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II

2 3
1201, 1705, 1706, 2903, 3113

2002
539.3(083)
12173-5
646

,
. .

646

: . II. . / .: . .
, . . , . . . : . . . -,
2002. 60 .
, ,

" ".
2 3 1201, 1705, 1706,
2903, 3113.

539.3 (083)
12173-5

(), 2002

II
45

31

47

33

19

18



II
:
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

. .
. .
020851 13.01.99 . 020079 28.04.97 .
22.01.2001.
60 84/16. . .
: 3,37 . . .; 3,18 .-. .
200 . . 47.
-
392000, , , 106, . 14


" "
. , ,
. .
, . ,
, (),
. ,
.


. ,
,
.

1
, .
2
.
3 ,
..
. , .
4 .
. ,
( ).
5 , .
6 , , .
.
" ", ,
.
7

.
8 .
1

:
.
y ,
.

,
.

l/2

l
RA a

RB l/2

0,5
)

l/2

0,5
l/4
M

)
1 (. 1.1, ).
. (.
1.1 1.1, ).
2

3 (. 1.1, ).
4 "" M , , K, K.
"" . ""
.

. 1.2 . 1
2. 4,
3, . 40 .
5
1
a=

h
2

3
4

l/2

b
2

c=
b=
h=
l=

Mmax

. 1.2
5, .
. 1.3. 1 2,
. 3
. 2 1,
4 . 1 .
0 10 .

b h, l a
. . 1.1.
. , . . 1.1.
1.1


n,

n, ,

1
2
3


= n = n2 n1.
. = n K, K = 0,01 .
1.2

, %


1
2
3
4

, M .
.
.
.


1
2
3
4

?
?
, ?
.
2
.

: , .

, (. 2.1, , ) ,
, ,
,
1 12 = 2 21 .

II

I
11
)


21

II

II

(2.1)

I
12

II

22
. 2.1

(2.1) . , 1 = 2,

(2.2)
12 = 21.
1 = 2 = 1
12 = 21.
(2.3)
y
,

z
P
.
RA
RB


1
2
3
4
5
.

RA
. , .
RB
2.2, ,

1
3
4
5
2
. 2.2

EIy = EIy0 + EI 0 z I +

P (z a )3
6

II

R A (z 2a )3
6

(2.4)

III

y0 , 0 , .
, , z = 2, YA = 0; z = 6a, YB = 0; RA, RB .
, . 2.2, .
(2.4).
. 2.5. , . 2.2, ,
EIy = EIy0 + EI 0 z I +

R A (z a )3
6

II

P (z 2a )3
6

,
III

y0 , 0 , , .. x = a, YA = 0 x = 6a, YB = 0.

(2.5)

= 2 1011 ,
14 35 6 = 1200 .
. 2.2. , (. 2.1, 2.2) ,
,
, , RA.
, , 2 3
RB. 0,01
0 20 .

.
.
P1 1 1, II II, ..
21 (. 2.3, ). 1 21 .
. . 2.1.
. 2.3, , .. P2
12 I I. . 2.1.
,
2 = 2 2,
1 = 1 1
, .. 1 = 2.
,
1 = 2 , , 1 = 2 = 1.
. 2.2.
2.1

P1
1

2
2

21

21

21

12
12

12

1
2
3

1 21
2 12

///////////
///////////

////////////
///////////

///////////
///////////

2.2

P1
1

2
2

21
21

21

12
12

12

1
2
3

////////
////////

////////
////////

////////
////////

, . (. 2.2) ,
. (. 2.2, , )
5. , (. 2.2, ) 2 2.
. , ,
.
. .
2 2, 1 5. ,

2 2, 1 5 ,
, 1 5 , 2 2.
. 2.3 .
2.3

, 2 2
1 5
11
22
33
44
55
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3

////////
/////

/////////
/////

/////////
/////

/////////
/////

/////////
/////

, .
2 2. , 1, 1 1.
1 . 2.3. 1 1.
, .. ,
, i, i ,
2 2. . 2.3 i i, i
.

,
. 10.1. (1) (12) 2) (21). . 2.4.

