator bank assembly. LP Drum /deaerator bank assembly consist of downcomer supply pipes, bottom & top headers interconnected with two modules of tube sheet & risers which supply steam to LP steam drum or storage tank. Feed water ows to bottom headers through down comer pipes and steam & water mixture rises up through LP boiler bank tubes & nally through rises to the L.P. drum. L.P. Drum is provided with perforated sheet as steam separator all risers ends inside this perforated plate box which separate moisture from steam this steam rises further & enters into vapour tank where it scrubs the incoming water & nally to atmosphere through vent condenser vent. Steam rises from the bottom of Storage Tank, heating the water and rises through the interconnection pipe into the Vapor Tank. Perforated Trays inside the Vapor tank increase the residence time of water and Heating Steam. Oxygen, Carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases are vented out along with vent steam through the vent nozzle. Vent pipe has a valve GL362 to throttle or restrict the ow of venting steam as required in addition to this a pressure control valve PCV 083 is also provided at vapour tank vent. The dissolved Oxygen level in the feed water by mechanical deaeration can be brought to 0.02 to 0.03 ppm. The residual dissolved Oxygen can be further scavenged by the reaction with chemicals such as Hydrazine . By chemical scavenging the dissolved Oxygen level can be brought down to as low as 0.007 ppm. Chemical is dosed in the storage section of the LP Drum /deaerator through a header, which is connected to the dosing system through a pipe with an isolation valve GT 361. The dosing of the particular chemical is done in predetermined quantity and concentration. A sample cooler provided in the feed water outlet piping is used to collect the sample for analysis of water.

Section B

36

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Platforms and ladders are provided for tanks and condenser for O & M feasibility. The continuous blowdown line is connected to the storage tank through a valve GT630 and M 095 and Emergency Blowdown line is connected to the storage tank through a valve GT612 and M 094. The blowdown lines are connected to the BD Tank through NRV 613 & NRV 610 respectively. LP Drum /deaerator Accessories And The Mountings LP Drum /deaerator Level Control The desired normal water level (NWL) of the storage tank is maintained through a level control valve describe in the LP feed regulating Station. Level in the storage take is measured by the level transmitter LT 080A, B & C. A Feed back control loop with the level indicating controller LIC 080 is provided for automatic level control to the level control valve FCV 080A & B. Process variable signal for the level indicating controller is provided by the LT 080A, B & C. Set point of the level controller is to be kept at 0 mmWC, which corresponds to NWL. Level in the storage take is measured by the level transmitter LT 080A, B & C. A Feed back control loop with the level indicating controller LIC 080 is provided for automatic level control Process variable signal for the level indicating controller is provided by the LT 080A, B & C. It provides the high high & Low Low alarm signal for remote indication. Apart from the remote level indication direct level gauge ( LI 082A & LI 082B) is provided for the local indication. Pressure Control Flue gases leaving HP economiser I are led to the LP Evaporator where deaerated water is heated to 147C depending upon the steam demand. The steam generated by the LP evaporator is used for deaerating the incoming plant condensate to rated temperature. A Pressure control valve PCV 083 mounted on the top of the vapour tank is used to control the LP Drum /deaerator pressure through pressure transmitter PT 083A & B. It also provide the high & Low Alarm for remote indication. Local pressure gauges PI-081A & B are also provided for LP Drum /deaerator pressure indication. Pressure Relief Valve

Two pressure relief valves (PSV 084A & PSV 084B) are mounted on the storage tank . Relief valve would relieve the steam when there is excessive pressure build-up inside the vessels (system) or deaerater incase of sudden reduction of water out ow/ intake to LP Drum /deaerator or malfunctioning of pressure control loop. Set pressures of the safety valves are 8 bar (a) & 9 bar (a). Silencers Exhaust of various safety valves, steam dump & startup valves are exhausted through Silencers. The Silencers are acoustically & mechanically designed to attenuate the large noise made during operation of these valves. The silencers are made out of suitable casing in which the sound absorbing materials are packed in a certain pattern & wrapped by scrim cloth and wire mesh to avoid y off of sound absorbing materials during operation of silencer at high ow rates. The process uid enters the annular space between the sound absorbing materials packing where the sound energy is absorbed throughout the length of the silencer. The Silencers are mounted on separate structures on top of the HRSG and the exhaust pipes form the valves are connected to the silencers. As the silencer contain no moving parts, no operational care is needed except opening the drain plug provided in the drain line, once in three months to drain the line. Air vent Air vent GT 359 is provided on the vapor tank. Air vent is provided with a globe Valves and the Pressure relief valve PCV 083 . Through the air vent, Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere. Other Connections A connection from CBD tank is provided to storage tank through a valve M 095 & an NRV 613. A connection from EBD tank is provided to storage tank through a valve M 094 & an NRV 610. Feed water outlet connection . Water inlet & outlet piping going to the boiler feed water pumps recirculation. A Nozzle connected to a perforated pipe in the storage tank for chemical dosing connection.

Section B

37

Operation & Maintenance Manual

A Manhole is provided each for storage and vapour tank. A N2 line is provided with a GT354 & NRV 355. A perforated pipe has been laid along the length of the drum and connected to the LP dosing line through a non-return valve NRV360 and an isolating valve GT 361. LP dosing system is described in subsequent pages of this manual. 3.3.4LP Evaporator The Evaporators convert hot boiler water received from the Drum through down comer pipes into a steam water mixture by absorption of heat from the Gas Turbine exhaust gas. The steam water mixture is led back to the drum from the evaporators through riser pipes. Evaporator consists of three modules. Each module consists of three rows of tubes arranged between a top and bottom header. The modules are hung from the top headers in the ue gas path, on two guide supports with provision for thermal expansion downward & in the sides. Serrated Evaporator tubes 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk and material SA201 A1 are welded between the top & bottom headers 200 NB x SCH.120 and material SA 106 Gr .B of each module to form the heat absorption surface. Hot water ow to the evaporators from the drum and steam/water mixture ows to the drum from the Evaporators through risers. A down comer header of the Evaporator spans all the Evaporator modules. The down carrier pipes from the Drum connect to the down comer header. From the down comer header, interconnecting pipes connect to all the lower headers of the Evaporator modules. The top headers of the module are connected to the drum by riser tubes. The circulation through Evaporator modules takes place as follows: Heated Boiler water from the drum ows through the down comer pipes to down comer header. From the down comer header, the hot water ows to the lower headers and then through Evaporation module tubes to the Evaporation module top headers. During its passage through the Evaporation module tubes, the hot water absorbs heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine and gets converted to a water/steam mixture. This circulation is assisted by the higher density of water in the down comer compared to the lower density of

water / steam mixture in evaporator and riser tubes The water / steam mixture from the top headers of the Evaporation module, ows behind the bafe chamber in the LP steam drum.

In the LP steam drum, the steam/water mixture ows through the cyclones where water & steam are separated and saturated steam ows to the Superheaters. Separated water mixes with boiler water to ow through the Evaporator modules again. Evaporator are of fullly drainable type & drains (one for each downcomer) have been provided on the down comer header of the HRSG. These drains are connected to the LP drain header through isolating valve. These drains essentially are for draining the Evaporation modules after shut down of HRSG. It is not to be operated when the HRSG is in service as their opening may interfere with the natural circulation in the modules. 3.3.5LP Superheater Superheating of saturated steam from LP drum is done in LP Superheater. The temperature of nal steam outlet at 286.5 C. Superheaters are made of single module, it consist of a top header and a bottom header, with tubes between the headers. Superheater modules are hung from their top headers with provision for thermal expansion down wards & in the sides. LP Superheater LP Superheater Consists of single module. Saturated steam from the drum ows to the module of LP superheater upper header through saturated steam supply pipes from the steam header. Steam travels up from both the ends of lower header of the rst module, absorbing heat and travels down through the module tubes to lower header . There are Serrated tubes per row; 1rows per module;1 module in LP Superheater. The tubes are of size 38.1 O.D. x 2.6 Thk and made of SA201 A1 material. The LP Superheater lower headers (Lowest point), are provided with drain with isolation valves GT617 which is normally kept open. This drain is operated through the electrically operated drain valve (M 098) and drain to the IP Superheater drain header. The air vents & drains

Section B

38

Operation & Maintenance Manual

are opened before light up of the boiler to drain LP Superheater. They are closed at a drum pressure of 2 To 5 Kg/cm. 3.3.6LP Main Steam Line The LP steam line connects the bottom header of LP Super-heater module to the plant steam main This line incorporates the following Electrically Operated LP Steam Stop Valve M092AThis valve Isolates the HRSG from the plant LP steam main. This valve is provided with an electrically operated, integral by pass valve M092B. Safety Valve PSV-085To take care of the pressure upset caused by sudden load cut, malfunctioning of ring system, closure of steam valves etc., a safety valve is provided on the main steam line at the Superheater outlet. This is a spring-loaded, valve set at 6.2 bar (a) pressure to protect the boiler against over pressures. The safety valve is similar to Drum safety valves PSV-084A & PSV-084B described earlier. The exhaust of the safety valve is piped to a silencer to reduce the noise levels when the safety valve is operating. The silencer is mounted on a separate structure on top of the HRSG. Start Up Vent ValveValve PCV 091 is a pneumatically operated start up vent valve with a controller HIC-091. M 091 is a motor operated Isolating valve for start up vent. The outlet of the start up vent valve is exhausted to atmosphere through a silencer. The start up vent valve is to be kept open while start up. It provides initial steam ow for the cooling of superheaters. HP Steam Line Drain The steam line drain consists of the following valves. Manually operated valve GT 371. The manually operated valve are kept open till the condensate is removed and once the condensate is removed it is close during normal operation of boiler. Flow Nozzle FE 093Flow nozzle FE- 093 is installed on the LP steam line after the MSSV valve to provide steam ow indication. The ow transmitter reading, after steam pressure & temperature compensation is used for the following, 1. Steam ow reading. 2. Steam ow compensation for feed water ow

HP Steam Temperature InputTemperature transmitter TT- 090A & B provide the LP steam temperature input for the following 1. Temperature compensation signal to steam ow A temperature gauge TI 088 is provided for the local indication. HP Steam Pressure InputPressure transmitter PT- 089A & B (1out of 2) provide the LP steam temperature input for the following 1. Pressure Indicating controller PI-089A & B which provides LP steam Pressure High & low alarms . 2. Pressure compensation signal to steam ow A pressure Indicator PI 086 for local indication. Air VentGT 374 are air vent valves on the LP steam line, which may be used during hydro test. A connection to the SWAS is provided with a valve GT 376.

3.4 Operational Control


This section explains the major operational control points described in this chapter. Steam Drum Maintain Feed water, Boiler water quality, phosphate concentration Maintain water level in the drum within permissible low and high levels. The protection system envisages boiler trip at very high and very low levels, which should not be bypassed

Maintain drum level gauge glasses in good working condition. Operators may verify the readings of Level Transmitter with the readings of the drum level gauge glasses once a day For a cold HRSG start up, DM makeup water from boiler initial lling line at room temperature may be used to feed the HRSG by opening valves and the drain valves in Economizers and Evaporator. When water is lled up to low level in the drum, the drain valves and lling line valve are closed. After Boiler start, this line shall not be used and feeding is from the feed station. Drain superheaters thoroughly during startup Thermal StressesThermal Stresses In Drum During Start Up And Shut Down

Section B

39

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Steam Drum is a large cylindrical shell. Before light up of a boiler, the inner and outer surfaces of the drum are at the same temperature. When boiler is lighted up, the inner surface gets heated up rst by the water (and then by steam) and transmits heat to the outer surface of drum. The heat transfer is by conduction and is a bit slow. For short time after light up, there can be differences of temperature between steam and water surfaces of the drum. Such a difference can set up thermal stresses, which are not desirable and an alarm sounds at DCS. To minimize the thermal stresses, the operator must restrict the ring rate when starting the HRSG by modulating the divertor damper. Boiler water temperature rise rate must not be above 100C per hour till operating pressure is reached. To monitor the skin metal temperature of the drum, instruments have been provided which may be checked during light ups. Swelling During HRSG startup, as the Boiler water temperature reaches 90C, there is a increase of water level caused by increase in the volume of hot water. Such swelling, if not controlled, can cause a High Level trip. To avoid this, initial lling is normally restricted to low level (say 100 to 150 mm) and the smart Operator anticipates a swell and uses the EBD to drain and control the level. Do not operate the HRSG with safety valves gagged. Passing safety valves must be attended during the next planned shut down. EvaporatorsEvaporator module drains must not normally be opened after starting the HRSG. They must be veried for tight closure before pressurizing. Super Heaters & Attemporator Super heaters must be drained after shut down and cooling of the boiler. They must also be kept open before a cold start up till 2 - 3 kg/cm2 of pressure is built up. During hot light ups they are opened for a few minutes Super heated steam temperatures at exit of HP primary Super Heater , HP secondary Super

Heater & main steam temperatures must be monitored to see there is no excessive heat pick up. Compare these gures with predicted performance values. High steam temperatures may mean high metal temperatures. GeneralBoiler water can be drained after a shut down only after depressurizing to 2 kg/sq. cm and after cooling to 80 C Draining of Boiler water must preferably be done through the blow down tank. If a tube failure is detected, it is advisable to plan for an early shut down. It may be possible to quickly repair the failed tube and return to service. If the shut down is in-ordinately delayed, there are possibilities of larger secondary damages, which may prolong the shut down, required for repairs. Manually operated valves must be closed hand tight only. Use of levers on hand wheels is not desired.

3.5 Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring


Aim This chapter describes the standards for the boiler feed water and boiler water for corrosion and scale free operation of the HRSG and for obtaining pure steam. Methods of control of boiler water are also explained. Important Note This chapter must be read in conjunction with the following vendor manuals HP/ IP /LP dosing system Steam and Water analysis system Suggested quality of HP, IP & LP boiler feed water (and attemperator water) fed to the HRSG is given in following Table:

Section B

40

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Parameter General Appearance Total Hardness as CaCO3 Total Fe Total Cu Oxygen Oil & organics pH Total Dissolved solids Electrical Conductivity Silica SiO2 Note

Units

HP Section Clear & Colourless

IP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 8.5-9.5 < 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.02

LP Section Clear & Colourless Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 8.5-9.5 < 0.1 < 0.2 <0.02

ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

Commercial zero < 0.01 < 0.005 < 0.007 Nil 9.3-9.5

ppm s/cm ppm

< 0.1 < 0.2 < 0.02

Alkaline levels of feed water minimizes corrosion of steel Chlorides, Silica, Iron, Copper, Organic matter etc., present in the feed water concentrate further in Boiler water. Their higher concentration calls for increased blow down (CBD) of boiler water causing loss of useful heat Silica in boiler water vaporizes to SiO2 and escapes through steam Copper present in water, deposits on the inner surfaces of evaporator tubes and is harmful Chlorides in boiler water depress the pH level and renders boiler water acidic and may cause accelerated corrosion Oxygen in boiler water promotes corrosion of boiler tubes Oil present in feed water deposit on tubes and interferes with heat transfer. Considering all these factors, maximum permissible values for contaminants in feed water have been suggested in Table

Section B

41

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Following Table gives the Boiler Water Quality to be maintained in the Drum. Recommended Boiler Water Quality Parameter Sodium Phosphate as PO4 Alkalinity as CaCO3 pH Oil & Organic Total dissolved solids Silica as SiO2 ppm ppm ppm Units ppm HP Section 16 13 IP Section 40 34 LP Section -

ppm

< 10 9.7 10.2 Nil < 50 < 0.9

< 60 10.8 11.4 Nil < 300 < 21

Nil Nil < 300 < 60

Minor permissible contaminants present in the HRSG feed water concentrate to high levels in boiler water due to continuous evaporation in the steam drum - evaporator circuits. Two controls are exercised on Boiler water to avoid corrosion of HRSG tubes and the drum water - washed surfaces. The controls are: Continuous blow control to restrict the contaminants to prescribed levels suggested for Boiler water Tri-sodium phosphate dozing to convert the hardness producing insoluble calcium, magnesium salts to soluble sodium salts which can be drained by CBD and to maintain the alkalinity levels of boiler water. The controls are described below.

It should be understood that if the quality of Boiler feed water deteriorates, the steam quality is directly affected as the attemporator spray water is by boiler feed water. After several years of service, during a boiler over haul, the cyclones, bafes and demisters are checked for damage or erosion holes, which may bypass steam from the separation devices. Steam which bypasses the separation device, carry with it moisture & salt contaminants. Higher than permissible levels of Silica in boiler water will result in Silica carry over in steam. Operational Control The water chemistry for determining low levels of impurities in water calls for special instruments, special analytical procedures and an experienced chemist. These should be available from the time of commissioning the boiler. In a chemical process plant, inspite of the best available demineralization facilities the boiler feed water may occasionally get contaminated by return condensate from the system. A procedure to systematically check the return condensates (particularly for contamination by Fe, Chlorides and Oil) must be established and contaminated condensate must be discarded. pH & Conductivity meters must be calibrated once a month. Phosphate dosing must continuous operation. be adjusted for

3.6 Maintaining Quality Of Steam


Good Quality steam is obtained if the following requirements are met: Proper assembly of bafes, cyclone separators in the steam drum as per erection instructions (checked before commissioning of the Boiler) Boiler feed water as per norms as suggested above. (Monitor the feed water conductivity & PH analysers) Control of Boiler water quality as suggested above. Monitor the saturation steam & main steam conductivity Increase of saturation steam conductivity may be a warning for check of drum internals or maintaining high water levels in steam drum.

Section B

42

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Flue Gas System

4.1 AIM
This chapter describes the Gas Turbine exhaust ow through the HRSG, insulation and casing of HRSG and the Stack.

A pressure transmitters PT 201 provides furnace pressure low alarm for remote indications. A temperature indicator TI 202 is provided for the temperature and pressure indicator PI 203 for pressure measurement before HP Superheater. Four Pressure points (PP001A -PP001D) & Temperature points (TP 001A- 001D ) are provided. The drain to the casing is provided with an isolation valve GT 161. Temperature and Pressure Indication Before HP Superheater 1 For Local indication Pressure indicator PI-205 and temperature indicator TI-204. Temperature indication TE 206A & B is provided before HP Superheater 1 to measure heat pickup in HP Superheater 2 & 3 and Reheater , to check for fouling in HP superheater modules. Four pressure points (PP002A-PP002D) & Four temperature points (TP002A-TP002D) are provided . After HP Evaporator For Local indication Pressure indicator PI-207 and temperature indicator TI-208A. Two Temperature transmitters (TE-209A & B) provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications. Four pressure points (PP003A-PP003D) & Four temperature points (TP003A-TP003D) are provided . After HP Economiser 3 Local pressure gauge PI- 210 & temperature indicator TI211A. Temperature Indicator TE 212A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications Four pressure points (PP004A-PP004D) & Four temperature points (TP004A-TP004D) are provided . After IP Economiser Local pressure gauge PI- 213 & temperature indicator TI214. Temperature Indicator TE 215A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications

4.2 Detailed Description


The steam drum & HRSG pressure part modules are supported on column structures. The entire HRSG is enclosed in a gas tight casing and ducting enclosing the modules to provide a gas tight passage for the exhaust gas from the gas turbine. The casing is properly stiffened to enhance the rigidity of the ducting and casing. The HRSG design incorporates cold casing concept. The modules are covered fully with SS & CS sheet casing on all four sides, with appropriate openings for penetration of feed water lines, interconnecting pipes, steam lines etc. All these penetrations are suitably protected by expansion bellows to maintain a gas tight passage. Specially designed studs hold the Ceramic/Min wool insulation material tightly to the ducting. The overlapping design of the insulation liners covering the insulation minimises penetration of ue gases into the insulation material. The liners prevent erosion & loss of Ceramic/Min wool bre material. This system permits the outer casing to be at a very low temperature thus minimising the thermal expansion of the casing & thermal loads on GTG ange. Exhaust gas from the gas turbine enters the HRSG through an expansion bellow. HRSG, which receives highly turbulent gases from gas turbines, gets affected drastically by gas mal-distribution. A careful design of included angle of transition ducting has been done for producing predictable HRSG performance & avoiding overheating of tubes. TBW carries out computer simulation of the gas ow distribution to decide the design of included angle of transition ducting . Operation of the HRSG on the turbine exhaust gas (TEG) only is termed as unred mode of operation. Following instrumentation is provided in ue gas path of the HRSG on gas tight casing for various indication & controls: Before HP Superheater Eight temperature transmitters (TE-200 A, B, C, D, E, F, G & H) provides furnace temperature low & high for remote indications.

Section B

43

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Four pressure points (PP005A-PP005D) & Four temperature points (TP005A-TP005D) are provided . After LP Evaporator Temperature Indicator TE 216A & B provides temperature high & low indication for remote indications Local pressure gauge PI- 217 & temperature indicator TI218A. After Condensate preheater Six Temperature Element TE 222 A, B, C, D, E & F for the low and high remote indications. Local pressure gauge PI- 219 and Temperature indicator TI 220A. Four pressure points (PP007A-PP007D) & Four temperature points (TP007A-TP007D) are provided . A pressure transmitter PT 221 for remote indication of the ue gas Stack inlet pressure. A provision for installation of sampling probes for measurement of O2 (AT 226) is provided. A drain is provided with an isolation valve GT162. Stack (Chimney) The Turbine exhaust gas after CPH is exhausted through the Stack. Stack is a hollow structure. Stack is supported on concrete foundations on a circular frame fabricated. Stack has a manhole access at the lower end for inspection. Aviation warning lights are tted at top elevations on the stack. Provision for installation of sampling probes for measurement of SOx ,CO & NOx (AT 225,AT 224 & AT 223), is provided at suitable elevation on the Stack. There are platforms providing access to the aviation lights, sample probes and ease of repainting the Stack. Platforms are accessible from the ground by ladders. On the top side of the Stack, helical wind-breakers are built around the outer shell, to provide stability to the Stack against wind forces.

The inlet Flue gas connection from the HRSG to the Stack is through expansion bellows to contain the thermal expansion of the HRSG ducts form the Stack. A temperature element TE 227A & B provides the low and high remote temperature indication. A Motorized Damper M 228 is provided on the stack . A drain is provided at the bottom of the Stack with an isolation valve GT160. Operational Control The anticipated gures both steam / water and gas side has been given in following section. The operator shall familiarise himself with these gures. Elaborate instrumentation has been provided to measure each of these factors. Alarms also have been provided to alert the operator in case of deviations for several of these readings Operator attention is needed particularly for the following Turbine Exhaust Gas (TEG) inlet pressure and temperature Gas side pressure and temperature drop, Steam/Water side heat pick up across pressure parts like HP Superheater 3, 2 & 1 Reheater 1 & 2 HP , IP & LP Evaporator Modules HP & IP Economisers Condensate Preheater Evaluating these gures the operator should decide to check during shut down., Levels of CO, NOx, & SOx emissions must be monitored and any abnormalities must be reported to the shift in-charge. Healthiness of aviation warning lamps is to be check periodically.

Section B

44

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Drain & Dosing System

Boiler Blowdown System Aim This chapter describes the HRSG blow down system for safe draining of high pressure / High temperature steam and water from the boiler using the blow down tanks System Description The P & I Diagram of drains & vents shows the various drains & vents from the HRSG, HP , IP & LP steam line, HP , IP & LP steam drum, HP , IP & LP saturated & superheated drain header.

Large quantities of steam or high pressure/temperature water are not to be drained through open canals for the following reasons: Such draining will cause splashing of higher volumes of steam which can be a nuisance by the noise it creates and also it affects the visibility around the draining area High temperature of these drains can cause scalding injures to workmen if they come into contact with it The force and temperature of these drains will erode the linings of the drain canals Table below is a summary of such drains.

Section B

45

Operation & Maintenance Manual

High Pressure / High Temperature Steam And Water Drains SL. No Source Sections HP Drum 1 Continuous blow down IP Drum LP Drum HP Drum 2 Emergency blow down IP Drum LP Drum Valve Nos GT 674 , M 040 GT 631 , M 079 GT 630 , M 095 GT 675 , M 039 A &B GT 628 , M 078 GT 612 , M 094 Temp of drain C Up to 310C Up to 217C Up to 145C Up to 310C Up to 217C Up to 145C Draining HPsuper-heaters during initial startup & after a shut down. Draining Reheater during initial startup & after a shut down. HP Draining of Evaporator & HP Economiser modules after shutdown Draining of IP Evaporator & IP Economiser modules after shutdown Draining of CPH & LP Evaporator modules after a shut down Frequency of usage Continuous, quantity depending on quality of boiler water Occasional during high levels in drum, during start up.

