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17

1.
U

1946
, ,
. ,
( ), , ,
, ,
, ..
-.
: .
2.
U

I ,
I = h I (I + 1) ,

h , I , 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, ...[13].


Z , N =Z+N.
:
I=0, A N Z (: 42, 126C, 168O,
32
40
16S,
2 0Ca, );
I=1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ... (: 11, 32He, 73Li, 136C,
17
31
80O, 15 P, );
I=1, 2, 3 ... A N Z (: 21D, 105B,
14
7N, ).
I 0 6.
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, , PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

PB

he ,
2m ec

e me ,
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c . , , I (. 2). I
I :
I = I ,

(1)

,
.
I
I Z (, H 0 Z )

B

I z= h mI ,

Iz = h mI ,
B

mI , mI=I, I-1,,-I (2I+1)


. . 1 I=3/2.
, , :
B

= I z max = h I = gI I ,
B

gI g-,
B

B
he
=
2 m p c 1836

(2)

, e

mp .
, , ,
(p) ,
(n) . ,
B

p = (2.7928456 0.00000011) ,
n = -(1.913148 0.0000066) .
B

, (-2 6).

, ,
. , , (. 2).
B

3.
U

1.
, I I [1, 2, 4]. (. 2)
, I
H 0 (. 1):
U

W = I H 0 = hm I H 0

(3)

mI = -3 / 2

3/2 h H0

mI = -1 / 2

1/2 h H0

mI = 1 / 2

-1/2 h H0

mI = 3 / 2

-3/2 h H0

H0

. 1.
: I=3/2 H 0 ,

b .
, . mI=1.
, , , , :
W& = h H 0 = h 0 ,
. ,
I=1/2,
: +1/2 -1/2.
H 0 , . ,
mI 1,
B

H1 , ,
H 0 .
, . , I I , H 0 , N = I H 0

I I
(. .2):

] [

] [ ]

dI
= I H 0 = I H 0 = 0 I ,
dt

0 = H 0 .

b
H0

H0

H1

. 2

1 :
H 0 , b H 0 B

H 1 .

=Const, ,
(. (3)):

W = I H 0 = I H 0 Cos .

( H0

, Z
Z ), XY , 4

0 (. 2b), =0 N 1 = I H 1 .
W, ..
. H 1 , , , N 1
. , , H 1 .
B

2.
U

, , ,
, , .
, , , , , , ( 1S0-
10-). [1, 2, 4,
5].
, ,
.
, -
,
, .

( ), .
,
, ..
W :
P

N W = Const e

W
kT

(5)

k , . I=1/2 H 0 5

: + -. W (2) (3) - 0
+ 0. , 10 B

, 0.01o K
P

W H 0
=
<< 1 , kT
kT

(5) .
:
N H0
1 +
2
kT

H
N
0
,
N = 1
2
kT

N+ =

N . N+ N, . , , ( =2.67104 -1 -1) =104 =300 K


B

2 H 0
N+
= 1+
= 1 + 7 10 6 ,
N
kT

.. 2106 7
.
,

M Z H 0 ,
(. 3):
P

M Z = ( N + N ) =

N 2 H 0
kT

(6)

I
N 2 h 2 I (I + 1)H 0
,
3kT

M Z = 0 H 0 =

(7)

0 . ,
0 : , ,
1 3 0 = 3 10-10 GS.
, H 0
B

M Z .
, ,
, , ,
6

,
, ,
.
a
H0

b
H0

MZ

M
H1

MY

MX
X

. 3. M : a
, b : .

M Z . Z
H 0 M Z , ,
1 -
. , , , Z=0. , (. (5)),
M Z H 0 . 1
, . , ,
1.