(1 ) (12 ) (2 ) ( 21 ) 100 % .
% =
(1 ) (12 )
. 2.2.
1 = 2 12 21, . 2.2

1 = 2 = 1.

( 21 ) .
% = 100 % 12
12
. 2.4.
2.4
(1) (12) (2) (21) , %

12

21 , % 12

21 , %

, = 2
2, , . 2.3. ,
(. 2.3) , . 2.5.
2.5
= ,

11
22
33
44
55

,
(. 2.3).
(. 2.5).

1.
2.

?
, i = i , i = i .

3. ?
4. , ,
?
3

:
.


My
M
= x y+
x,
Jy
Jx

(3.1)
, -, - ; ,
; Jx, Jy .

(. 3.1) 5 5 ( 850972).
: Jx = 17,80 4, Jy = 4,63 4, z0 = 1,42.
. 3.1 ; : = 0, =

2 ( z0 0,25) = 1,654 ; : = 2,008 , = 0.


. O .
45. , ,
.
= sin = 0,7071 M,
.
(1.1)

My = M cos = 0,7071 M,

M
y + y J x x = 0,7071 M ( y + 3,844 x ) .

Jx
M x J y

,
0 + 3,844 0 = 0.
=

Mx
Jx

(3.2)

(3.3)

(3.3) , 0 = 1 , 0 = 3,844 .
(3.2), 1, 2, ... ,7
, . 3.1.
3.1

x,
,
,

= 5 l = 1 .
= l = 5 = 49,05 [ ];
Jx =178 106 [3 ],
49,05
M
0,7071
= 0,7071
= 0, 1948 [ /].
Jx
178

(3.2) = 0,195 ( + 3,84 ) [] ,


.

,
(. 3.2).
. 3.1. ,
, .
, .
l = 1000
1 7 10 . 1
7 . 3.1. z.
(. 3.1).
() k = 10
5
. 1 , 6 11 , = 5
= 49,05 .
. 3.1.
.
, ,
.
3.2


3
4
5
6


2
3
4
5
6

//// ///// ////// ///// ///// /////

/////

6
11


= k n,
(3.4)
n , ; k
, 2,1 105 .
. (3.1) , . ,
.
.
(1,42 0,25) = 1,17 (1,17 )
, (3.1) B
/ J, B , J , .
,
. ,
, .

, , . 3.3
.
3.3



, %

1
2
3
4

(. 3.1, 3.2).
.
.
.

1 ?
2 ?
3 ?
4 ?
5 ?
6 ?
7
?
8 ?

4

: ,
.

(. 4.1)
.
y cos x sin
,
(4.1)
x = M
+
Jx
J y

, , ; = z0
(. 4.2, );
Y; I, I
. (1) "+",
, , Y.
, Iy Ix,
, (. 4.1.),


J
tg = tg x .
(4.2)
Jy


Y.

. 4.1

V=

P l3
,
3 E J

(4.3)

V ; P ,
(. 4.2, ); E ; J .

. 4.2

,
J Y ,
.
, ,
(Vx) Y (Vy). Y:
Px = P cos
(4.4)
Px = P sin ,
(. 4.2, ),
Vx =

Px l 3
3E J y


Vy =

Py l 3
3E J x

(4.5)

:
V = V x2 + V y2 ,

(4.6)

, , Y
Vx Vy
V
P J
J
tg = x = x x = tg x .
(4.7)
V y Py J y
Jy
(2) (7), ,
(. 4.2, ). ,
,
.
,
.
Y
y ( sin ) x (cos )
d d y cos x sin
M
= M
=
+
+
= 0 . (4.8)
d d J x
J y
J
J
x
y

,
y sin x cos
x Jx

+
= 0 tg0 =
.
(4.9)
Jx
Jy
y Jy
(. 4.6),
. (4.9) (y = +h / 2; = +b / 2) B (y = h / 2; = b / 2),

b 2 h 3b 12 h
= .
2 h 12 b 3h b
h = 20 , b = 7,5 tg0 = 2,666, 0 = 69,45=6927.

tg0 =

(4.10)

(. 4.3) 3 20 7,5 ,
1, , 10,
.
,

40 (4 ).