HP SH Drain header Reheater Drain header RHS HP Drain Header

GT 688 , NRV 689

Varying from 100C to 567C Varying from 100C to 567C Varying from 100C to 310C

GT 650 , NRV 649 GT 695 , NRV 697 GT 669 , NRV 670 LHS RHS GT 622 , NRV 623 GT 624 , NRV 625 LHS RHS GT 605 , NRV 606 GT 607 , NRV 608 LHS

IP Drain header

Varying from 60C to 217C

LP Drain header

Varying from 60C to 145C

The drains indicated in above table are connected to the continuous & intermediate blow down tank. The blow down tank is capable of separating steam from the drain water. The drains are connected tangentially in the upper half of the drum to direct the drain uid circumferential around the inner wall of the tank, to aid separation of steam and water by their differences in densities. Other Drains It can be seen that drains have been provided in the feed water line and the attemperator spray water lines connected to the drain canal. As these drains are either for operation to drain these lines after an isolation or for short time during charging, Their connections to the open canal is not expected to pose a problem. Continuous Blow Down Control (CBD)

CBD control involves the following operations Obtaining a sample of boiler water from the steam drum. Analyzing the sample for conductivity, hardness, NaCl, Silica, Fe, etc. and working out a rate of draining of boiler water to maintain the concentrations as suggested in Table Boiler water. Positioning the CBD valve is to be decided depending on the sample analysis. Repeating the sampling, analysis and repositioning the CBD valve after certain interval is necessary to maintain the required Boiler water quality. This system of manual control requires the services of a sampler, a chemist and a laboratory round the clock. The arrangement provided for CBD control is: A perforated pipe, laid along the water space in

Section B

46

Operation & Maintenance Manual

the steam drum connects through a stub to the continuous blow down line. CBD line from drum connects to the blow down tank. A tap off from the CBD line is taken to the sample cooler for continuous analysis of boiler water conductivity and also for a grab sample. Sampling of CBD / Boiler water is done in SWAS at customer end. This package provides analysis of the following samples to provide a comprehensive information of quality of steam and water of HRSG. Samples of main steam from HP , IP & LP header of HRSG. Samples of boiler water (CBD) from the HP , IP & LP steam drum of HRSG. Samples of HP , IP & LP feed water. While all the samples above are analysed for conductivity by separate analysers, the CBD sample and the feed water samples are analysed in addition for pH also. CBD valve is normally kept open to maintain small continuous ow of boiler water to the blow down tank. This is required to ensure the sample at any time to the SWAS is truly representative of the sample being analysed. This continuous ow also ensures that these lines do not get choked for want of adequate ow. CE & pHE are the conductivity and pH analysers installed on the sample line. The specic requirements of the analyzers are that the pressure and temperature of the sample must be rigidly controlled within permissive values (see vendor manual). The Analysers are to be maintained as per vendor instruction. Emergency Blow Down Control (EBD)

Blowdown tank (BD Tank) BD Tank is provided with the following A Level gauge LI 096 A vent is provided. An Over ow connection is provided which is connected at the Drain line through a valve GT708. After the drain valve GT 708 the Quenching water arrangement is provided . A temperature Element TE 096A & B are in the Drain line after the Quenching arrangement. The Quenching water line consists of the following A Flow transmitter FE 097 for the measurement of the quenching water in the Blow down tank. A control valve TCV 096 with a inlet and outlet isolation valve GT 704 (2 nos.) and a bypass line with a valve GT 706. The feed back from the TE 096 A & B to the the controller TIC 096 controls the TCV 096 Operation . HP Dosing

Figure 6

EBD control involves the following operations During Startup of the boiler the Drum level which is maintained at NWL suddenly rises due the swelling of the drum water. In such case when there is an emergency condition an EBD connection from the Drum is provided. EBD connection is provided with an isolating valve and an motorised valve . The isolating valve is kept open and the motorised valve controls the Drum level . The EBD connection is connected to the Blowdown tank.

Tri-sodium phosphate dosing to Boiler water to maintain its phosphate content at 8 to 10 PPM. The tri-sodium phosphate at the suggested levels, maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water (pH 10 to 11) and also converts the harmful, insoluble calcium and magnesium salts which forms the residual hardness of boiler water, to being soluble, sodium salts, in the form of a soft sludge, to be drained by the CBD. Phosphate dosing prevents corrosion of the water washed parts of the steam drum and the evaporator tubes. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. Excess as well as reduced phosphate levels in

Section B

47

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Boiler water should be avoided. (The phosphate dosing is also some times called as "HP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). The equipment provided for phosphate dosing ("HP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: A 600 liter mixing tank for preparation of 5% tri-sodium solution. Two dosing pumps. DM Water source for preparation of the phosphate solution as well as for ushing. Mixing Tank The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 600 litres capacity with a level indicating gauge glass LI-122, DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 561, a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 565, a basket for placing required quantity of tri-sodium phosphate powder for preparation of the solution. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 567, BL 568. A motor operated stirrer M 120 is also tted for preparation of chemical solutions. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI-122). Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. Preparation of 5% Phosphate Solution in The Tank Tank drain valve BL 565 is closed. Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. The lid of the tank is opened, and a calculated quantity of phosphate to prepare 600 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. The water inlet valve (BL 561) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full, the water inlet valve is closed. The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local module. Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. Phosphate Dosing Pumps Two phosphate dosing pumps have been provided, out of which one is for service at a time and the other is a standby. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating, positive displacement

type. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement: An inlet valve with a "Y" type strainer at the pump inlet. Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month, after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. On the discharge side of the pump, a pressure gauge PI-120A & B and an outlet-isolating valve BL 577 & BL 578 is tted before the common discharge line. A safety relief valve PSV 120A & B has also been tted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank. The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectied). The common discharge line is connected to the HP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 053 and an isolating valve GT 052. The isolating valve is veried open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. Phosphate dosing is through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. Out of the two pumps, one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro, Local module). The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips, the reserve pump starts automatically A phosphate pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: Boiler water sample is analyzed and phosphate content is determined. The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank, opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get lled with phosphate solution. The pump is started by switching on the motor. The pressure gauge is observed. It should show a reading, higher than the steam drum pressure. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which

Section B

48

Operation & Maintenance Manual

otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. Any abnormal noise from the pump, motor or gearbox is noted. The safety relief valve should not also be operating. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. Every four hours, the phosphate content in the boiler water is checked by laboratory sample analysis and also by the pH meter. The pump speed stroke is increased or decreased to maintain the phosphate content within 8 to 10 PPM by continuous pump operation. The phosphate solution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass. If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level, additional solution is prepared as stated above. Flushing the phosphate pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance, the phosphate pumps and the line are ushed with water to keep them clean. IP Dosing Tri-sodium phosphate dosing to Boiler water to maintain its phosphate content at 30 to 35 PPM. The tri-sodium phosphate at the suggested levels, maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water (pH 10 to 11) and also converts the harmful, insoluble calcium and magnesium salts which forms the residual hardness of boiler water, to being soluble, sodium salts, in the form of a soft sludge, to be drained by the CBD. Phosphate dosing prevents corrosion of the water washed parts of the steam drum and the evaporator tubes. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. Excess as well as reduced phosphate levels in Boiler water should be avoided. (The phosphate dosing is also some times called as "IP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). The equipment provided for phosphate dosing ("IP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: A 300 liter mixing tank for preparation of 5% tri-sodium solution. Two dosing pumps. DM Water source for preparation of the phosphate solution as well as for ushing. Mixing Tank

The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 300 liters capacity with a level indicating gauge glass LI-125, DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 531, a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 535, a basket for placing required quantity of tri-sodium phosphate powder for preparation of the solution. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 537, BL 538. A motor operated stirrer M 123 is also tted for preparation of chemical solutions. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI-125). Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. Preparation of 5% Phosphate Solution In The Tank Tank drain valve BL 535 is closed. Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. The lid of the tank is opened, and a calculated quantity of phosphate to prepare 300 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. The water inlet valve (BL 531) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full, the water inlet valve is closed. The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local module. Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. Phosphate Dosing Pumps Two phosphate dosing pumps have been provided, out of which one is for service at a time, and the other is a standby. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating, positive displacement type. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement: An inlet valve with a "Y" type strainer at the pump inlet. Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month, after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. On the discharge side of the pump, a pressure gauge PI-123A & B and an outlet-isolating

Section B

49

Operation & Maintenance Manual

valve BL 547 & BL 548 is tted before the common discharge line. A safety relief valve PSV 123A & B has also been tted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank. The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectied). The common discharge line is connected to the HP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 256 and an isolating valve GT 257. The isolating valve is veried open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. Phosphate dosing is through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. Out of the two pumps, one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro, Local module). The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips, the reserve pump starts automatically A phosphate pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: Boiler water sample is analyzed and phosphate content is determined. The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank, opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get lled with phosphate solution. The pump is started by switching on the motor. The pressure gauge is observed. It should show a reading, higher than the steam drum pressure. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. Any abnormal noise from the pump, motor or gearbox is noted. The safety relief valve should not also be operating. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. Every four hours, the phosphate content in the boiler water is checked by laboratory sample analysis and also by the pH meter. The pump speed stroke is increased or decreased to maintain the phosphate content within 30 to 35 PPM by continuous pump operation.

The phosphate solution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass. If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level, additional solution is prepared as stated above. Flushing the phosphate pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance, the phosphate pumps and the line are ushed with water to keep them clean. LP dosing Hydrazine is dosed to Boiler water to maintain the Dissolved O2 to 0.007 ppm. The Hydrazine at the suggested levels, maintains the alkalinity of the boiler water in Dearator and thus chemical deaeration is done in the deaerator. Adjusting the speed or the stroke of the pump provided as described below can control quantity of dosing. Excess as well as reduced Hydrazine in Boiler water should be avoided. (The dosing is also some times called as "LP dosing" as the pump used develops high pressure to dose against the boiler drum pressure). The equipment provided for Hydrazine dosing ("LP dosing") as shown in P & I diagram consists of: A 600 liter mixing tank for preparation of 2.5% Hydrazine solution. Two dosing pumps. DM Water for preparation of the Hydrazine solution as well as for ushing. LP Mixing Tank The Mixing tank is a carbon steel with rubber lining covered cylindrical vessel of 600 liters capacity; with a level indicating gauge glass LI 128. A DM water inlet line (with a manual isolating valve) BL 501, a tank drain line with a manual isolating valve BL 505, a basket for placing required quantity of Hydrazine for preparation of the solution. A solution inlet connection to the pumps with a manual isolating valves BL 507 & BL 508 .A motor operated stirrer M 126 is also tted for preparation of chemical solutions. The level of the mixing tank is monitored by level gauge (LI 128). Availability of a minimum level is a pre-requisite for starting or continued service of a dosing pump. Preparation of 2.5 % Hydrazine Solution in the LP Tank Tank drain valve BL 505 is closed.

Section B

50

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Gauge glass inlet cocks are opened and its drain is closed. The lid of the tank is opened, and a calculated quantity of Hydrazine to prepare 600 liters of solution is placed in the basket and lid closed. The water inlet valve (BL 501) is opened to admit water (from the DM water line). The level gauge is watched and when the level in the tank is nearly full, the water inlet valve is closed. The stirrer is placed in service for 30 minutes by operating its switch in the local panel. Availability of a minimum level is a precondition for starting and running of the stirrer. Hydrazine LP Dosing Pumps Two Hydrazine dosing pumps, M- 126A & B have been provided, out of which one is for service at a time, and the other is a standby. The pumps are plunger operated reciprocating, positive displacement type. The stroke of the plunger can be altered. The motor is provided with a variable frequency drive through a gearbox for continuous speed control. The vendor manual of the pump and gearbox is to be referred for full information on construction and parts detail. Each pump is connected to a common discharge line with the following valve arrangement An inlet valve BL 507 & BL 508 with a "Y" strainer at the pump inlet. Y strainer traps dirt or other solid particles in its basket. The Y strainer is to be cleaned once a month, after stopping the pump and closing its inlet and outlet isolating valves. On the discharge side of the pump, a pressure gauge PI-126A & B and an outlet-isolating valve BL517 & BL 518 is tted before the common discharge line. A safety relief valve PSV 126A & B has also been tted on the discharge line to relieve any over pressures in case of closure of valves on the discharge line. The outlet of the relief valve is returned to the mixing tank. The relief valve must be tested for its operation at the set pressure at least once a year. The pump must not be operated with the relief valve continuously operating (cause of relief valve operation must be found and rectied). The common discharge line is connected to the LP dosing line of the steam drum through an NRV 360 and an isolating valve GT 361. The isolating valve is veried open before boiler light up and normally remains open all the time. Hydrazine dosing is

through a perforated pipe along the full length of the water space in the drum. Availability of a minimum level in the mixing tank is a pre condition for starting or running of the dosing pumps. Out of the two pumps, one pump is selected for service and the other is in reserve (DCS macro, Local panel). The pumps are interlocked such that when a working pump trips, the reserve pump starts automatically. A Hydrazine pump is placed immediately in service after the HRSG start up in the following manner: The pump is prepared by opening the outlet valve from the mixing tank, opening the inlet and the two outlet valves of the pump. Two minutes are allowed after opening the inlet valve for the pump to get lled with Hydrazine solution. The pump is started by switching on the motor. The pressure gauge is observed. It should show a reading, higher than the steam drum pressure. An accumulator on the pump discharge line dampens the pulsations which otherwise would be there as this is a positive displacement reciprocating pump. Any abnormal noise from the pump, motor or gearbox is noted. The safety relief valve should not also be operating. If there are no abnormalities the pump is allowed to run. The Hydrazinesolution level is observed in the mixing tank by the gauge glass. If the level falls to 25% of the gauge glass level, additional solution is prepared as stated above. Flushing the hydrazine pump and the lines with water during long stoppage of the HRSG: If the HRSG is to be stopped for more than a few days for servicing or maintenance, the Hydrazine pumps and the line are ushed with water to keep them clean.

6
Aim

HRSG System Protection

This chapter lists out various protections and interlocks provided in the HRSG. As the system protections and interlocks have been described in the preceding chapters along with the description of equipment, a listing of these protections will only be made with brief notes on their signicance. Testing of these interlocks & protections is to be done before the rst start up of HRSG and at suitable intervals subsequently.

Section B

51

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Protections Among various protections provided, ESD guides the operator in preparing the HRSG in an orderly manner to ensure availability of all essential inputs before starting the HRSG and monitoring their availability all the time when the HRSG is in service. The boiler protections are implemented through the emergency shut down (ESD) logics. Heat input to HRSG is from: Gas turbine exhaust gas which can be controlled by GT operation at Different operating mode (viz FSNL , Spinning Reserve , Full Load).

Any of the following conditions cause tripping of the HRSG HP Drum level very Low HP Steam outlet pressure very High IP Drum level very Low LP Drum level very Low GT Exhaust gas Pressure high Operational Control The interlocks are to be tested before commissioning. Repeat tests are advised once a year. Any malfunction noted during operation has to be attended early.

Section B

52

Operation & Maintenance Manual

7
Aim

Automatic Controls

To describe the automatic controls provided for operation of the HRSG.

7.1 Drum Level Control


HP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water owing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum, Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31HFW FS-003A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. If steam ow increases beyond 85 TPH(30%) then control will change to three elements control. If steam ow decreases below 70 TPH(25%) then control will change to single element control. Single Element Drum Level ControlIn single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water ow. The drum level signal is compared with the xed set point in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31HPD LIC003A is given to feed water ow control valve 31HFWFCV003AJYPA. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the Drum level controller 31HPD LIC003A is Reverse. Three Element Drum Level Control In Three elements Drum level, Water ow and Steam ow are the references to control the water ow. Drum level as primary element, Feed water ow as secondary element and steam ow as third element (feed forward). In three - element control the drum level signal is compared with the xed set point (+25mmWC) in the drum level indicating controller 31HPDLIC003B. To achieve, better drum level control, a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam ow in function block 31HPSFX003A. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water ow indicating

controller 31HFWFIC003A. The feed water ow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water ow indicating controller & output of feed water ow controller 31HFWFIC003A is given to feed water ow control valve 31HFWFCV003BJYPA & 31HFWFCV003CJYPA through manual loader 31HFWHIC003B & 31HFWHIC003C respectively, output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the feed water ow controller 31HFWFIC003A & Drum level controller 31HPD LIC003B is Reverse. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31HPDLT003A, 31HPDLT003B, 31HPDLT003C & measured drum level is compensated (density) in function block 31HPDLY003A, 31HPDLY003B & 31HPDLY003C with median drum pressure. The drum pressure is measured by pressure transmitter 31HPDPT003A, 31HPDPT003B, 31HPDPT003C & measured drum pressure are PV for function block 31HPDPY003 (Median block). The compensated drum level values are the PV for function block 31HPDLY003 (Median block).The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31HPDLIC003A and 31HPDLIC003B. The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for - 1000 to 0 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. The Drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 140 Kg/Cm2 (g) and correspondence indication shall 0 140 Kg/Cm2 (g). Drum level density compensation Computing block 31HPD LY003A, 31HPD LY003B & 31HPD LY003C shall be congured to Pressure compensated /corrected drum level indication can be obtained from equation below Where Hm is the corrected level indication. Hm = {Delta p + H (Da - Ds)} / (Dw - Ds ) Where: DP = differential pressure measured by level transmitter (DPT). [The range of DP in above equation is also to be taken as ( 100 to 0 cmWC)] Hm Compensated drum level signal. Dw Density of water (To be taken from the enclosed table) Ds Density of Steam (To be taken from the enclosed table) H Water head on LP side, wet head leg which is to be feed as constant = 100

Section B

53

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Da Wet leg density; water Density at 30 Deg.C. (Constant =0.996). Head on HP = Hm *Dw + (H-Hm)*Ds Head on LP = H *Da Delta p = HP- LP =Hm (Dw-Ds) H (Da-Ds)

Computing block 31HPSFY003A, 31HPSFY003B & 31HPSFY003C shall be congured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH = Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * (P1 + 1.029) * (T2+273.15) / (P2+1.029) * (T1+273.15) Where:

Hm = {delta p + H (Da-Ds)}/ (Dw- Ds) Here, H = 100 cm. Da = 0.996 gm/cm3 at 30 deg. c Hm calculated from above formula is density corrected drum level, which shall be in scale range 0 to 100 cm (Hm output should be blocked in this range), this value shall be scaled for (-)475 to (+)525 mmwc display range on DCS . The steam ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam ow transmitter 31HPSFT003D, 31HPSFT003E & 31HPSFT003F these are connected across ow element 31HPS FE003B. Square root for steam ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured Steam ow is compensated (Average pressure & average temperature) in function block 31HPSFY003A, 31HPSFY003B & 31HPSFY003C with average pressure & average temperature. The steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31HPSPT025A, 31HPSPT025B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31HPSPY025 (Average block). The steam temperature measured by temperature transmitter 31HPSTT026A, 31HPSTT026B with thermocouple 31HPSTE026A, 31HPSTE026B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HPSTY026 (Average block). The compensated steam ow values are the PV for function block 31HPSFY003 (Median block) The compensated steam ow is subtracted with Attemperator water ow in function block 31HFWFX003. The Attemperator water ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type Attemperator water ow transmitter 31HFWFT0034 this is connected across ow element 31HFWFE034. Square root for Attemperator water ow shall be done in smart transmitter. Steam ow (Pressure compensation & temperature)

P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Bar (g) T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in C P2 = Flow nozzle Rated Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2g T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in Deg. C Flow nozzle Rated Pressure = 104 Kg/Cm2 (g) Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 567.3 Deg. C Normal Flow = 279.2 TPH Sizing ow = 400 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31HPSFX003A) = Drum Level Controller (31HPD LIC003B) O/P in % + Steam ow (31HFWFX003) O/p in %- 50. The feed water ow is measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water ow transmitter 31HFWFT003A, 31HFWFT003B & 31HFWFT003C these are connected across ow element 31HFWFE003A. Square root for feed water ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured feed water ow is compensated in function block 31HFWFY003A, 31HFWSFY003B & 31HFWFY003C with average temperature. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31HFWPT002A, 31HFWPT002B & measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31HFWPY002 (Average block). This is indicated in DCS as 31HFWPI002 The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31HFWTE001A, 31HFWTE001B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31HFWTY001 (Average block) The compensated feed water ow values are the PV for function block 31HFWFY003 (Median block). The median feed water ow is PV to feed water ow controller 31HFWFIC003A. Feed water ow (Temperature) compensation Computing block 31HFWFY003A, 31HFWFY003B & 31HFWFY003C shall be

Section B

54

Operation & Maintenance Manual

congured to Temperature compensated feed water ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH = Indicated FW Flow in TPH * (T2+273.15) / (T1+273.15) Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in deg. C T2 = Flow nozzle Operating Temperature Signal in deg. C Flow nozzle design Temp = 151 deg. C Normal Flow = 282.8 TPH Sizing ow = 400 TPH Indications and alarms to be congured as shown in the control schematic. Water Flow Totaliser 31HFWFIQ-003 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31HPSFIQ-003 blocks to be congured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm congured in function block 31HPDLAHH003A, 31HPDLAHH003B & 31HPDLAHH003C. 31HPDLAHH003 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31HPDLX003A. Drum Level low-low alarm congured in function block 31HPDLALL003A, 31HPDLALL003B & 31HPDLALL003C. 31HPDLALL003 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31HPDLX003B. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is Trip the GT. IP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water owing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum, Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31IFW FS-050A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. If steam ow increases beyond 13TPH(30%) then control will change to three elements control. If steam ow decreases below 10TPH(25%) then control will change to single element control.

Single Element Control:In single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water ow. The drum level signal is compared with the xed set point (0 mmWC) in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31IPD LIC050A is given to feed water ow control valve 31IFWFCV050AJYPA & 31IFWFCV050BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC050A & 31IFWHIC050B respectively. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the Drum level controller 31IPD LIC050A is Reverse. Three Element Control: In Three elements Drum level, Water ow and Steam ow are the references to control the water ow. Drum level as primary element, Feed water ow as secondary element and steam ow as third element (feed forward). In three - element control the drum level signal is compared with the xed set point in the drum level indicating controller 31IPDLIC050B. To achieve, better drum level control, a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam ow in function block 31IPSFX050A. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water ow indicating controller 31IFWFIC050A. The feed water ow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water ow indicating controller & output of feed water ow controller 31IFWFIC050A is given to feed water ow control valve 31IFWFCV050AJYPA & 31IFWFCV050BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC050A & 31IFWHIC050B respectively, output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the feed water ow controller 31IFWFIC050A & Drum level controller 31IPD LIC050B is Reverse. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31IPDLT050A, 31IPDLT050B, 31IPDLT050C & measured drum level is compensated (density) in function block 31IPDLY050A, 31IPDLY050B & 31IPDLY050C with median drum pressure. The drum pressure is measured by pressure transmitter 31IPDPT057A, 31IPDPT057B, 31IPDPT057C & measured drum pressure are PV for function block 31IPDPY57 (Median block). The compensated drum level values are the PV for function block 31IPDLY050 (Median block) The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31IPDLIC050A and 31IPDLIC050B.

Section B

55

Operation & Maintenance Manual

The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for - 550 to 0 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. The Drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 35 Kg/Cm2(g). Drum level density compensation Computing block 31IPD LY050A, 31IPD LY050B & 31IPD LY050C shall be congured to Pressure compensated /corrected drum level indication can be obtained from equation below Where Hm is the corrected level indication. Hm = {Delta p + H (Da - Ds)} / (Dw - Ds ) Where: DP = differential pressure measured by level transmitter (DPT). [The range of DP in above equation is also to be taken as ( 55 to 0 cmWC)] Hm Compensated drum level signal Dw Density of water (To be taken from the enclosed table) Ds Density of Steam (To be taken from the enclosed table) H Water head on LP side, wet head leg which is to be feed as constant = 55 Da Wet leg density; water Density at 30 Deg.C. (Constant =0.996). Head on HP = Hm *Dw + (H-Hm)*Ds Head on LP = H *Da Delta p = HP- LP =Hm (Dw-Ds) H (Da-Ds) Hm = {delta p + H (Da-Ds)}/ (Dw- Ds) Here, H = 55 cm. Da = 0.996 gm/cm3 at 30 deg. c Hm calculated from above formula is density corrected drum level, which shall be in scale range 0 to 55 cm (Hm output should be blocked in this range), this value shall be scaled for (-)275 to (+)275 mmwc display range on DCS. The steam ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam ow transmitter 31IPSFT050D & 31IPSFT050E both are connected across ow element 31IPS FE050B. Square root for steam ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured Steam ow

is compensated (Average pressure & Average temperature) in function block 31IPSFY050A & 31IPSFY050B with average pressure & average temperature. TThe steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IPSPT129A, 31IPSPT129B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31IPSPY129 (Average block). The steam temperature measured by thermocouple 31IPSTE130A, 31IPSTE130B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31IPSTY130 (Average block) The compensated steam ow values are the PV for function block 31IPSFY050 (Average block) The steam ow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-60 TPH. The steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 35 Kg/Cm2(g). Steam ow (Pressure compensation. & temperature)

Computing block 31IPSFY050A & 31IPSFY050B shall be congured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH =Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * (P1 + 1.029) * (T2+273.15) / (P2+1.029) * (T1+273.15) Where: P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in C P2 = Flow nozzle Rated Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in C Flow nozzle Rated Pressure = 25.49 Kg/Cm2(g) Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 320 C Normal Flow = 43.9 TPH Sizing ow = 60 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31IPSFX050A) = Drum Level Controller (31IPD LIC050B) O/P in % + Steam ow (31IPSFY050) O/p in %- 50. The feed water ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water ow transmitter 31IFWFT050A, 31IFWFT050B & 31IFWFT050C these are connected across ow element 31IFWFE050A. Square root for feed water

Section B

56

Operation & Maintenance Manual

ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured feed water ow is compensated in function block 31IFWFY050A, 31IFWSFY050B & 31IFWFY050C with average temperature. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IFWPT077A, 31IFWPT077B, & measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31IFWPY077 (Average block). This is indicated in DCS as 31IFWPI077 The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31IFWTE075A, 31IFWTE075B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31IFWTY075 (Average block) The compensated feed water ow values are the PV for function block 31IFWFY050 (Median block) The median feed water ow is PV to feed water ow controller 31IFWFIC050A. The feed water ow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-60 TPH. The feed water pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 80 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 80 Kg/Cm2(g). Feed water ow (Temperature) compensation. Computing block 31IFWFY050A, 31IFWFY050B & 31IFWFY050C shall be congured to temperature compensated feed water ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH =Indicated FW Flow in TPH * (T2+273.15) / (T1+273.15). Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in C T2 = Flow nozzle design Temperature Signal in C Flow nozzle Rated Temp = 218 C Normal Flow = 42.1 TPH Sizing ow = 60 TPH Indications and alarms to be congured as shown in the control schematic. Water Flow Totaliser 31IPSFIQ-050 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31IFWFIQ-050 blocks to be congured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm congured in function block 31IPDLAHH050A, 31IPDLAHH050B & 31IPDLAHH050C. 31IPDLAHH050 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31IPDLX050A. Drum Level low-low alarm

congured in function block 31IPDLALL050A, 31IPDLALL050B & 31IPDLALL050C. 31IHPDLALL050 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31IPDLX050B. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is trip GT LP Drum Level Control The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum Level at the normal operating level in drum. Two modes of operation are provided for drum level control. Single element & Three element drum level control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water owing into the drum to maintain required water level in the drum, Single-element drum level control for low loads and Three-elements drum level control for normal & high load. 31LFW FS-093A is mode selector switch which changes single element control to three elements control and three elements control to single element control. Single Element Control:In single element only Drum level is the reference level to control the feed water ow. The drum level signal is compared with the xed set point (0 mmWC) in the drum level-indicating controller & output of drum level controller 31LPD LIC080A is given to feed water ow control valve 31LFWFCV080AJYPA & 31IFWFCV080BJYPA through manual loader 31LFWHIC080A & 31LFWHIC080B respectively. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the Drum level controller 31LPD LIC080A is Reverse. Three Element Control:In Three elements Drum level, Water ow and Steam ow are the references to control the water ow. Drum level as primary element, Feed water ow as secondary element and steam ow as third element (feed forward). In three - element control the drum level signal is compared with the xed set point in the drum level indicating controller 31LPDLIC080B. To achieve, better drum level control, a feed forward action is added to in the form of steam ow in function block 31LPSFX093A. The feed forward output use as a remote set point to feed water ow indicating controller 31LFWFIC093A. The feed water ow signal is compared with the remote set point in the feed water ow indicating controller & output of feed water ow controller 31LFWFIC093A is given to feed

Section B

57

Operation & Maintenance Manual

water ow control valve 31LFWFCV080AJYPA & 31LFWFCV080BJYPA through manual loader 31LFWHIC080A & 31LFWHIC080B respectively, output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the feed water ow controller 31LFWFIC080A & Drum level controller 31LPDLIC080B is Reverse. The drum level measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type level transmitters 31LPDLT080A, 31IPDLT080B, 31IPDLT080C & measured drum level values are the PV for function block 31LPDLY080 (Median block) The median drum level is PV to drum level controllers 31LPDLIC080A and 31LPDLIC080B. The Drum level transmitter is calibrated for -1900 to 0 cmWC and correspondence indication shall 0 to 100 %. The steam ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type steam ow transmitter 31LPSFT093A & 31LPSFT093B both are connected across ow element 31LPS FE093. Square root for steam ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured Steam ow is compensated (Average pressure & Average temperature) in function block 31LPSFY093A & 31LPSFY093B with average pressure & average temperature. The steam pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31LPSPT089A, 31LPSPT089B & measured steam pressure are PV for function block 31LPSPY089 (Average block). The steam temperature measured by thermocouple 31LPSTE090A, 31LPSTE090B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31LPSTY090 (Average block) The compensated steam ow values are the PV for function block 31LPSFY093 (Average block) The compensated steam ow is added with HP compensated feed water ow, HP Attemperator water ow, IP compensated feed water ow & RH1 Attemperator water in function block 31LFWFX093 The RH1 Attemperator water ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type Attemperator water ow transmitter 31IFWFT0073 this is connected across ow element 31IFWFE073. Square root for Attemperator water ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The steam ow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 5000 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-50 TPH.

