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H

-H H . . .
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H H
( p )

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0,9

57

1053
. 1.1. , H2 O.

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, .

. 1.2. . p p.

, , ? , ,
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, , .
?
. p p.
, p p 1016 . ,
1

, .
,

= 0,5
= 5000 A.
2

. 1.3. .

104 105 A = 1012 1013 . , .


. 2000 :

. 1.4. .

mp mn 1,67 1024 .

(1.1)

. ? .
. ? .
, .
, : ,
.. .
. p ,
1 . ,
, .
? , ,
. 1028 1010 3 . ,
1,5 1013 (150 . .), 6,4 108 (6400 ).
1080 (1078 1082 ). 1057
, 4 1051 . , M ,
1080 / 1057 10234 . 0,01 100 M .
, .
. , , 1016 .
, 1012 1014 , .

( ). 108 1010 ,
. ,
.
.
, , (
)? , ( , ) ? ?
:
,
3

, . 9,5 1012 1018 .


(: 100 ).

,

.
.
, .
.
, , ( ).
, ( , )5 .
. , .
( p ),
.
, , .
1012 1013 , .
, , 6 .
, . , . , , .
, , - .
,
15 :
n p + e + e .

(1.2)

, .
: , ( ) ,
, 102 , , 105 .
, 1040 .
. ,
. , ,
. , , , .
. , , ,
.
, , . , ,
. ( ) ,
. ,
, . p .
.
, .
, . -,
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,
.
, .
.
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5

, , , .
.

, ,
, , 6 1945 .,
.
, , .
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, .
, ,
.
, , , ?
, ,
( 1 A)?
. .
. , , ,
. -
,
. .
, (
). ?
, , ,
, .
.
, . ,
( ) .
, .
? ,
,
. x , p ,
x p /2

(1.3)

(, 1927 .), ,
= 1,054 1027 .

(1.4)

, , ,
( ), x = 0.
, p ()
, .
,
, 7

(1.5)
= ,
p
p ( ). ,
, .
. r p
, r , p . r r p p, r (
), p . .
p r:

e2
p2
r 2m ,
(1.6)
r p .
7 - , , ,
.

, p
,

2me2 /r. p ,
r

2
.
2me2

(1.7)

1027 , m 1027 e 5 1010 . (1.7),

1054
107

= 0,4 A.
r 27
=
(1.8)
20
10
25 10
25

, ( ) .
, , .
,
.
, .
. , .

. .
- .
. ,
. .
.
. .
,
. (1643
1727 .) (1687 .).
, XX
.
,
( ).
,
. , , ,
, (
). .
XX . ,
, , , c 300000 /. ,
, .
. , . ,
23 ( ) ,
300 / = 0, 3 /1 . 10 /.
(30 /). , (, )
300 /, 1000 .
, .
, , ,

x p /2.
(2.1)
, 0,5 ,
30 /, . ,
, = 103 / ( / = 3 1011 ),
p x 5 1012 1027 . ,
x 103 (10 A),
.
? ,
. (
). , , -
, 2 , .
( ),
.
p , pp p pp, ,
p .
1

( 470 /).
, ,
..
2 ,

, .
, x, y, z. :
(p. 2.1). Z

Y
. 2.1. .

, . , .
, x, (x x) (p. 2.2).
Z

. 2.2. x x.

. ( x x)
.
.

(x x, y y, z z) . (
Z
Y

Z
. 2.3. .

) (. p. 2.3).
, , , . .
-3 r, x, y, z. , r
, , r (
) (p. 2.4).
3 , . .

z
r

y
Y

x
X

r
Y

X
. 2.4. - p .

z = r cos ,
x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin .

(2.2)

i, j, k, (
), - r :
r = x i + y j + z k,

|i| = |j| = |k| = 1.

(2.3)


(p. 2.5).
Z
zk
r
yj
Y
xi

x i+y j
X
. 2.5. - .

r , p .
, A B

A B = |A| |B| cos(AB),

(2.4)

= r2 ,
r r = |r| |r| cos(rr)

(2.5)

. ,
, .
r

= 1 ( ). ,
cos(rr)

r r = (x i + y j + z k) (x i + y j + z k) =
= x2 i i + y 2 j j + z 2 k k + 2xy i j +

(2.6)

+ 2xz i k + 2yz j k.
i, j k ,
i j = i k = j k = 0.

(2.7)

,
:
r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .
(2.8)
9


A B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz .

(2.9)

A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k

(2.10)

B.
(2.7).
, . 2.6,
, v
a. - t1 r1 , t2
r2 . , - r , ,
r = r(t). , ,
, .
r(t) x(t), y(t) z(t) ,

r(t) = x(t) i + y(t) j + z(t) k.


(2.11)
r2 r1

r12 = r2 r1

(2.12)

. ,
1 2. ,
r1 + r12 = r1 + (r2 r1 ) = r2 ,
(2.13)

.
r12 t12 = t2 t1 , r12 /t12 ,
, .
, t12 ( t2 t1 ), r12 , .
r12 t12 , ,
r(t) t:
r12
dr
= lim
.
(2.14)
t12 0 t12
dt
t1 . ,

dr
v
.
(2.15)
dt
, , , ,
t,

dx dy dz
dr
v =
=
,
,
,

dt
dt dt dt
v =
x =

dr
dx
dy
dz
=
i+
j + k,
dt
dt
dt
dt
dx
,
dt

upsilony =

dy
,
dt

z =

dz
.
dt

Z
r1

r12
r2
Y

. 2.6. .

10

(2.16)

v(t) , -, t. ,
:
d2 r
dv
a
= 2.
(2.17)
dt
dt
,
a = const,

(2.18)

(). v(t) - r(t)


v(t) = v(0) + at,
1
r(t) = r(0) + v(0)t + at2 ,
2

(2.19)

v(0) r(0) -
t = 0 ( ).
, , 4 .
, . . , .
, 5 , . , .
t1 , r1 , t2 - r2 , . p. 2.8. ,
.
r12 = r2 r1 , , ,
, ,
.
. t2 t1
t,
(p. 2.9). p
n=

t2 t1
.
t

(2.20)

ri (i = 1, 2, . . . , n)
. , t S :
S

i=1

(2.21)

|ri |.

t
n .
t:
S
4

|ri |
i=1

t.

(2.22)

.
.

t1

v(t1)
r1

t2
r2

r12
____
t 12

O
. 2.7. .

11

t1

t2
r12

r1

r2

O
. 2.8. ?

, t 0:
S = lim

t0

|ri |
i=1

t.

(2.23)

, (
) ,
lim

t0

ri
= vi
t

(2.24)

v i .
:
t2

S=
|vi | dt
|v(t)| dt.
(2.25)
t1

i=1

. ,
. , f (t)

f (t) dt F (t) + const,


(2.26)
dF/ dt = f (t), F (t) f (t).
t1 t2 f (t) :

t2

t1

f (t) dt = F (t)|t21 F (t2 ) F (t1 ).

(2.27)

.
, ,
, t1 t2 ,
.

r2

r1

r3

O
. 2.9. .

12

.
. .
, v(0) a ( ). ,
. , , .
. , ,
XY . (p. 3.1).
Y

. 3.1. .

r :
x = r cos ,
y = r sin .

(3.1)

, r . (t). :
=

d
.
dt

(3.2)

= const .

= t + const .
(3.3)
(0) = 0. ,
x(t) = r cos t,
y(t) = r sin t.

(3.4)

. ,
:
x =

dx
= r sin t,
dt

y =

dy
= r cos t.
dt

(3.5)

p
r v = xx + yy = r cos t (r sin t) +
+ r sin t (r cos t) = 0,
13

(3.6)

r v,
.

= |v| = x2 + y2 = 2 r2 sin2 t + 2 r2 cos2 t =


= r = const,

(3.7)

, ( ).
, :
ax =

dx
= 2 r cos t,
dt

dy
= 2 r sin t,
(3.8)
dt
, , .
(), , :

a = |a| = a2x + a2y = 2 r,


(3.9)
ay =

, r = ,

2
(3.10)
r
.
? , a . ,
:
|a| =

a r = ax x + ay y = ( 2 r cos t) r cos t +
,

+ ( 2 r sin t) r sin t = 2 r2 .

(3.11)

ar) = 2 r2 cos(
ar).
a r = |a| |r| cos(

(3.12)

, cos(
ar) = 1. ,
r, .
, . 3.2.

. 3.2. -, .


. , ,
, , , .
(.
2).
: = d/ dt. ,
, , . , , ,
() ( ).
z , , ( z) (p. 3.3).
. , , , p, .
.
14

Z
. 3.3. .

, - ,
, ,
, , .
z. ,
r - r
(p. 3.4).
Z

r
r+

. 3.4. .

, d.
dr. ( )
,
|dr| = rd,
(3.13)

dr , r.
r, dr d, (p. 3.5),
|dr| = |d| |r|. , ,
d
dr
r

. 3.5. .

