You are on page 1of 48



1979
19792004 :

2008
:
 2009


www.ecoeco.org.il


2005 ,
.
, .
,
, ,
,
.

.www.ecowiki.org.il :
"(" ,)
"("
,
. (
.  ,
 . "("
  OECD ."Measuring the Progress of Societies" ,
)  , ,
( ) 
'.


 ,  " "
.London School of Economics
,
( . )
( . 
. "("
.


 ( "("
.
-  , 
, ) "   
".
) , :
 , ," , , , , , ,
" .


,  , . 
. ,
)" (GDP , . "" ,
" , ," 
.
"  , ,
.( ,"
 
,   , . 
)" 1(Genuine Progress Indicator GPI 
. , ,
 . :
" , " .
"   "
. , " 
,  " ,
.
, "  1979
 ,1992 .1984 1992 2004"
" . 
. ,
   (  . ,
) , " ,

) Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW


-GPI" Cobb ) ,(1995 . , "
) (GPI ISEW- .

: , , ,
 . , ,
. "
" ,1992 ) ,
, ( 2004 20 !.
,
" ( , .
,  ,(
" , , )
" .


:1

:2

817

1979
:3  19792004

1827

:4

2838

:5

3940

:6

4148

:1

( ,( .
" (  ,(
) .(Jackson et al. 1997 ( "
,
." .
( : " ( ,
"  1979.2004
" .
" ,
"  .  "  
" ,( 
" .) , " . " 
( ,(
 ,  
.(  " .
( " .
" (  1979 .2004
, (
.
4 . " (
 ,20 .1984
) , "
. 1992 , "  "
.( ,
,"  . 5 .

:2

) ISEW ( , 
"/" 2 . 
, "  , ).(Neumayer 1999
"  (Simon Kuznets) -  30 20
" ) ,(national accounting
) .(Cobb et al. 1995 - "
, :
,   ,
 . " 
( :


 ) ,(

 ) (

 .

).(Neumayer 2003, Cobb and Cobb 1994


) ,(Daly and Farley 2004(
, " , 
. "   :
= + ) ,' .(230
 , "
, " .
2

, " , "/"

 ,70 " 
,
. : ) Measure of Economic Welfare,
(MEW  ) ,(Nordhaus and Tobin 1972 ) Japanese

,(Monthly Labor Review 1973) (Net National Welfare


) (Zoltas' (1981) Economic Aspects of Welfare EAW
) .(Eisners' (1990) Total Incomes Systems of Accounts TISA
" .
) (ISEW ) (Daly and Cobb 1989 .
 "
, .

2.1

? ISEW
 ISEW ,  .( ,
 ISEW . 
.ISEW

  ISEW ,
. ) (Daly and Farley 2004 )(welfare
/ ) (well-being  /
/ .
 ISEW . : , , ,
, ,) , ,  , , ' ).(Ekins and Max-Neef 1992
) (Daly and Cobb 1989 "...  

) Neumayer (2003' ,156.Neumayer (2000) -


4
.3

" ) ,' ,5(415 ISEW


 . ) (Cobb and Cobb 1994 "
...
"... "...
" ) ,' .(23  ISEW 
?
 ISEW ,  ISEW   " ,
 6 ,7 ":
"  ,  ISEW
 , !   ,
(" ).(Daly and Cobb 2007
  " ,  ISEW "
" . ISEW , ,
" .( " 
, ISEW
.  "
 " ,( .

2.1.1

" , 
.
) .(Lawn 2005 , ) ,(Daly and Cobb 1989
, ' , / / , ( 
5

).(Layard 2005
6
.
7
, .

10

. ,
 .
8.
,
. , 
.( , ( (
) .(Lawn 2005 , ISEW  .
 ISEW :
.( ( , )
( ) 9
( .( ) ( . :
,
.  ":
. , (
, .

2.1.2

 (
 ."
/( .
,
. 
) ,(Cobb and Cobb 1994"   .
 ,( .