The RH1 Attemperator water ow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 2500 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-25 TPH. The steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 10 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 10 Kg/Cm2(g). Steam ow (Pressure compensation. & temperature)

Computing block 31LPSFY093A & 31LPSFY093B shall be congured to Pressure & temperature compensated steam ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated Steam Flow in TPH =Indicated Steam Flow in TPH * (P1 + 1.029) * (T2+273.15) / (P2+1.029) * (T1+273.15) Where: P1 = Measured Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T1 =Measured Temperature Signal in C P2 = Flow nozzle design Pressure Signal in Kg/Cm2(g) T2 = Flow nozzle design Temperature Signal in C Flow nozzle design Pressure = 3.16 Kg/Cm2(g) Flow nozzle design Temp = 286.6 C Normal Flow = 34.26 TPH Sizing ow = 50 TPH Feed Water Flow Controller Remote Set-point (31LPSFX093) = Drum Level Controller (31LPD LIC080B) O/P in % + Steam ow (31LFWFX093) O/p in % - 50. The feed water ow measured by DP (Differential Pressure) type feed water ow transmitter 31LFWFT104A & 31LFWFT104B both are connected across ow element 31LFWFE104. Square root for feed water ow shall be done in smart transmitter. The measured feed water ow is compensated in function block 31LFWFY104A & 2IFWFY104B with average temperature. The feed water pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31LFWPT131A, 31LIFWPT131B, & measured feed water pressure are PV for function block 31LFWPY131 (Average block) The feed water temperature measured by thermocouple 31LFWTE132A, 31LFWTE132B & measured feed water temperature are PV for function block 31LFWTY132 (Average block) The compensated feed water ow values are the PV for function block 31LFWFY104 (Average block)

Section B

58

Operation & Maintenance Manual

The average feed water ow is PV to feed water ow controller 31LFWFIC093A. The feed water ow transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 7500 mmWC and correspondence indication shall 0-500 TPH. The feed water pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 40 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 40 Kg/Cm2(g). Feed water ow (Temperature) compensation. Computing block 31LFWFY104A & 31IFWFY104B shall be congured to Temperature compensated feed water ow indication can be obtained from equation below Compensated FW Flow in TPH = Indicated FW Flow in TPH * (T2+273.15) / (T1+273.15) Where: T1 = Measured Temperature Signal in C T2 = Flow nozzle Rated Temperature Signal in C Flow nozzle design Temp =146 C Normal Flow =389.2 TPH Sizing ow =500 TPH Indications and alarms to be congured as shown in the control schematic. Water Flow Totaliser 31LFWFIQ104 & Steam Flow Totaliser 31LPSFIQ93 blocks to be congured All process value should be record for reports & trends Drum Level high-high alarm congured in function block 31LPDLAHH080A, 31LPDLAHH080B & 31LPDLAHH080C. 31LPDLAHH080 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31LPDLX080A. Drum Level low-low alarm congured in function block 31LPDLALL080A, 31LPDLALL080B & 31LPDLALL080C. 31LHPDLALL080 is derived after 2oo3 voting from function block 31LPDLX080B. Whenever drum level high-high or low-low alarm occurs trip the boiler that is trip GT

CBD drain temperature is the reference temperature to control the drain line temperature. The CBD drain temperature signal is compared with the xed set point (60C) in the CBD drain temperature -indicating controller & output of CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096 is given to quench water ow control valve 31SWSTCV096JYPA. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096 is Direct. The CBD drain temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HVDTT096A, & 31HVDTT096B with thermocouple 31HVDTE096A, & 31HVDTE096B & measured CBD drain temperature are PV for function block 31HVDTY096 (Average block) The average CBD drain temperature is PV to CBD drain temperature controller 31SWSTIC096. The CBD drain temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 150 Deg.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 150 Deg.C. Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV.

7.3 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3- Way) Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the stack temperature at the normal operating temperature in stack. Stack temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of DM water owing into the CPH to maintain required temperature in stack. Stack Temperature Control:Stack temperature is the reference temperature to control the stack temperature. The stack temperature signal is compared with the set point in the stack temperature -indicating controller & output of stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102 is given to CPH bypass ow control valve 31LFWTCV102JYPA. Control action of the Stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102 is Reverse. The stack temperature measured by thermocouple 31FLUETE226A & 31FLUETE226B & measured stack temperature are PV for function block 31FLUETY226 (Average block) The average stack temperature is PV to stack temperature controller 31LFWTIC102.

7.2 CBD Drain Temperature Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the CBD Drain Temperature at the normal operating temperature in drain line. CBD drain temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of quench water owing into the drain line to maintain required temperature in drain line CBD drain temperature Control:-

Section B

59

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. Setpoint for Various fuels is mentioned below:

7.6 HP Attemperator Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the HP Steam Temperature at the normal operating temperature in HP steam line. HP steam temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water owing into the steam line (Attemperator) to maintain required temperature in HP steam line. HP1 Attemperator Control HP steam temperature is the reference temperature to control the steam line temperature. The steam temperature signal is compared with the xed set point (567C) in the HP Attemperator -indicating controller & output of Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026 is given to Attemperator control valve 31HFWTCV026AJYPA & . 31HFWTCV026BJYPA through manual loader 31HFWHIC026A & 31HFWHIC026B respectively, Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the HP Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026 is Direct. The HP steam temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HPSTT026A, & 31HPSTT026B with thermocouple 31HPSTE026A, & 31HPSTE026B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HPSTY026 (Average block) The average HP steam temperature is PV to HP Attemperator controller 31HFWTIC026. The HP Steam temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 800 Deg.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 800 Deg.C. Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV.

7.4 LP Drum Pressure Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the drum pressure at the normal operating pressure in drum. Drum pressure control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of steam vent to maintain required pressure in drum. LP Drum Pressure Control:LP Drum Pressure is the reference Pressure to control the drum Pressure. The drum Pressure signal is compared with the xed set point in the LP drum Pressure -indicating controller & output of LP drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083 is given to drum Pressure control valve 2LPDPCV083JYPA. . Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open, Control action of the LP drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083 is Direct. The drum Pressure measured by pressure transmitter 2LPDPT083A & 2LPDPT083B & measured drum Pressure are PV for function block 2LPDPY083 (Average block) The average drum Pressure is PV to drum Pressure controller 2LPDPIC083. The LP drum pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 10 Bar (g) and correspondence indication shall 0 10 Bar (g). Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV. Natural Gas - 86C Naptha - 134C

7.7 RH1 Attemperator Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the IP Steam Temperature at the normal operating temperature in IP steam line. RH1 steam temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of feed water owing into the steam line (Attemperator) to maintain required temperature in IP steam line. RH1 Attemperator Control IP steam temperature is the reference temperature to control the steam line temperature.

7.5 LP Drum Pressure Control


The aim of this control loop is to regulate the quantity of steam vent to maintain required pressure in drum. The Vent Valve shall be operated from DCS thro Manual Loader 31LPDHIC083. This valve shall be kept crack open all the time to have continuous Vent. LP Drum Pressure Control is envisaged by LP Drum Pegging Steam Pressure Control Valve.

Section B

60

Operation & Maintenance Manual

The steam temperature signal is compared with the xed set point (567C) in the RH1 Attemperator -indicating controller & output of Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068 is given to Attemperator control valve 31IFWTCV068AJYPA & . 31IFWTCV068BJYPA through manual loader 31IFWHIC068A & 31IFWHIC068B respectively, Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the RH1 Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068 is Direct. The IP steam temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31HRHTT068A, & 31HRHTT068B with thermocouple 31HRHTE068A, & 31HRHTE068B & measured steam temperature are PV for function block 31HRHTY068 (Average block) The average IP steam temperature is PV to RH1 Attemperator controller 31IFWTIC068. The IP Steam temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 800 Deg.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 800 Deg.C. Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV.

31LFWTE108A, & 31LFWTE108B & measured CPH Water temperature are PV for function block 31LFWTY108 (Average block) The average CPH Water temperature is PV to CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108. The CPH Water temperature transmitter is calibrated for 0 80 Deg.C and correspondence indication shall 0 to 80 Deg.C. Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode SP tracking is required to PV.

7.9 IP Line Back Pressure Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the IP steam pressure at the normal operating pressure in IP line. IP Line Back pressure control system is envisaged to regulate the CV to maintain required pressure in IP line. IP Line Back pressure Control IP line Pressure is the reference Pressure to control the IP line Pressure. The IP steam Pressure signal is compared with the xed set point (24 Kg/Cm2g) in the IP Line Back pressure control -indicating controller & output of IP Line Back pressure controller 31IPSPIC129 is given to IP Line Back pressure control valve 31IPSPCV129JYPA. . Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open; Control action of the LP drum Pressure controller 31IPSPIC1293 is direct. The IP steam Pressure measured by pressure transmitter 31IPSPT129A & 31IPSPT129B & measured IP steam Pressure are PV for function block 31IPSPY129 (Average block) The average IP steam Pressure is PV to IP line back Pressure controller 31IPSPIC129. The IP Steam pressure transmitter is calibrated for 0 35 Kg/Cm2(g) and correspondence indication shall 0 35 Kg/Cm2(g). Following to be taken care while conguring this loop in DCS. In manual mode PV to SP tracking is required.

7.8 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control


The aim of this control loop is to maintain the CPH Water Temperature at the normal operating temperature in CPH tubes to avoid corrosion of the CPH tubes. CPH recirculation temperature control system is envisaged to regulate the quantity of water recirculate into the CPH tubes to maintain required temperature in CPH tubes. CPH Recirculation Temperature Control CPH Water temperature is the reference temperature to control the CPH tubes temperature. The CPH Water temperature signal is compared with the xed set point (57C) in the CPH recirculation temperature - indicating controller & output of CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108 is given to CPH recirculation temperature control valve 31LFWTCV108JYPA. Output signal is inverted due to control valve air fail action is open. Control action of the CPH recirculation temperature controller 31LFWTIC108 is Reverse. The CPH Water temperature measured by temperature transmitters 31LFWTT108A, & 31LFWTT108B with thermocouple

7.10 Start up Vent (HP, IP & LP) Control


Initially during boiler start up it is necessary to keep the start up vent valve open and increase the boiler pressure & steam temperature gradually.

Section B

61

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Start up vent control valve is provided to avoid

burnout of tubes and to control the start up pressure.

Section B

62

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section C
Topics Covered in this Chapter Section Overview HRSG Start Up and Shut Down Startup of a Cold HRSG Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG HRSG Shutdown Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks Dos and Donts For HRSG Operation Boiler Log Sheet Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures Trouble Shooting Chart Operation

Startup of a Cold HRSG

A HRSG startup can be termed as cold start up when any of the following conditions are met The HRSG has been idle for more than three days There is no pressure in the steam drum and its metal temperature is less than 70C In a cold startup, possibilities of some inspection or maintenance works having been done are presumed. A walkdown checks are required and the HRSG and its auxiliaries are to be prepared meticulously for a startup from the control room. Before a walkdown checks ensure that all work permits have been returned, tags removed and maintenance permission for HRSG startup is available. Program of Gas Turbine (GT) availability has also to be checked. Carry out walk down checks before cold start up of HRSG & ll up water in HRSG as per Standard operating procedure.

Section Overview

This section describes the start up, shut down procedures of the HRSG. HRSG operation & safety are also described here.

HRSG Start Up and Shut Down

3.1 Walk Down Check


Using powerful torches or low voltage inspection lamps inspect the HRSG and ensure that 1. Furnace and the exhaust gas path are clear, all maintenance personnel have been removed and no scaffolding or inspection devices have been left inside. 2. Boiler bank, Economiser & LP Boiler Bank panels are clean and there is no evidence of any water drips. 3. Verify that all access doors, inspection doors are tightly closed. 4. Verify that the exhaust gas duct to stack is clear and that all maintenance personnel have been withdrawn. HP ,IP & LP Main Steam Line and Reheater 1. Verify that the safety valves are not gagged. 2. Verify that nitrogen purging valves are open. If they are open, they are to be closed just before HRSG light up when air vents are opened.

Operation HRSG Start Up And Shut Down Aim This and subsequent chapters describes the HRSG start up and shut down procedures as applicable for the following conditions: Start up of a cold HRSG HRSG shut down Start up of a warm HRSG Start up of a Hot HRSG Note The procedures explained in this chapter apply for start up of the HRSG already commissioned. Commissioning a new HRSG call for several additional requirements. It is assumed that operators are fully familiar with the design and construction features described in the earlier chapters. It is assumed that operators are trained in operation of high pressure HRSGs and have been licensed to operate HRSGs or HRSG by the State Boiler Authority

HP, IP & LP Steam Drum


1. Verify that the safety valves are not gagged. 2. Verify that the illuminators of local level gauges are on. Inlet valves from steam and waterside is open and their drain valves are closed.

Section C

63

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3. Verify that the nitrogen connection line (if used) has been isolated and the drum vent is open.

(GT 607) & LP RHS side drain header (GT 605) are open. 8. Ensure that drain valves HPSH1 GL739, Reheater2 GL738, HPSH3 GL737 are closed. 9. Ensure that following manual drain valves are open: HPSH-1 Drain valve (GT680) RH-2 Drain valve (GT642), (GT 646). HPSH-3 Drain valve (GT682), (GT764, GT694) IPSH Drain valve (GT637) to be normally open. LPSH Drain valve (GT617) to be normally open. 10. Ensure that following drain valves are open: IP super heater motorised drain valve M076 to be closed after removal of condensate. LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 to be closed after removal of condensate. All above mentioned drain valves are start up drain valves & need to be close down when steam pressure of respective section reaches near to 4 bar (g). 11. Ensure following vent valves are open HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B, to be closed when drum pressure reaches to 2 bar (g). HP Main steam line start up vent valve M028. IP Drum vent valve M061 to be closed when drum pressure reaches to 2 bar (g). LP Drum (Deaerator) vapour tank vent valve PVC 083 & isolation valve GT 359, PVC 083 to be operated as per pressure controller PIC 083. 12. Ensure following valves are closed HP Drum EBD M039, this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. IP Drum EBD M078, this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. LP Drum EBD M094, this need to be open in the event of Drum high level. HP Drum CBD M040, this need to be open in proportion to keep HP drum water quality as per requirement.

HP, IP & LP Dosing Systems


1. Check that the solution-mixing tank of HP, IP & LP dosing system has atleast 50% tank level. If the level is low, prepare a full tank level of solution. Check that the pump inlet and solution inlet valves are open. 2. Check oil levels of the gearboxes of the dosing pumps and the stirrer. Top up if necessary.

3.2 Valve Lineup


The DCS is linked from eld instruments to constantly update process information (Feed ow, steam ow, steam temperature, drum pressure, water/steam temperatures, metal temperatures, gas temperatures, pressure/temperatures for pre trip alarms etc). In the DCS, the information is processed and based on pre-set logic and set points, control commands are sent to I/P converters for control action. Start/Stop command and alarm inputs etc are also from the DCS. 1. Ensure pre-purge of HRSG is done through GT (This is carried out standard GT operation procedure) 2. Ensure that the HRSG is lined up for start up as per cold start up procedure as mentioned above. Ref. cold start up procedure. Line up all valves in HP, IP & LP section as per the valve line up chart for cold start up. 3. During cold start up all the section of HRSG viz HP, IP & LP shall receive hot ue gases from GT & hence undergo cold start up simultaneously. 4. Ensure that HP Section main steam stop valve M029A & Bypass valve M029B are closed & start up vent valve PCV028 is full open. 5. Ensure that IP Section steam isolation valve M064 to reheater is closed & start up vent valve PCV063 is full open. 6. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688), Reheater Drain Header (GT650) are closed. The HPSH drain header, reheater drain header & HPSH1 drain operate from condensate drain pot arrangement on conductivity principle. 7. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624), LP LHS side drain header

Section C

64

Operation & Maintenance Manual

IP Drum CBD M079, this need to be open in proportion to keep IP drum water quality as per requirement. LP Drum CBD M095, this need to be open in proportion to keep LP drum/Deaerator water quality as per requirement.

Verify that drain valves on the spray water line are closed Verify that the root valves of Pressure gauges, pressure transmitters, pressure switches are open. Verify that the 30% and the two 100% ow control valves are in the closed (0%) position in the DCS (If they are in open position, close them by manual command from DCS) Verify that the Manual operated inlet & outlet isolating valve of the feed regulating station is open Verify that the drain valves before and after the 30% & 100% ow regulating valve are closed Feed Line from HP Economiser I An export water line valve GT 211 is kept closed. Root valve of all the instruments are kept open. Attemporator Spray Water Lines Keep open the manual isolating valves [GT 049, GT050 & GT 248, GT249]. Verify that the Attemperator spray water control valve [TCV026A & B and TCV 068A & B] is in closed position (DCS). Verify that the drains on either side of the control valve are closed. Keep open the inlet and outlet isolating valves of control valves [TCV026A & B and TCV 068A & B] Keep the Attemporator controller [TIC-026 & TIC 068] in manual mode. Sample System All the sample lines isolation valves have to be closed. SWAS (Customer System) can be taken into service once the HRSG is pressurized Availability of Nitrogen Gas Nitrogen gas is used for purging the gas, oil lines before inspection or maintenance of any of the components. No prediction can be made when the nitrogen gas will actually be required. To meet any eventuality, it is a good practice to charge the nitrogen gas lines up to the consuming points and keep the gas available whenever required. Verify valve from plant nitrogen gas main to drums are closed.

3.3 System Lineup


Preliminary Requirements Power supply ensure that the power supply is switched ON and available for all the motors and panels. Operating station - DCS is ensured for readiness and emergency push buttons are released, if activated. As instrument air is necessary for the operation of most of the valves and actuators, charge the instrument air header, the branch lines and instruments supply lines elsewhere. Root valves of all Instruments (Pressure gauges, Pressure transmitters, DP transmitters, Level gauges, etc,) must be kept open and their drains if any are to be kept closed. They are not separately listed. Ensure that all the transmitters are lined up mechanically / electronically CPH Verify that drain valves [GT 603 & GT604] are kept locked open except for maintenance Verify that air vent valves [GT 609] are locked open. Verify that it is open & is to be closed as soon as air is purged & water comes out during waterside charging. Verify that water side inlet isolating valves [GT 305] is open Verify that bypass manual valve [GT 314] is open .

Feedwater Control Stations


For starting a cold HRSG, DM water from the station DM line may preferably be used. However feed lines are lined up such that the Feed Regulating stations can be taken into service from DCS, when requirement arises. Verify that electrically operated isolating valve [TV 034] to spray water lines is closed (DCS)

Section C

65

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.4 Valve Positions Chart For HP, IP & LP Section (Before Light Up)
Valve Tag Number Service Open Close Remarks

FEED WATER LINE TO HP STEAM DRUM GT-038 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valves Control station outlet manual isolation valves Feed water control station drain valves Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down or problem in control valve operation Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be opened initially when the water is required to maintain the drum level To be opened when boiler load reaches above the 30% to maintain the drum level To be opened when the 100% line main control valve is under maintenance

M -003 A/B/C

GT- 026/027/028

GT-020/21/22/23/2 4 & 25 GT- 001/002/015/016/ 2 9/30/32/33/34/3536/37 /54/55 GT 003,004,005,006,00 7

Feed water ow ,008,009,010,011,012,0 13 & transmitter isolation valves 014 FCV 003 A Feed water control station 30% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve

FCV 003 B

FCV 003 C

FEED WATER LINE TO IP STEAM DRUM GT - 241 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valve Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open permanently & it will be closed only during the boiler shutdown or motorized valve is under maintenance Y To be Opened when motorized valve is under maintenance

M 050 A

GT 216,217

Control station outlet manual isolation valve

GT 214,215

Feed water control station drain valve

Section C

66

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 201,08, GT 59(02 NOS) GT 60 & 18 GT 58 GT 202,03,04,05, 06 & 07

Service Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Feed water ow transmitter isolation valves Export water line valve Feed water control station 100% control valve Feed water control station 100% control valve

Open Close Remarks To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be opened initially when the water is required to maintain the drum level To be opened when the 100% line main control valve is under maintenance

GT 211

FCV 050A

FCV 050B

FEED WATER LINE TO LP STEAM DRUM GT - 314 Feed Water Main Isolation valve Feed Water Second Isolation valve Control station inlet motorized isolation valves Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open permanently & it will be closed only during the boiler shutdown or motorized valve is under maintenance Y To be Opened when motorized valve is under maintenance To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be open while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT - 327

M 080 A/B

GT 322, 325

Control station outlet manual isolation valves

GT 321, 324

Feed water control station drain valves Feed water ow transmitter isolation valves Feed water line pressure tapping isolation valves Vent line valve

GT 316, 317, 318 & 319

GT 328, 329,

GT 326 ECONOMIZER HP

Section C

67

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 671 (04 NOS) GT 672 (02 NOS) GT - 673 (14 NOS ) GT 651 (06 NOS) GT 693 (06 NOS) GT 653 (01 NOS) GT 654 (01 NOS) GT 655 (02 NOS) GT 656 (02 NOS) GT 657 (02 NOS) GT 658 (02 NOS) GT 659 (01 NOS) GT 660 (01 NOS) GT 696 (02 NOS) GT 663 (12 NOS) GT 692 (12 NOS) GT 665 (01 NOS) GT 666 (01 NOS) ECONOMIZER IP GT 626 (02 NOS) GT 620 (02 NOS ) GT 621 (02NOS ) DM WATER FILLING IN HRSG GT-716,714,718,720 , 722 & 712 GT 627 & 636 (02 NOS EACH) GT 615 & 616 (01 NO EACH)

Service Economizer I/II/III top header Vent Isolation Valves.

Open Close Remarks To be open only during rst lling of Economizer/ boiler.

Economizer I/II/III Top & bottom header Drain Isolation Valves.

To be opened for draining & initial water lling the Economizer & hydro

Economize top header Vent Isolation Valves. Economizer Top & bottom header Drain Isolation Valves.

To be opened for draining & initial water lling the Economizer & hydro To be opened for draining & initial water lling the Economizer & hydro

DM water line at battery limit valves IP Evaporator drain line valves LP Evaporator drain line valves

Y Y Y

To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test. To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test. To be open only to take water for boiler hydro test. To be open during boiler cold start up to let water/condensate to blow down tank.

GT 695, 669, 622, 624, 605, & 607 HP STEAM DRUM M 005 A/B

All header drain valves

Motorized Isolation Valves of Drum Vent N2 Preservation Connection

To be closed when drum pressure reaches 2 bar (g) during boiler pressurization. Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2

GT 095

Section C

68

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 087,088,089, 090,091 & 092

Service Steam drum pressure transmitters isolation valves Steam drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Steam drum local pressure transmitter isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on Steam Drum for Level Indicating Instruments. Isolation Valves of Steam Drum Level Gauge Glass

Open Close Remarks Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT 084,085 & 086

GT 087, 088, 089, 090, 091, 092 GT-060,061,062,063, 064,065,066, 067, 068, 069,070,071, 072, 073,074 & 075 GT 076,077,078, 079,080,081,082 & 083 HP EVAPORATOR GT 678 & 679 (02 NOS EACH) GT 690 (02 NOS) HP MAIN STEAM LINE GT 680 GT 682 (02 NOS) GT 683 (02 NOS M 038 B M 038 F M 038 D M 038 H GT 691 (02 NOS) GT 688

HP Evaporator drain line valves Evaporator vent valve

Y Y

To be open only during rst lling of Economizer/ boiler. To be open only during rst lling of Economizer/ boiler.