, z0 = 400
, 2.
. 4.4.

-4,

= 105.
4,
5 6,

.
. 4.3
, = 0,
Y
, ..

. 4.4

, , . 4.3, .

.
.
. 1 (. 4.3, )
, . , .. Vx V.
. 4.1.
4.1

V x
V x

Vx


V y
Vy
V = Vx2 + Vy2
V y

2
3

////////
////////

/////////
/////////

, V , V.
. 4.1. .
.
.
, . , , ,
.
1 5. . 4.2 = 0, 10, 20 ..
90. = 90, 80 .. = 0.
. 4.2 n = f () (. 4.5).

4.2
(1 5)
= 0 = 10 = 20 = 30 = 40 = 50 = 60 = 70 = 80 = 90
n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

2
3

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

///

.

z() P = P P (. 4.2, ).
(1) M = Pz0;
Iy, Ix (y = +h/2;
x = +b / 2)

(yB = h / 2; xB = b / 2).
(2) , . 4.6.
. 4.4.
D,
(. 4.6).
4.3

.
4.6

n1

,
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n2
n3
n4
n5
n6
n7
n8
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

1
2
3


18

n2

n1

n3

n4

n5

n6

n7

n8

, , , , .
,
i = ni k E = (nik ni ) k E ,
(4.11)
ni i- P; k 4 (k = 105); ( = 1011 ). i (. 4.3)
(. 4.6), , .

max/min , . 4.4
.
,
V V, . 4.1, V V,
(. 4.4).
4.4

Vx


n = n

. .
100 %
.
,
n , ,
10 (. 4.2), n (. 4.5),
, n, (. 4.4).
,
, (. 4.3),
(. 4.6);
, (. 4.4).

1 ,
?
2 ?
3 ?
4 Y
?
5
?
5


:
.

, ,
.
Mx
My.
My
N M
(5.1)
z = x y +
x .
F J x
J y


(. 5.1).
9
10. , A
A
10
5.1,
l 9
N Mx.
My , ..
.



5
5
N Mx
2
P
A A
, [/ ],
(5.2)
z =
F Wx
8 10
9
bh 2
60
Wx =
,
[3]

6

. 5.1
; F, [2]
.
z N
= ,
.
=l.

-5,
6 ( . I).

9 10 .
, 9 10 . 5.1.
5.1


9
10

9
10

////////////// /////////////// //////////////

1
2
3

. 9 10 :
I 9 = 1 9 0 9; I 10 = 1 10 0 10,

I 9 I 10 9 10 + , 0 9, 0 10
; 1 9, 1 10 + . + 2 II 9
= 2 9 1 9; II 10 = 2 10 1 10
I 9 + II 9
I 10 + II 10
, 10 =
.
9 =
2
2
9 10 :
9 = 9 k; 10 = 10 k,
k = 105 .
9 10
9 = 9 E; 10 = 10 E.
1200 .
5.2

1 .
2 .
3 5.1, 5.2.

1
2
3
4
5

()?
?
().
?
?
6

:
, .

- , . 6.1.
,
Qy Qy
Q Q
NN
=
dx + 2 z z dx +
dx + 1
GF
GF
EF
l
l
l
+

My My
Mx Mx
Mz Mz
dx +
dx .
dx +
E
I
E
I
G Ix
y
z
l
l

(6.1)

,
l. : M y M z
y z , ; y z
, ; Q y Qz , y z
, ; Qy Qz , ; M x Mx ,
; N N ; Iy Iz
; Ix ( Ix = I ,
I
).
( ), ,
, , .

(. 6.1), 1,
( ).

.
-10 2 0,01 , 3.

. 3. = 2,1 105 , G = 8 104 .
, .
- .

2
1
1 5 . P
n. ,
10 . P n
.
3
.
6.1

. 6.1

. D

P,

nB

,
nC

,
0,01
nD

////////// //////////// /////////// ///////////

1
2
3

1
2
3
4

.
.
.
.

1 .
2
?
3 ( )?
4 ?
7

: .