.2.1.4
9
.ISEW- ) (Neumayer 1999 .

11

2.1.3

)(Non-monetized
 
. , )
( . "  "
) ,(actual GDP AGDP
. ) : ,,
(( )(  AGDP .
 , )
.( ),(Daly and Cobb 1989
" (  , )
( ( ,
( . 
) (Neumayer 1999 ISEW( (    ,
 : $1,000 ,
, ) '( $1,200 .
20%  ?AGDP ,  ,
) ( ADGP ,(  $200
.
 " , (   .
AGDP , / / 
. , , , 
.( , ( ,
   . 
(  ," (  , , , (  (.

12

 )(Non-defensive

2.1.4

)  , "
. ,
 ) ,(Cobb and Cobb 1994
( )' .(Lawn 2005 '  "
 Daly and Farley ) "...

,2004' (231 ,  
"...  , , (
" ) ,Cobb and Cobb 1994' .(52 , 
,-( , (
. " ) ,
, .
)  ,  ,( , )
,(Jackson et al. 1997 
( , ) (Hamilton and Dennis 2000 ) (Bleys 2008
 .
" . ,
,  ) )
.(3.6.1

2.1.5


,  " . :
X X-Y . $Z
 , .X $Z
" ,

13

,X( " ( .
,
. " ...
 " ) ,Daly and Farley 2004' ,(232 ,
).(Atkinson 1995, Neumayer 1999
"  : ,
, .
 ) ,(Jackson and Stymne 1996, Jackson at al 1997, Bleys 2006 
, , . 
( ) (Jackson and Stymne 1996
( ) (Jackson et al 1997, Bleys 2006 . ) Daly

(and Cobb 1989


,  ( ) ( , 
. , 
) ,(trainability (  .
(   ,
, ,   . ,
, , ) Eisner 1994, Neumayer 2003, Arrow et al. 2004, World Bank

(2005 , (  (
.) ,  , ,
, , ,(
/.
( . ,
(  . ,
( ( . .
" ,  
50 .

14

2.1.6

 , (
. :
/  ).

10

" 

/ AGDP . 
,11 : / AGDP  , ,
" . )" :(Hicks 1946
( (
" ) ,Lawn 2003' .(109 , ,
 .  , 
. , , ) (
.  ) ( / ) 12 (
( , , .
" , ( .
 "   ,
" ) , ,   Jackson et al.

.(1997, Talberth et al. 2007, Cobb and Cobb 1994 , ,


, ,"
.
)" :(Neumayer's 2003  )" ) ,' ,8
( . " 
.  )( ," )
,
10

) ,Neumayer 2003' (8 " .


.
11
=.
12 sink

15

)(  .  ,
 ,  ) : 
 "( , "
.
"   ) , ( .
 . 
,"  , ( . ,
 .
  ," ( 
 ) .(Daly and Cobb 1989 
 , 
) .(Cobb and Cobb 1994 "   :
.

( ;

 ;

) (2.1.4 ,
, (.
 ( ,
.-  ,
, , .
( ).(Talberth et al. 2007
 "   , . ,
,   ,"
 .( ," 
.
" . , )  ,
"   .
16

,  ,
.( , " ."
, . ," 
) ,(6 ,
) .(15

2.1.7


" ,
" . ) (Neumayer 1999
 ( .  " ,( "
.
"  ) (1  )
.(2 )  ) ,(3 ) .(4
 ) .(5
( , 15 '' .)
) .(6

17

:3  - 19792004
" , ,
 .
)"( . "
1996( , ) " .
" , ,( "
 " .) ,
,  .
) , " ,:
 , , , , ,
 .  13 .
 ( "  .
)) .(6.2

3.1

:A
 .
,  ) (Achdut 1996 ,
.1979 , ,
" ) (
, .) , ,
( ) ,2007 ,(8.2 4 .(,
  .2004

13 -= ,sustainable -=durable

18

) (

3.2

:B
) ,2.1.1 )  , ,
 ( .
 1414.9 .

