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TRAINING REPORT

On

TOLL PLAZA CONTROLLER SYSTEM


Submitted for partial fulfillment Of B. Tech. in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED TO: Er. Sunny Sachdeva ECE Department SUBMITTED BY: Pushpa(4308156) ECE Pooja(4308144) Pinkesh(4309316) Shivani(4309315) ECE 4th Year

(Affiliated to Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra) (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi)

Certificate
This is to certify that this major project on TOLL PLAZA CONTROLLER has been Successfully developed by Pushpa(4308156),pooja(4308144),pinkesh(4309316) & Shivani(4309315) of Electronics and Communication discipline, Final Year, under the guidance of Er.Sunny sachdeva .This project is dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for B.Tech.in Electronics and Communication discipline.The project is in working condition. During this project these students were sincere,hardworking and fully devoted to work.

PREFACE
We feel immense pleasure in presenting our major project report on TOLL PLAZA CONTROLLER. This session has proved to be a very productive and enjoyable experience ofour career. It has proven to be great opportunity to enhance our skills and also add to This project presents a clear-cut record of what we had learnt during our degree incollege. We have successfully finished our project in the stipulated time that is of one semester. This report is an attempt to give a best possible description of this project.We hope that this report will be worth the meticulous effort put in to it and will favorably be received by the concerned authorities.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The contentment and the exhilaration we feel in completion ofTOLL PLAZA CONTROLLERWould be curtailed if the names of those people whose indispensable guidance andencouragement crowned our efforts with success.We take this opportunity to thank our Mr. Naresh kumar, H.O.D., Electronics and Communication Dept.for his support.We express our earnest sense of gratitude to my project Incharge Er. Sunny sachdeva his valuable guidance, support, and encouragement, without whose supervision itwould not have been possible to complete this project in the college itself.We also take this opportunity to thank our project guide for his Last but not least our sincere thanks to the teaching and non-teaching staff that havedirectly or in-directly helped us in the completion of this project.

Contents
Preface Acknowledgements 1. Introduction...1 1.1. Brief description 1.2. Block Diagram 1.3. Circuit Diagram 2. Circuit Description.4 2.1. basic of microcontroller 2.2. rfid technology 2.3. pic microcontroller 3. Components used...8 3.1. Component list 3.2. Components description 4. Circuit Layout/PCB...19 4.1. circuit layout 4.2. PCB wired diagram 4.4. working project diagram 5. Working..21 5.1. working of project 6. Applications and Limitations..22 7. Conclusions.....24 Appendices Reference. ..25 Cost Detail..28 Software used.29

CHAPTER: 1

TOLL PLAZA CONTROLLER


OBJECTIVE:
* To design and implement practically an automated Toll Plaza Collector that deducts the balance from the rfid cards of vehicles passing through it. * To understand about the proper functioning of TOLL PLAZAs real world operation.

1.1

INTRODUCTION:

Electronic/automated toll collection systems are very popular these days. They do not require manual collection and operation of toll barriers. The details about the vehicles and payment are stored in an RFID based system. This article explains the working of a simple toll plaza system interfaced with RFID. Each user holds a unique ID for his vehicle. When the user scans his tag while passing through the plaza, a certain amount is deducted from his account.. The project has been developed by interfacing RFID with PIC 16F877A Microcontroller. The relevant messages are also displayed on a 162 LCD.

FEATURES: Only vehicles with proper rfid configuration tags and vehicles that are already

registered with sub-system are allowed to pass through. Balance gets deducted without Human involvement i.e an automated system for balance deduction. Vehicles can cross from plazas easily without any halt, rather plazas can be crossed at normal running speed of vehicles. Balance deducted and remaining balance is displayed on the screen for ease of the User.

1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Block diagram of toll plaza controller system.

WORKING:
An RFID (radio frequency identifier) module basically consists of a RF(radio frequency) transmitter, a RF receiver ,a RF tag(Transponder) and an antenna. The unique id of the user is stored within the RF Tag which is neede to be transmitted for further access. The unique id of the user RF tag is transmitted with an transmitter, whereas a RF receiver receives and interprets the same. The transponder contains a chip and an antenna mounted on a substrate. The chip transmits the relevant information through antenna. The antenna also receives the electromagnetic waves sent by the RFID reader. The unique ID of the user along with the balance, the user had in his account is stored within the EEPROM of our controller PIC 16F877A.