,
, .
: ,
, ,
(. 7.1).

( = = 1)
:
,
,
, .

(
,
..).

,
(. 7.1).

D (. 7.2, ), C
. 1
( - ).
. 7.1

B
P
C

. 7.2 C

(. 7.2, ) , C, D.
7.1 .
D
. 6.
7.1


-

,
, ,
,

,
0,01

0,01 0,01

0,01

nc

nD

nc
nD

////////////

////////////

/////////////

////////////

1
2
3
4

.
.
.
.

1 ?
2 ?
3 ?
8



:
.

. 8.1. .
.
. . 8.2.

l /2

l /2

. 8.1

l /2

l /2

. 8.2

Pl
2

11 + 1 = 0.

(8.1)

11 1

M
(. 8.3, 8.4.).
11 ""
M

l3
1 l l Pl
Pl 3
1 l l 2 l
EJ 11 =
, EJ 1P =
.
2=
2 =
12
222 2
8
2 2 2 3 2
1/2

X1=1

l/2

Pl
2

. 8. 3

. 8. 4

1 "" M . (1) 11 1,
1 p 3
X 1 =
= P.
11 2

(. 8.5) 1, 3
2. 4 . 7
6. .

6
h

1
3
2

4
l /2

l /2

b=

b=
h=

2
. 8.5

(. 8.5) 2 n1 7
. 8.1.
2 (2). 20 .
. . 8.1.
4 (4)
n1. , 4,
. R = x .
. . 8.2.
.

1/2

8.1

R = x

n1 =
n1 =
n1 =
n1 =
n1 =
n1 =

R
8.2

, %

R=x

1 . , ,
M .
2 .
3 .
4 .

1
2
3
4

?
.
.
?
9

:
.

, .
( = 3,9 ). (. 17.1).
d = 47 , h = 2,8 , l = 200 , = 1,9 105 ,
G = 7,8 104 .
,
, .
, ,
( ), .

1 = ,

2 = 0,

3 = .

(9.1)

45 .

( = R , R >> h) . ,
, l, ,
. ,
(). , . 9.1 ().
:
3 = max =

M
,
Wp

3 =

Ml
[].
GJp

(9.2)

d 4
1 = 8,112 106 [3],
D
l
D
= 13,45 106 [1 / ].
J p = W p = 19,06 108 [4],
GJp
2
D 3
16

Wp =

3 = 1,233 105 [] = 0,1233 [],


3 = 13,45 106 [] = 7,706 104 [].

(9.3)

:
= max =

3M
,
h2S

3M l
,
G h2S

(9.4)

s .

S = 2R a = (D h) a = 13,5 [].
3
= 2,834 106 [3],
h2S

3l
= 2,595 103 [1 / ]
G h2S

= 2,834 106 [] = 2,834 [],


= 2,595 103 M [] = 0,1487 M []

(9.5)

(3) (5),
.
o
2,834 M
=
= 23,
3 0,1233 M

o 0,1487 10 4 M
=
= 193.
3
7,706 M

, , 23 ,
193 , .
D = 16,8 h, a = 1,39 h.
. (9.2) (9.4),
.
a = 1,5 h, :
D = 10 h:
D = 20 h:
D = 100 h:

o / 3 = 13, o / 3 = 65;
o / 3 = 28,
o / 3 = 279;
o / 3 = 143, o / 3 = 7162.

-50. ,
( ) .
.
,
( ) (
). .
,
. 9.2.

y
5
1
d

h
R

d
. 9.1

4
3
l

x
2

dS
. 9.2

z
a

l ,
1 2. , "" 3 4.

1, 2 , 1 2
. 2 1 4 5.
1. 0,5 .

( 1188516).
, ("" )
. 0,01. 0,5 .

45 ,
().
1 2, , (9.1).

.
[] = 100 .
0,1233 100, 811 = 82 .
2,833 100, 35 = 3,5 .
-50 , .
,
10 .
50 , 20
.
(
= 10
) 10, 20, 30 40 =
= 98,1 .
,
1; 1,5; 2; 2,5 = 0,5 = 4,905 .
,
( = 1 , = 10
) , , ,
. , .
. 9.1.
n :
1 = 2= E = E k n,
(9.6)
k . k 105.
. n
. (9.6)
.
9.1
,

///////

n
1

///////

c.