3.3

 ) (2

3.3.1

:C  Atkinson Index AI
   ,
"  ) (Atkinson Index - AI  ) .(Atkinson 1970
 ) 
( ,
) .(Atkinson 1975 ,  ,0.1
,  0.9  .
  ,
   ,( 
' .(Atkinson 1995, Neumayer 2003) Gini Coefficient (
 ) ,(15AI ( ,0.8
- ) ) (Pearce and Ulph 1998 .
) .(5.32

14

' '14.9 :" , , .14.9


15
AI 6.1

19

3.3.2

:D
)  AI  ,  ) Jackson et

.(al. 1997( ,(1-C)*B = D C .AI , ,AI=0.1(


0.1/  ,
/  , .D=0.9*B D .

3.4

) (3
:E(
 ) ,2.1.3" ) ( ,
"  .
 ) (Katz et al 1992, ICBS 1996, ISSP 2002 ( ( 
,  
, (  .
, .
=<  .

=<

" , ( ,
) (shadow price ) Jackson et al 1997,

.(Bleys 2007 19952004


" " ) " ,
( . ,1995
" " .
, .

20

 ) (4

3.5

:F (
) ,2.1.4 "  , )
 .  ) Neumayer

.(2003
,   
, ; 
( .
 ) 75% ,2.1.5 ( 
" .) ,  .L
 , (,
 , ).
(  8.1 ,8.2 6.1
6.3 .  ) (
( ,  . (
 .

3.6

) (5

3.6.1

:G (
25% ,F ( (
. (
,  .
21

:H

3.6.2

: ,
. )" (
, 
( )" (1998
" , . 41.4%(
) (24.16 ,(  41.4%(
) (  .
, 13" ,
 26" ,   13
. , 
, . (
<
=
)" ( ,
 ( .
 ,  (Katz 1992) 1970
)" (1998 .1984 ,
.
, (  . ,
 .
 ) ,(2006 ( 
 30% , )"
( .  ( 30% ( (  ) ,(Matat 2004(
.
3.6.3

:I
 ,
,

22

) .(Matat 2004( . ) (Matat 2004


20002002 2.5 " . (  , ,
, , ( , , '.
  , "
 1979 .2004 , " ,
  ) " ,  .(,
 2.25 " .
,
" . ) ,(Matat's 2004
 20002002  0.5% ,
.  25 "
, ( ,
, , ( 25 . ,
) ,(Elvik 2000 ) (
" ,3.1% ( ( 2.5 ,(
2.25 ( " , ) .

3.6.4

:J
" ) ( .
 ( . 
) ,2008' .(11( ,2002 (
.2002 ( ".
, (
.

23

3.7

) (6

3.7.1

:K
 " ) ( ,
: .   2/3
) ( ) .(2007 
, ) ( ) , ( , .
,
.  .
 .
, (  .(
, 29.7 )"( 
,19731991 80"  ) 19922007 ' .(15 ) ,2.1.6
.

16

, ,
.
.
,
, ) resource rents method ) ,(3.7.3
 .
) ,(Neumayer 2000  ) ,
 , ( , , ,
. ,
,  4" " ) .(Haruvi et al. 2003) ,
) ( ,
 )  3.8 )"(
16

" , , .

24

" .17 " ) ,(2002


.K( , " 4.65
" .2004

18

3.7.2 :L
NOx ,SOx PM10  27.4 .
Marginal Social Costs MSC
):(2008
:1

SOx

26,036

NOx

15,078

PM10

37,162

*  1 = 5.263"
, MSC ,  .

3.7.3 :M
,(
, .  ,
 " ,  ) ",
,( , " .

17

,Harusii K. 20 , .2008
18
" 2004 .

25

" ,
. ) (Neumayer 2000 ) (El Serafy
,(  .