. , ,
H 0 Z, XY B

H 1 (1<<H0), , :
B

H X = H 1 Cost ,

H Y = H 1 Sint

(8)

( m H ).
, H X = 2 H 1 Cost , , (. (8)).
, .
H 1 , , ..
H 0 ,
B

M
H 0 , .. XY 1, ,
, X Y MX
MY (. 3b). .
H 1 , M T2 ,
- . ,
( H 1 )
, -
, , - .
, M
M .
M .
- 2
,
1 / T2 .
. 1.
B

3.
U

, M ,
[1, 2, 4,
5]:

[ ]

dM
MX
M
M M0
= M H i
j Y k Z
,
dt
T2
T2
T1

(9)

i , j , k ,
X, Y, Z. :
HZ = H0 ,

H X = H 1Cost ,

H Y = m H 1 Sint ,

, X 'Y ', ..
H 1 (. . 4),
P

M X = u Cost v Sint ,

(10)

M Y = m u Sint + v Cost ,

(9) :
u& +

u
+ v = 0 ,
T2

v& +

v
u + H 1 M Z = 0 ,
T2

(11)

M
M
M& Z + Z H 1v = 0 ,
T1
T1

=||H- , u v . (10)
3 4, M ,
Z, ..
H 1 ;

v u. v , , -

Y'
-v
M

MY

MX
u

H1
X'

. 4. M (XY) (X'Y') . > 0 H 1


9 .
B

. u,
/2 , .
(9) (11) ,
. , u& = v& = M& Z = 0 . .
v=
u=

H 1T2 M 0
1 + ( T2 )2 + 2 H 12T1T2

H 1 T 2 M 0
2

1 + ( T2 )2 + 2 H 12T1T2

[1 + ( T ) ]
2

MZ =

M0

1 + ( T2 ) + H 12T1T2
2

(12)

-v

0.6
0.2
-4

-2

T2

0.6
0.2
-4

-2

T2

. 5 : a , b .

(12) , v
, u
10

. v u . 5. (12) , u v T1, 2, H 1 2 H 12T1T2 , . 2 H 12T1T2 = 1


B

v vmax = M 0 2 T1 T .
2

2
2
H 1 T1T2 , v 0 ,
umax = M 0 2 T1 T . 2

, .
1 =
2

1
1 + 2 H 12T1T2 .
2

(13)

(13) , H 1 ( 2 H 12T1T2 << 1 )


T2.
B

-v

0
1

T2

T2

. 6 : a , b .
a T2

H Z 11

, = ||HZ - .
B

a=

dH Z

dt

aT2 <

1
, (12)
2

.
( a T2 > 1 / 2 ), (. . 6).
H 1 (t)= HZ(t),
. , . 6, Q ( 0, 1, 2) v u , .
B

4.
U


: [1, 2].

: H 0 H 1 . .
. ,
, . ,
100 120 .
.
M , , ,
H 0
(. (6), (7), (12)),
,
H0 .

,
,
. 12

, ,

H / H 0 . , ,
. , , .
0,01
5104 10 200 .
( 500 ) , - :
, [2, 5, 6].

.
P

1. Q-
U

Q- [1, 2], -
. 7.
, ,

. . , :
H Z = H 0 H X = 2 H 1Cost .
.
,
(X Y) , ,
,
B

= 4 S n M& X ,

S , n , =

V
V

. , -

, , ,
, (10) :
13

i=

4 Sn
R

(uSint + vCost ) ,

R . :
Uc =

Q =

1
Rc

L
R

1
idt = Q 4 Sn (uCost vSint )
c

(15)

, C L -

. 7 - : a Q-, b . : 1 , 2
.., 3 .., 4 .., 6 , 7
14

.., 8 .., 9 ..

Uc v u U .
Uc/U10-3I0-5. .
, , . v u /2, , .

, . , Uc, (15), , :
B

U = ASin (t + ) .

, .. , ,
>>1/
:

U g = U cU dt .

(16)

(16) Uc Uo , >>1 ,
:
B

U g ~ ( u Sin v Cos ) .

(17)

=0, v,
=/2, u. Q- ,
, . ,
, :
. , ,
100 % , .
15

2.
U

-
(. 7b) [6].
, , .
:
H Z = H0

H X = 2 H 1Cost .

, H0 ,

p.