/////// /////// /////// //////

: m , ; n ; m n
.
, ,
(. 9.2) .
9.2

, %

12,1
0,0756
13,9
0,729

1
2
3
4

.
.
.
.

1 .
2 ?
3 , ,
, ?
4 ?
5 ,
?

10


:
; .
()

(. 10.1); (. 10.2),
(. 10.3) (. 10.4).
A = ds .
s

, ,
n

A = i ds .
i =1

si

, , .

n

A = i 1 1 ds .
i =1

si

=0,45

12,2

11,75

5,975

6,2
. 10.1
,

0,45

10.2

1
0,45

""()
0,45

1
"1"
1

. 10.3

. 10.4

n
"1" i
= 0,45 (1 5,975 1 + 1 11,75 1 + 1 5,975 1) = 10,665 2.
y1 z1 (. 10.5), y1 (. 10.6) z1 (. 10.7),
S y1 , S z1 :
S y1 = z1ds =
s

5,875

y1

i 1 z1ds ;
i =1

si

S z1 = y1ds =
s

i 1y1ds .
i =1

si

5,875
5,975

z1

"y1" []

"z1" []
5,975

5,875
5,875
. 10.5

. 10.6
"1"

. 10.7
"z1"

S y1 ,

"1" "z1" i

S y1 = 0,45 5,975 5,975 1 2 = 16,065 3.


2

S z1 , "1" "y1"

S z1 = 0.

:
zc = S y1 / A = 16,065 / 10,665 = 1,506 ; yc= S z1 / A = 0.
y, z (. 10.8), "y" (. 10.9) "z" (. 10.10).
:
I z = y 2 ds =
s

i y 2 ds ;
i =1

si

I y = z 2 ds =
s

i z 2 ds .
i =1

si

Iz "y" i
1
2

I z = 0,45 5,875 5,975 5,875 + 5,875 5,875 5,875 2 = 246,44 4.


2
3

Iy
5,975

I y = 0,45
2 4,4692 + 2 1,5062 4,469 1,506 2 + 1,5062 5,875 2 =
6

4
= 39,79 .

5,875

5,875

"y" []
5,875

4,469

1,506

1,506
4,469

5,875
z
0

"z" []
4,469

5,875
5,875

1,506

. 10.8

. 10.9
"y"

. 10.10
"z"

13,219
21,884
35,103
0

"" [2]

"" [2]

2,25

35,103

13,219
21,884
. 10.11
""

. 10.12
""

"" (. 10.11). -
S B y , S B z :
S B z = B y ds =
s

i B y ds ;
i =1

si

S B y = B z ds = i B z ds.
i =1

si

S B z = 554,5 ; S B y = 0.
:
z = S B z / I z = 554,5 / 246,44 = 2,25 ;

bz = S B y / I y = 0.

, ,
z = 2,25 0,45/2 = 2,025 .

My
Iy

z+

B
Mz
y + ,
Iz
I

M y = Pz (l x), M z = Py (l x) B
, x ; Py = P cos , Pz = P sin ()
; y z
;
I (. 10.12). I
n

I = 2 ds = i 2 ds = [(21,8842 2 + 13,2192 2 21,884 13,219 2)


si

i =1

si

5,975 / 6 + 13,219 0,5 5,875 2 / 3] 2 0,45 = 961,1 6.

B x
(. 10.12).

z
I

II

P
x

x=9
x =19
l = 119
. 10.13

, = 0, ( 0 = 0 ) ( 0 = 0 ). , =
l, , , , ( B = 0) .
= .
z.