19

"
.1
) .(13.1 
( n ,  40 .1979

3.7.4 :N
,
," .(
( ,
.(  "
, 
 .
 MSC , (
) .(Atkinson 1995 ) ,Stern 2006' (304( MSC

 ( ,CO2) US$ 85 (2000 US$ 30 , 550


 , US$ 25 450  .  ( .US$ 30
  1968 "
) ,Talberth et al 2007' ,(17(  1968 ,
 ) US$ 30 (2000 .2004  MSC
, "
).(Neumayer 2003

19

)Neumayer (2000

26

2000 ,1996) 2004 .(27.6


 . 1992 
) ,27.4 ( ,(
.CO2

3.7.5 :O 
" ,(   .
) ,2.1.6  .
) ,Cobb and Cobb 1994' .(93
15  12.1 ,
.  2004 ) ,(BOI 2008
 .

3.7.6 :P
) 15.5) 15.6 .(2007
" )  ) ) .(BOI 2008 ,
, 
" .2004

27

:4
" "  GPI

4.1

" ) (GPI/capita 1 "


) (GDP/capita . , " ,
 , 1992 .
" , ( ) 
" ,  , " ) Daly and Farley

.(2004
:1" "

100000

60000
40000
20000
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

2004 NIS/capita

80000

GDP/capita
GPI/capita

0
1975

year

 ) 1979=100 ,(2 "


) 72 ( " ) 50( ( .
(  ,80 " ,
" ,  ,19841989
,1992  " .
) .

28

:2" " 1979=100

200
180
160
140
100
80
60

1979=100

120

GDP/capita
GPI/capita

40
20
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

0
1975

years

4.2

1979
"  19791992
3
, "  80 .19841989
(
, .4
:3  , ,


29

80000
70000
60000

40000
30000

NIS/capita

50000

Capital growth
Public expenditures
Household labour
Private consumption

20000
10000
0

19
79
19
81
19
83
19
85
19
87
19
89
19
91
19
93
19
95
19
97
19
99
20
01
20
03

years

,1984
 ,400% ( ,
.) , 1987 )
, ( ) ( .(
1984 .1989
:4
25
20

10

NIS

15

Gross per-hour wage of


domestic worker

2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

0
1975

years

) , ,5 , ,
"  1979 .1992
"  1979 .1992
:5 "  1979 1992 "
30

60000
50000
GPI/capita

40000

20000
10000

2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

0
1975
-10000

NIS/capita

30000

Household labour/capita

Net international position/capita

-20000
years

( "
,  ) .  "  1989,1992
 ," "
 .19922004

4.3


,6  . 
( .
, , , (
. 
,  .
:6 :  , ( , ,
,,

31

10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0

19
79
19
81
19
83
19
85
19
87
19
89
19
91
19
93
19
95
19
97
19
99
20
01
20
03

years

4.4

NIS GPI/capita

20000
18000
16000
14000
12000

GHG
Air pollution
Crime
Car accidents
Commuting
Defensive education
and health
Atkinson


 " ,
.

4.4.1


  ( ,
7 " ( , 
) ) .(Pearce and Ulph 1998 " ( .

:7 "

32

90000
80000
70000
60000

40000

NIS/capita

50000

30000

GDP/capita
GPI/capita e=0.5
GPI/capita e=0.8
GPI/capita e=1.5

20000
10000
0
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

1975

years

(/

4.4.2

 )  ,
 ,( (/
" , / , .
.2
:2 ( "
" (

"

=1.5

=0.8

=0.5



)( (
( (

)(

(50%) 50%

( 


50%

(25%) 25%

30%

33

(0%) 0%

30%

MSC  CO2

20

US$ 85

US$ 25

US$ 30

, ,8 /
)(  ( , " , ( (
 2000( . (
 .
:8 ( , "

90000
80000
70000
60000

40000
30000

NIS/capita

50000

GDP/capita
High GPI/capita
Baseline Scenario
Low GPI/capita

20000
10000
0
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

1975

years

4.4.3

 ) (Atkinson 1995 ,
" .
" , , ,
 ' , .
.