HP Superheater-1 Drain Isolation Valve before MOVs HP Superheater-2 & 3 Drain Isolation Valves HP Superheater-2 & 3 Motorized operated Drain valves HP Superheater-1 Motorized operated Drain valves Superheater 2 vent valve HP SH Drain header valve Main Steam line drain before MSSV Main steam line motorized operated drain valves

To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. Y To be open during boiler shut down for complete draining or superheater To be closed when condensate is drained completely at 4 bar (g) pressure. To be closed when condensate is drained completely at 4 bar (g) pressure. Y To be open during boiler shutdown To be kept lock open To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. To be closed once the condensate removed for line completely

GT 698

M- 038A & 038E

Section C

69

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 107 & 108

Service Main steam line vent valve before safety valve Steam sampling system main isolation valve Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve

Open Close Remarks Y To be open during boiler shutdown To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be kept open during boiler start up. To be closed when boiler is connected to plant mains along with PV028. To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to Plant mains To be opened for equalization of pressure. To be opened after reaching the rated Pressure. To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT 129

M - 028

PV -028

Startup Vent valve

M 029 B

Motorised Pressure Equalization Valve of Main Steam Stop Valve Motorized Main Steam Stop Valve Main steam line pressure transmitter isolation valves Main steam line ow transmitter tapping line valves Y

M 029 A GT 112 & 113 (02 NOS EACH) GT 110 & 111 GT 114,115,116, 117,118,119,120, 121,122,123,124 & 125 REHEATER GT 644 (02 NOS) GT 642 (02 NOS)

Reheater drain line valves Re-heater -1 & 2 drain line motorized valve

To be open during boiler shutdown This valve to be closed once the condensate removed completely from Re-heater 1 & 2. To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve. To be kept lock open. To be open during boiler shutdown To be closed when condensate is drained completely.

M 38C

GT - 646

Re-heater -1 & 2 drain line manual valve Reheater Drain header valve Reheater Attemperator drain valve Reheater -2 O/L to steam header Drain valve

GT 650

GL 738

FMV D201 (Customer scope) HP ATTEMPERATOR SYSTEM

Section C

70

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number LCV 034

Service Attemperator line main isolation valve Attemperator control station up stream motorized isolation valves Attemperator control station down stream manual isolation valves Attemperator drain line isolation valves Temperature control valve one is main line valve and another is bypass valves Attemperator vent line valves Attemperator drain line valve HP Attemperator motorized drain valves HP Attemperator manual drain valve

Open Close Remarks Y To be closed during initial ll up water in boiler / Economizer To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be open as per the steam temperature control requirement. One TCV kept closed and one will be use. Y Y To be opened during boiler shutdown To be opened during boiler shutdown Both valves to be closed once the condensate removed completely To be kept lock open. To be closed at failure of MOV valve.

M 026 A/B

GT 049 & 050

GT 045,046 & 047,048

TCV 026 A/B

GT 103 & 104 GT 105 & 106

M 038B & 038F

GT - 694 HP BLOWDOWN SYSTEM M - 040

HP Drum EBD motorized valve HP Drum EBD manual isolation valves HP Drum CBD motorized valve HP Drum CBD manual valves Y

This valve need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valves keep open continuously This need to be open in the event of Drum high level or maintaining the TDS in boiler Manual isolation valves keep open continuously

GT 674 (02 NOS)

M - 039

GT 675 (02 NOS) IP STEAM DRUM M 061

Motorized Isolation Valves of Drum Vent N2 Preservation Connection

To be closed when drum pressure reaches 2 bar (g) during boiler pressurization. Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2

GT - 228

Section C

71

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 224,225 & 226

Service Steam drum pressure transmitters isolation valves Steam drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on Steam Drum for Level Indicating Instruments. Isolation Valves of Steam Drum Level Gauge Glass

Open Close Remarks Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT 219,220 & 221

GT-235,236,237, 238,239 & 240

GT 231,232 & 234 IP EVAPORATOR GT 636 & 627 (02 NOS EACH)

IP Evaporator drain line valves

To be open only during initial water lling & hydro To be open during initial water lling & hydro & to be closed after air is expelled completely.

GT 641 (02 NOS)

Evaporator vent valve

IP MAIN STEAM LINE GT 637 & GI 256 Superheater Inlet & Outlet Header Drain Isolation Valves IP Superheater motorized drain valve Superheater inlet vent valve Main Steam line drain valve Main steam line vent valve Steam sampling system main isolation valve Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve Y Y To be closed during boiler shutdown To be closed once the condensate removed completely Y Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed along with PCV 063 when boiler is connected to re-heater To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to re-heater Y To be open once the boiler pressure reaches above 5 Bar To be open during boiler shutdown

M 076

GT 294 GI 256 GI 255

GT 255

M - 063

PCV -063

Startup Vent valve

M 064

IP section to re-heater connecting line isolation valve

Section C

72

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 264

Service IP main steam line drain valve IP main steam line motorized operated drain valve Main steam line ow transmitter tapping line valves

Open Close Remarks Y To be kept lock open. To be closed once the condensate removed from line To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

M -077

GT 257,258,259 & 260 IP ATTEMPERATOR SYSTEM LCV 074

Attemperator line main isolation valve Attemperator control station up stream motorized isolation valves Attemperator control station down stream manual isolation valves Attemperator drain line isolation valves Temperature control valve one is main line valve and another is bypass valve Attemperator header vent line valve Attemperator drain line valve

Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y To be Opened when control valve is under maintenance To be open as per the steam temperature control requirement. One TCV kept closed and one will be use. Y Y

M 068 A/B

GT 248 & 249

GT 246 & 247

TCV 068 A/B

GT 274 GT 275 IP BLOWDOWN SYSTEM M - 078 GT 631 GT 628

IP Drum EBD motorized valve IP Drum EBD manual valve IP Drum CBD manual valve IP Drum CBD motorized valve Y Y

This need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valve keep lock open Manual isolation valve keep lock open

M - 079 IP EVAPORATOR GT 615 & 616 GT 619 (02 NOS) LP DRUM

This need to be open to maintain boiler water chemistry

LP Evaporator drain line valves Evaporator vent valve

Y Y

To be open for initial water lling & hydro test To be open for initial water lling & hydro test

Section C

73

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number GT 359 PCV - 083 GT - 362

Service Air vent is provided on the vapor tank with twin Valve Air vent is provided on the vapor tank N2 Preservation Connection LP drum pressure transmitters isolation valve LP drum local pressure indicator isolation valves Isolation Valves for manifold on LP Drum for Level Indicating Instruments. LP Drum EBD motorized valve LP Drum EBD manual valve LP Drum CBD motorized valve LP Drum CBD manual valve Isolation Valves of LP Drum Level Gauge Glass

Open Close Remarks Y Through the air vent, Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere Through the air vent, Steam and dissolved gases are vent out to the atmosphere Y To be opened only when boiler is to be preserved with N2 To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down Y Y This need to be open in the event of Drum high level Manual isolation valve keep lock open Y This need to be open to maintain boiler water chemistry Manual isolation valve keep lock open To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

GT - 354

GT 353

GT 356,357 & 358

GT-341,342,343, 344 345 & 346

M - 094 GT 612

M - 095

GT 630

GT 347,348 & 350,351 LP MAIN STEAM LINE GT 617

LP Superheater Inlet & Outlet Header Drain Isolation Valves LP Superheater drain valve Superheater inlet vent valve Main Steam line drain before MSSV Main steam line vent valve before MSSV Steam sampling system main isolation valve

To be kept lock open To be closed once condensate is removed completely. Y Y Y To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

M 098

GT 381 GI 371 GI 374

GT 376

Section C

74

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Valve Tag Number M - 091

Service Motorized isolation Valve of Startup Vent Valve Startup Vent valve Motorised Pressure Equalization Valve of Main Steam Stop Valve Motorized Main Steam Stop Valve Main steam line ow transmitter tapping line valves

Open Close Remarks Y To be opened before opening Start up vent valve. Y To be Closed once rated pressure is attained and boiler is connected to load To be opened for equalization of pressure. To be opened after reaching the rated Pressure. To be closed while carrying out maintenance during boiler shut down

PV -091

M 092 B

M 092 A

GT 379 & 380

3.5 Filling Water in Boiler


For lling water in a cold HRSG, cold water from the plant DM line is preferred through Boiler ll up lines. However when the water is not deaerated, following procedure is used for lling from the HRSG lling line. During this lling, for assurance of correct steam drum water level, post an attendant at the drum level to monitor the local level and the hydrastep gauges and to communicate to the control room when a level of 100 mm is reached. (Final level recommendations shall be set at the time of commissioning). Filling is done by feeding D.M water to the HP, IP & LP drain headers from the plant DM main. For this, Open valves GT720, 722, 716, 718, 714 & 712 from DM water line at battery limit. Ensure that all the HP & IP economiser, HP, IP & LP evaporator panel drain valves are open. When air is released and water comes out from economiser vents GT671, GT626, GT672, GT673, these can be closed one by one. These valves need to be operated only during initial water lling. When water level of 150mm is reached in the drum, DM water lling line valves GT 718,716,720,722,712 & 714 and drains of Economisers & evaporators GT616,615,636,621,627,620,660,654,679, 666,653,659,665,678 are to closed and the drain valves of HP ,IP & LP Drain headers to blow down tank GT669,695,622,624 605,607 is opened.

Deaerator storage tank can be lled up by using Condensate pump & opening battery limit isolation valve GT301. During cold start up three way control valve TCV102 shall remain close to CPH & direct entire water to Deaerator through FCV 080A. Keep Deaerator level -50 mmwc below NWL to avoid swelling effect during initial start up. Caution Filling water temperature should not be more than 38 deg C of the boiler metal temperature. During lling of a cold boiler, the ambient temperature should be used as an indicator of the boiler metal temperature. Assuming an ambient temperature of 40 deg C, the maximum temperature of lling water shall be 78 deg C.

3.6 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation


The DCS is linked from eld instruments to constantly update process information (Feed ow, steam ow, steam temperature, drum pressure, water/steam temperatures, metal temperatures, gas temperatures, pressure/temperatures for pre trip alarms etc). In the DCS, the information is processed and based on preset logic and set points, control commands are sent to I/P converters for control action. Alarm inputs etc are also from the DCS. 1. Start the HRSG preferably along with GT start up cycle. During cold start up maintained the GT on Reserve spinning mode with 7 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained below 377 Deg C. 2. Yet time HRSG also can be started after stabilising GT operation by lowering the

Section C

75

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Load on GT and by lower the GT exhaust temperature below 377 Deg C. 3. During cold start up of HRSG, as the super heaters are running dry for few minutes in transition condition. To safe guard the supper heater & reheat SH tubes it is essential to control the GT exhaust temperature by allowing gas temperature below 377 Deg. 4. Purge the HRSG as per GT start up sequence (As recommended GT Supplier). 5. Start GT as per the GT start up sequence. 6. During cold / Warm start up, maintain GT in reverse spinning mode with 7% load on GT till the positive steam ow is established through super heater & re-heaters. Ensure that during cold start-up of HRSG ue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG should not exceed 377 Deg C. Monitor the metal temperature of supper heaters (HPSH3 < 612C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611C). The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the drum starts gradually build up. The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per cold start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress levels by modulating respective start up vent valves. 7. After having stabilised the positive steam ow through superheater & reheater, increase GT load gradually to pressurise the boiler as per Cold start up pressurisation curve. 8. During start up & continuous operation, monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612 C , & Reheat RH 2 < 611 C for ensuring cooling. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point, please stop gas ow to HRSG. 9. Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A 037 D < 321 C. 11. Monitor the water level in the drum. As the temperature reaches about 90C, a huge swelling of water level in the drum takes place. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed To summarise each start up procedure needs to be followed for following sequence: 1. Line up of water lling lines valves, HRSG system drains & vents. 2. Preparation/checks to be done before admission of hot ue gases in HRSH

3. Purging of HRSG 4. Steaming & closure of various drains & vents 5. Pressurisation HP Bypass & Gland Sealing line charging 6. Charging of reheater 7. Charging of CPH

Operator Action required during HRSG cold start-up


Ensuring permissible rate of heat input to HRSG during start up. Monitor Exhaust gas temperature in various zones. The temperatures of gas across various sections of HRSG will start increasing after the GT exhaust gas enters in HRSG. Operator can also check the local exhaust gas and temperature indications Monitor Drum metal temperatures. Monitor the water level in the drum. As the temperature reaches about 90C, a huge swelling of water level in the drum takes place. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed Initially, checking the local level gauges and the level indicators takes a careful assessment of water level in the drum. Variations in levels between gauges are possible at low drum pressures are to be relied for true drum level indications which initiate trips at very high and very low levels. Request Instrument Engineer to reconcile the differences in levels between gauges if any. Observe the air vent on drum. Air gets expelled and steady steam starts coming out of the air vents Observe drum pressure at DCS as also local pressure gauge at drum When drum pressure shows 2 kg/cm, drum air vents can be closed When the steam pressure builds up to 3 5 kg/cm , the super heater drain valves are to be closed. (If required, manually operated drain valves are also closed) When the swelling phase of drum water level is over and the level shows a decreasing trend, the 30% feed control can be taken into service by opening Control valve can be positioned as required manually to maintain drum level

Section C

76

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Ensure CBD, feed water and super heated steam samples are owing to the coolers and the pH, conductivity meters are in operation. Verify pH and conductivity is within permissive values. Verify the HP dosing mixing tank level is more than 50% and a 5% phosphate solution is available in the tank. Place one HP dosing pump in service. Similarly Verify the IP & LP dosing mixing tank level is more than 50% and a solution is available in the tank. Place one IP & LP dosing pump in service.

Start taking feed water through 30% control valve as per the requirement. Water shall ow to steam drums. CPH can be taken on line once the ow established and the ue gas exit temperature is above acid dew point. Allow the HRSG steam pressure and temperature to build up to rated temperature and pressure by suitably modulating the individual Start up vent valve and if required the GT load.

Monitor the steam drum water level. Monitor the parameters, which can cause a HRSG trip.

Section C

77

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.7 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve


HRSG Cold Start Up Pressurising Curve for HP Section Please refer section E Curves

The pressurisation curve for cold start up alongwith GT operation for HP section is illustrated above. The cold start up curve of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.

Section C

78

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.8 Taking Reheater On Line


This section describes how to take Reheater on line through HP & IP section. Reheater has to be charged simultaneously through HP & IP section as per the criteria mentioned charging procedure of reheater, only to bring upon clarity procedure is explained here separately (section wise). 3.8.1Charging HP Steam to Reheater 1. Keep Open start up vent valve PCV 079 & isolation valve GL 736 provided on hot reheat line for maintaining positive steam ow through re-heater. 2. Once the steam pressure at HP super heater outlet reaches 5 bar, open HP steam stop equalization /bypass valve M029B 100% and charge HP steam line as per steam line charging procedure after heating main steam line by HP steam stop bypass valve M029B and close the bypass valve after opening the HP steam stop valve M029A 100% . 3. When the swelling phase of HP Steam drum water level is over and the level shows a decreasing trend, the 30% feed control can be taken into service by opening isolating valves of FCV 003A, Control valve FCV 003A can be positioned as required manually to maintain drum level 4. Before charging the HP steam line, ensure steam line drain valves (GT 668, GL731) are open to drain out the condensate and close the drain line valve. Before charging HP steam line ensure that the turbine inlet valve is closed. 5. Once HP steam line is charged, throttle HP start up vent valve to follow HP steam pressurisation curve & ensure that sufcient steam is getting passed through Reheater. Pass entire HP steam through reheat and ensure that steam temperature at cold reheat is maintained below 380 Deg. C by operating PCH 0101 (HP to IP bypass valve) in auto / manual mode, as required. 6. Ensure reheat SH is drained properly for water / condensate before charging by operating motorised drain valve M038C for Reheater-2 to be operated. These valve is to be closed as soon as condensate/ water is drained out completely & steam start coming through it (max for 5 min). Ensure that drained water led to blow down tank. 7. Control the steam temperature at outlet of reheat using attemperator control valve

TCV 068A in auto / Manual mode, as per requirement of steam turbine. 8. Vent the hot reheat steam to atmosphere through Start up vent valve (Valve tag will be added later ) provided on Hot Reheat line till condenser is made ready. Once the Condenser is available to dump the hot reheat steam , line up the IP - LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 and start dumping hot reheat steam to condenser. Once the steam ow through IP - LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 to the condenser is established slowly close the start up vent valve by looking in to the steam pressure at reheater out let and allow entire hot reheat steam to go to Condenser. Place the IP - LP bypass PRDS PCH0101 in auto mode. Steam comes out from Reheat Module 2 is termed as Hot reheat steam. 9. Keep watch on Reheat 2 metal temperature for proper cooling.Caution: To safeguard the Reheater Tubes, it is essential to maintain positive steam ow either by venting steam through start up vent valve provided on hot reheat steam line or by dumping the steam directly to Condenser when it is operational. 10. Now allow HP steam to pressurize as per pressuring curve by controlling start up vent valves opening. Once the HP steam pressure reaches near about 23 bar put the HP by pass PRDS ( PCH 0101) to Reheat in auto mode with 25 bar set point. 11. PSV 302 on cold reheat & PSV 072 on hot reheat line safeguard the reheat SH from high pressure. 12. Continue the operation till HP turbine is put in operation and ensure sufcient steam passed to cold heat line. 3.8.1.1 Charging IP steam to reheat 1. Now the cold reheat line gets HP steam from HP section through PRDS valve PCH 0101 and IP section is getting pressurised as per the start up curve maintaining steam venting to atmosphere through IP start up vent valve PCV063. 2. Open HP to IP bypass valve for leading CRH (Cold Reheat) ow through Reheater. Keep HP start up vent valve throttled to follow HP pressurization curve at the same time ensure positive steam ow through Reheater. once the IP steam pressure reaches to 5 bar or above CRH steam pressure (0.5 bar above RH pressure), synchronize the IP main steam pressure with cold reheat pressure (open PCV

Section C

79

Operation & Maintenance Manual

129 gradually & introduce steam to CRH. This pressure matching can be done by positioning start up vent valves as per the requirement on HP line PCV028 & on IP line PCV063. NRV 254 in the IP main steam line shall take care of reverse ow of HP steam to IP section. Once IP section working pressure @ 24.3 bar is reached put PCV 129 in auto mode with set pt of 24.3 Bar. 3. Keep watch on ue gas temperature at IP SH inlet. Once the HP steam & HRH steam quality is achieved as per requirement , charge the steam to turbine. After rolling the turbine, once the cold RH steam starts HP turbine HP steam bypass valve closes accordingly in auto mode and closes fully once full-edged cold reheat steam ow is established from turbine. Further loading of HRSG can be done by increasing load on GT as per load requirement. Loading is done without ring the burners, which is called unred mode of HRSG operation. Boiler steam generation is limited depending upon the GT load or the exhaust gas ow rate and temperature (heat input to HRSG).

point. However the deaerator pressure will be maintained by controlling LP start up vent valve as per LP pressurising curve. CPH can be charged when once the HRSG start up stabilised and loaded. Once, the boiler is loaded comfortably the ow through CPH can be modulated on observing the deaerator pressure / temperature. Flow through CPH is adjusted in such a way that the difference between Deaerator temperature and CPH outlet water temperature is around 15 Deg C. Condensate is fed to CPH at around 57 Deg C & CPH heats it up to 137 Deg C. Once the CPH is charged start the CPH water circulation pump and put the TCV 108 in auto mode with a set point to maintain the ue gas temperature to stack. During cold start up keep the circulation pump in stop condition. Emergency action HRSG TRIP Close the MSSV and boxup the HP,IP & LP section at prevailing condition. Take out CPH from line by modulating the 3 way valve TCV- 102. Slowly bypass the CPH by closing inlet and outlet valve. The CPH bypass valve GT 314 should be open so that the condensate bypasses the CPH. The CPH can be taken out of line.

3.9 Charging & Operation of CPH


CPH charging can be considered as the last most activity in Start up procedure of entire HRSG. During initial water ll up, drain line common isolation valve GT603 & GT 604 will be closed and common vent valve GT 609 shall be kept opened as long as air is purged out completely & then it will be closed. Other Manual valves in the system shall be kept locked open except for maintenance. During cold start up of HRSG, Condensate preheater (CPH) will be kept bypassed completely. This is to avoid steaming in CPH , during transient period of start up due to high gas temperature at CPH inlet there is always chance of steam generation in CPH . Bypassing CPH will also help to keep the deaerator pressure / temperature rise under control. Deaerator temperature will be high during start up and at lower loads which will lead to more venting of steam. Admitting the DM water/Condensate at ambient temperature (condensate return temp.) directly into the deaerator through the CPH bypass, will reduce the venting steam quantity. Deaerator pressure control valve will kept in auto mode during start up with pressure set

3.10 Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains Parallel HRSG to the Plant Steam Mains
Paralleling HRSG to the steam mains of the plant is an important operation to be carefully done without affecting the temperature of steam in the plant. The pre requisites for this operation are: Building the steam pressure in HRSG to a pressure slightly more than plant steam pressure. This is controlled by modulating the Start up vent valve and if required modulating the GT load. Take into account the permissible rate of drum pressure increase to position the vent valves. Building the steam temperature (Alternately one can settle for a lower steam temperature initially if it would not cause any problems down stream. To compensate for temperature difference increase temperature of other boiler connected to header).

Section C

80

Operation & Maintenance Manual

With the build up of required steam pressure and temperature in HRSG, the main steam stop valve can be opened When the HP Steam Pressure reaches the pressure of 5 Bar(a). Initiate an open command for HP Main steam stop valve and observe Valve [M-029B] opens; The pressure differential across MSSV [M-029A] starts decreasing and when P at MSSV <5 bar (a) Valve [M-029A] opens and when open feed back is received, -Valve [M-029B] (MSSV by-pass) close With the opening of valve [M-029A] , HRSG is ready for supply of HP steam to the plant. Similarly for LP section Initiate an open command for LP Main steam stop valve and observe Valve [092B] opens; The pressure differential across MSSV [M-092A] starts decreasing and when P at MSSV <5 bar (a) Valve [M-092A] opens and when open feed back is received, -Valve [M-092B] (MSSV by-pass) close With the opening of valve [M-092A] , HRSG is ready for supply of LP steam to the plant. Reduce the opening of the start up vent valve to about 15%. Attemperator can be taken in service if Superheater outlet temperature is exceeding rated value. Observe steam temperatures after the superheater of individual sections. Observe the feed control station. When output signal from Level Indicating Controller exceeds 65%, full load control station comes into service .

permissible heat input rates so as to obtain quickly the required HP steam pressure and temperature . In event of GT trip rst & foremost important duty of operator is to close all steam outlets, close chimney inlet isolation damper & maintain drum water level as recommended. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out, the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available except for few vent valves these valves can be quickly veried as per the below mentioned list. Hot restart requires operations to be done fast, using the maximum permissible heat input rates so as to obtain quickly the required HP/IP section steam pressure and temperatures. The HRSG hot restart sequence will comprise of various operations as detailed below: The HRSG hot restart sequence will comprise of various DCS and manual operations as detailed below 1. Start GT as per GT start up cycle. During Hot start up maintained the GT at 15 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained at 510 Deg C. 2. During hot start up of HRSG, to avoid superheater & reheater running dry do not open start up vent valves of HP section(PCV028) & IP section(PCV129). Open HP main steam stop valve & pass 100% HP steam generated through cold & hot reheat & dump into condenser by opening IP bypass valve (PCH0101). Similarly dump the LP steam to condenser through LP bypass valve (PCH0101). 3. Bypass CPH from water side to avoid steaming during start up. 4. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688), Reheater Drain Header (GT650), IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624) are open.During Hot start up of boiler super heater & atteperator motorized drain valve need to be opened for say 1 min for removal of condensate then leave the following valves crack open till respective section superheater outlet temperature reaches or 100% condensate is drained out. Following are the valves need to be operated HP Section HP superheater 2 & 3 header motorised drain valve M038B & F HP Superheater 1 motorised drain valve M038D/H

Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG

Hot Start up of HRSG Restarting the HRSG immediately after a trip out, when the HRSG is still hot, with steam pressure not less than 40bar (a) is termed as a hot restart. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out, the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available and can be quickly veried by visual inspection. Hot restart requires operations to be done fast, using the maximum

Section C

81

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Reheater Section Reheater 1 & 2 motorised drain valve M038C, Reheater 2 drain valves FVM D201 IP & LP Section IP superheater motorised drain valve M076 LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 Ensure following vent valves are Closed HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B IP Drum vent valve M061 5. Ensure that GT is maintained at 15% load & exhaust temperature is maintained at 510 Deg C. 6. Ensure that during hot start-up of HRSG ue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG is maintained at 510 Deg C. Monitor the metal temperature of super heaters (HPSH3 < 612 Deg. C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611 Deg. C). The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the

drum starts gradually build up. The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per hot start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress. 7. After having stabilised the positive steam ow through superheater & reheater, increase GT load gradually to pressurise the HRSG. 8. During start up & continuous operation Monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612 Deg. C , & Reheat RH 2 < 611 Deg. C for ensuring cooling. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point please stop gas ow to HRSG. 9. Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A 037 D < 321 Deg. C. 10. Monitor the water level in the drum. There may be chance of swelling of water level in the drum. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed 11. Once the HRSG operation is stabilised & steam parameters suitable for STG operation is reached supply steam to STG.