G I
sh (k x)
,
B = 0
sh (k x) + B0 ch (k x) + M x
k
k
I
hi 3i
= 1,12 (5,975 2 + 11,75) 0,453 / 3 = 0,806 4;
3
k 2 = (G / E ) ( I / I ) = 0,4 (0,806 / 961,1) = 0,000335 2; k = 0,0183 1.
I = 1,12

, = 0, 0 = 0 = 0 , = l, B = 0 , M x = P e ,
P e sh (k l )
.
B0 =
k ch (k l )

P e sh (k (l x))
.
B =
k ch (k l )
I, = 9 , B = 44,97 , II, = 19 , B = 37,15 .
B I II.

B
M
= z y + ,
Iz
I
y ,
. I
(l x = 110 B = 44,97 )
I =

B
110

P (l x)
44.97
y + = P
y
e = P (0,446 y 0,0468e ).
Iz
I
246
,
44
961
,
1

II (l x = 100 B = 37,15 )
II = P (0,406 y 0,0387 e ) .

2 (. 10.14) ,
, .
l
I

II

l1
l2

2
3
4
5

7
6

. 10.14

2 4. 4
6 . z 7,
6, 4. 2 U
3 , ,
2.
I II 2 1,
. 10.15. -4.
2 .
1

()

U . ,
, ,
. , , .
,
. z . ,
5 . 2-3 .
10.1

1
2
3

z =
10.2


z ,



z ,

, %

-4 10 15 .
.
. i i = i i.
i = 20 i /2 i = 2 i . .
10.3. ,
.
10.3
e=

/
/

, %

=

3
4
5
6

1 .
2 .
3
.
4 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

?
?
?
.
?
.
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11

:
.

, ..
.
, , .
, ,
2 E J min
,
(11.1)
F =
( l ) 2
; Jmin ;
, ; l .
, , .. .
, , :
=

( 3 100).

, .. < , , ..
, .
.

= b ,

, b , .

, =
,
F
= F.

(11.2)

(11.3)

(. 11.1, ). 1 b h
(. 11.1, ) . 2, 4 (. 11.1, ) 3
5 , .

1 .
2 .
3 .
4 (. 11.1, ).

, ..
.
, ..
(. 11.1, ).
4
. .

2
1
3

4
5

1 :
. 11.1
;
, ;
, .
2 .
11.1

=2

l,
b h, 2
, Jmin
,
, :

100 %

1 ?
2 .
3 ?
4 ?
5 ?
6 , ,
, ?

12

:
.


, , . 90 %
.
,
.
" " 1839 .
. . (1852
.), ( ).
?

(), , .
.
. , ,
- ,
, .
.
.

.
,
, . :
, ,
.
, ,
.
. , ,
,
.
(r , r)
, ,
.
, .
N = 107 , ,
lg N ( lg lg N), , 1 5 .
. ,
100 . .
, ,
. , ,
, (, , )
. ,
. , , ,
. . 12.1.
:
1) max (max) ;
2) min (min) ;

max

min

a
max

. 12.1

3) m (m) ( )
,
(m = [max + min] / 2).
4) () , ,

( = [max + min] / 2);
5) r

(r = min / max).
: max =min= a, m = 0, r = 1..
: max = 2a = 2m, a = m, min = 0,

r = min / max = 0.
: m = [max + min] / 2, = [max min] / 2,

r = min / max , 1 r 1.
, r = 1 ,
r = 1
, 1. (m)
, .. = 0. , (r)
1 1 .

(m = const) ,
(r = min / max = const).
,
, ,
, .
, .
-6000 (. 12.2).
3 2.
5 4. ,

= m / w = / 0,1d0,

d0 .
.

2
a

2
a

4
5
Pa

Pa

. 12.2 )
):
1 ; 2 ; 3 ;
4 ; 5

D = 1,5 d0

R = 10

D0 = 10
l = 50(100)
. 12.3

10 15
, . ,
, .
. 12.4,
, 5 %, 50 % 95 % .
. 12.4 , 10 . .
,
P = 0,95
3
1

P = 0,5
2

P = 0,05

r
N
. 12.4 1, 2 3, 5 %, 50 % 95 %

,
, . ,
. ,
(. 12.5).
1, ,
. 2
, 3.
. 4
.
5 ,
.
, ,
, , .
, ,
.

1 .
2 .
3 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

.
.
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.
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