20

: 550 , 450 , ).(Stern 2006

34

, , .
 (  ) ,,
'( ,  .(
) ,
 .
, , (
" , : 75 ,
 ,(
 . , ,
( ,
, . ,
"   ,(   (
 .
,( ,( , (
.
 ) (2007 21.3.22  (
value of statistical life year VSLY ,
) (Aldy et al 2007 " ,VSLY=US$300,000 : " "
/" ( .0.46 , )
/ , 30 , 80 ,
0.4 , / / ,80
/ .80.4( ) ) ,(VSLY
 ) (r 
) ,(n 50 . ,(
:
/ [r+1]n = (
21

.2.2.1

35

Current value = extra welfare / [1+r]n

( ( 
, n : .  n=49.9 ( .2004
 ,r=3% and r=1% , ,9
22 " . r=3% "
2004 15% r=1%.40%
:9 " 

90000
80000
70000
60000

40000
30000

NIS/capita

50000

GDP/capita
)GPI/capita (1%
)GPI/capita (3%
GPI/capita

20000
10000
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

1980

0
1975

years

4.5

"
" 
,   "  " ,
" (  70 ) .(Daly and Farley 2004)
.

22 ,

36

.1

) threshold hypothesis ) ) (Max-Neef 1995


)' )'( ,
.( , " (
, ) . ) (Bleys 2006
 " ,  ) "
purchasing power parities PPP( US$ 15,00020,000 .2000
"  US$ PPP  20,000 ) 2001 ,(28.7 2003
) .  1992
" " , ( )
, .

.2

23


 ) 3
( ,  )
) ;(3.6.2  . ,
' (' ) ,4.4.2 ( ,
"  , (
.

.3

,3
. ) ,(Bleys 2006 ' ,
23

, .

37

,  ,  )
( .( 
, .
10 " , MSC

" .
" 2000( . 
, " " ) ,(Talberth et al. 2006) (US GPI
.
:10" " MSC

90000
80000
70000

50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1985

years

38

1980

0
1975

NIS/capita

60000

GDP/capita
GPI/capita
GPI/capita GHG
accumulated

:5
( " ( "
. " ," "
 . , " ,
 , (
.) , "
 " ,( " , ,
. ,"  (
, 
,  .
) " ,
 .
 " , .
,   
 ,  .
( , ) ,
 .) ,
.( "
,  
, 
.)  , " ( ,
.
"
 1979 .2004 ( " ,
"  . "
( , " .1992
"

39

, ) .1984 "
).
, 1992( , " "
.2004 ( ,"
" ,( " .
"  1992( . , "
. 
," .1996 , "
 , , .
 ) ,  
, , .(,
 " ' (' ,
,  -( ) .
, " 
 .) ,
) , ,
( 2004 20 !.
, " (
, .

40

:6
6.1 
)AI=1 [i(Yi/)1f(Yi)]1/(1
Yi I

) f(Yi ) i (f(Yi)=0.1
.

6.2
2004
F


epsilon=0.8
) (

22640
22248
22252
23324
21986
23636
22352
22101
22980
23495
24097
25443
26076
27973
28883
32588
39665
42045
42632
43785
44821
45032
46617
45999
46734
45126

39453
35893
37235
33791
39656
30031
51530
55092
58731
73464
73349
74217
73440
66653
66643
71265
70336
79316
76316
83033
83816
84607
72923
79014
91547
86111

83945
77750
87949
93912
103377
94357
96739
111089
120854
127738
126875
134868
143258
153496
166816
178546
192722
205247
211795
216625
224231
241272
247238
247005
250685
261230

0.09677537
0.10481738
0.10492088
0.10335452
0.09413855
0.1108456
0.09857045
0.10086482
0.10315919
0.09530683
0.10406777
0.098429
0.10648202
0.11237154
0.10154548
0.11989136
0.11575638
0.10738303
0.10951487
0.12578621
0.12317367
0.12211377
0.12489758
0.13311478
0.12787611
0.13594272