Section C

82

Operation & Maintenance Manual

HRSG Hot Start-Up Curve for HP section Please refer section E Curves The pressurisation curve for hot start up for HP section is illustrated above. The hot start up curve

of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.

Section C

83

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Warm Start up of HRSG Restarting of a hot HRSG within few hours time after a trip or stoppage, with the HRSG steam pressure of not less than 10-kg/cm (g) is termed as a warm start . In event of GT trip rst & foremost important duty of operator is to close all steam outlets, close chimney inlet isolation damper & maintain drum water level as recommended. As the HRSG was in service till the trip out, the required valve line up (as was stated for cold start up) will be available except for few vent valves these valves can be quickly veried as per the below mentioned list. The HRSG warm restart sequence will comprise of various operations as detailed below 1. Start GT as per GT start up cycle. During warm start up maintained the GT on Reserve spinning mode with 7 % load & ensure that the GT exhaust temperature is maintained at 430 Deg C. 2. During warm start up of HRSG, to avoid superheater & reheater running dry do not open start up vent valves of HP section(PCV028) & IP section(PCV129). Open HP main steam stop valve & pass 100% HP steam generated through cold & hot reheat & dump into condenser by opening IP bypass valve (PCH0101). Similarly dump the LP steam to condenser through LP bypass valve (PCH0101). 3. In case if condenser is not ready to dump the steam then follow the procedure as mentioned in cold start up procedure for steam venting & pressurisation. 4. Bypass CPH from water side to avoid steaming during start up. 5. Ensure that drain valves to Blow down Tank of HP SH Drain header (GT688), Reheater Drain Header (GT650), IP RHS Drain Header (GT 622) & IP LHS side header (GT 624) are open.During warm start up of boiler super heater & attemperator motorized drain valve need to be opened for say 1 min for removal of condensate then leave the following valves crack open till respective section superheater outlet temperature reaches or 100% condensate is drained out. Following are the valves need to be operated HP Section HP superheater 2 & 3 header motorised drain valve M038B & F

HP Superheater 1 motorised drain valve M038D/H Reheater Section Reheater 1 & 2 motorised drain valve M038C, Reheater 2 drain valves FVM D201 IP & LP Section IP superheater motorised drain valve M076 LP superheater motorised drain valve M098 Ensure following vent valves are Closed HP Drum vent valve M005A & M005B IP Drum vent valve M061 6. Ensure that GT is maintained at 7% reserve spinning & exhaust temperature is maintained at 430 Deg C. 7. Ensure that during warm start-up of HRSG ue gas temperature at the inlet of HRSG ia maintained at 430 Deg C. Monitor the metal temperature of supper heaters (HPSH3 < 612 Deg.C) & re-heater (RH 2 < 611 Deg. C). The heat transfer commences and the water in the HRSG gets slowly converted to steam as a result pressure of steam in the drum starts gradually build up. The saturated steam temperature rise rate (and hence rate of rise in metal temperature) is controlled as per warm start-up pressurisation curve to safe guard against impermissible stress. 8. After having stabilised the positive steam ow through superheater & reheater, increase GT load gradually to pressurise the HRSG. 9. During start up & continuous operation Monitor the skin metal temperature of HPSH3 < 612 Deg. C , & Reheat RH 2 < 611 Deg. C for ensuring cooling. If the Skin metal temperature reaches set point please stop gas ow to HRSG. 10. Monitor Drum metal temperatures HP Drum TE 037 A 037 D < 321 Deg. C. 11. Monitor the water level in the drum. There may be chance of swelling of water level in the drum. The operator anticipates this and controls the level by opening the EBD valve. When the swelling in the drum level is over, EBD valve is fully closed 12. Once the HRSG operation is stabilised & steam parameters suitable for STG operation is reached supply steam to STG.

Section C

84

Operation & Maintenance Manual

HRSG Warm Start up Curve for HP section Please refer section E Curves The pressurisation curve for warm start up for HP section is illustrated above. The warm

start up curve of IP & LP section will follow the pressurisation according to the heat input received based on HP section curve.

Section C

85

Operation & Maintenance Manual

HRSG Shutdown

GT Exhaust gas Pressure high at inlet of HRSG.

Shutdown of HRSG can be of two types 1. Planned shutdown for maintenance, inspection, where the operator gets advanced notice. 2. Trip on protection or a stop due to emergency. Suggested action by the operator for the above types of shutdowns are indicated below

HRSG Trip Due to Gas Turbine Trip


In this case the operator action is to shut down the HRSG, if restart of the Gas Turbine will be delayed. Close CBD valve, feed water control station isolation valve after maintaining level in the steam drum. Close Main steam stop valve. HRSG is started when the Gas Turbine comes into service.

5.1 Planned Shutdown


A planned shut down has to be coordinated with other working boilers such that loads reduced from the HRSG are picked up by them without affecting the performance of the plant Reduce to the load to 50% MCR by reducing the GT load. Depending on the GT load restrictions, continue to reduce GT load till the HRSG reaches minimum MCR mode of operation. Also reduce the steam demand from the plant or transfer the steam load to other boilers. Close the Main steam stop valve. Stop the gas turbine. On the working HP dosing pump, charge over to DM water to the pump inlet and close the phosphate solution inlet to the pump. Run the HP dosing pump for about one hour to keep the line clear of phosphate up to the drum. Close CBD valve. Allow the HRSG to cool down naturally. Maintain water level in the drum till the pressure drops to 2-bar (g) At 2 bar (g) pressure (or slightly lower) open the respective section Drum vent valves. If water is to be drained from HRSG, normally it can be done only when the drum pressure drops below 1.25 bar (g)

HRSG Trip Due to Instrument Air Failure


When the HRSG trips due to instrument air failure, exercise extra caution to see that the fail-safe valves do not endanger the boiler. E.g. if feed control valves remain full open, isolating valves before or after the control valves are to be closed; start-up vent valve remain full open, hence close the manual isolation valve. This scenario will likely result into a plant blackout. HRSG to be restarted after restoration & normalising of all services.

HRSG Trip Due to Power Failure


In an extreme case of power failure, HRSG may trip due to tripping of Seal air fans. Instruments and controls may still be available as they are usually powered from UPS (please check the plant philosophy). However the status of availability of instrument air, feed water supply and fuel supply will determine the continuation of HRSG in operation.

Operation In The Event Of STG Trip & HRSG Running Condition


When ever STG trips, while HRSG is in operation, dump the hot reheat steam to condensor through HP, IP/LP bypass PRDS and pass the steam through reheat to cool the reheat. During STG trip & hot start-up ensure that HP to cold reheat bypass PRDS is opened immediately without any delay during this watch the reheat metal temperature.

5.2 HRSG Emergency Trips


Emergency trips can occur in HRSG due to any of the following causes: HP Drum level very Low IP Drum level very Low LP Drum level very Low HP Steam O/L Pressure high-"Hi Hi Pressure Trip In Case of STG Trip and HP Bypass System Valve Not Open

Safe Gaurding the HRSG after a Trip


Upon tripping of steam turbine, entire steam will get dumped to condenser via HP,IP,LP Bypass. In case of failure of bypass valve safety valves provided on respective section steam drum & superheater section will release the steam also start up vent valve shall be open to release the steam in auto mode.

Section C

86

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Continue to supply feed water to the drum to maintain normal level, after closing the CBD and sample line valves. Investigate the cause of the trip from the rst up signals and DCS data acquisition system. If the cause of the trip is known, rectify the cause and opt for restart of HRSG.

to be reduced to a minimum, forced cooling of the HRSG is done. After the shut down of the HRSG, the HP,IP & LP dosing, CBD, EBD and SWAS valves are closed as for natural cooling. Water level in the HP ,IP & LP drum is also maintained between permissible levels till the steam drum pressure falls to 2 bar (a). For 8 hours after the shut down, the HRSG is allowed to cool naturally in the boxed up condition. After 8 hours, access doors on HRSG are opened to allow airow through the HRSG to the stack. De-pressurization of steam in the HRSG is also speeded up by controlled opening of the start up vent valve De-pressurization rate is not to exceed 10kg/cm2 per hour. However forced cooling is not done unless absolutely essential.

6
Aim

Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler

This chapter describes the methods of cooling a shut down HRSG and the steps to be taken to preserve the HRSG to minimize corrosion. System Description HRSG after shut down has to be cooled carefully. It is recommended to cool the HRSG under normal circumstances at the rate of heating. If the cooling rate is accelerated, thermal stresses develop in the thick components such as the steam drum, Economiser, Evaporator, Super Heater headers, attemperator etc., A HRSG is shut down either for keeping it in reserve as a stand by unit or for maintenance and inspection. The purpose of the shut down determines the method of cooling to be adopted

HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks

1. Check for unusual noises. This may be from steam or water leakages. 2. Check for steam or water leaks from valves, connections and ttings. 3. Check for unusual traces of water on oor. 4. 5. Check for air / ue leakage from windbox, HRSG casing and ducting. Walk around the furnace exterior and observe for any hot spots or gas leaks. Check for passing from safety valves at normal operating pressure. Check that the drain lines and drip pans are not plugged.

6.1 Natural Cooling


The HRSG after a shut down is allowed to cool slowly in a boxed up condition. The following valves are also closed. HP,IP & LP dosing to Drum CBD /EBD valve of all HP ,IP & LP Drum Sample line to HRSG water/saturated steam / SH steams to Swas The HRSG cools slowly, loosing its heat by radiation to the environment. Till the HP ,IP & LP steam drum pressure drops to 2-bar (g), permissible water level is maintained in the drum (+150mm to 250mm) by intermittent feeding. After the steam drum pressure falls below 2-bar (g) maintaining water level in the drum is not essential. When the steam drum pressure is less than 2-bar (a) , the access doors in the HRSG are kept open to create a natural draught through the HRSG to the chimney. HRSG cools to an accessible level in about three-four days.

6.

7. Check to see that proper water level is being shown by the direct water level gauge. Check for water or steam leak from ports or drain connections, which will cause a false water level in the gauge glass. Inspect the glass for discoloration or fouling. 8. Check for expansion. any obstruction for thermal

8
Dos

Dos and Donts For HRSG Operation

1. Maintain all instruments in good working condition. 2. All equipment interlocks should always be in line. 3. Maintain normal water level in steam drum. 4. Maintain water quality as per the recommended limits. A table showing the

6.2 Forced Cooling


If the HRSG has to be made available for inspection or repair and the shut down time has

Section C

87

Operation & Maintenance Manual

DM water & drum water quality is included at the end of this section . 5. Pressure raising from cold start must be done as per the cold start up curve. 6. All the duct joints must be leak proof. 7. Use proper lubricant and maintain the schedule as recommended by the manufacturers. 8. Operate the HRSG within the recommended operation limits . 9. HRSG, piping, insulated. ducts must be properly

17. In case of power failure, close the steam stop valve. 18. If the water level goes up above the limits operate the emergency blowdown valve immediately and maintain the water level to normal . 19. Maintain the feedwater temperature at economizer inlet and ue gas temperature at economizer outlet as recommended . 20. Use genuine spares. 21. HRSG surroundings and equipments must be properly illuminated. Donts 1. Dont bypass any instruments and safety interlocks 2. Dont use raw water as HRSG feedwater 3. Dont operate the operation limits. HRSG beyond the

10. Servicing of equipment should be done as per the manufacturers schedule . 11. Maintain proper regularly. operation log sheets

12. Maintain the instrument air free from moisture and oily matters and the pressure as recommended . 13. Carry out regular cleaning of direct water level gauge glasses of HRSG drum. 14. Use proper valve gland packing to avoid leakage . 15. Use proper gaskets for ange joints . 16. Operate the blowdown recommendation. valves as per

4. Dont leave the furnace door open while the HRSG is in operation 5. Dont mix up different lubricants 6. Dont alter the equipment maintenance schedule 7. Dont leave the instrument control panel unattended 8. Dont allow unauthorized persons to operate the HRSG and associated equipments

Section C

88

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Boiler Log Sheet

5. HRSG trips with reasons and time 6. HRSG running hours. 7. HRSG shut down details (forced or planned, outage hours, jobs carried out, etc.,) Sample log sheet is enclosed.

It is suggested to record the HRSG parameters during startup and normal operation. Observed abnormalities (if any) recorded can be used for analysis, troubleshooting and maintenance purposes. 1. Log sheet to be lled once in every hour by the operating staff. 2. Feedwater, HRSG water quality are also to be noted once in four hours 3. Total steam production of a day to be noted. 4. Logbook should furnish the details about SL. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HP PARAMETER GT LOAD DRUM LEVEL UNIT MW mmWC mmWC mmWC Bar (a) Bar (a) Bar (a) TPH TPH TPH

9.1 Log Sheet for HRSG


Date: Shift:

TIME

TIME

TIME

IP DRUM LEVEL LP DRUM LEVEL

HP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE IP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE LP MAIN STEAM PRESSURE HP IP LP STEAM FLOW STEAM FLOW STEAM FLOW

11

FEED WATER PRESSURE AT HP CONTROL STATION INLET FEED WATER PRESSURE AT IP CONTROL STATION INLET FEED WATER PRESSURE AT LP CONTROL STATION INLET CONDENSATE TEMP.BEFORE CPH

Bar (a)

12

Bar (a)

13

Bar (a)

14

DEG C

Section C

89

Operation & Maintenance Manual

SL. NO

PARAMETER CONDENSATE TEMPERATURE AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FEED WATER TEMP. AT HP ECO I INLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT HP ECO 1 OUTLET FEEDWATER TEMP. AT HP ECO 2 OUTLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT HP ECO 3 OUTLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT IP ECONOMIZER INLET FEED WATER TEMP. AT IP ECONOMIZER OUTLET FLUE GAS TEMP. AT DD OUTLET FLUE GAS TEMP. AT HP SUPERHEATER 3 FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER REHEATER FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER HP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER HP ECONOMIZER 3 FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER IP ECONOMIZER FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER LP EVAPORATOR

UNIT

TIME

TIME

TIME

15

DEG C

16

DEG C

17

DEG C

18

DEG C

19

DEG C

20

DEG C

21

DEG C

22

DEG C

23

DEG C

24

DEG C

25

DEG C

26

DEG C

27

DEG C

28

DEG C

Section C

90

Operation & Maintenance Manual

SL. NO

PARAMETER FLUE GAS TEMP. AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FLUE GAS PR. AT DD OUTLET FLUE GAS PRESSURE AT HP SUPERHEATER 3 FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER REHEATER FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER HP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER HP ECONOMIZER 3 FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER IP ECONOMIZER FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER LP EVAPORATOR FLUE GAS PRESSURE AFTER CONDENSATE PRE-HEATER FLUE GAS TEMP. AT STACK

UNIT

TIME

TIME

TIME

29

DEG C

30

mmWC

31

mmWC

32

mmWC

33

mmWC

34

mmWC

35

mmWC

36

mmWC

37

mmWC

38

DEG C

Section C

91

Operation & Maintenance Manual

SL. NO

PARAMETER Feed Water Analysis pH Conductivity

UNIT

TIME

TIME

TIME

39

TDS Silica Hardness Oxygen Drum Water Analysis: pH TDS Alkalinity as CaCo3 Silica Phosphate Po4 as

40

Sulphite as SO3 Sat. & Sh Steam Analysis: pH 41 Conductivity TDS Silica Operator Name: Signature: Date:

Section C

92

Operation & Maintenance Manual

10 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures


10.1 Emergency Procedures
Low Water Level Causes 1. Feedwater control system failure. 2. BFP failure 3. Tube leak Action Compare control room indication with gauge glass level. If the water level falls out of sight due to momentary failure of water supply system, due to negligence of the operator, due to momentary uctuations that might occur with extraordinary changes in load, appropriate action should be taken at once to trip the fuel. Any decision to continue to operate, even if only for a short time at a reduced rating would have to be made by someone in authority who is thoroughly familiar with the circumstances that led to the emergency and positively certain that the water level can be restored immediately without damaging the boiler. In the absence of such a decision 1. Shut off the main steam stop valve . Simultaneously, if feedwater has become available and the operator is assured that no pressure part has been damaged 1. Take the feedwater control system into manual mode 2. Allow the water ow to boiler gradually to normal water level. (Do not hurry up which may lead to sudden quenching and tube leak) if pressure part damage is suspected 3. Reduce the steam pressure gradually 4. Open the drum air vent when the pressure drops below 2 kg/cm 5. Cool the boiler so as to examine the extent of damage 6. Drain the boiler after cooling 7. If any tube rupture and bulging is observed rectify the same 8. If any tube leakage were observed rectify / repair the leaking tubes and after the repairs conduct hydrotest 9. Determine the cause of low water High Water Level Causes

1. Feedwater control malfunction 2. Operator error 3. Instrument air supply failure Action 1. Take the drum level control loop into manual mode 2. Reduce the water level immediately by operating the intermittent blow down to maintain the drum level 3. Reduce the necessary steam discharge rate, if

4. If instrument air supply failure, then open the by manual operated pass valve to maintained the drum level Boiler Explosion Causes 1. In-sufcient purging of furnace With the mixture of unburned fuel with air in explosive proportions and the application of heat sufcient enough to raise the temperature of the mixture to ignition point. Action 1. Analyse the reasons for explosion and rectify the system 2. Evacuate or clean the furnace to the possible extend Conditions for Boiler Restart after Furnace Explosion After a case of furnace/ boiler explosion, the restart of the boiler has to be carried out only after a thorough and detailed investigation & understanding of the cause of explosion. Following necessary actions have to be completed to prevent the repeat incidence of explosion and before restart of the boiler. Find out the root cause for the explosion and rectify the same. 1. Inspect the furnace for any signs of bulging or damage to the tubes. 2. Inspect the expansion bellows in the air and ue ducts for damages 3. Inspect the economizer casing for damages 4. Assess the damage if any and rectify the same. 5. Carry out the hydro test of the boiler. In the event of a failure of the hydro test, identify the tubes that have failed and proceed to rectify

Section C

93

Operation & Maintenance Manual

the same as explained in the maintenance section.

Section C

94

Operation & Maintenance Manual

10.2 Alarms and Trips


Note 1. These Alarm and Interlock values can be revised at the time of commissioning of the boiler. The nal revised alarms and interlocks list shall be submitted post commissioning of the boiler.

excessive temperature differentials along the drum wall. The water is then shut-off and the HRSG is allowed to cool.

10.4 Tube Failures


Operating the boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. Steam or water escaping from a small leak at pressure can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. Large leaks can be dangerous. The boiler water may be lost, the ignition may be lost and boiler casing can get damaged. Small leaks can sometime be detected by the loss of water in the cycle or system. A loss of boiler water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak. If a leak is suspected the boiler should be shut down as soon as possible by following the normal shutdown procedure. After the exact location of the leak or leaks is located, the leaks may be repaired by replacing the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of tube, conforming to relevant ASME code. An investigation of the tube failure is very important so that the condition causing the tube failure can be eliminated and future failures can be prevented. This investigation should include a careful visual inspection of the failed tube and in some cases a lab analysis. It is recommended that every effort be made to nd the cause of tube failures before operation is resumed.

10.3 Operational Precautions for Safety


Operating the HRSG with low feedwater temperature will result in corrosion of economizer coils. The raising and lowering of steam parameters should be restricted to the value given in the starting diagram. Exceeding these values will result in reduced fatigue life of pressure parts. In case of tube failure, which can be identied by hearing the noise in the HRSG gallery and increase in draught pressure, ue gas and steam temperature, the HRSG should be shutdown at the earliest by regular procedure for maintenance work. Otherwise large number of surrounding tubes may fail due to steam erosion and impingement. Boiler salt in the wet steam will accelerate corrosion. Always use deaerated de-mineralized water for boiler feeding. Carryover of salt in steam occurs either due to mechanical or vapor carryover from steam drum. Efcient drum internals can only reduce mechanical carry over. Silica is always carried over in vaporous form. Continuous monitoring of sodium and silica in boiler water and steam is desirable. Before operating a HRSG, ensure complete knowledge of water chemistry. Whenever HRSG is started after a shutdown of more than 3 days, check all safety interlocks before HRSG start up for proper functioning. The steam drum should normally be lled up to the point when water is showing in the bottom part of the gauge glass. This is to allow for the swell on heating and to reduce any blowing down resulting from this cause to a minimum. Once the HRSG is boxed up, the water level in the steam drum must be raised to the very top of the drum. Filling the drum like this will prevent

10.5 Safety in Boiler House


It is expected that the nal user will evolve a comprehensive safety code for all operations in the plant. A few suggestions are listed below which can form part of the plant safety code for the HRSG. The boiler operation and maintenance staff must recognize hazards of high pressure, high temperature steam and water . Furnace explosion is also possible if boiler operating instructions are not followed or if the protections are bypassed. Before startup of a HRSG, ensure that all maintenance personnel, tools, scaffolding etc. have been withdrawn from the HRSG. (Steam Drum, gas ducts, stack etc.) Ensure that all manholes, peepholes, inspection doors have been properly closed and pad locked.

Section C

95

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Do not attempt to open the observation ports in a working HRSG without observing proper safety procedure. Use a full face mask and tinted glass for safety For personal safety in handling hot valves, piping, oil guns etc. wear protective gloves while working around the HRSG. Never enter drums, ducts, furnace etc., until the HRSG has been shut down and cooled. The Natural gas, steam and water valves should be checked closed and tagged. The conned spaces where you are entering have to be cooled, ventilated and assured safe for human entry. When you need illumination for inspection, only use low voltage extension cords with low voltage bulbs with the cords properly earthed. The power supply be from an earth leak circuit breaker (ELCB)

Before entering through gates and dampers, ensure that their drive mechanism have been locked. Before removing manholes or anges in drum or pipeline, ensure that the drum/line has been isolated and drained. Do not use toxic uids like CTC for cleaning in a conned space without adequate ventilation. Install and strictly follow a system of permits and tagging for any maintenance or inspection work to be done by any person in the boiler house. Operators trained in Fire ghting, First aid, handling electric shocks etc may save lives and property in an emergency.

11 Trouble Shooting Chart


The following chart is to be used for solving problems arising during operation.

Section C

96

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Indication

Probable Source

Probable Cause

Repair method & Preventive Measures Remove HRSG from service at rst convenient time. Hydrostatic test to be done to locate leak. Repair by welding or splicing as indicated and as approved by insurance or State Inspection. Determine cause of failure and correct it. Operation at normal loads should put chemical back in solution. The same as above plus tubes re-rolling.

Unable to maintain HRSG water concentration

Tube Leak Hideout

Slight leakage from pitting or cracking of tube or tube seat leak.

Sound of steam blowing in furnace or seeing visible steam from the stack.

Tube leak

Substantial leak from tube/tubes. Over-heating as from scale or tube seat leakage.

Steam explosion in furnace followed by inability to maintain water level.

Tube rupture

Failure of tube from low water, tube blockage or erosion of exterior metal surface.

Remove HRSG from the line immediately. Inspect or determine whether tube splicing or wholesale tube replacement is necessary. Check for bafe leaks in steam drum when out of service, or boiler water contamination. Check of degasied steam sample will indicate if CO2 or NH3 is high Check excess air at furnace HRSG outlet, and correct airow if required

High conductivity

Solids carry over in the steam or high CO2 or NH3 in HRSG water

High boiler water concentrations, excessive water level uctuation drum bafe leakage or deposits on scrubbers

High gas temperature

High excess air

Improper control /adjustment of airow. High boiler concentrations, extreme load swings, varying supply pressure or control loop adjustment

Excessive water level uctuation

Water load or control conditions

Correct condition leading to the problem

Section C

97

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Indication

Probable Source

Probable Cause

Repair method & Preventive Measures Severity of bowing will determine extent of tube replacement. Internal scale will call for internal cleaning. If low water is indicated a thorough inspection for drum damage and tube seat leakage must be made. Take steps to prevent recurrence or low water condition Repair by retubing or welding in tube section or by heating and driving back blister depending upon insurance carrier or State Inspectors approval. Clean internally by turbining or acid cleaning. Depth and extent of pitting determines need and extent of tube replacement. Extensive drum pitting can be welded but is subject to approval by either the manufacturer & insurance carrier or State. Source of oxygen must be located and eliminated

Bowed water wall generating tubes

Overheating

Internal deposit or low water. Usually internal deposits result in tubes bowing away from the furnace & low water /starve results bowing toward the furnace.

Tube blisters

Localised overheating

Internal deposit

Internal pitting sharp edged and covered with barnacles in drum or tubes.

Corrosion

Oxygen in Boiler water

Internal loss of metal not sharply dened and accompanied by black iron oxide (Fe 3 O4 )

Overheating resulting in breakdown of water into H & O2 Corrosion Cause is usually from or sludge letdown pluggage .

Individual inspection will determine extent or replacement, internal cleaning and correction of water conditions are required

Section C

98

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Indication

Probable Source

Probable Cause

Repair method & Preventive Measures Extent of repair must be determined by individual inspection. In emergency tubes out of high heat zone can be plugged, being sure they are cut to vent and to prevent differential expansion with adjacent tubes. Proper external cleaning can prevent out of service corrosion. Locate and eliminate source of moisture. If dew point is from in -service corrosion, take steps to raise metal temperature When accessible and with insurance or State approval, the cracks can be ground out and welded, otherwise splice in section or replace tube. Locate & eliminate source of expansion difculty by inspection or hot to cold expansion measurements. Using tube spacers can stop vibration. Where accessible and with insurance or State approval pad weld or splice in a tube section. Eliminate channeling of steam from soot blowers or use tube shields Extent of metal loss will determine extent of tube or tube section replacement. Inspection or a thermocouple installation will determine cause of overheating

External pitting

Corrosion

From corrosive ash deposit and moisture either from dew point or external source such as leaking soot blowing tube.

Tube cracking

Mechanical stress or a combination of stress corrosion or tube variation.

Interference with expansion or differential expansion with adjacent parts to give mechanical stress or this stress plus corrosion attack. Vibration set up by turbulent gas ow characteristics over tubes.