If RF tag is not used yet, LCD must display SCAN YOUR ID.
The user id interpreted from the RFID tag is compared with those IDs, which are already stored in EEPROM.

* If user ID matches to any of the ID stored within EEPROM, a GRREN LED glows along with Balance being deducted i.e Rs 10/- and remaining balance on the LCD screen. GREEN LED indicates that the user ID has been successfully operated upon the machine and he/she can cross the plaza now. * If user ID does not matches to any of the ID stored within EEPROM, a RED LED glows along with a message that USER ID DIDNT MATCHED, PAY THE TOLL MANUALLY on the LCD screen. RED LED indicates that the user ID didnt matched and he/she cannot cross the plaza now, prior to manual payment.

If user ID matches with database but he/she has balance lower than Rs 50/- in his
account, a message along with balance will be displayed i.e PLEASE RECHARGE YOUR CARD SOON on LCD

If user ID matches with database but he/she has balance lower than Rs 10/- in his account, a message will be displayed LOW BALANCE, RECHARGE YOUR CARD on LCD with RED LED.

1.3 Circuit diagram:

Fig.2.circuit diagram of toll plaza controller system

CHAPTER 2
2.1 Basics of microcontroller:
A microcontroller is a device use for specific purpose or for a dedicated task only. This is the CPU (central processing unit) of our project. We are going to use a microcontroller of 8051 family. The various functions of microcontroller are like I. Reading the digital input from two infrared receivers and calculate the number of persons from them. Counter done the job of counting-I Sending this data to LCD so that the person operating this project should read the number of persons inside the room. And switch on the buzzer alarm when room will be completely filled with persons.

2.2 RFID TECHNOLOGY:


RFID is a tracking technology used to identify and authenticate tags that are applied to any product, individual or animal. Radio frequency Identification and Detection is a general term used for technologies that make use of radio waves in order to identify objects and people. Purpose of Radio frequency Identification and Detection system is to facilitate data transmission through the portable device known as tag that is read with the help of RFID reader; and process it as per the needs of an application. Here I have used this technology to transfer details about the account maintained within the toll subsystem of the vehicle users card.

2.3 PIC MICRICONTROLLER:


PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. Microchip announced on February 2008 the shipment of its six billionth PIC processor.[The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement indirect jumps).There is no distinction between memory space and register space because

the RAM serves the job of both memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers.

Advantages:
The PIC architectures have these advantages:
Small instruction set to learn RISC architecture Built in oscillator with selectable speeds Easy entry level, in circuit programming plus in circuit debugging PICKit units available from Microchip.com for less than $50 Inexpensive microcontrollers Wide range of interfaces including I2C, SPI, USB, USART, A/D, programmable Comparators, PWM, LIN, CAN, PSP, and Ethernet

Limitations:
The PIC architectures have these limitations: One accumulator Register-bank switching is required to access the entire RAM of many devices Operations and registers are not orthogonal; some instructions can address RAM and/or immediate constants, while others can only use the accumulator

The following stack limitations have been addressed in the PIC18 series, but still apply to earlier cores: The hardware call stack is not addressable, so preemptive task switching cannot be implemented Software-implemented stacks are not efficient, so it is difficult to generate reentrant code and support local variables

With paged program memory, there are two page sizes to worry about: one for CALL and GOTO and another for computed GOTO (typically used for table lookups). For example, on PIC16, CALL and GOTO have 11 bits of addressing, so the page size is 2048 instruction words. For computed GOTOs, where you add to PCL, the page size is 256 instruction words. In both cases, the upper address bits are provided by the PCLATH register. This register must be changed every time control transfers between pages. PCLATH must also be preserved by any interrupt handler.[8]

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14-bit PIC instruction set:


Opcode (binary)
00 0000 0000 0000 00 0000 0000 1000 00 0000 0000 1001 00 0000 0110 0010 00 0000 0110 0011 00 0000 0110 0100 00 0000 0110 01ff 00 0000 1 fffffff 00 0001 0 xxxxxxx 00 0001 1 fffffff 00 0010 d fffffff 00 0011 d fffffff 00 0100 d fffffff 00 0101 d fffffff 00 0110 d fffffff 00 0111 d fffffff 00 1000 d fffffff 00 1001 d fffffff 00 1010 d fffffff 00 1011 d fffffff 00 1100 d fffffff 00 1101 d fffffff 00 1110 d fffffff 00 1111 d fffffff 01 00 bbb fffffff