92,939
86,854
98,258
104,737
114,120
106,119
107,317
123,551
134,755
141,194
141,612
149,592
160,330
172,928
185,669
202,868
217,951
229,938
237,842
247,794
255,731
274,833
282,524
284,934
287,442
302,329

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

41

9817
9438
9058
8679
8300
7920
8350
7598
9544
9336
9368
9452
8997
10231
10200
10942
11171
11913
11985
11133
13180
10438
9497
9066
9255
8727

138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372
372

2500
2932.708
3395.792
3700.606
3864.352
4214.501
4389.014
4756.229
5109.979
5629.224
6049.385
6350.36
6923.879
7553.837
8335.736
8905.915
9807.349
11930.85
12960.48
13768.96
14848.53
15875.02
17898.46
18421.06
19329.46
20918.46

4629
4794
5020
5092
5223
5339
5577
5775
6129
6348
6438
6865
7283
7805
8099
8667
9238
9736
10010
10432
10739
11698
11648
11574
11834
12449

3056
3207
3626
3930
4315
4206
5603
6058
6536
7138
7731
8052
8483
9089
9388
10222
10818
11492
12539
13423
14265
15301
16386
17054
17814
18821

2613
2806
3117
3200
3784
3228
3590
4053
4345
4455
4760
4884
5089
5167
5742
5440
3853
3814
3926
4473
4841
5268
5805
6004
5779
6090

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

42

"

"

)(

29782
26862
28162
26027
23948
26089
34159
38488
40916
49280
51724
47657
41592
39880
41010
41955
44232
46353
47422
46597
47229
50572
49292
48844
50056
51170

3786
3878
3948
4027
4076
4159
4233
4299
4369
4442
4518
4660
4949
5124
5261
5399
5545
5685
5829
5971
6125
6289
6439
6570
6690
6809

)"(

112766
104164
111187
104805
97618
108505
144594
165452
178756
218889
233698
222092
205842
204327
215771
226528
245262
263521
276416
278219
289295
318058
317392
320904
334858
348416

43

-15250
-11939
-13900
-22181
-41264
-14064
1028
5355
9600
28993
45915
27246
7967
5177
4348
-684
-1980
-8398
-3239
-19079
-17459
-7781
-1805
-2147
13
17950

6102
5134
3642
2533
1378
1783
3091
2785
1098
1300
1324
-219
-3749
-4008
-3500
-4743
-3648
1895
8579
15979
21241
23464
23929
23772
20757
16147

1123
1258.37
1399.94
1548.22
1703.48
1865.98
2035.99
2279.15
2543.48
2830.61
3142.27
3480.33
3928.46
4425.91
4977.68
5589.3
6266.77
7016.73
7534.26
8080.35
8656.38
9263.84
9550.72
9837.46
10124
10410.4

247
349
235
286
186
325
464
312
161
225
234
243
307
321
303
306
308
307
339
443
452
320
352
412
369
359

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

W
"

1979=100
) (

V
"

"

U
"

100
101
104
103
105
105
108
110
115
117
117
120
120
125
126
131
136
140
140
143
143
152
148
144
145
150

54411
55021
56593
56278
57033
57131
58632
59785
62441
63606
63417
65563
65498
67795
68508
71439
74145
76222
76431
77759
78028
82782
80512
78401
78732
81371

206024
213356
223433
226616
232476
237615
248191
257003
272798
282521
286530
305536
324157
347350
360449
385720
411126
433328
445508
464277
477948
520635
518420
515093
526691
554054

44

T
"

1979=100
) (

100
90
95
87
80
88
115
129
137
165
174
160
140
134
138
141
149
156
159
156
159
170
166
164
168
172