External metal loss. Highly polished area

Erosion

Mechanical abrasion from soot blower action.

External metal loss. Oxidized re scale area.

Overheating

Prolonged or repeated overheating.

Section C

99

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section D
Topics Covered in this Chapter Section Overview Welding Procedure Specications (WPS) Boiler Preservation Procedure Tube Failures General Principal of Weld Repairs Failure Reporting Format Water Chemistry Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning

recommended spares. The true objective of the maintenance program can only be realized, if a master plan of maintenance of all the components is prepared as per vendor instructions. Full benets of maintenance can be obtained only if proper parts are used. Mandatory spare part list covers most of the spares required. It may be found that in the rst two years of operation due to variations of site conditions, some additional spares not included are also required. Action has to be initiated to procure such spares. Some equipment have 100% reserve standby units. (Feedwater pumps etc.). Maintenance of such equipments can be organized even when the boiler is in service, although some minimum risk is involved. Equipment such as igniters, scanners have replacement spares which can be utilized when the working equipment are to be maintained without affecting the boiler operation. The prepared master plan for maintenance should be periodically reviewed during the rst three years of the boiler operation. It may be found that due to varying site conditions, the frequencies and quantum of work scheduled as per vendor manuals are either too much or too less. Based on site experience, the frequencies and work schedules can be modied. A scientic method of preparation of the preventive maintenance schedules is to make them condition based. In condition based maintenance, the equipment and components of the plant are inspected daily, weekly monthly etc., as per a suggested schedule by the local operators and deteriorating conditions if any observed are reported. Suggested inspection program is given in this section. Based on operator reports of such inspection, maintenance works are planned for the next available planned shut down. Mandatory inspections prescribed by the vendors are also taken care of, irrespective of the equipment condition. 1.1.2Schedule of Inspections for Condition Based Maintenance The schedule of daily, weekly and monthly inspections given in the following pages do not require a boiler shutdown and in fact can only be done when the boiler is in service. Three and six monthly inspections are done utilizing an available planned shutdown approximately in the specied time period. Objective of these inspections is to ensure that The components are in trouble free condition

Section Overview

This section describes the various maintenance practices, overhauling, and preservation techniques. Also discussed are failures and repair techniques

1.1 Recommended Maintenance Practices


Systematic maintenance is essential to keep the boiler and its auxiliaries in good condition and to obtain reliable operation of the boiler with high availability and plant load factor. Effective maintenance aims at timely inspection of parts to repair or replace defective components and to prevent their failure when the boiler is in service. Maintenance can be classied as Preventive maintenance mostly condition based Annual Boiler overhauls to clean and inspect pressure parts. The shutdown period of the overhaul is also utilized to attend to systems and parts which cannot be attended during short shutdowns or when the boiler is in operation

The vendor manuals of the fans, motors, control valves with their positioners and actuators, instruments and controls, power cylinders etc., prescribe certain minimum maintenance requirements which are to be carried out in one of the above two maintenance categories. 1.1.1Preventive Maintenance The objective of the preventive maintenance program is to obtain trouble free service from the component till the next maintenance. Vendor manuals for various equipments suggest inspection periods, checks to be done and

Section D

100

Operation & Maintenance Manual

To carry out any minor repairs or adjustments which can be done with the boiler in service To plan for repair of such items, which cannot be attended when the boiler is in service, during the next available shutdown To collect a database to determine optimum service life of the systems and components before maintenance is required The schedule can be expanded, curtailed or modied based on experience in the rst two years of operation. EQUIPMENT 1. Local level gauge on steam drum CHECK

Daily Checks
To be done once a day by the local operator during his walkdown checks. Such walkdown checks are to be encouraged to be done in each shift by the operators. Only those operational checks that require maintenance work for correction have been included.

WORK TO BE DONE

Check illumination is proper. Leaking valve glands. Leaking ports. Blurred level. Replace fused bulbs Isolate level gauges and tighten leaking glands Replace leaking ports Steam wash mica as suggested by vendor (Not to be done too frequently)

2. Comparison of levels indicated by local level gauge with that of remote level indicators in the control room

Compare the levels after verifying there are no leaks from valves, glands etc., of the level gauge and indicators. Report discrepancies. Such spots are indicative of valve leaks, Instrument tapping leaks, boiler tube leaks etc., Trace the source of leak.

If there are serious discrepancies, calibration of the remote level indicators has to be planned immediately. Maintenance to be planned to eliminate the source either immediately or during next planned shut down (depending on the source and quantity of leak and accessibility for maintenance) If higher than normal bearing temperatures are noticed check for cause-proper oil level / oil circulation, correct grade and quality of oil, abnormal sound or vibration. If bearing temperatures are very high, start the reserve equipment (if avl.) and plan for a maintenance check.

3. Traces of water on boiler cladding etc.

4. Fans & drive motors.

Check bearing temperatures Check for vibration levels.

Section D

101

Operation & Maintenance Manual

EQUIPMENT 5. Drum safety valves.

CHECK Check for passing of safety valves (noise or wisp of steam through silencer)

WORK TO BE DONE Hand pop the affected safety valve one or two times to clear any dirt sticking to the valve seats. Lightly tap on the stem of the safety valves. If these measures do not succeed, request for check of the safety valve during next planned shutdown.

6. Purity of Instrument air

Check by visual observation that the instrument air is oil and moisture free If there is a feel by visual inspection, Oil and moisture content can also be checked by laboratory examination as per standards

Oil and moisture in the instrument air is likely to clog the positioners of pneumatic controllers / solenoids and make their operation sluggish or unreliable. Open drain valves of air-receivers for short time to drain condensate if any. If these measures are not successful, inform the Maintenance Group

7. Scanner cooling fan suction-damper linkages and power cylinders.

Check for their proper operation

Sluggish operation of fan suction damper may be due to stuck linkage, stuck damper, faulty power cylinder, and faulty positioners. Check for possible cause. Maintenance works have to be planned. Tighten the gland nuts. If the leakage not getting arrested, plan for maintenance during shut down. Tighten the bolts. If the gasket failed then plan for the maintenance during shut down.

8. Steam or water leakages from valves and from ange joints

Loose valve gland Loosened bolts of ange joint and / or failed gasket

9. Boiler cladding, air duct or ue gas duct

Check for hot spots

Hot spots may be due to leakage of ue gas or hot air. Source of leakage has to be located after selective removal of insulation (to be planned for the next planned shut down)

Section D

102

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Monthly Checks
EQUIPMENT CHECK WORK TO BE DONE By monthly recording of data, establish a database for deciding the overhaul time of the equipment. An overhaul once in two or three years may be adequate. Such a database will help in deciding the time frame. Sharp increase in vibration levels bearing temperatures or sound levels may call for early scheduling of overhauls

1. Fans and blowers.

With a vibration analyzer record vibration and measure bearing temperature. Also note the operating condition of the equipment at the time of the above observations and record them.

Checks Every Six Months


EQUIPMENT CHECK

During a planned shut down of the boiler, the following checks can be done. WORK TO BE DONE

1. Boiler Pre-interlock, purge interlocks, start permissive, boiler trip protection.

Coinciding with a planned shut down of boiler, carry out the checks to identify malfunctioning or sluggish pressure, temperature switches, solenoid operated valves, positioners, proximity switches, actuators etc., Visual check that there are no loose bricks, spalling or cracks Clean UV Scanner cell and check its output as per vendor manual. Check its amplier and ame relay

Plan for maintenance or re-calibration of defective items if any noticed, during the shut down period.

2. Burner refractory work.

If any abnormalities are seen repair works to be planned during next available shut down Replace scanner cells if output is suspect. Adjust amplier ame relay if required.

3. UV Scanner components

Checks Every Year


EQUIPMENT CHECK

(Refer also work listed under Boiler overhaul) WORK TO BE DONE Carry out any maintenance replacement or adjustment needed to secure initial calibration values as per commissioning records

Utilizing the boiler annual shut down for overhaul, re-calibrate 1. Pressure temperature, Flow level, all pressure, temperature, ow, differential pressure controllers level and d/p controllers as per vendor manuals

Section D

103

Operation & Maintenance Manual

EQUIPMENT 2. Pressure gauges, temperature gauges, Pressure/temperature Switches

CHECK Re-calibrate, Verify functioning of pressure/temperature switches as per design

WORK TO BE DONE Repairs or adjustments as necessary Repairs or adjustments as necessary as per vendor manuals to obtain performance as per commissioning records. Verify functioning of proximity switches where provided. Clean lters of air regulators. Check functioning of air regulators. Verify tightness of air connections

3. Positioners, actuators

Verify functioning of positioners and actuators by feeding current inputs to positioners and measuring the air pressure output of the positioners and opening closing of actuators

Section D

104

Operation & Maintenance Manual

1.1.3Boiler Annual Maintenance and Overhaul In addition to the check and inspections listed under preventive maintenance, the boiler requires an annual shut down of about 10 to 15 days for cleaning, inspection ad overhaul of boiler pressure parts. The shut down period is restricted to a minimum by deploying adequate resources. If required, Field Engineering department of TBW can assist the customer in carrying out the boiler overhaul. The annual shutdown is utilized for cleaning and inspection of the pressure parts and to collect data on the wear pattern of boiler, superheater and economizer pressure parts. The shutdown opportunity is also utilized for overhaul of safety valves, regulating and isolating valves and components, which can not be attended when the boiler is in service. (The valve overhauls need not be done every year).

From the time the drum manholes are opened till they are closed after inspection, the area around the drum must be cordoned to restrict entry only to specically authorized personnel The names of persons who are entering the drum for inspection, along with tools they carry must be entered in a register. Persons coming out of the drum after inspection should be asked to account for the material they carried into the drum. This precaution is to prevent accidental dropping of foreign material through the water wall tubes, which may block water circulation through them and can cause tube failures Carry out a preliminary inspection of the drum to check for any deposits on the waterside of the drum Using nylon brushes, the deposits (which are normally soft) are cleaned, collected on trays and disposed off outside the drum. Washing down the deposits to the boiler tubes is not recommended In case of excessive deposits, the chemist is asked to analyze the nature of the deposits. A review of phosphate concentrations and boiler water quality control, (high conductivity) may be made to reduce the deposits in the next year of operation. After cleaning the following examinations are made Examine the boiler drum metal for scale, pitting, corrosion and metal wastage. (Drum thickness is measured at a few selected spots using ultrasonic instruments and compared to design thickness) Inspect fastenings of the bafes and demisters to see that they are intact, without corrosion pitting or holes. Eroded or corroded drum internals to be attended. No welding however is permitted on the drum metal. The demisters can be examined in position. They need not to be dismantled. Reasonable water tightness of the bafes is to be ensured Examine that feedwater pipe is intact with ange connections tight and discharge exit correctly oriented Examine that the continuous blowdown and dosing pipes are not plugged or corroded, their supports are normal, and their holes have been correctly oriented After the inspection, clean the manhole seats and provide new gaskets. After the inspection

Annual Overhaul
Planning Before Overhaul Prepare a list of jobs to be done during the overhaul based on earlier inspection reports and the jobs listed below. Ensure availability of spares required for the proposed jobs. Ensure tools, tackles, scaffolding materials required for the job. Ensure availability of manpower required for the job (Own sources, contract labor etc.) Services of TBW are also available for carrying out annual overhauls and inspections.

Shutdown and Cooling the Boiler


Shutdown the boiler in a planned manner. Cool the boiler. Open all access and inspection doors. Refer to the Section B of this volume for the shutdown procedures.

Inspection After Cooling


Carry out a preliminary inspection after cooling to check cleanliness and any sign of deposition on water wall panels and the need for water wash.

Drums Inspection
Open the access doors at either end of the drums Allow the drum to ventilate for about 8 hours. If necessary two fan coolers can be tted over temporary stands to force air through the drum

Section D

105

Operation & Maintenance Manual

and verifying that all men and material have been removed from the drum, close the manholes and bolt them tight.

damages due pitting, hotspots, dislocation etc. Repaired as necessary.

Inspections in the Furnace


Check the water wall tube panels in the furnace for Evidence of pitting / erosion / corrosion on tube outer surfaces (exposed to the ue gas path) Evidence of overheating (bulging of tubes, blue color of tubes, blisters, disturbed vertical alignment of panels) On suspicion of any abnormalities consult TBW or a metallurgist for advice. Check the duct burner & accessories as per R& V manual & its setting.. Any loose material inside the furnace needs to be cleared. The scaffolding inside the furnace should be removed after such inspection (if any) and manhole door to be closed tightly after ensuring that the refractory blocks is placed in the manhole.

Other Equipment
Overhaul of seal air fans, control valves, actuators etc., is scheduled as per vendor instructions and condition monitoring described under preventive maintenance

Light Up of the Boiler after Maintenance and Overhaul


The pressure-raising rate during the rst light up after the overhaul should be slower than usual giving time for check of equipment and components. Valve ange joints and glands must be checked for absence of leaks and can be re-tightened where necessary when the boiler pressure is less than 5 Kg/cm2. Burner performance has to be veried and its axial position corrected if required. If overhauled, performance of the safety valves must be veried by oating them. The boiler expansions must be veried during pressure raising. A boiler overhaul is considered successful if it enables another twelve months of trouble free boiler operation. 1.1.4Tube Thickness Survey To make a quantitative assessment of wastage of tubes (both internal and external) a tube thickness survey using ultrasonic tube thickness gauges is recommended. For a useful tube thickness survey program measurement location on water wall, super heaters and economizers tubes must be specied and indicated on a drawing. Vulnerable locations are usually chosen. On request, the Field Engineering Department of TBW can establish such a program. The following are the suggested areas for a tube thickness survey Boiler bank, economizer coils, deaerator panel tubes & MUWH.. Tube thickness measurements at the selected locations are made and recorded after water washing and drying, during the rst annual overhaul. The base value is the design thickness of the tubes. Subsequent measurements are made at the same locations, every alternate year. The tube thickness survey provides useful data on corrosion / erosion rates and can alert the owner when serious loss of thickness is noticed.

Safety Valves, Start Up Vent Valves and other Isolating Valves


These valves require regular overhauls, normally once in three years even if condition reports do not indicate any abnormality. Earlier overhauls can be scheduled if condition reports warrant. Overhauls of the valves can be staggered after the rst two years of operation in a manner that certain number of valves are overhauled every year. Overhauls of the valves are as per their vendor manuals enclosed.

Expansion Joints
Examine the expansion joints. Eroded / corroded parts can be patched by welding. When severe erosion is noticed (after several years of service) the expansion joints are to be replaced. Collapse or stretching of the expansion joints is usually due to forces exerted by the connecting ducts. Readjustment of duct supports will solve the problem and will assist the expansion joints to regain their original dimensions.

Insulation and Cladding


Verify insulation as per drawings and correct wherever necessary. Inspect cladding for

Section D

106

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Welding Procedure Specications (WPS)

The pressure part of the boiler is made of several types of steel of varying thickness. Welding is the basic technique used in the fabrication of the boiler. The joints produced by welding should have strength not less than that of the parent metal. In the weld joint, the parent metals should fuse together, without cracks, blowholes, slag inclusions or defects of any kind. The weld joint apart from proving its mechanical strength in tension must also be able to resist bending without cracking. Such requirements can only be met if the welding process used is strictly controlled. ASME (and other organizations) classify materials into categories (P1 P2, P3, P9) as per carbon content and alloying metals (chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum etc.) and specify the procedure to be used for welding materials of the same category or one category with another category. A specication of the materials and shapes adopted by TBW can be obtained on request. The welding procedure distinguishes between welding of thin and thick material. The welding process specication denes the following for each category of welding. Edge preparation (angle, shape) Joint preparation (cleaning, gap) and tagging Joint pre-inspection before welding Pre-heat of the weld joint, if any required (method of pre-heating, temperature method of checking temperature) Root weld (gas welding, TIG or Arc, size of electrode, type of electrode) Radiographic inspection of root weld if required Subsequent runs of welding (TIG, Arc or other methods, size of electrode, type of electrode, number of runs) Post weld heat treatment if any required (temperature, rate of increase of temperature, method of increasing temperature, holding time, rate of cooling) Radio graphic examination of the weld joint, indicating defects if any to be corrected Correction of weld defects Final acceptance of the weld joint The WPS indicates compatible categories of materials that can be welded. The WPS also lays down the type of electrode to be used for each

category of welding. As the electrode deposits materials, the composition of the electrode must be compatible with the material welded and add strength. The coating of the electrode also must meet specic requirements. The WPS must be used not only during fabrication of the boiler, but also when any repair or maintenance works are to be done. TBW has WPS to cover every welding job connected with fabrication of the boiler in the factory and erection of the boiler at site, conforming to IBR requirements. The Field Engineering Department of TBW will be glad to provide a WPS for any site repair weld jobs required for maintenance.

Boiler Preservation Procedure

Introduction Both the gas and waterside of a boiler should be protected against corrosion during out of service periods. It is known that many of the corrosion problems of boiler and auxiliary equipment have their inception during storage. Rusting of tube surfaces, as indicated by the formation of the red hematite (Fe2O3), not only cause a roughened tube surface but also results in attack of parent metal. The advantages of efcient feedwater and boiler water treatment during operation may be lost if the same diligence is not applied to protect heat. Transfer surfaces during idle periods. Protection from corrosion during storage becomes vitally important considering the number of times during the life of a boiler when it and its auxiliary equipment are idle. To minimize the possibility of corrosion, boiler to be placed into storage must be carefully prepared for the idle period and closely watched during the outage. There are two methods available for storing the unit dry storage and wet storage. Although the wet storage procedures is preferred such factors as availability of good quality water, ambient weather conditions, length of storage period, auxiliary supply of heat, etc may dictate that the dry storage procedure is more practical.

3.1 Denitions of Water Quality


Some cleaning procedures, hydrostatic testing and storage require water of higher quality than others. For the purpose of economy and convenience the lowest water quality consistent with requirements is specied in these various procedures. The terms that identify the different

Section D

107

Operation & Maintenance Manual

water qualities along with their denitions are list below: Station service water - Water normally used for drinking, re protection, etc. Softened water - Filtered, sodium zeolite softened water with total hardness less than 1 ppm. Two- bed demineralised water - Water then has been passed through cation and anion ion exchanges in series. Mixed bed demineralised water - Water that has been passed through a mixed bed demineraliser. Water from an evaporator is considered to be of equal quality. Treated demineralised water - Mixed bed demineralised water that has 200 ppm of hydrazine and enough ammonia added to give nal concentration of 10 ppm (or a pH of 10.0). In this procedure, condensate is considered to be treated demineralised water.

operate these heaters to assist in drying the internal boiler surfaces. Install trays (of non-porous construction and capable of passing through the drum manhole) containing the moisture absorbent (silica gel is preferred) into the drums. Insert the trays into the drum being certain that none of the absorbent comes into contact with the metal surface of the drum. To insure against an overow of corrosive liquid after the moisture has been absorbed, the trays should not be more than full of dry absorbent. The amount of absorbent can vary but the recommended minimum is one Kg of absorbent per 1000 Kg per hour steam ow capacity of the unit. 3. Open the isolation valve for nitrogen connection, on the steam drum, close all other vents and drains and pressurize the boiler to 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G with nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen required will vary according to the volume of the unit. 4. With the boiler pressurized, alternately open all boiler drains to purge air from the unit until pressure decays to zero. It may be necessary to repeat this process several times to reduce the amount of oxygen left in the unit to a minimum. The unit should now be stored under 0.3 to 0.6-kg/cm2G nitrogen pressure maintained at the steam drum. To maintain the nitrogen pressure, all connections and valves should be blanked or tightly closed. Check gas pressure daily to ensure protection. We would recommend that periodic inspection of the unit be performed every 3 months to assure that no corrosive action is taking place and to replenish the absorbent as required. Since air will enter the unit during this inspection, it will be necessary to repeat Steps 3 & 4 to expel the air.

3.2 Dry Storage Preservation


When it is known that a boiler is to be idle for a considerable length of time and that a brief period will be allowed for preparation to return it to service, the dry storage method is recommended. In this method the unit is emptied, thoroughly cleaned internally and externally dried, and then closed up tight to exclude both moisture and air. Trays of lime, silica gel, or other moisture absorbent may be placed in the drums to draw off the moisture in the air trapped by the closing up of the boiler. The following general procedure is recommended when placing a unit into dry storage: 1. Fire the boiler according to the normal start-up procedure and establish upto 3.5-kg/cm2G-drum pressure. Stop ring. Secure the boiler and when the pressure decays to 1.3 kg/cm2G, immediately drain the boiler and headers under air. As soon as possible, open the drums to allow air to circulate for drying of all internal surfaces. This step is included for a unit that has been in service and is to be placed into storage. For a unit that has never been in service, start with Step 2. 2. If the unit is full of water and cold, drain the unit under air. All non-drainable boiler tubes should be blown with compressed air. If an external source of heat is available such as a steam coil air heater, portable heaters, etc.,

The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19.5 %. The above procedure is intended to include the economizer.

Section D

108

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.3 Wet Storage


The advantage of employing the wet storage procedure is that the unit is stored completely wet with the recommended levels of chemicals to eliminate a wet-dry interface where possible corrosion can occur. It is suggested that volatile chemicals be used to avoid increasing the level of dissolved solids in the water to be used for storage. In preparing a unit for wet storage, the following procedure is recommended. The unit should be lled with deaerated, Demineralised water treated with 200 ppm hydrazine (N2H4) for oxygen removal and sufcient ammonia (NH3) in order to attain a pH of 10 (for demineralised water, this will require approximately 10 ppm ammonia). We strongly recommend pre-mixing of the chemicals with the water to insure a uniform mixture entering the boiler. This can be accomplished by the blend-ll method. The blend-ll method consists of blending the chemicals with the demineralised water at a continuous rate such that a uniform mixture is entering the boiler. Simply introducing the chemicals through the drum after establishing water level will not insure adequate dispersion of chemicals to all internal surfaces, unless sufcient heat is delivered to the furnace (i.e. ring the boiler) to induce natural circulation throughout the boiler. Fill the unit with the treated demineralised water to the normal centerline of the steam drum. Stop lling further. Back-ll the with treated Demineralised water until a rise in steam drum level is noted. Continue lling until water exits from the steam drum vents. After lling, all connections should be blanked or tightly closed. A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected at the steam drum to maintain 0.3 to 0.6 Bar G to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage period.

The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19.5%. If storage continues into winter, ambient temperatures below the freezing point of water create a real hazard to the boiler pressure parts and it will be necessary to provide a means of keeping the unit warm to avoid damage. At some later date when the unit is to be placed into service, the boiler can be drained to normal start-up water level and placed into operation. In some cases, an expansion tank or surge tank (such as a 55-gallon drum) above the steam drum elevation may be required to accommodate volume changes due to temperature changes. This tank is equipped with a tight cover and sight glass and contains properly treated water. The tank should be connected to an available opening, such as a vent line at the top of the steam drum in order to create a hydrostatic head. This tank will provide a ready, visual check of water level or in leakage during lay up. A source of low-pressure nitrogen should be connected to the surge tank to maintain 0.3 to 0.6 Bar G to prevent air from entering the unit during the storage period. The treated demineralised water should be analyzed weekly, and when necessary, sufcient chemicals should be added through the chemical feed line, to establish the proper levels recommended. Samples of the treated water can be taken at the continuous blowdown line or any suitable drain connection. No unit should be stored wet when there is any possibility of a temperature drop to the freezing point unless sufcient heat can be provided to the unit to eliminate the danger of water freezing and subsequent damage to pressure parts.

Section D

109

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.4 Nitrogen Blanket


Nitrogen can be introduced at the following locations 1. Through the steam drum 2. Through the main steam line The nitrogen required to seal the drainable components may be supplied from a permanent nitrogen system or portable tanks located near the vent elevations. Due to differences in plant layout, the owner should choose his own method of piping the nitrogen, either from their permanent system or from portable tanks, to the vent (or drain) locations listed. The unit should be properly tagged and the appropriate warning signs attached noting that the boiler is stored under nitrogen pressure and that complete exhaustion of the nitrogen must occur before anyone enters the drum. Before entering drums test to prove that the oxygen concentration is at least 19.5 %

Section D

110

Operation & Maintenance Manual

3.5 Boiler Lay Up Procedures


TYPE OF SHUTDOWN Short Outages 4 Days or Less. Unit Not Drained PROCEDURE Maintain the same hydrazine and ammonia concentration as present during normal operation. Establish 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G nitrogen cap on the steam drum Drain and open only those sections require repair. Isolate remainder of the unit under 0.3 to 0.6 BarG nitrogen pressure where possible. Maintain the same nitrogen and ammonia concentration for water remaining in the cycle Fill the boiler with Polish water having 200 ppm of hydrazine and 10 ppm of ammonia to maintain pH 10. Establish nitrogen cap of 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G over the steam drum. Dry storage of boiler with nitrogen alone is preferred procedure. Nitrogen cap of 0.3 to 0.6 kg/cm2G to be maintained on the steam drum. Installed silica gel tray in the steam drum to soak moisture if any present in the drum atmosphere. 2. Power up the panel instruments and check the operation 3. Keep the control room dust and moisture free 4. Operate control valves, power cylinders once a week and check operation. 5. Operate quick shutoff valves frequently (Twice a week) 6. Ensure that O2 analyzer is powered up and reference air supply is given when ue gas is present. 7. Check operation of Ignition Transformer once in 2 weeks 8. Check operation of Flame Scanners & Flame Ampliers once in 2 weeks

Short Outages 4 Days or Less. Unit is Drained

Long Outages Longer than 4 Days Upto 15 Days. Unit is Drained

Long Outages More than 15 Days - Unit is Drained.

3.6 Preservation of Rotating Equipments


1. Put the rotating equipment in service once in every 48 hours or atleast once in a week 2. If the equipment is going to be under long shutdown a. Fill bearing block full of oil to preserve the bearing and rotate the Fan/Pump Shaft by 90o once in every 48 hours b. Cover the bearing block & uncovered portion of shaft with plastic sheets to prevent dust/water ingress c. Ensure no dust/water accumulates on the rotating equipment

3.7 Preservation of Instruments


1. Cover all eld instruments with plastic sheets

Section D

111

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Tube Failures

SAME MAY BE SENT TO TBW ALONG WITH TUBE SAMPLE FOR ANALYSIS.