Mnemonic NOP RETURN RETFIE OPTION SLEEP CLRWDT TRIS f MOVWF f CLRW CLRF f SUBWF f, d DECF f, d IORWF f, d ANDWF f, d XORWF f, d ADDWF f, d MOVF f, d COMF f, d INCF f, d DECFSZ f, d RRF f, d RLF f, d SWAPF f, d INCFSZ f, d

Description No operation Return from subroutine, W unchanged Return from interrupt Write W to OPTION register Go into standby mode Reset watchdog timer Write W to tristate register f Move W to f Clear W to 0 (W = 0) Clear f to 0 (f = 0) Subtract W from f (d = f W) Decrement f (d = f 1) Inclusive OR W with F (d = f OR W) AND W with F (d = f AND W) Exclusive OR W with F (d = f XOR W) Add W with F (d = f + W) Move F (d = f) Complement f (d = NOT f) Increment f (d = f + 1) Decrement f (d = f 1) and skip if zero Rotate right F (rotate right through carry) Rotate left F (rotate left through carry) Swap 4-bit halves of f (d = f<<4 | f>>4) Increment f (d = f + 1) and skip if zero Bit clear f (Clear bit b of f) Bit set f (Set bit b of f) Bit test f, skip if clear (Test bit b of f) Bit test f, skip if set (Test bit b of f) Save return address, load PC with k Jump to address k (11bits) Move literal to W (W = k) Set W to k and return Inclusive or literal with W (W = k OR W) AND literal with W (W = k AND W) 11

BCF f, b 01 01 bbb fffffff BSF f, b 01 10 bbb fffffff BTFSC f, b 01 11 bbb fffffff BTFSS f, b CALL k 10 1 kkkkkkkkkkk GOTO k
10 0 kkkkkkkkkkk

MOVLW k RETLW k 11 1000 kkkkkkkk IORLW k 11 1001 kkkkkkkk ANDLW k


11 00xx kkkkkkkk 11 01xx kkkkkkkk

XORLW k SUBLW k 11 111x kkkkkkkk ADDLW k


11 1010 kkkkkkkk 11 110x kkkkkkkk

Exclusive or literal with W (W = k XOR W) Subtract W from literal (W = k W) Add literal to W (W = k + W)

CHAPTER 3: Component used:

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PIC16F877A chip

Potentiometer Reset LCD Buzzer Oscillator Power supply IC LED Resistors Diode Connectors

RESET:

Capastor

Rfid card Relay

A device RESET forces all registers to their RESET state. This forces the A/D module to be turned off, and any conversion is aborted. All A/D input pins are configured as analog inputs. The value that is in the ADRESH: ADRESL registers is not modified for a Poweron Reset. The ADRESH: ADRESL registers will contain unknown data after a Power-on Reset.

DEBUGGER RESOURCES:
To use the In-Circuit Debugger function of the microcontroller, the design must implement In-Circuit Serial Programming connections to MCLR/VPP, VDD, GND, RB7 and RB6. This will interface to the In-Circuit Debugger module available from Microchip, or one of the third party development tool companies. Program Verification/Code Protection If the code protection bit(s) have not been programmed, the on-chip program memory

SENSORS:

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A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards.

Use:
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics. A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 C, the sensitivity is 1 cm/C (it is basically the slope Dy/Dx assuming a linear characteristic). Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages.

RELAY:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB.

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When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device, activated by the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a solenoid. An optocoupler (a lightemitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and controll.

Fig. 4 Four pin relay Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay will switch one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways: Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form A contact or "make" contact. NO contacts can also be distinguished as "early-make" or NOEM, which means that the contacts will close before the button or switch is fully engaged. Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form B contact or "break" contact. NC contacts can also be distinguished as "late-break" or NCLB,

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which means that the contacts will stay, closed until the button or switch is fully disengaged. Change-over (CO), or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a Form C contact or "transfer" contact ("break before make"). If this type of contact utilizesmake before break" functionality, then it is called a Form D contact. Note that this relay has slightly larger connectors for the main power side (numbered 3 & 5), and smaller connectors for the side that taps into switched power (numbered 1 & 2). Here's a typical schematic:

Fig 4.5 Relay pins schematic.