1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

6.3
Achdut, L. (1996), 'Income Inequality, Income Composition and Macroeconomic Trends:
Israel, 1979-93' ,Economica, New Series, 63, 250 S1-S272.
Aldy J. E. et al (2007) 'age Differences in the Value of Statistical Life', Discussion Paper,
Resources of the Future,
Arrow, K. et al. (2004). Are we consuming too much? Journal of Economic Perspectives
18(3), pp.147-172.
Atkinson, A. (1975). The Economics of Inequality. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.
Atkinson, A. (1970). On the Measurement of Inequality. Journal of Economic Theory,
2(3).
Atkinson, G. (1995). 'Measuring Sustainable Economic Welfare: A critique of the UK
ISEW', Working Paper GEC 95-08, Centre for Social and Economic Research On the
Global environment, Norwich and London
Bank of Israel (BOI), Available from:
http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/ [accessed on August 2008]
Bleys, B. (2008). 'Proposed Changes to the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare: An
application to Belgium', Ecological Economics, 64, 741-751.
Bleys, B., 2006. 'The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for Belgium: first attempt
and preliminary results'. MOSI Working Paper, vol. 27. Vrije Universiteit Brussel,
Brussel, Belgium.
Cobb C. et al (1995a), 'If the GDP is Up, Why is America Down?' The Atlantic Monthly,
October 1995.
Cobb C. et al (1995b). The Genuine Progress Indicator- Summary of Data and
Methodology, Redefining Progress, Washington, DC.
Cobb C. W. and J.B. Cobb (1994), 'The Green National Product: A Proposed Index of
Sustainable Economic Welfare', Lanham: University Press of America.
Daly, H. and Cobb, J (2007), 'ISEW. The Debunking Interpretation and the Person-inCommunity Paradox: Comment on Rafael Ziegler', Environmental Values 16 (2007), 277278.
Daly E. and Farley J (2004), 'ecological Economics Principles and Applications', Island
Press.
Daly, H. and Cobb, J (1989), For The Common Good, Boston, Beach Press.

45

Eisner, R. (1994), 'The index of Sustainable Economic Welfare: Comment', in Cobb C. B.


and Cobb J.B. (eds), 'The Green National Product: A Proposed Index of Sustainable
Economic Welfare', Lanham: University Press of America.
Eisner, R. (1990), 'The Total Income System of Accounts', Chicago: Chicago University
Press.
Ekins P, and MaxNeef eds. (1992), Real Life Economics: Understanding Wealth Creation.
New York: Routledge
Electricity Company (2002), 'Environmental Report for 2002'. [Hebrew]
Elvik (2000), 'How much do road accidents cost the national economy', Accident
Analysis and prevention (32), 849-851
Hamilton, C. and Dennis, R. (2000). 'Tracking Wellbeing in Australia: The Genuine
Progress Indicator 2000'. The Australian Institute, Canberra, AU (ACT)
Haruvi et al (2003), Treated Waste Water Irrigation and Dieselization Processes [Hebrew].
Hicks, 1946. J. Hicks Value and Capital (Second Edition ed.),, Clarendon, London (1946).
Hydrological Service (2007), 'Uses Development and the State of Water Resources in
Israel Until Autumn 2006', ISSN-0793-1093. [Hebrew]
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (various years) Annual Statistical Abstract,
Jerusalem, Israel.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (1996), Time Use in Israel Additional Findings
from the Time Use Budget Survey 1991/92. Publication No. 1029
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (various years), 'Income Survey'.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (1998), 'Traveling Habit Survey'
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (various years), 'Family Expenditure Survey'.
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), (various years), 'Criminality Damaged Survey'.
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) (2002), 'Family and Gender Roles III' - ZA
No. 3880, available from:
http://www.gesis.org/en/data_service/issp/data/2002_Family_III.htm [accessed 25 July
2008]
Jackson, T. et al (1997). A Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for the UK, 1950-1996,
Guildford: University of Surrey, Centre for Environmental Strategy
Jackson, T, and Stymne, S. (1996), Sustainable Economic welfarein Sweden: A pilot Index
1950-1992, Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute.