H Z = H 0 + H p Cos pt , , p
B

1/T2<<p<<. - , , M ,
. ,
,
p. H1<<p, , ,
(11) :
B

u + jv = H 1T2 M 0

k ,n

= H 0 , =

n ( )k ( )[( + np )T2 j ]exp[ j (n k ) pt ]


,
2
1 + ( + np ) T22 + 2 H 12T1T2 2n ( )

Hp
p

(18)

, n() B

n- , n k . (18) ,
= 0 np = 0 ,
.. :
H0 =

H0 =

np
,

(19)

. 8. (18) , , (19), . [j(n-k)t], , ,


H 1 , ,
, .
16

+p

+2p

(u 2+v 2)1/2

- 2p

-p

+p

+ 2p

H0

. 8 ,
, ,
.

, np
, 100 % .
. 8 , . v u , .
,

, p,
v u (. (18)).
v u .. .. .. :
U / = B Sin ( pt + ) .

, . , ,
/ .
.
17

5.
U


. ,
( ),
( ) [2, 4].
- , -
,
.
. 1.
1.
U

, ,

H 0 [2,
4].
,
-
(. 4), , .
H 0
( )
H 0 , H = H 0 . ,
, ,
= H 0 ( 1 ) ,

(20)

. (20) ,
, , ,

H 0 . - :
18

H H
= .
H

(21)

S0-

.
H 0 .
. ,
, . ,
:
, ;
, ; , . , , , ,
,
.
. 9 , (CH3CH2OH) 10-6;
(3), (CH2) () . 3:2:1,
.

, , :
B

= + ,

,
. , ,
,
.
B

19

CH3

CH2

OH

a
H0

b
H0

. 9 , (CH3CH2OH): a
10-6 ; b 10-8.
B


10-5 , 10 100
.
,

. , . , , , , , , .
.
P

2.
U

, ,

().
,
: ,
[2, 4]. . 9b
(CH3CH2OH), (10-8),
. 9.

B

20

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, ,
- -
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-
.
- HD,
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,
(. . 10).

. 10. .

,
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.
HD 2 (I=1/2), 2 .
I=1 3 (. 11). , - -
.
H 0 ,
,
, H 0 .
-
12 I 1 I 2 , I1 I2 , a 12 B

21

- , . 12 1000 .
-
.
B

HD

HD

HD

/ 2

. 11. HD.

, .
, , ,
, n
I1 I2
(2nI1+1) . , . .
B

H'
H''
H'''
Z

+3/2

-3/2

-1/2

+1/2

. 12. PH3
B

(P3),
() I=1/2
(I=1/2): '"'", .

B

22

H 0 (. 12). IZ
4 . , .. P
.
,
1:3:3:1 (. 13). P I=1/2 , , .
.
B

HP

HP

HP

HP

/ 2

/ 2
. 13 : a H; b
P

, .
, , - . ,
.
, . 9b: 2
(3) (2) 3 (22+1=3), 3
4 (23+1=4). ()
.
, B

23

, .
. ,
. H 0
H 0 ,
.
6.
U

[1].
H 0 (4) , , (2) I, . , , 10-5, , h.
H 0 . :
P

01 1 1 I 2
.
=
=
02 2 2 I 1

(22)

I1 I2,
1/2 . ,
1, Li7, Na23.
10-6.
.
.. H 1 X, , Y. Y (. (10)), ..
.
0=Const.
1 , H 0 , , 2 ,
B

24

2 , , 2.

.
,
. 5, , , ,
. , I1 I2, n I2, , I1 2nI1+1 . , .
.
B

7.
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: ; 4000 ; 310-6;
16,2 2,5 ;
H D. (. 14):
1. .
2. : ) .. ; ) ; ) () ; ) .
3. , 1.
4. .. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. ().
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. H.
15. .
16. , ( P

25

3 8).

. 14. .

1.
U

2 H 0 , 1.
( 1 5 ) . 10
2. H 0 . , H 0
. 15. .. H 1 , 26

, ..
3. 2 . ..
0=H0 ,
, ,
H 0
. , .. , .
,
(. 4). H 0 p
2. 8. p 14. ,
B

H 0 = np , n = 0, 1, 2, ,

.. .. ,
( ). ( n=2
..).

c = o kp , k = 0, 1, 2, .