Operating a boiler with a known tube leak is not recommended. Steam or water escaping from a small leak can cut other tubes by impingement and set up a chain reaction of tube failures. Large leaks can be dangerous. The boiler water may be lost, the ignition may be lost, and the boiler casing may be damaged. Small leaks can some times be detected by the loss of water in the cycle or system, a loss in boiler water chemicals or by the noise made by the leak. If a leak is suspected the boiler should be shut down as soon as possible by following normal shut down procedures (If situation permits). After the exact locations of the leak or leaks are identied, the leaks may be repaired by replacing the failed tube or by splicing in a new section of tube as per relevant codes.

Objectives of Failure Investigation


Boiler tube failures are the largest cause of forced outages experienced by a utility. To avoid or minimize outages and the associated economic penalties, it is important to identify the mechanism and root cause of tube failures. Informed visual inspection is often adequate for this purpose, however failure analysis involving detailed metallurgical investigation is necessary. Tube failures may be due to overheating, corrosion, erosion, fatigue, hydrogen damage etc. A failure investigation and subsequent analysis should determine the primary cause of a failure, and based on determination, corrective action should be initiated that will prevent similar failures.

Stages of Failure Analysis


Although the sequence is subject to variation, depending upon the nature of a specic failure, the principal stages that comprise the investigation & analysis of a failure are:

An investigation of tube failure is very important so that the condition causing the tube failure can be eliminated and future failures can be prevented. This investigation should include a careful visual inspection of the failed tube and in some cases a laboratory analysis. 1. It is recommended that every effort be made to nd the cause of tube failures before operation is resumed. 2. It should be ensured that, whenever a spool piece is inserted in the failed zone, the weld joint needs to be of proper weld quality. 3. Free from excess weld penetration to avoid any obstruction in the water / steam mixture ow inside the tube. Excess weld penetration can cause internal tube erosion and results in tube failures. 4. It is suggested to have all the joints are x-rayed and interpreted by qualied / experienced radiographer.

Collection of background & selection of samples Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination & record keeping) Non destructive testing Mechanical testing (including hardness & toughness testing) Selection, identication, preservation, and/or cleaning of all specimens Macroscopic examination and analysis (fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, & other surface phenomena) Microscopic examination and analysis Selection & preparation of metallographic sections Examination and analysis of metallographic sections

4.1 Tube Failure Investigation / Analysis Method


Investigation / analysis methodology is listed as follows, which needs to be followed to nd the actual root cause of the problems. PLEASE FILLUP THE ENCLOSED (end of this sub-section) OBSERVATION FORM AND THE

Collection of Background Operating Data:


Boiler operating data just before & at the time of a tube failure is very important, as it will give information of the service conditions faced by the tube at the time of failure. This operating data should also be co-related with the past operation data & abnormalities if any should be taken care off. Water chemistry analysis, fuel analysis should also form an important part of this data. This data

Section D

112

Operation & Maintenance Manual

& the metallurgical analysis will help us in true sense to arrive at the exact cause of a tube failure.

Investigation of Tube Failure in aBoiler


Study the boiler log sheet & water chemistry record prior to tube failure and after tube failure. Preserve the copies of these log sheets. Record, if any abnormality noticed, such as mal operation, malfunction, very high or low temperature/loads, uctuating loads, sudden increase in load or temperature, poor water chemistry, start up vent crack open / close etc. etc. (if possible collect and send the water samples, internal scale from drum & tubes, external scale samples). After entering in boiler and before proceeding to tube failure location inspect & record the condition of boiler and pressure parts without disturbing the evidence i.e. distortion of pressure parts/coils, bulging of pressure parts, scaling / lump formation on pressure parts, blockage of ue gas path, other / secondary failures etc. etc. In such case taking photographs will help in great extent in analyzing of the tube failure, boiler problem. The failed pressure part tube should not be hammered, any mechanical impact should be avoided. Inspect the failed tube and record all ndings on the same as well as its adjacent tubes. Carry out dimensional measurement of failed tube and affected adjacent tubes. Number mark the failed tube for its location, ue gas ow, steam ow with oil paint. After completion of inspection, recording and photography, cut the failed tube and affected adjacent tube, if any, with the help of HACKSAW only. Gas cutting of the tubes should be avoided as much as possible. The failed tube, keeping NAME OF THE CUSTOMER Boiler Specications Capacity Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Fuel Fired Location of Tube Sample Duration of Service of Boiler Duration of Service of Tube Sample Date of Failure Sample Received on No. of Samples Handed Over to Lab on (With Identication Mark/No) Nos. / Date Visual Inspection Report

the failed portion in middle should be cut for total length of minimum 350 mm. Immediately after cutting the tube sample both the ends should be covered with plastic caps. While doing this, internal or external scale of tube should not fall down. The failed tube samples should be carefully packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly lled format with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be sent to TBW, Pune.

Removal of Failed Tube Sample


The tube sample should be cut with a hacksaw blade. Gas cutting should be avoided The sample should be cut approx. 8-10 inches above & below the affected area The exact location & elevation should be marked on the tube sample The direction of the uid ow should be marked on the tube sample Immediately after cutting the tube sample both the ends should be covered with plastic caps. Internal or external scale of tube should not fall down The failed tube sample nicely packed in plastic bag / wooden case accompanying duly lled format as given below with water chemistry of boiler log sheets should be sent to TBW H.O for metallurgical investigations.

Tube Failure Sheet


SR.NO:

Analysis
DATE:

Observation

Section D

113

Operation & Maintenance Manual

NAME OF THE CUSTOMER With Sketch / Nature Of Failure Tube Material ( Specied) Tube OD X THK (Specied) Orientation of Tube Fluid Flow Direction (With Marking) Boiler Operating Condition At the Time of Failure (Water Chemistry & boiler operation log sheets) ANY OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE The weld preparation shall be made as per the 4. FAILURE Figure #1. The t up of the patch weld gap shall be 2.4 0.8 mm

4.2 Window Patch Welding Purpose

Welding
1. A welder qualied to the requirements of ASME shall make the tube and patch welds in accordance with an approved weld procedure. 2. The root pass shall be done with GTAW process. The weld may then be completed with either SMAW or GTAW process. Some acceptable weld procedure specications are listed in Table below

The purpose of the window patching method is to allow the welding of tubes that could not otherwise be welded because of limited access to part of the tube diameter. This procedure is restricted to that use.

Preparation
1. The area to be patched shall be cleaned to bare metal 2. The patch shall be made from tube material of same type, diameter and thickness, as the tube being welded 3. The area of the tube to be removed shall be carefully marked out as close as possible to contour of the patch. The tube section may then be removed using an oxyacetylene gas cutting torch or by mechanical means BASE MATERIAL P1 TO P1 P3 TO P3 P3 TO P3 P4 TO P4 P5 TO P5 P8 TO P8 Carbon Steel to Carbon Steel Carbon Moly to Carbon Moly Cr MOLY TO Cr MOLY 1-1/4 Cr TO 1-1/4 Cr 2-1/4 Cr 1 MOLY TO 2-1/4 Cr 1 MOLY Stainless to Stainless

Testing
1. All the tube and patch welding shall be subject to close visual inspection and 100% radiography in accordance with the requirements of ASME section V. The standard for accepting /rejecting is specied in ASME section I 2. Completed welds are subject to hydrostatic test FILLER METAL ER 70S.2 ER80S.B2 ER80S.B2 ER80S.B2 ER90S.B3 ER308 E7018 E7018A1 E8018B2L E8018B2L E9018B3L ER308-16

Section D

114

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 7

Section D

115

Operation & Maintenance Manual

General Principal of Weld Repairs

gas arc or oxy acetylene process must make the rst pass of the weld. Note This type of the repairs entails some risk. Internal deposits. Particularly copper, may exist under the crack which will result in damaging the parent and/or weld metal causing failure in a short period of time. Over-heating the tube may have caused the longitudinal crack. In this case, the tube has swollen and the weld thickness reduced. In the modern welded wall construction, it is difcult to accurately measure the tube diameter or circumference to detect the minor swelling. If visual indicates swelling and reduction of wall thickness at the crack, a complete replacement of the damaged tube length is the best solution. A circumferential crack indicates a failure due to excessive stress applied by expansion restriction, bending or fatigue; welding can repair such cracks. However, unless the cause of failure is diagnosed and corrected, another similar failure could occur at or near the original crack. Also the tube cannot be cleaned from inside and there is always a possibility internal deposits will contaminate the weld. Plugging Tubes in Drums & Headers Often after a tube failure, it is desirable to plug the failed tube in the drum or header shell so the boiler may be returned to service with the least possible delay. It is recommended that the failed tube be replaced whenever possible in lieu of plugging. If the leak is remote from the tube seats and accessible, the faulty section of the tube should be cut out and replaced rather than plugging. Water wall tubes (space tube) should be replaced if possible and plugged only as a last resort. The plugged tube must be free to expand and distort with respect to the adjacent tubes. Membrane tubes must be repaired and not plugged. When tubes are plugged, the old tube should be removed from the boiler setting since it probably will burn off due to lack of cooling and could become displaced and obstruct gas lanes, foul

Furnace and Boiler Tubes The minimum replacement tube length should be not less than 150 mm. A damaged tube should be cut at least 75 mm each side of the defective area. Backing rings must not to be used in welding heat absorbing tubes carrying water or mixture of steam and water. If a backing ring is not used, the rst pass of the weld must be made with inert gas-arc or oxy acetylene. The weld passes may be completed by either process, or by a manual metal arc. Pre heat or post heat is not required for welding carbon steel furnace or boiler tubes. Prior to welding, clean the tube ends to bright metal inside and outside for at least 40 mm from the weld area. Remove all deposits of oxide, boiler water salts and slag to avoid gas or slag inclusions in the weld. Fit-up of the weld joints is important. It is difcult to obtain accurate cuts on furnace tubes especially those in welded furnace walls. However, it is worth to spend extra time to get the existing tube ends squared and correctly chamfered and to cut the replacement tube to the correct length. Poor t-up increase the possibility of an unsuccessful weld. Allow for shrink in the welding, remember, the weld metal and parent metal are melted in the welding process and the molten metal shrinks as it solidies. A butt weld in the tube will shorten the total tube length about 1.6 mm. Use a clamp or guide lug to hold one end of the replacement tube alignment while the rst weld is made. Do not tack weld both end of the replacement tubes particularly if the existing tubes are rigidly supported As a general rule, rst complete the welds at the lower end of the replacement tube. Do not start welding the upper end of the replacement tube until both the replacement and the existing tubes have cooled to ambient temperature. Weld Repair of Small Cracks in Tube In the interest of saving time and cost, it is better to weld small cracks rather than replace a length of the tube. The crack must be ground out to form an acceptable welding groove. The groove should continue well beyond the ends of the crack. Inert

Section D

116

Operation & Maintenance Manual

up soot blowers, be dangerous to personnel after shutdown, and etc. If the tube is not removed from the setting, a denite hole must be punched or drilled in the tube to prevent a possible dangerous buildup of pressure between the tube plugs. A expanded tube leaking at the seat should be removed from its seat and 1. a new tube rolled in, 2. a new short stub rolled in and plugged, 3. the tube end seal welded to the shell or, if the drum shell is internally counter bored, a cylindrical plug must be installed and seal welded to the drum shell. Note No. (1) is the preferred x with No. (3) the least preferred. Seal welding of tube ends, tapered plugs, or cylindrical plugs to the shell should be done in such a manner as to minimize the heating of adjacent tube seats, which may become loose. It is essential that the welding process should be as per standard procedure for carbon steel shells and tubes to be followed very closely to ensure success. Deviations from these parameters will normally result in unsatisfactory connections. The major welding parameters for shells or tubes other than carbon steel may be obtained from qualied welding procedures. Ensure that welders are qualied in accordance with ASME Section IX and local provincial requirements. They must also ensure that the welding is done to the applicable qualied weld procedure. It also to be ensured that the proposed repair has been approved by the Boiler Inspection Branch of the local jurisdiction. Machined tube stubs and plugs are used where the old tube can be removed from its seat without seat damage and for new construction that is drilled for future addition of tubes. The rolled-in tube stub extends into the shell and a solid plug is installed and seal welded to the stub. These stubs and plugs are standardized to have only one tube stub and one plug for each standard tube hole. Before rolling stubs in, they should be cleaned inside and outside with a wire brush, abrasive paper, or a liquid cleaner until the metal is free of all foreign substances. In general, stubs do not require cleaning beyond the removal of dirt, rust, scale or foreign material.

The stub seat (tube hole) should be similarly cleaned. If a liquid solvent is used to clean either the stub and/or tube hole, care must be taken to dry the metal completely. Liquid trapped between the stub and its seat prevents contact of the two metal surfaces. Before the expanding tool is inserted, the inside of the stub should be lubricated with a suitable compound. The compound selected should be water soluble to facilitate cleanup. The rolling process should not be rushed since heat generated during rolling is detrimental to the strength of the rolled joint. The tube stub is properly expanded when the wall thickness in the seat is reduced by 6 to 10 percent for generating tubes and 10 to 14 percent for other boiler tubes. The tube stub wall reduction for thin shells should be less than that for thicker shells. This is to prevent over rolling which could cause adjacent tube seats to leak. Since the stub wall itself cannot be measured after it is rolled in its seat, the only alternative is to calculate the increase in the stub ID that is necessary to prove that the wall has in fact been reduced by the required percentage. This depends upon the tube seat ID (hole diameter), tube stub OD, the clearance between these two and also the stub wall. An example of this conversion for a 2 " OD by 0.150-inch wall tube stub for a 10% wall reduction is as follows Measure = Hold Dia Measure = Stub OD Measure = Stub ID Clearance = Stub ID @ Contact 10% of 0.150 x 2 = 2.531 2.500 / 0.031 Clearance 2.200 0.031 / 2,231 Stub ID @ Contact 2.231

0.030 / 2.261 Stub ID after expanding

Plug all internal counter bored holes in the eld with the cylindrical plug when the tube is still in the seat. Some counter bores may be shallow enough that the tube ends are exposed sufciently to permit seal welding to a tapered plug. See Figure 2. If the tube seat is leaking, then the tube must either be seal welded to the drum shell or the counter bore can be plugged with the cylindrical plug and seal welded per Figures 3 and 4. It

Section D

117

Operation & Maintenance Manual

may be necessary to machine the tube ends back in order to provide a seat for the cylindrical plug installation. See Figures 3 and 4. Figure 5 shows the details of this cylindrical plug and gives instruction for the specic plug size desired. Tapered plugs are used to plug existing tubes where it is not practical to remove the tube from its seat and there is no internal counter bore. These plugs must be tailor made for each tube diameter and tube wall thickness. Figure 6 shows the details of this tapered plug and give instructions for a plug to t tube diameters from 1-3/4" through 4 " OD and any wall thickness. Figure 7 shows the arrangement of the tapered plug seal welded to the tube. The plugs and seal welds described above are designed for the boiler pressure to be on the head (seal weld side) of the plug only. The inch diameter by 1/8-inch thick button weld on the plug is to eliminate leakage through the piping which can occur at the center of some bar stock. Figure 8 shows a tube seal welded to the shell. This arrangement may be used when the tube seat is leaking and it is not practical to replace or remove the tube and use a rolled stub and plug. Economizer headers and superheater headers may be plugged as shown in Figure 9 & 10 where external access is available and the conditions shown on the gures are met. If those conditions cannot be satised, tube replacement is recommended. In these two gures, the pressure is on the internal end of the plug and the external strength weld restrains the plug. Plugged tubes that are below the horizontal centerline of the shell will not drain. Therefore, after chemical cleaning it is necessary that the plug to be removed and the stub swabbed out to remove the chemicals in these stubs. The plug can then be welded back in or in some cases it will have been destroyed in the removal process and anew one will have to be installed. Care must be taken in the plug removal process to not damage or thin the tube stubs wall. Replacement of Sections of Tubes Experienced personnel must do the replacement of a section of failed tube. The length of the replaced section should be a minimum of 12 inches. Usual practice is to cut out the defective section with an oxyacetylene torch, but it is preferable to use a saw or wafer disc. Care must be taken to prevent slag from entering the tube.

The ends are prepared for welding by grinding or with special tools. The root pass of the joint should be deposited with the gas tungsten arc process. A 3/32-inch diameter shielded metal arc-welding electrode is recommended for the remainder of the joint. The welding parameters for tubes may be obtained from qualied Welding Procedures. Removing Tubes From Drums, Headers & Tube Plates The removal of tubes from their tube seats must be done very carefully to prevent damage to the tube seats. If the tube seat is damaged, it may be impossible to ever roll another tube in and make a tight seal. Gouging of the tube seat could also affect the ligaments between tube holes and integrity of the shell. Tubes can be removed from their seats without seat damage if the following procedures are carefully followed. With light- gage tubes, it is often possible to cold crimp the tube end to loosen it in its seat, then drive or "jack" the tube out. When the tubes are too heavy for cold crimping, the two-stage heating method may be used. Heat is applied to the inside of the tube end with a torch. Heat is rst applied for a short period - not long enough for it to be transferred to the tube sheet. When the tube end cools, the joint will have loosened enough so that the second heat will not be transferred readily to the tube sheet. The tube end can then be heated sufciently for crimping and the tube can be pushed out of its seat. If neither of these methods is applicable, the following methods may be employed. To remove light tube tubs, it is advisable to cut grooves about 3/4 inch apart with a round nose chisel. When the tongue (the metal between the two grooves) is knocked free, the tube can be collapsed and removed. To remove heavy gage tubes, the type of grooving tool shown in gure 12 is used to prepare the tongues without damage to the tube seat. It is used with a pneumatic hammer, but it is necessary that the tool be suited to the tube thickness so that it will cut the grooves as deep as possible and yet leave a minimum thickness of metal over the tube seat. In very heavy gage tubes, a third groove is often cut, as nearly opposite the tongue as possible, so that less heavy pounding will be required to collapse the stub. These latter two methods require that the are on the end of the tube be crimped straight before starting, to cut the grooves for collapsing the tube. Of course, the

Section D

118

Operation & Maintenance Manual

seal weld around the end of any tube must be ground or machined off before attempting to cut the grooves for collapsing the tube. This must be done carefully to prevent damage to the drum shell.

Attached Figures 2 to 10

Figure 8

Section D

119

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 9

Section D

120

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 10

Section D

121

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 11

Section D

122

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 12

Section D

123

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 13

Figure 14

Section D

124

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 15

Section D

125

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Figure 16

Section D

126

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Failure Reporting Format

Enclosed is a format for reporting of failure of equipment etc. The enclosed formats are exclusively for the use by O & M engineers of the client for reporting any malfunctioning or failure of the boiler pressure parts and its auxiliaries. Most of the boilers at site need to be investigated with the help of pas experience and guidance from the O & M. The O & M, in turn, required precise and systematic information on which the failure analysis will have to be based. TBW request the boiler users to report to TBW any problems that they may come across during routine O & M of the plant, immediately on occurrence. Company Name Communication Address

It is suggested that enclosed formats be used for this purpose and help provide better and quicker services for trouble shooting. There may be cases when problems arising during the O & M are resolved on temporary or permanent basis by the O & M engineers and there may not be any immediate need for service of TBW or OEM. Even in such cases it is the request of TBW with the enclosed reporting formats be lled in and faxed over to TBW, Pune. This will go a long way to generate a data bank on the auxiliary equipments and come out with improvement rather for the nal users. Customer Feed Back Form CUSTOMER DETAILS:

Telephone Number Fax Number E-Mail Address Contact Person Other Details (If Any) Boiler Details: Boiler Number : Date of Commissioning Boiler Capacity MCR Steam Pressure Steam Temperature Fuel Fired Feed Back Details: SL.NO PROBLEM DETAILS OBSERVATIONS Equipment Details: CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TAKEN COMMENTS / RECOMMENDATIONS

Other Informations : Expectations from TBW :

Reply Awaited / Service Engineer Visit : Signature & Date:

Section D

127

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Water Chemistry

D) Iron: Most common soluble iron in water is ferrous bicarbonate. The water containing ferrous bicarbonate deposits becomes yellowish and reddish sediment of ferric hydroxide if exposed to air. Majority of ground surface water contains less than 5 ppm but 0.3 ppm, can create trouble in the feed water system by soft scale formation and accelerating the corrosion. E) Manganese: It also occurs in similar form as iron and it is also equally troublesome. F) Silica: Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Its presence is highly objectionable as it forms very hard scale in boilers and forms insoluble deposits on turbine blades. In modern high-pressure boilers its presence is reduced as low as 10-50 ppm. G) Microbiological Growths: Various growths occur in surface water (lake and river). The microorganisms include diatons, molds, bacterial slimes, algae; manganese and sulfate reducing bacteria and many others. These can cause coating on heat exchanger and clog the ow passages and reduce the heat transfer rates. H) Color: Surface waters from swampy areas become highly colored due to decaying vegetation. Color of feed water is objectionable as it causes foaming in boilers and may interfere by chlorinating of absorption by activated carbon.

Introduction The natural water contains solid, liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore, this cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. The impurities present in the water should be removed before its use for steam generation. The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature and quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water has become increasingly important with the advent of high pressure, critical and supercritical boilers. The impurities present in the feed water are classied as given below 1. Un dissolved and suspended solid materials. 2. Dissolved salts and minerals. 3. Dissolved gases. 4. Other materials (a soil, acid) either in mixed and unmixed forms.

7.1 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials


A) Turbidity and Sediment: Turbidity in the water is suspended insoluble matter including coarse particles (mud, sediment sand etc,) that settle rapidly. Amounts ranges from almost zero in most ground waters and 60,000 ppm. in muddy and turbulent river water. The turbidity of feed water should not exceed 5 ppm. These materials can be removed by settling coagulation and ltration. Their presence is undesirable because heating or evaporation produces hard stony scale deposits on the heating surface and clog uid system. Both are objectionable as they cause damage to the boiler system. A standard of measurement of hardness is taken as being the amount of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water and is referred to in part per million (ppm) or grains per gallon (grain/gallon) X 17.1 = ppm. B) Sodium and Potassium Salts: These are extremely soluble in water and do not deposit unless highly concentrated. Their presence is troublesome as they are alkaline in nature and accelerate the corrosion. C) Chlorides: Majority of the chloride corrosive action of water. causes increased

7.2 Dissolved Salts and Minerals


A) Calcium And Magnesium Salts: The calcium and magnesium salts present in the water in the form of carbonates, bicarbonates, sulfates and chlorides. The presence of these salts is recognized by the hardness of the water (hardness of water is tested by soap test). The hardness of water is classied as temporary and permanent hardness. The temporary hardness is caused by the bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and can be removed by boiling. The boiling converts the soluble bicarbonates into less soluble carbonates, which can be removed by simple blow-down method. The presence of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates of calcium

Section D

128

Operation & Maintenance Manual

cause the permanent hardness of the water and magnesium and they cannot be removed just by boiling because they form a hard scale on heating surfaces.

7.3 Dissolved Gases


A) Oxygen: It presents in surface water in dissolved form with variable percentage depending upon the water temperature and other solid contents in water. Its presence is highly objectionable, as it is corrosive to iron, zinc, brass and other metals. It causes corrosion and pitting of water lines, boilers and heat exchangers. Its effect is further accelerated at high temperature. B) Carbon Dioxide: The river water contains 50 ppm & well water contains 2-50 ppm of CO2. It also helps to accelerate the corrosive action of oxygen. The other gases are H2S, CH4, N2 and many others but their percentage are negligible Therefore their effects are not discussed here.

number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. It does not indicate the quantity of acid or alkali in a solution as found by ltration method. It is derived by measuring the amount of hydrogen ion (H+) in grams per liter of solution. The greater the amount of hydrogen ions present in solution its acid reaction becomes stronger. Therefore, pure water is being neutral solution, any solution producing more hydrogen ion than pure water will be acidic and degree is governed by difference and other solution producing less hydrogen ions than pure water will be alkaline and the degree is also governed by the difference. The Role Of pH in Corrosion: The role of pH in corrosion of metals is extremely important. The corrosion rate of iron in the absence of oxygen is proportional to pH up to a value of 9.6. At this point, hydrogen gas formation and dissolving of iron practically stops. This is the came pH produced by a saturated solution of ferrous hydroxide Fe (OH) 2. The Oxygen in the water unites with ferrous hydroxide to form ferric hydroxide. This reaction lowers pH of the solution and levels to stimulate corrosion. Alkalinity adjustment and lm formation are closely related. The pH value of feed water should be maintained greater than 9.6 to reduce the corrosion effects caused by the reason mentioned above. The required alkalinity of feed water is adjusted by adding soda ash caustic soda or trisodium phosphate. The calcium hardness, alkalinity and pH are inter-related variables in scale control. Calcium carbonate is one of the most troublesome deposits responsible for scale formation.

7.4 Other Materials


A) Free Mineral Acid: Usually present as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid and causes corrosion. The presence is required by neutralization with alkalis. B) Oil: Generally the lubricating oil is carried with steam into the condenser & thorough the feed system to the boiler. It causes sludge, scale & foaming in boilers. Strainers and bafe separators generally remove it. The effects of all the impurities present in the water are the scale formation on the different parts of the boiler system and corrosion. The scale formation reduces the heat transfer rates and clogs the ow passage and endangers the life of the equipment by increasing the temp above the safe limit. The corrosion phenomenon reduces the life of the plant rapidly. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to reduce the impurities below a safe limit for the proper working of the power plant.