46

Japanease (1973), 'Net national Welfare', Monthly Labor Review.


Katz E. et al. (1992), Leisure Patterns in Israel: Changes in Cultural Activity 1970-1990,
The Guttman Institute for Social research. [Hebrew]
Lawn, P (2005). 'An Assessment of the Valuation Methods Used to Calculate the Index of
Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress indicator (GPI) and Sustainable
Net benefit Index (SNBI)'. Environment,Ddevelopment, and Sustainability, 7(2), 185-208
Lawn, P., (2003). A theoretical foundation to support the Index of Sustainable
EconomicWelfare (ISEW),Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), and Other related indexes.
Ecological Economics 44 (1),
105118.
Layard, R. (2005), Happiness- Lessons from a New Science, The Penguin Press.
Matat (2004), 'Car Accidents in Israel', a working paper for the ministry of transportation.
[Hebrew]
Max-Neef, M.,(1995). 'Economic growth and quality of life: a threshold hypothesis'.
Ecological Economics 15 (2), 115118.
Ministry of Environment Protection (2008), External Costs of Air Polution from Energy
(Electricity) Production in Israel, Available from:
http://www.sviva.gov.il/Enviroment/Static/Binaries/index_pirsumim/p0491_1.pdf
[Hebrew]
Ministry of Transportation (2006), TRANSPORT PROJECT APPRAISAL
IN ISRAEL. Available from:
http://www.mot.gov.il/wps/pdf/HofesMeyda/TransportProjectAppraisal.pdf [Accesed on
10 August 2008]
Ministry of Public Security (2008).'The Economical Damage from Crime in the State of
Israel 2007'. Available from:
http://www.mops.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/55BE5C24-BC43-45B6-8C33E6043487084A/0/%D7%A0%D7%96%D7%A7%D7%99%D7%9D%D7%9B%D7%9C%
D7%9B%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%99%D7%9D%D7%9E%D7%94%D7%A4%D7%A9%
D7%99%D7%A2%D7%942007.pdf [accessed on 12 August 2008] [Hebrew]
Monthly Labor Review (1973) 'Japan's Net National Welfare Provisionally Computed.'
Monthly Labor Review, 96 (7), pp. 50-51
Neumayer, E. (2003).Weak versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two
Oppoing Paradigms, Second Revised Edition. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward
Elgar.
Neumayer, E., 2000. On the methodology of ISEW, GPI and related measures: some
constructive suggestions and some doubt on the threshold hypothesis. Ecological
Economics 34 (3), 347361.

47

Neumayer, E. (1999), 'The ISEW: Not an Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare', social
Indicators Research, 48 (1), 77-101
Nordhaus, W. D. and Tobin J. (1972), 'Is Growth Obsolete?', in National Bureau of
Economics Research, Economic Growth, New York: Colombia University Press.
Pearce, D. and Ulph, D. (1995). 'A Social Discount Rate for the United Kingdom',
CSERGE Working Paper 95-01. CSERGE, University College London.
London, UK.
Stern, N., 2006. Stern review: The economics of climate change. HM Treasury, p.304.
Available from:
http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/stern_revi
ew_report.cfm. [Acceseed 25 August 2008]
Stockhammer E. et al (1997), 'The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) As an
Alternative to GDP in Measuring Economic Welfare. The Results of the Austrian
(Revised) ISEW Calculation 1955-1992', Ecological Economics, 21 (1), 19-34.
Talberth, J, et al (2007), The Genuine Progress Indecator 2006, Redefining Progress,
World Bank (2005).Ensuring environmental sustainability measuring progress toward
the 7th Millennium Devleopment Goal. Washington DC, World Bank. Available from:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ESSDNETWORK/1105722115888526384/20645232/ensuring.pdf
Zolotas X. (1981), 'Economic Growth and Declining Social Welfare', New York: New
York University Press.

48