=Hp/p. 0/(2)=16200
, p/(2)=37 . , , 6 :
B

0
=
= 16200 (n = 0, );
2 2
0
p
=

= 16194 (n = -1, );
2 2 2
0
p
=
+
= 16206 (n = 1, ).
2 2 2

27

16200
16194
c
= 16206
2
16138

16212

k =0
k = 1
k = 1 ..
k = 2
k =2

, 4 . ..
5 p. (
n=0, k=m1; n=-1, k=0, -2; n=1, k=0, 2). (u v) c 6 p.
, 8, 7.
6 9 ().
.. 3
.. 8. 12.
16.
( )
2, - , , .
, ,
B

H Z' = a1i1 x + a2 i2 y + a3i3 z + a4 i4 z 2

in - n- , an- ,
.
() 0 .
B

2.
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: ; ;
; , ; p 14; 15; , 16.
H1, B

28

4-74. 2 , .
,
16,2 2,5 ( H D ). p (5) 2-4. , . . 2-4
p/(2).
C1-19 .
B

1.
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1. .
2.
2 .
3. .
4. 1.
5. H.
6. .. 16,2 , 300
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8. p/(2) 6 , 1.
9. .
10.
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11. .
(. . 15). , 5 ( . 14),
.
29

12. .. .
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13. . . ,
( ), .

a
b
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14. .
, ( ) .
1 2.
2.
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2,
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15. / , 2.
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30

2. -

1. .

.
2

2 1

2
2 2

n , ( )
. (


).
2 n

2.
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,
.
, .
B

1.
M M : ?
?
2.
?
3. : v
u?
4. ?
5. ?
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6. ? , -.
7. 157 N p1/2.
B

31


1.
2.
3.
4.

. . - .: , 1957.
.. . - .: , 1963.
.. . - .: , 1973.
., ., . . - .: , 1962.
5. .., .., .. . - .: , 1972.
6. -. - .: , 1964.
7. .. . T. 1. - M.:
, 1974.

1
U

1.
U

, ,
, .. [1, 2, 4].
. ,
- .
H , H 0 .
H Z :
H Z = H0

I
ri

(3Cos
2

1 ,

(I)

ri , i ri
B

H 0 . (1) , , , ~ H .
- , 32

,
H 0
.
, ,
, , , .
, .. -
, .
H .
, , ,
H (t ) . ,
,
, .

- ,
.
. , , , :
t T1 1 .
I>1/2 , .

.

H 0 .
- ,
, .
, .
H 1 (. (12)).

33

1
.
T2

(II)

1
1
+ H = * ,
T2
T2

(III)

T2* ,
, ,
2 (III) ,
(III).
, , -, , (10-31) .
,
. ,
- .. , - ,
.
B

2. T1 T2
U

UB

UB

UB

UB


, , ( ) . ,
,
. , ,
2
(t )
n( ) = H

2 c
,
1 + 2 c2

(IV)

c , ,
[1, 2, 4].
(c ~ / , , ).
,
B

34

, , - 2 (. (II)).
- 1 . 1 0, , ,
. w,
1,
0 , :
B

w~

1
2
(t ) 2 c2 2 .
~ n(0 ) = H
T1
1 + 0 c

(V)

, T1 T2
(V), 0 c . ,
- T1 T2 :
B

1
3 h 2 4
=
T1 10 r06

c
4 c
+
,

2 2
2 2
1 + 0 c 1 + 40 c

1
3 h 2 4
=
T2 20 r06

5 c
2 c
+
3 c +
,
2 2
1 + 0 c 1 + 402 c2

(VI)

r0 . (VI)
, 0c<<1, ..
,
B

1 1 3 h 2 4
= =
c .
T1 T2 2 r06

(VII)

, 1 2
- . c (..
) 1 2
.
(VI) (VII) ,
2 , ..
1 2
.
, H (t ) ,
(V),
B

35

1 2.
1 2 :
B

2
2
1 4 N p
,
=
T1
kT

(VIII)

2
Np 1 3,

. Np , 3 .
-

, ,
.
, 1 10-5 .
2<<1, 2 1, .. .
B

2
U

1. :
1) - (Z , ) : I 0, =0.
, ,

.
2) (-
-) . ,
, ,
.