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Fig.5.relay pins connections

Applications:
Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers, Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an automobile, Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines circuit breakers

OSCILATOR:
An oscillator is a mechanical or electronic device that works on the principles of oscillation: a periodic fluctuation between two things based on changes in energy. Computers, clocks, watches, radios, and metal detectors are among the many devices that use oscillators. A clock pendulum is a simple type of mechanical oscillator. The most accurate timepiece in the world, the atomic clock, keeps time according to the oscillation within atoms. Electronic oscillators are used to generate signals in computers, wireless receivers and transmitters, and audio-frequency equipment, particularly music synthesizers. There are many types of electronic oscillators, but they all operate according to the same basic principle: an oscillator always employs a sensitive amplifier whose output is fed back to the input in phase. Thus, the signal regenerates and sustains itself. This is known as positive feedback. It is the same process that sometimes causes unwanted "howling" in public-address systems. The frequency at which an oscillator works is usually determined by a quartz crystal. When a direct current is applied to such a crystal, it vibrates at a frequency that depends on its thickness, and on the manner in which it is cut from the original mineral rock. Some oscillators employ combinations of inductors, resistors, and/or capacitors to determine the frequency. However, the best stability (constancy of frequency) is obtained in oscillators that use quartz crystals. In a computer, a specialized oscillator, called the clock, serves as a sort of pacemaker for the microprocessor. The clock frequency (or clock speed) is usually specified in megahertz (MHz), and is an important factor in determining the rate at which a computer can perform instructions.

LCD:
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.

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They are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are usually more compact, lightweight, portable, less expensive, more reliable, and easier on the eyes. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not use phosphors, they cannot suffer image burn-in.LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, the discovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888.[1] By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.LCD with top polarizer removed from device and placed on top, such that the top and bottom polarizers are parallel. The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy, however, because of small variations of thickness across the device. Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If an electric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided either by applying an alternating current or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed (the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the applied . As LCD panels produce no light of their own, they require an external lighting mechanism to be easily visible. On most displays, this consists of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp that is situated behind the LCD panel. Passive-matrix displays are usually not backlit, but active-matrix displays almost always are, with a few exceptions

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Fig.6. 16 port lcd display. A general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters. LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocket calculators, have individual electrical contacts for each segment. An external dedicated circuit supplies an electric charge to control each segment. This display structure is unwieldy for more than a few display elements.

Fig.7. Working project lcd Small monochrome displays such as those found in personal organizers, electronic weighing scales, older laptop screens, and the original Nintendo Game Boy have a passivematrix structure employing super-twisted nematic (STN)[19] or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology (the latter of which addresses a colour-shifting problem with the former), and colour-STN (CSTN) in which colour is added by using an internal filter. Each row or column of the display has a single electrical circuit. The pixels are addressed 19

.Advantages and disadvantages of LCD:


Very compact and light. Low power consumption. No geometric distortion. Little or no flicker depending on backlight technology. Not affected by screen burn-in. No high voltage or other hazards present during repair/service. Can be made in almost any size or shape. No theoretical resolution limit.

BUZZER:
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke. A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer. Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric bell without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical buzzers made. A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep.

Uses:

Annunciator panels Electronic metronomes Game shows Microwave ovens and other household appliances Sporting events such as basketball games

A buzzer or beeper is a signalling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. It most commonly consists of a number of switches or sensors connected to a control unit that determines if and which button was pushed or a preset time has lapsed, and usually illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel, and sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound. Initially this device was based on an electromechanical system which was identical to an electric bell without the metal gong

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(which makes the ringing noise). Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling and used the ceiling or wall as a sounding board. Another implementation with some ACconnected devices was to implement a circuit to make the AC current into a noise loud enough to drive a loudspeaker and hook this circuit up to a cheap 8-ohm speaker. Nowadays, it is more popular to use a ceramic-based piezoelectric sounder which makes a high-pitched tone. Usually these were hooked up to "driver" circuits which varied the pitch of the sound or pulsed the sound on and off. In game shows it is also known as a "lockout system," because when one person signals ("buzzes in"), all others are locked out from signalling.Several game shows have large buzzer buttons which are identified as "plungers". The buzzer is also used to signal wrong answers and when time expires on many game shows, such as Wheel of Fortune, Family Feud and The Price is Right. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that buzzers made when they were electromechanical devices, operated from stepped-down AC line voltage at 50 or 60 cycles. Other sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a ring or a beep.