,
dr = [d r].

(3.14)

, , [A B]

C = [A B],
(3.15)

, ( )
A B, , (. . 3.6).
C :

|C| = |A| |B| sin(AB).


15

(3.16)

A
C

B
. 3.6. p p p .

d r 90 , . ,
, |dr| = r d, dr =
[d r].
dt,
r dr,

dr
d
=
r .
(3.17)
dt
dt
, , , v,
d
=
(3.18)
dt
. ,
, . ( , ),
, , . , ,
v = [ r].

(3.19)

p p p p. 3.7.

. 3.7. -, .

a, . ( , )1 ,

dv
dr
a=
=
(3.20)
= [ v],
dt
dt
v. , , ,
r, . , ,
v:2
a = [ v] = [ [ r]] =
= ( r) r( ) = ( r) 2 r.

(3.21)

p p p p,
- r , ,
( , , r)

a = 2 r,
(3.22)
1

.
[A [B C] = B(A C) C(A B).

16

. 3.8. .

a r ( ).
: |a| = 2 |r|, .
,
, , ( ,
). ? , , -, , , , , . -,
, (p. 3.8).
, , , r ,
,
- r:
v = [ r].
(3.23)
, . 3.8, = r sin = = r sin . r,
.
(. p. 3.9):
a = ( r) 2 r.
(3.24)
, a , p,

r)
a

2 r

. 3.9. .

. , p, .
v = [ r] , ,
: (t).
:

d
dr
dv
a=
=
r +
=
dt
dt
dt
= [ r] + [ v].

(3.25)

= d/ dt . ,
(, , )
( ).
17

Z
k

i
X

. 3.10. .

C = [A B]:
Cx = [A B]x = Ay Bz Az By ,
Cy = [A B]y = Az Bx Ax Bz ,
Cz = [A B]z = Ax By Ay Bx ,

{xyz} ,
{yzx} ,
{zxy} .

(3.26)

. ,
A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k

(3.27)

, , B. , i, j k
(. p. 3.10)
[i j] = k,

[k i] = j,

[j k] = i

(3.28)

:
[j i] = [i j] . .

(3.29)


[A B] = [(Ax i + Ay j + Az k) (Bx i + By j + Bz k)] ,
.

18

(3.30)

. .
. .



. , , ,
. ,
( ). ,
, , , , , . .
, , , . c
,
, , ,
.
. , - , , , , , ,
, p .
, .
,
(Oa Ob) (p. 4.1). Oa
P

b
a

P
. 4.1. .

P P , P P . Oa .
Ob P P P P , P P .
, P P ( aOb)
, , . , Oa ,
Oa , Oa 2. ,
Oa Ob P P ( 2),
ab. , Oa Ob ,
ab,
. () . , ,
( Ob, Oa)
, , ,
1 .
, ,
, 1 2 ,
1 , ,
.

19

= 1 + 2 .
,
, :
r = x1 n1 + x2 n2 + x3 n3 =

i=1

xi ni xi ni ,

(4.1)

x1 , x2 , x3 , n1 , n2 , n3 (), .
(i )
2 . , r ,
n1 , n2 , n3 (p. 4.2).
Z

Z
n3

n3

n1

n2
n2

n1
X
X
. 4.2. () .

r
r = x1 n1 + x2 n2 + x3 n3 =

i=1

xi ni xi ni .

(4.2)

, :
x1 n1 + x2 n2 + x3 n3 = x1 n1 + x2 n2 + x3 n3 .

(4.3)

n1 , n2 n3 n1 , n1 n3 :
x1 = x1 (n1 n1 ) + x2 (n1 n2 ) + x3 (n1 n3 ),
x2 = x1 (n2 n1 ) + x2 (n2 n2 ) + x3 (n2 n3 ),
x3 = x1 (n3 n1 ) + x2 (n3 n2 ) + x3 (n3 n3 ).

(4.4)

, .
. r
(4.3) n1 , n2 n3 . ,
x1 = x1 (n1 n1 ) + x2 (n1 n2 ) + x3 (n1 n3 )

(4.5)

),
ik = ni nk = cos (ik

(4.6)

, . ,
x1 = x1 11 + x2 12 + x3 13 ,
x2 = x1 21 + x2 22 + x3 23 ,
x3 = x1 31 + x2 32 + x3 33 .
2

i . .