7.6 Effects of Impurities


The major troubles caused by the feeding of water of undesirable quality are scale formation, corrosion, foaming, caustic embrittlement, carry-over and priming. The details described below: 1. Scale Formation Feed water containing a group of impurities in dissolved and suspended form ows into the Boiler for continuos generation of Steam. With conversion of water into steam in Boiler, solids are left behind to concentrate the remaining water. The scale formation tendency increases with the increase in temperature of feed water. Because, the solubility of some salts (as calcium sulphite) decreases with the increase in feed water temperature. Calcium sulphite has solubility

7.5 pH Value of the Water and its Importance


The pH value of the feed water plays very important controlling the corrosion. pH is a

Section D

129

Operation & Maintenance Manual

of 3200 ppm. at 15 Deg. C and it reduces to 55 ppm. at 230 Deg. C and 27 ppm. At 320 Deg. C. Scale formation takes place mainly due to salts of calcium and magnesium. Sometimes, it is cemented into a hard mass by Silica. Among all, calcium is the principal offender and particularly, Calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate and other Chlorides are sufciently soluble in water and are not much troublesome. Sodium salts are highly soluble in water and are non-scale forming. The scale formation takes place mainly in feed water piping and Boiler Tubes. Its rst effect on the piping system is to choke the ow of water by reducing the ow area and increases the pressure required to maintain the water delivery. Another effect of scale formation is to reduce the transfer of heat form the hot gases to water. Real dangers of the scale formation exist in radiant heat zone where boiler tubes are directly exposed to the combustion. The scale formation retards the ow of heat and metal temperature increases. Even a thin layer of scale in high heat zone can over-heat the metal enough to rupture the tubes. The metal tubes weakened due to over-heating yield to pressure providing a protrusion known as bag. Such bag provides a pocket for the accumulation of sludge and scale, which eventually causes failure. The over-heating of metal causes layer of metal to separate and form a blister. 2. Corrosion The corrosion is eating away process of boiler metal. It causes deterioration & failure of the equipment, eventually this cause for major repairs or expensive shut -downs or replacements. The corrosion of boilers, economizers, feed water heaters & piping is caused by an acid or low PH in addition to the presence of dissolved oxygen & carbon dioxide in the boiler feed water. The presence of oxygen is mostly responsible for corrosion among all other factors. The permissible limit of oxygen content varies with the acidity of water. Generally it should not should exceed 0.5 cc per liter .O2 generally enters into closed system through make up condenser leakage and condensate pump packing. CO2 is next to O2, which is responsible for corrosion. The CO2 comes out of bicarbonates on heating and combines with water to form weak acids known as carbonic acid. This acid slowly reacts with iron and other metals to form their bicarbonates. The newly formed bicarbonates of metals decompose by heat once more and CO2 is again liberated. This gas again unites with water

to form carbonic acid and the cycle is repeated. Adding alkali solution to neutralize acids in water and raise the PH value can minimize the corrosion. The effect of CO2 is minimized by the addition of ammonia or neutralizing the amines in water. This is necessary because CO2 lowers the PH of the boiler feed water and dissolved solids to leave the boiler. The priming is a violent discharge of water with steam from the boiler. It can be compared to the pumping of water that frequently accompanies rapid heating in a open vessel. In priming the water level in the boiler undergoes rapid and great changes and there are violent discharges of bursting bubbles. Therefore sludge of boiler water is thrown over with the steam. The priming is caused due to improper boiler design, improper method of ring, overloading, sudden load changing or a combination of these factors. The priming effect is reduced by installing steam purier, lowering water level in the boiler and maintains constant load on boilers. The foaming is the formation of small and stable bubbles throughout the boiler water. The high percentage of dissolved solids, excessive alkalinity and presence of oil in water are responsible for foaming. Boiler water solids are also carried over in the moisture mixed with steam even when there is no indication of either priming or foaming. This is known as carry-over. The carry-over of boiler water solids is partly a mechanical and partly a chemical problem. The amount of suspended solids and alkalinity in the boiler water is also important in addition to other reasons like boiler design, high water level, and overloading and uctuating loads on boiler. 3. Caustic Embrittlement The caustic embrittlement is the weakening of boiler Steel as a result of inner crystalline cracks. This is caused by long exposure of boiler steel to combination of stress and highly alkaline water. The course of embrittlement takes place under following condition: a) When boiler water contains free hydroxide, alkalinity and some silica. It has been always found that the feed water was high in sodium bicarbonate, which broke down into sodium carbonate in the boiler and partially hydralized as shown by the following reaction in case of embrittlement.

Section D

130

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Na2CO3 + HOH = CO2 + 2 NaOH b) Slow leakage of boiler water through a joint or seam. c) Boiler metal is highly stressed at the point of leakage. This may be caused by faulty design and expansion etc. The prevention of caustic embrittlement consists of reducing the causticity or adding inhibiting agents to the feed water. The most practical method of preventing caustic embrittlement is to regulate the chemical composition of the boiler water. The obvious solution to embrittlement is to eliminate all free NaOH from feed water by addition of Phosphates.

boiler entirely depends on the rate of corrosion of boiler metal. In order to protect boiler from corrosion, pre-treatment is done to remove excessive corrosion ions like chloride, sulphate etc. However, further chemical conditioning is required to protect boiler and auxiliary systems from corrosion. Tri sodium phosphate, caustic, ammonia and amines are used as corrosion inhibitors. These chemicals form a protective lm over metal surface and reduce corrosion. It is necessary to maintain prescribed concentration of these chemicals in boiler water systems continuously. B. Oxygen Corrosion Inhibitor: Oxygen is present in dissolved form in water. At high temperature, oxygen reacts with metal to cause pitting corrosion. Thus prevention of oxygen lead to pin holes in economizer, steam drums and steam tubes. Most of the oxygen is removed externally by deaerator and preheating of feed water. However, traces of residual oxygen must be removed by chemical conditioning. Sodium sulte, hydrazine and amines are recommended for oxygen removal. These chemicals react with residual oxygen making it inactive and protect metal against pitting corrosion. Catalyzed oxygen scavengers are used for quick reaction. C. Scale / Deposit Control: Raw water contains dissolved solids, hardness salts and suspended matters. External treatment is used to remove such impurities. Clarication - To remove suspended matters. Filtration - To remove residual turbidity Softening - To remove hardness salts Dealkaliser - To remove hardness salts and excessive alkalinity Demineralization - To remove residual salts and silica Mixed bed - To remove residual salts and silica from DM water. A combination of above equipments are used to remove undesirable impurities in raw water. Scale Control Hardness salts in feed water cause formation in boiler. Under temperature and pressure inside the boiler and due to concentration, hardness salts

Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning

1. Introduction The successful use of boiler is dependent on proper water conditioning and treatment. The quality of water must have accurate for trouble free operation of boiler. The water as available to industry is not suitable for boiler use. A complete pre-treatment and internal chemical treatment is necessary to make raw water suitable for boiler feed. The objective of the water treatment is: Eliminate scaling - deposition in boiler which cause tube over heating leading to accidents. Control corrosion of boiler system, which cause failure of boiler tubes, leading to unscheduled shutdowns. Reduce carry over of water with steam, which is the cause of deposition on super heater/turbine blades, leading to the expensive failures. To maintain peak boiler efciency by keeping complete boiler water system clean. In order to meet above objectives, it is necessary to maintain certain chemical conditions in boiler, condense and feed water systems. A brief review of important factors is given in this section to assist those taking charges of new boiler equipment. It is not possible to cover the subject fully, there fore, it is recommended that the care and control of water quality be entrusted to water treatment specialist. 2. Need for Water Treatment A. Corrossive Control Water is corrosive to boiler metal. Typically corrosion due to water will reduce thickness of tube @ 1 mm/year. Thus the life and safety of

Section D

131

Operation & Maintenance Manual

precipitate in tubes as calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate and Ca/Mg silicate scales. External treatment like softening, demineralization or de-alkalisation removes most of the hardness salts from boiler feed water. However, malfunctioning of this equipment, occasional bypassing of the softener/DM plant or contamination of condensate or feed water with raw water often led to ingress of hardness in the boiler. All hardness salt precipitate inside boiler leading to hard scale formation on tubes. Such scale has lower conductivity causing increase in metal temperature, leading to bursting of tubes in extreme conditions. Therefore, inspire of elaborate external treatment, internal chemical conditioning is always recommended as additional safety. Following chemical methods are used for internal treatment. Phosphate Conditioning Trisodium phosphate is commonly used. Hardness salts react with trisodium phosphate to form calcium phosphate precipitate. This precipitate above pH of 9.5 colloidal in nature and therefore do not allow for form hard scale of carbonate and silicates. The precipitated hardness salts are then removed through blow down as sludge and boiler tubes are kept scale free. Trisodium phosphate, apart from acting as hardness conditioning agent, also is a good corrosion inhibitor. The recommended concentration in boiler water is given in Table -1 Note 1 : TSP will act as hardness conditioner, only when boiler pH is above 9.5 . Below 9.5 pH TSP may cause hard scale formation of Ca3 (PO)2. Therefore, coordinated or congruent phosphate treatment is recommended. The water treatment experts can advise you right treatment after studying your water quality and operation conditions. Thermax Chemicals can provide services for arriving at right chemical treatment for your boiler. Chelant- Polymer treatment: Hardness scales do not precipitate in presence of chelant like NTA/EDTA The chelant treatment is recommended when hardness ingress in boiler is experienced regularly. Excessive chelant dosing cause corrosion of boiler Hence balanced chelant program as recommended by experts should be used. Organic polymer conditioners are used to prevent hardness scales. Such organic polymer disperse scale forming compounds like CaCO3 & Ca(PO4)2 in colloidal form facilitating their removal through blow down. Polymer and copolymer of acrylic, methacrylic, styrene maleic acrylics are commonly used. Most of the polymers are proprietary in nature and therefore dosage is best recommended by manufacturer. D. Fouling Control Suspended matter, oil/grease /oxygen & iron salts commonly cause fouling inside the boiler. Most of the suspended matter and iron salts are removed by external treatment. However due to mfg. of these equipment, contamination through condensate and concentration in boiler cause fouling of boiler tubes. Similar to hardness scales, such foulants are poor conductor of heat. Thus fouling causes overheating of tubes. Fouling can best be avoided by maintaining quality of feed water as per norms. In case of upsets or occasional contamination, polymeric disersent help to prevent fouling due to turbidity and organic matter. Iron is picked up mostly in condensate system due to corrosion of condensate line. In such case, condensate corrosion inhibitor like ammonia cyclohexylamine and lming amine is recommended. E. Turbine / Superheater Deposition Control: The solids in boiler feed water get concentrated in boiler. The concentration of solids in boiler is decided blowdown and feed water quality. The carryover of boiler water with steam depends on; Mechanical Factors: Boiler load - Higher the load, lower is the steam purity Water level in boiler - Higher the water level in drum, lower is steam purity. Load Variation - Sudden increase in load reduce steam purity for short time.

Section D

132

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Separation efciency - Higher efciency, better is steam purity. Chemical Factors: TDS - Higher TDS in boiler, lower is steam purity. Total Alkalinity - Higher alkalinity as % of TDS lower is steam purity Organics - Higher the organic contamination, lower is steam purity. Foaming - Higher the foaming character of water, Lower is steam purity. The water carried over with steam due to above reasons is exactly similar in quality to blow-down or boiler water. In superheater or in turbines, water evaporates, leaving dissolved and suspended matter as scales or deposits. Thus severity of scaling and fouling of superheater and turbine depends on boiler water quality and steam purity. Maintaining boiler water quality as per norms and maximum steam purity is the only way to prevent deposition due to carryover of water with steam. Antifoam agents help to some extend to improve steam purity in case of excessive in boiler.

F. Silica Deposit Control: Silica is volatile under high temperature and pressure inside boiler. In turbines, the evaporated silica precipitates during pressure and temperature reduction and form hard scales. Maximum allowable concentration of silica depends on water analysis. Experts best decide the maximum permissible concentration after striding the operating parameters. G. Condensate Corrosion Control: The carbon dioxide is present in boiler feed water in dissolved and combined from as carbonate. Under boiler pressure and temperature it is liberated and carried over with steam as CO2 gas. This gas re dissolves in steam condensate to form carbonic acid. CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 H. Maintenance of Peak Efciency: Corrosion, scaling, fouling carryover and condensate corrosion can cause unscheduled shutdown, accidents and deterioration of system efciency.Therefore for trouble free operation and maintenance peak operation efciency, a combination of various internal chemical treatments is essential along with a good control over boiler water quality. Maintaining boiler water quality by using commodity chemicals likes TSP, Hydrazine, and Sodium sulte. However, it is recommended that the care and control of water chemistry be entrusted to specialist.

Section D

133

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section E
This section holds the Lubrication Schedule, Spare Part List & Curves for HRSG. Lubrication Schedule Lubrication Schedule

Spare Part List Spare part list Curves Cold start up Curve - HP Section.pdf Hot start up Curve - HP Section.pdf Warm start up Curve - HP Section.pdf

Section E

134

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 2 Drawings
Chapters Covered in this Part List of Drawings

List of Drawings
01. G.A. of HRSG_D11-0HR-10102_3.pdf 02. Pressure Parts Assly Elevation & Sectional Views_D11-0HR-10513_0.pdf 03. Pressure Part Assly Showing Down Comer, HP & RH Attemp._D11-0HR-10514_0.pdf 04. Pressure Parts Assly for IP Economiser_D11-1HR-70558_0.pdf 05. P & ID for HP Section_D12-1HR-7970P_3.pdf 06. P & ID for IP Section_D12-1HR-7971P_4.pdf 07. P & ID for LP & CPH Section_D12-1HR-7972P_4.pdf 08. P & ID for Gas Path_D12-1HR-7973P_3.pdf 09. P & ID for Drain,Vent & Blowdown system_D12-0HR-4496P_5.pdf 10. HP Steam Drum_P21-0HR-10693_3.pdf 11. Steam Purier Assly_P21-1HR-71575_0.pdf 12. I.P. Steam Drum_P25-0HR-10792_2.pdf 13. Steam Purier Assly for IP Steam Drum_P25-1HR-72514_0.pdf 14. LP Steam Drum_PF5-0HR-10985_2.pdf 15. Steam Purier Assly for LP Steam Drum_PF5-1HR-73637_0.pdf 16. LP Superheater Assly_PF1-1HR-69636_1.pdf 17. LP Evaporator Assly_PF2-1HR-69634_1.pdf 18. Condensate Preheater Assly_PF4-0HR-10365_1.pdf 19.HP Superheater -1,2 & 3 Assly_PG1-0HR-10762_1.pdf 20. Assly & Details of HP Evaporator_PG2-0HR-10657_1.pdf 21. Assly & Details of HP Eco-1A, 1B & Eco.2_PG3-0HR-10450_1.pdf 22. H.P. Economiser -3 Assly_PG3-0HR-10449_0.pdf 23. IP Superheater Assly_PH1-1HR-69759_1.pdf 24. Assly & Details of I.P. Economiser_PH3-1HR-67149_0.pdf 25. Assly & Details of IP Evaporator_PH2-1HR-71022_1.pdf 26. Arrangement of Pressure Part Supports_PI1-0HR-11151_1.pdf 27. Assly & Details of Reheater (RH1 & RH2)_PQ1-0HR-11006_1.pdf 28. Assly & Details of CBD Tank_W31-1HR-72751_1.pdf

Volume 2 Drawings

135

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 3 E & I Specications


Chapters Covered in this Part Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Volume 3 E & I Specications

136

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 1
1. Instrument Hook Up Diagram.pdf

Section 2
2.1 Control Schematic Diagram.pdf 2.2 Control Scheme Narrative.pdf

Section 3
3. DCS IO List.pdf

Section 4
4. Logic Diagram for drives.pdf

Section 5
5.1 EMS1.pdf 5.2 Electrical load list.pdf

Section 6
6. Specication for Motorised Actuator.pdf

Section 7
7. Local Control Station.pdf

Section 8
8. Junction Box and Cable Schedule.pdf

Section 9
9. Instrument canopy.pdf

Section 10
10.1 Transmitter.pdf 10.2 Gauges and Switches.pdf 10.3 Valves and actuators.pdf 10.4 Sensors.pdf 10.5 CEMS.pdf

Section 11
11. EMS2 for recirculation pump.pdf

Volume 3 E & I Specications

137

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 12
12.1 Motorised valves.pdf 12.2 Valve Schedule.pdf

Section 13
13.1 CBD Valve for LP Drum.pdf 13.2 CBD Valve for IP Drum.pdf 13.3 CBD Valve for HP Drum.pdf

Volume 3 E & I Specications

138

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals


Chapters Covered in this Part Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

139

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
Recirculation Pump - Sulzer
O & M Manual Pump Manual Datasheet & Curves Pump Datasheet & Curves Drawings Drawings

Section 02
Dosing System - Metapow
O & M Manual VK Pump Manual_Model PR10 VK Pump Manual_Model PR1520 Drawings 1. HP Dosing for HP Drum Drawing 2. HP Dosing for IP Drum Drawing 3. LP Dosing for LP Drum Drawing Test Certicates 1. HP Dosing for HP Drum Certicates 2. HP Dosing for IP Drum Certicates 3. LP Dosing for LP Drum Certicates

Section 03
HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Hi tech.
O & M Manual HP Drum Level Gauge Manual Drawing and Data Sheet HP Drum Level Gauge Glass Drawing

Section 04
IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass - Chemtrols
O & M Manual IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass Manual Drawing and Data Sheet IP & LP Drum Transparent Level Gauge Glass Drawing

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

140

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 05
Blow Down Tank Reex Level Gauge Glass - Chemtrols
O & M Manual Blow Down Tank Reex Level Gauge Glass Manual Drawing and Data Sheet Blow Down Tank Reex Level Gauge Glass Drawing

Section 06
Stack Damper Indira Damper
O & M Manual Stack Damper Manual Drawing GA of Damper

Section 07
Spring Hanger Pipe Support
O & M Manual Spring Hanger Manual Data Sheet Z1E Support Datasheet Z1B Support Datasheet

Section 08
Flow Nozzle Micro Precision
Datasheet Flow Nozzle Datasheet

Section 09
Safety Valve Tyco Sanmar
O & M Manual 1. Installation Instuctions for SV 2. HCI SV IOM 3. HSJ SV IOM Drawing & Data sheet Safety Valve Data Sheet and Drawing

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

141

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 10
Relief Valve Tyco Sanmar
O & M Manual 1. JOS_JBS_JLT RV IOM 2. JOS_JBS_JLT RV Product Range Drawing & Data sheet Relief Valve Datasheet & Drawing

Volume 4 Vendor Manuals

142

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals


Chapters Covered in this Part Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

143

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
1.1 Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa
O & M Manual Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Differential Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Datasheet

1.2 Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa


O & M Manual Absolute & Gauge Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Pressure Transmitter (EJA) Datasheet

1.3 HART Protocol (EJA Series) - Yokogawa


O & M Manual HART Protocol (EJA Series) - Yokogawa_Manual

Section 02
2.1 Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) - Yokogawa
O & M Manual Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) - Yokogawa_Manual Datasheet Temperature Transmitter Datasheet

2.2 HART Protocol (EJA) Yokogawa


O & M Manual Temperature Transmitter (YTA Series) - Yokogawa_Manual

Section 03
3.1 O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) Yokogawa
O & M Manual O2 Analyser (ZR 402G) Yokogawa Manual

3.2 HART Protocol Yokogawa


O & M Manual HART Protocol Yokogawa Manual

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

144

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 04
Motor for Recirculation Pump - Siemens
O & M Manual Motor Manual Datasheet Motor Datasheet

Section 05
Thermocouple - Pyroelectric
O & M Manual Thermocouple Manual_100 series Thermocouple Manual_400 series Thermocouple Manual_500 series Drawing & Datasheet Thermocouple Drawing

Section 06
Electronic Level Switch Levelstate
O & M Manual Electronic Level Switch Manual Datasheet Electronic Level Switch Drawing

Section 07
DO2 Analyser - Emerson
O & M Manual DO2 Analyser Manual 1 DO2 Analyser Manual 2

Volume 5 Vendor Manuals

145

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Volume 6 Vendor Manuals


Chapters Covered in this Part Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

Volume 6 Vendor Manuals

146

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 01
In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers - CODEL
O & M Manual In-Situ Stack Gas Analysers_Manual

Section 02
Process Valve Xomox Sanmar
O & M Manual Process Valve_Manual Forged Gate, Globe & Check Valves_Manual LPBB Gate, Globe & Check Valves_Manual Stem Replacement Process Datasheet Process Valve Datasheet

Section 03
Motorised Valve Xomox Sanmar
O & M Manual Cast Steel Gate Valve Cast Steel Globe Valve Drawings Forged Motorised Valve Drawings PS Motorised Valve Drawings LPBB Motorised Valve Drawings

Section 04
Motorised Actuator - Auma
O & M Manual Motorised Actuator - Auma_Manual Wiring Diagram

Section 05
Blow Down Valve - BHEL
O & M Manual Blow Down Valve_Manual

Volume 6 Vendor Manuals

147

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Section 06
Pressure Gauge - Bourdon
O & M Manual Pressure Gauge Manual

Section 07
Temperature Gauge General Instrument
O & M Manual Temperature Gauge_Manual Datasheet Temperature Gauge Datasheet & Drawing

Section 08
Control Valve Fisher
O & M Manual HP control valve ET & EAT CV IOM EHD & EHT CV IOM ED CV IOM EWT CV IOM YD CV IOM 657 Actuator IOM 667 Actuator IOM 66760106020 Controller IOM DVC 6000 Series IOM Datasheet & Drawing Control valve Datasheet & Drawing

Volume 6 Vendor Manuals

148

Operation & Maintenance Manual

Index
A
Alarms and Trips .......................................... 95 Automatic Controls ....................................... 53 GENERAL PRINCIPAL OF WELD REPAIRS ..................................................116

H B
BOILER ANNUAL MAINTENANCE AND OVERHAUL ............................................. 105 Boiler Emergency Safety Procedures ............. 93 Boiler Log Sheet ........................................... 89 BOILER PRESERVATION PROCEDURE........................................... 107 Hot and Warm Start up of HRSG ................... 81 HP Attemperator Control ............................... 60 HP Boiler Components Description ................ 17 HP Boiler Feed water Control Station ............. 17 HP Drum.................................................20, 28 HP Economiser ............................................ 19 HP Evaporator.........................................23, 31 HP Main Steam line ...................................... 25 HP Superheater............................................ 24 HP/IP/LP Dosing System .............................. 10 HRSG Cold Start Up Curve ........................... 78 HRSG Emergency Trips ................................ 86 HRSG Operation Walk Down Checks............. 87 HRSG Shutdown .......................................... 86 HRSG Start Up & Pressurisation.................... 75 HRSG Start Up and Shut Down ..................... 63 HRSG System Protection .............................. 51

C
CBD Drain Temperature Control .................... 59 Charging & Operation Of CPH ....................... 80 Charging HP Steam to Reheater.................... 79 Charging IP steam to reheat.......................... 79 Chemicals for Dosing ...................................... 9 Condensate Pre heater (CPH) ....................... 33 CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN.......................... 6 Cooling of a Shutdown Boiler......................... 87 CPH Recirculation Temperature Control ......... 61

I
IP Boiler Feed water Control Station .............. 26 IP Economiser .............................................. 26 IP Line Back Pressure Control ....................... 61 IP Main Steam line........................................ 32 IP Section Components Description ............... 26 IP Superheater ............................................. 31

D
Description of HRSG Operation ..................... 16 Design Code .................................................. 4 Design Specications...................................... 2 Dissolved Gases ........................................ 129 Dissolved Salts and Minerals....................... 128 DoS and Donts For HRSG Operation ........... 87 Drain & Dosing System ................................. 45 Drum Level Control....................................... 53

L
Levels With Respect To Center Line................. 4 Log Sheet for HRSG ..................................... 89 LP Drum / Deaerator..................................... 35 LP Drum Pressure Control ............................ 60 LP Evaporator .............................................. 38 LP Feed Regulating Station........................... 35 LP Section Components Description .............. 33 LP Superheater ............................................ 38

E
Effects of Impurities .................................... 129 Emergency Procedures................................. 93 Evaporating Heating Surface Area ................... 6 Exhaust Gas Analysis ..................................... 6

F
Feed & Boiler Water Conditioning ................ 131 Flue Gas System .......................................... 43 FORCED COOLING ..................................... 87

M
Maintaining Quality Of Steam ........................ 42 Material Specications .................................... 4

G
GAUGE GLASS ........................................... 12

N
Natural Cooling............................................. 87

149

Operation & Maintenance Manual

O
OPERATION ................................................ 63 Operational Control....................................... 39 Operational Precautions For Safety ............... 95 Other Materials........................................... 129

Site Condition................................................. 9 Stack Damper .............................................. 13 Stack Temperature (CPH Bypass 3- Way) Control ....................................................... 59 Start up Vent (HP, IP & LP) Control ................ 61 Steam & Water System ................................. 17

P
Parallel HRSG To The Plant Steam Mains ......................................................... 80 pH Value of the Water and its Importance ............................................... 129 Planned Shutdown........................................ 86 Pressure Parts ............................................... 4 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ................... 100

T
Taking Reheater On Line............................... 79 Trouble Shooting Chart ................................. 96 Tube Failures ............................................... 95 TUBE THICKNESS SURVEY ...................... 106

U R
Recirculation Pump....................................... 10 Recommended Boiler Water Quality ................ 7 Recommended HP Feed Water Quality ............ 7 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE PRACTICES............................................. 100 Reheaters .................................................... 32 Relief Valves ................................................ 15 RH1 Attemperator Control ............................. 60 Undissolved and Suspended Solid Materials .................................................. 128 Utilities........................................................... 8

V
Valve Positions Chart For HP, IP & LP Section (Before Light Up) ............................ 66

S
Safety in Boiler House................................... 95 Safety Valves ............................................... 13 SCHEDULE OF INSPECTIONS FOR CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE........................................ 100 SECTION OVERVIEW ........................... 63, 100

W
Water And Steam Quality Control And Monitoring .................................................. 40 Water Chemistry......................................... 128 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS).......................... 107

150