Device programmers:

Fig. 8. A development board for low pin-count MCU from Microchip. Devices called "progrramers" are traditionally used to get program code into the target PIC. Most PICs that Microchip currently sells (In Circuit Serial Programming) and/or (Low Voltage Programming) capabilities, allowing the PIC to be programmed while it is sitting 21

in the target circuit. ICSP programming is performed using two pins, clock and data, while a high voltage (12V) is present on the Vpp/MCLR pin. Low voltage programming dispenses with the high voltage, but reserves exclusive use of an I/O pin and can therefore be disabled to recover the pin for other uses (once disabled it can only be re-enabled using high voltage programming).

Fig. 9: Microchip PICSTART Plus programmer

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Programmers/debuggers are available directly from Microchip. Third party programmers range from plans to build your own, to self-assembly kits and fully tested ready-to-go units. Some are simple designs which require a PC to do the low-level programming signalling (these typically connect to the serial or parralel port and consist of a few simple components), while others have the programming logic built into them (these typically use a serial or USB connection, are usually faster, and are often built using PICs themselves for control). The major problem of home-made or very simple programmers is that these programmers do not comply with programming specifications and this can Debugging PICKit 2 has been an interesting PIC programmer from Microchip. It can program all as of May-2009, only the PIC32 family is not PICs and debug most of the PICs (supported for MPLAB debugging). Ever since its first releases, all software source code (firmware, PC application) and hardware schematic are open to the public. This makes it relatively easy for an end user to modify the programmer for use with a non-Windows operating system such as Linux or Mac OS. In the mean time, it also creates lots of DIY interest and clones. This open source structure brings many features to the PICKit 2 community such as Programmer-to-Go, the UART Tool and the Logic Tool, which have been contributed by PICKit 2 users. Users have also added such features to the PICKit 2 as 4MB Programmer-to-go capability, USB buck/boost circuits, RJ12 type connectors and others.

TYPICAL POWER SUPPLY:


The purpose of a power supply is to take electrical energy in oneform and convert it into another. The usual example is to takesupply from 230V AC mains and converts it into smooth DC. ThisDC may be at 200 volt to provide (say) 200 mA as the hightension source for valve operation, or 5 volt at (say) 1 Amp to feedtransistors and other solid-state devices. The above diagram shows the separate stages in this conversion.Each will be considered in turn. PROTECTION: There should always be a fuse in the phase or active AC mainslead for protection if a fault develops in the equipment. The fuseshould be of the correct rating for the task.

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CHAPTER4:
4.1 CIRCUIT LAYOUT/PCB:

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Fig.9. Circuits PCB layout of toll plaza controller

Wired project diagram:

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Fig.10. Wired PCB diagram of toll plaza controller

Working project diagram:

Fig.11. Working project diagram

CHAPTER5:

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5.1 WORKING:
An RFID (radio frequency identifier) module basically consists of a RF (radio frequency) transmitter, a RF receiver, and a RF tag (Transponder) and an antenna. The unique id of the user is stored within the RF Tag which is neede to be transmitted for further access. The unique id of the user RF tag is transmitted with a transmitter, whereas a RF receiver receives and interprets the same. The transponder contains a chip and an antenna mounted on a substrate. The chip transmits the relevant information through antenna. The antenna also receives the electromagnetic waves sent by the RFID reader. The unique ID of the user along with the balance, the user had in his account is stored within the EEPROM of our controller PIC 16F877A.

If RF tag is not used yet, LCD must display SCAN YOUR ID.
The user id interpreted from the RFID tag is compared with those IDs, that are already stored in EEPROM.

If user ID matches to any of the ID stored within EEPROM, a GRREN LED glows

along with Balance being deducted i.e Rs 10/- and remaining balance on the LCD screen. GREEN LED indicates that the user ID has been successfully operated upon the machine and he/she can cross the plaza now.

If user ID does not matches to any of the ID stored within EEPROM, a RED LED

glows along with a message that USER ID DIDNT MATCHED, PAY THE TOLL MANUALLY on the LCD screen. RED LED indicates that the user ID didnt matched and he/she cannot cross the plaza now, prior to manual payment.

If user ID matches with database but he/she has balance lower than Rs 50/- in his
account, a message along with balance will be displayed i.e PLEASE RECHARGE YOUR CARD SOON on LCD

If user ID mnhatches with database but he/she has balance lower than Rs 10/- in his account, a message will be displayed LOW BALANCE, RECHARGE YOUR CARD on LCD with RED LED.

