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: , , ,

S x x x0

t
S
(
)
t

- X
-

x x0 x t

0
a
a
t
t

0 at
0
S
t ( S = )
2


at 2
S 0t
2
2
x 02x
Sx
2a x
x x0 0 t

at 2
2

3)

4)

S
t
2 r

T
2 r

t
2

T
2

-
-
-

-

-

1 2 ,
1) 1 2 ;
2) 1 2
2 1 )

N 1
=
t T 2
t
2
T

1
T

1 2
2

-
2

1 2 2 2 21 2 cos

-

-
- ,

- ,

-
- ,

- ,

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: , , ,

r
a

2
r

4 2 R
4 2 R 2
T2

- ,

a 2 r

- ,

const 0 , R = 0 ,

-
a ; F m a; R m a
m

-
F1 F2 ; F1 F2 ; F1 F2
F
,
F N F, F mg ( )
F
-
F

N
F kx
- ,

-
F mg

-
P mg
()

P m( g a) a, P 0, a g

- (),

P m( g a) a
mm
F G 12 2
r
M
g R2
GM
gh G

;g
2
2
( R h)
( R h)
R2

M
; I g R ; II 2 I
R

P
m

p m , p m o t , 1 1 1
P2 m2 2

Ft m m 0 ; F t p2 p1

m11 m2 2 m11 m2 2

m11 m2 2 (m1 m2 )

mP P m

- 1- 2-

-
-
( )
( )
( )

900
p m 2 ;
0
II - 180
p 2m;
0
III - 60
p m
0
IV - 120
p m 3
V - 2 N
p 0
I-

M F d

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: , , ,

- ,
F1 F2 F3 ... 0

M 1 M 2 M 3 ... 0

F1 d1 F2 d 2

- ,

F1 d 2

F2 d1

V
F
P
S
P gh

-
-

F gHS
1
F gHS
2
h1 2

h2 1

-
-

-

FA gV
S
F2 F1 2
S1
A F s cos a
A F s

-
- ,

, ,
-
-

A mg(h1 h2 )
k
A ( x12 x22 )
2
N F ; F F

-
-
-

A
t
m 2
Ek
2
E p mgh
N

-
-

kx
2
E Ek E p const
Ep

-

-

m 22 m12

2
2
A
N
n ; n
A
N
A

x A sin(t 0 ); A xmax

max cos(t 0 )
a am sin(t 0 )

-

-

-

-

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: , , ,
2
k
g

T
m
l
1
1
t
N
T ; ; T ;

T
N
t
2A
m A 2 A
T

am 2 A m 2 m

2 m
T

T 2

m
k

T 2

l
g

kA2 m 2 kx2 m m2
kA2
; E mgA ;

E
2
2
2
2
2
m 2
E
2

T ;

1 2

; ;

2 1

2e

N
m
23
1
; N A 6,02 10 -

NA M

M m0 N

1
2 m
p nm0 2

3
3
3V
3P
2
2N E
; E
p nE
3
3V
2n
T t 273 ; t T 273

p nkT; p

NkT
23
; k 1,38 10
V
K

3
E kT
2

3RT
3kT
; R 8,31

K
M
m0

- ,


- ,


-

-

-

-

PV
PV
PV
const 1 1 2 2
T
T1
T2
m
RT
NRT
RT RT
PV =
; P
M
M
NA
PV = const T = const

P1V1 P2V2

- -

- ,

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: , , ,

V
T

V1 V2

T1 T2

- ,

= const p = const

P
T

P1 P2

T1 T2

- ,

= const V = const

P
P

100%

i m
U=
RT
2M

-
-

i=3

i = 5

3 m
3
3
3
U
RT RT PV A
2M
2
2
2 ;
U

3 m
3
3
3
RT RT PV A
2M
2
2
2

Q = cm(t 2 - t 1 )

cmt ; t T

- ,

-
- ,
,
,
- ,
,

- ,

- ,

C = cm
Q n = Lm
Q =

Q = qm

mRT
RT
M
A S

=p V=

A A ;
A -
A

A ; U Q A
Q Q1 Q2 Q3 ...

Q = U +

Q = Q

Q
A Q Q

1
Q
Q
Q
Q Q 1

A Q Q ; Q

Q
1

-
;

-
T
T T

1 ; T ; T T 1
1
T

-
1) T 0 T const , U 0 , Q A , A Q

2) V 0 V const , A A 0 , U Q
3) P 0 P const , Q U A , U Q A
4) Q 0 , A U , A U

F=

F=

q1 q 2

r2
k q1 q 2

r 2

k=

4 0

F
E , F q E
q

r2
kq

-
( )

E=k

E=

r 2

q
E=k

R r 2

E E1 E2 E3
Wp

q
q
k
r
q
k
Rr
Ed

-
-

-

-

1 2 3
A = q ( 1 - 2 ) =

q qU qEd Wp

d
d
q1 q 2
W=k
r
q
C=
, q, U
U
0 S
C=
d
C = 1 + C 2 C3 , = C1 C 2 ,
C1 C 2 , = 2 C1
1
1
1
1

C C1 C 2 C3
C1 C 2
=
C1 C 2
C1
C1 C 2 , =
2
2
qU CU
q2
W

2
2
2C
q

S
E=

-


-

-

- ,

q
t
I q0 nS
I

- ,
,

I
S
U
I
R
j

l
d 2
2
; S r
4
S
R R0 1 at

- ,

R R1 R2 R3 ... ; R1 R2 R ; R 2R

R
1
1
1
1

... ; R1 R2 R ; R ;
2
R R1 R2 R3
R R
R 1 2
R1 R2

U2
t Pt
R
A
U2
P IU I 2 R
t
R
2
U t
Q I 2 Rt
R
A

q
A IUt I 2 Rt

- ,

- -

- ()

; I ( R r ); U U

Rr
n
I
R nr

- n-

-
n-

r
n
m kIt
R

r

-

M max Fmax

IS
Il
F IBl sin
F q B sin

mv q BR ; R

BS cos
p qBR

-
-

m
qB

- ,

-
-

k 2q2 B2
2m
2 m
T
qB
Ek

qB
2 m
qB

m
-

LI 2

i
;
t

i
N,
t

LI

- ,

- ,
,

m max

I
L
t
t
Bvl sin
2 1 BS cos
q

R
R
R

is

u U m sin(t 0 )
i I m cos(t 0 )

2 qmax
T

T 2 LC

Li 2
2
2
qm
q 2 Li 2 LI m2

2C 2C
2
2
I
I m
2
U
U m
2
2 L
X L L 2 L
T
1
1
T

XC
C 2 C 2 C
WM

Z R2 (X L X C )2

- ,
,

q qm sin(t 0 )

I m qm 2 q max

-

-

-
( )
-

-

-

-

-
-

U
Z

cT ;

2c LC

sin n2 1

sin n1 2
c
n

1
n
1 1

f d
1
F
H
f

h d

sin 0

1
F

(2k 1)
k
d sin k

2
-
-

2
1
1 2
1

l l0 1

- ,

c2

-
,

0
1

m0
1

c2
-
E mc 2 ; E0 m0 c 2 ; Ek E E0
,
hc
-
E h
p c m c2

p mc

p E h
h
m 2

c c
c
c
2
m
h A
2

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: , , ,
A h min h

max

m 2
eU
2
h nm En Em
h

N N0 2

t
T

-
-
- -

M (Zm p Nmn ) M

E Mc 2

E . .

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