- ,
. U

36

( ). , ,
, . , ~3 ,
~1 .
, , .
, , ,
:
00 =

( j

j 0 | m1m2 0 ) j1m1 j2 m2 ,

1 2

m1m2

j1m1 j2 m2 , j1 j2 , m1 m2 Z.
, ,
j1m1 j2 m2 . . 16 17 .
. ,
j m
B

j m (. 16a).

m1

m2

m2

|m1 | = |m2 |

m1 = - m2
.

m1

16. :
a m1 = - m2;
b |m1| = | m2 |.
B

37

m=2

m=1

. 17. :
a m1= 2, m2= 1 ; b .
B

(l1 = l2) ,
: S1=-S2. (m1=-m2)
( ) m1-m2. ,
,
,
,
( ), .
( ) .

. 1937 .
B

= j = l + s

gl=1, gS=5,5886 gl=0,


gS=-3,8263,
(. 3 [7]).
B

I =l+

1
,
2

1
I =l ,
2

1
2

= p ,n + g l ( p , n ) I ,
I
3

=
p ,n + g l ( p , n ) I + .
I +1
2

(I)

p,n
, , B

38

. (I) , S l l .

, p1/2 (l=1, I=1/2) =0,64 (


=-1,91).
136C (=0,70). 157 N . ,
136C ( 157 N ) () p1/2, 136C (1s1/2)4(1p3/2)81p1/2 (. [7]).
(I) (. [7]),
,
,
. , 136C 157 N .
. , .

. , , , , .


. (.: .. . - .:
, 1967, . 13, . 2 . 116, . 2). ,
- ,
,
. - .
, .
- S-, .
, ,
. , ,
, .
B

39

, + .

, .
3
U


:
j = l + s , l = g l l , s = g s s .

j = l+s,

. 18 ( s ), ( l ) ( j ) (), s , l j .

j*

j
S

l l

. 18. s l
j , j .

gl gs , j j
B

. l s
40

j . j . s , l
j
j .
j* j j , ().
. 18,
s 2 = l 2 + j 2 2ljCos( lj ) ,

l 2 = s 2 + j 2 2 sjCos( sj ) .

lCos(lj ) =

j 2 + l2 s2
,
2j

sCos(sj ) =

j 2 + s2 l2
.
2j

j j
(. 18):
B

j* = [g l lCos (lj ) + g s sCos( sj )] ,

(l j) l j , (s j)
s j . (I),

j = gl
*

j 2 + l2 s2
j 2 + s2 l2
+ gs
=
2j
2j

g + gs
l2 s2
= l
+ ( gl g s )
j .
2 j2
2

j = I j* = I , I I . s=1/2,
r

l(l + 1) 3 / 4 r
gl g s
+ ( gl g s )
I .
2 I ( I + 1)
2

I =

I , ,
41

mIh |mI|
I. I (. 1)
I Z max ( ),
, :
B

l(l + 1) 3 / 4
gl + g s
+ ( gl g s )
I = g I I .
2 I ( I + 1)
2

gl=1, gs=5,5886 gl=0, gs=-3,8263 , .


B

1
1
I =l+ ,
= p ,n + g l ( I ) ,
2
2
1
I
{ p ,n + g l ( I + 3 ) }.
=
I =l ,
2
2
I +1

p,n ,
.
B

4
U

,
U

1
1.
2.
3.

4.

H2O c CuSO4

H2O

C2H5OH
B

CH3C00H
B

H
H

H
O

|
|
C C O H
|
|

||
|
C C O H
|
H

42

H
C

5.

H
H

C6H12

H
C

H
H

C6H6

C
H

H
6.

O
P

(H)2P(H)O
B

H
H

7.

H
H

(CH3O)2P(H)O
B

H
B

P
H

H
H H
H
8.

(2H5O)2P(H)O
B

H
H

H
H

O
P

. 3 8
.

43