CHAPTER: 6

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CURRENT APPLICATIONS:
RFID Controlled toll plazas are common now- a -days in our country too, mostly seen in metro cities. However, all Toll collection plazas till now are not RFID based. Some of the plazas are still based on manual collection. But sson in immediate future we will see those plazas using this beautiful technology.

FUTURE APPLICATIONS:
Using only a single radio frequency identification (RFID) tag, one could be zooming through all toll routes on the Delhi-Mumbai stretch, by the end of this year. This means that traffic jams will be reduced drastically as the system is put into place. Travel time between the two metro cities will be cut short, potentially resulting in happy commuters as they reach home after business hours. The tag will cost very little, priced at only Rs100 a piece, which is much cheaper than the ones that are being used on other toll routes in other countries. The system should be completely put into place by 2013, and from there on is predicted to run smoothly. Since the RFID system has been finalized and is set to be released before the end of the year, senior highway ministry officials, NIC members, and the Unique identification Authority of India (UIDAI) chairman, Nandan Nilekani are in the midst of serious talks about what next steps are to be taken to make the product available to the public as soon as possible.

BENEFITS:
1. Time saving. 2. Less human efferts. 3. Low cost. 4. Reducing traffic jams

ADVANTAGES:
Automated Operation with lataest technology. One time investment (If RFID handled with care , must be enclosed within plastic
or any other object) Less Human Intervention and Smaller workload on employees. RFID tag can automatically detect that the car has passed through the toll plaza without having to stop.

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Bulk reading enables the parallel processing of various vehicles with different tags
at the same instant

DISADVANTAGES:

The presence of Mobile phones or Wlkie-talkie in the vicinity of RFID affects its

normal functioning. Sometimes RFID reader activates various Tags at the same instant(if more than 1 tag is present in current area ) which results in falsy info and balance deduction of some another user, who is in a queue to cross the plaza and is waiting for his/her turn.

Software programming:
#include<pic.h> #define LCD PORTB #define RS RD6 #define EN RD7 #define buzzer RC0 #define relay1 RC1 #define relay2 RC2

//----------------------------------------------void void void void delay(unsigned long int); motor(); rev(); lcd_cmd_send(unsigned char);

void lcd_char_send(unsigned char); void lcd_display(unsigned char *,unsigned char,unsigned char); void lcd_num_dis(unsigned int,unsigned char); void rfid(); int FLAG,FLAG1; //-------------------------------------------------

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unsigned int amount1=200,amount2=100,amount3=000,amount4=000; /* ======================================================================= ============ RFID CARD LAST DIGIT ======================================================================= ============*/

/* ======================================================================= ============ TYPEDEF DECLARATION ======================================================================= ============*/ typedef unsigned char BYTE; typedef unsigned int UINT; BYTE Wait4Card=0,CardFlag=0,Status=0,DisStatus,Clear,irx=0; BYTE bufferin[50]={0}; UINT Cardno=0,Num; bit ReceiverFlag=0; /* ======================================================================= ============ INTERRUPT FUNCATION ======================================================================= ============*/ static void interrupt isr(void) // Here be interrupt function - the { bufferin[irx]=RCREG; if(irx==11) { irx=0; ReceiverFlag=1; } irx++; RCIF=0; is unimportant.

//---------------------------------void main(void) {

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TRISC=0X80; TRISB=0x00; TRISD=0x00; lcd_cmd_send(0x38); lcd_cmd_send(0x01); lcd_cmd_send(0x0C); lcd_cmd_send(0x80);

relay1=0; relay2=0; buzzer=0; //----------------------TXSTA=0x24; //TRASMITER RCSTA=0x90; //RECIVER SPBRG= 25; // BAUD RATE 9600 GIE=1; PEIE=1; RCIE=1; RCIF=0; lcd_cmd_send(0x01); lcd_display("TOLL TAX SYSTEM //--------------------------------while(1) { lcd_display("INSERT YOUR CARD",2,0); rfid(); if(CardFlag==1&&FLAG==0) { FLAG=1; //delay(65000); lcd_display(" BALANCE= ",2,0); lcd_num_dis(amount1,0xCC); delay(90000); if(amount1<=9) { lcd_display("LOW BALANCE ",2,0); delay(65000); lcd_display("PLEASE RECHARGE ",2,0); delay(65000); lcd_display("INSERT YOUR CARD",2,0); ",1,0);

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//delay(1000); delay(65000); break; } delay(5000); lcd_display("RS. 20 DEDUCTED ",2,0); delay(65000); amount1=amount1-20; delay(65000); lcd_display(" BALANCE= ",2,0); lcd_num_dis(amount1,0xCC); delay(65000); lcd_display(" TAX PAID ! buzzer=1; delay(30000); buzzer=0; ",2,0);

relay1=1; relay2=0; lcd_display(" GATE OPEN delay(65000); //lcd_cmd_send(0x01); relay1=0; relay2=1; //delay(65000); lcd_display(" GATE CLOSE delay(65000); CardFlag=0; delay(5000); } else { FLAG=0; } if(CardFlag==2&&FLAG1==0) { FLAG1=1; //delay(65000); lcd_display(" BALANCE= ",2,0); lcd_num_dis(amount2,0xCC); delay(90000); if(amount2<=9) {

",2,0);

",2,0);

lcd_display("LOW BALANCE ",2,0); delay(65000); lcd_display("PLEASE RECHARGE ",2,0); delay(65000); lcd_display("INSERT YOUR CARD",2,0); //delay(1000);

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delay(65000); break; } delay(5000); lcd_display("RS. 10 DEDUCTED ",2,0); delay(65000); amount2=amount2-10; delay(65000); lcd_display(" BALANCE= ",2,0); lcd_num_dis(amount2,0xCC); delay(65000); lcd_display(" TAX PAID ! ",2,0); buzzer=1; delay(30000); buzzer=0; relay1=1; relay2=0; lcd_display(" GATE OPEN ",2,0); delay(65000); //lcd_cmd_send(0x01); relay1=0; relay2=1; lcd_display(" GATE CLOSE ",2,0); delay(65000); //lcd_cmd_send(0x01); CardFlag=0; delay(5000); } else { FLAG1=0; } } }

//--------------------------------void delay(unsigned long int mdelay) { while(mdelay--); } void lcd_cmd_send(unsigned char mcmd) { LCD=mcmd; RS=0; EN=1; delay(25);

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EN=0; delay(100); } void lcd_char_send(unsigned char mchar) { LCD=mchar; RS=1; EN=1; delay(25); EN=0; delay(100); } void lcd_display(unsigned char *slcd,unsigned char lcd_line,unsigned char lcd_posi) { unsigned char ilcd=0; if(lcd_line==1) { lcd_cmd_send(0x80+lcd_posi); } if(lcd_line==2) { lcd_cmd_send(0xC0+lcd_posi); } while(slcd[ilcd]!='\0') { lcd_char_send(slcd[ilcd]); ilcd++; } } void lcd_num_dis(unsigned int lnum, unsigned char lposi) { unsigned int lunit,lten,lhun,ltho; lunit=lnum%10; lnum/=10; lten=lnum%10; lnum/=10; lhun=lnum%10; lnum/=10; ltho=lnum%10; lcd_cmd_send(lposi); lcd_char_send(ltho+0x30); lcd_char_send(lhun+0x30); lcd_char_send(lten+0x30); lcd_char_send(lunit+0x30); } void rfid() { if(ReceiverFlag==1) {

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irx=0; ReceiverFlag=0; if(bufferin[8]=='7' && bufferin[9]=='0' && bufferin[10]=='4') { //delay(3000); CardFlag=1; for(int i=0;i<12;i++) { bufferin[i]=0; } irx=0; } else if(bufferin[8]=='7' && bufferin[9]=='2' && bufferin[10]=='4') { //delay(3000); CardFlag=2; for(int i=0;i<12;i++) { bufferin[i]=0; } irx=0; } else { delay(5000); lcd_display("UNKNOWN USER CardFlag=0; delay(65000); ",1,0);

buzzer=1; delay(50000); buzzer=0;

lcd_cmd_send(0x01); for(int i=0;i<12;i++) { bufferin[i]=0; } irx=0; //lcd_display("INSERT YOUR CARD",1,0); }

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//---------------------------------

CONCLUSION

We have completed our project under the guidance of mr. sunny sachdeva and their working staff and we learn a lot of things.

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And we implement our all the basic knowledge which we have studied in our course ,we are so thankful to mr. Naresh Jangra (HOD of NCIT ECE department) who guided us for our major project.

REFRENCES

WWW.PROJECT PARADISE.COM

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WWW.DATASHEET .COM WWW.GOOGLE.COM WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM

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