20

(4.7)

,
xi = ik xk .
(4.8)
i , , i = 1, 2, 3.
k 1 3.

xi = ki xk .
(4.9)

A , A1 , A2 ,
A3 , (4.8):
Ai = ik Ak ,

(4.10)

, x1 , x2 , x3 .

)

11

= 21
31

12 13
22 23 .
32 33

(4.11)

. :
n1 =

11 n1

12 n2

13 n3

1i ni = 1i ni .

(4.12)

i=1

n1 :
1 = 11 (n1 n1 ) +12 (n1 n2 ) +13 (n1 n3 ) .


(4.13)

2
2
2
11
+ 12
+ 13
= 1,

(4.14)

11

12

13

.

n2 = 21 n1 + 22 n2 + 23 n3 ,
(4.15)
n2
2
2
2
21
+ 22
+ 23
=1

(4.16)

2
2
2
31
+ 32
+ 33
= 1,

(4.17)


.

. ,
,
2
2
2
11
+ 21
+ 31
= 1.

(4.18)

n1 = 11 n1 + 12 n2 + 13 n3

(4.19)


n2 , n1 :
0 = 11 (n1 n2 ) + 12 (n2 n2 ) + 13 (n2 n3 ),

(4.20)

0 = 11 21 + 12 22 + 13 23 .

(4.21)

, p
. ,
21

Z ,Z
Y

. 4.3. z.

.
.
. , ,


ik jk = ki kj = ij .
(4.22)
, , ,
. i j 1, 2, 3,
() (k) (4.22) . ij ,

1, i = j,
ij =
(4.23)
0, i = j,
.

1 0 0
ij = 0 1 0 .
(4.24)
0 0 1

, () . , ,
.
, ,

:
A B = A1 B1 + A2 B2 + A3 B3 Ai Bi .

(4.25)


Ai = ik Ak ,
Bi = ij Bj .

:
Ai Bi = ik ij Ak Bj = kj Ak Bj = Aj Bj .

(4.26)

(4.27)

, Ai Bi = Aj Bj , A B
.
,

), , . 4.3,
z. ik = cos(ik

cos sin 0

() = sin cos 0 .
(4.28)
0
0
1

. , ,
, . ,
, . ,
. , , y y
(p. 4.4).
22

, - r
:

x = x ,
1 0 0
y = y ,
(4.29)

= 0 1 0 .

z=z,
0 0 1

) = 1, - p p
cos(yy
, .
.
, , ,
z (p. 4.5). , y.
,
(p. 4.6).
, .
,
z,
z = z ,
(4.30)
z - ,
z = z.

(4.31)

, - r -, .
- r ,
.
:
xi = ik xk ,
(4.32)
i = ik k .
( ),
:
xi = ik xk ,
(4.33)
i = ik k ,
.
-, , , :
r,

v=

dr
,
dt

a=

dv
,
dt

F = ma.

(4.34)

: , H, M.
( p ) :
r
v
a
F

r,
v,
a,
F,

(4.35)

r
Y

. 4.4. pp p p p .

23

Y
X

. 4.5. .

Y
X

. 4.6. !

( pp
):
,
(4.36)
H H.

, . , , , , pp,
, -
. ,

= ,

(4.37)

= .

(4.38)

p, - ,
. . () ,
, .
- , .
,
,
( ),
(4.39)
( ),
.
,
v = [ r]

(4.40)

, - r
. v ( r ), .
, , [ r] .
( ), - r (
).
[ r] [() (r)] = [ r],
(4.41)
24

, ,
. , ,
v = [ r],

(4.42)

, , .
,
,
[1 2 ] = ,
(4.43)

[(1 ) (2 )] = [1 2 ] .

(4.44)

.
, ?
= .

(4.45)

, , , , . ,
. .
, , . , : ,
( , ), , , (
).

25


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

. . . . ., H, 1979 520 .
., H ., p . , 1, . ., H, 1975 480 .
., ., . (12 ). ., p, 1976 440 .
. ., . . p 10 , 1, . ., H, 1973 208 c.
.. . ., H, 1988 416 .

26


1.
.
.
.

2.
.
.
- .
.
, .
.

3.
.
.
.

13

4.
.
.
.
.

19

27

H
-H H . . .
-

. . p, . . p

H H
( p )

H-

.
. .
.
. H .
.
( ), ,
. ,
a = 0,
F = 0.
(5.1)
. , ,
:
F = ma.
(5.2)
. F21 ,
, F12 ,
:
F12 = F21 ,
(5.3)

p p p , .
. , ,
, , .
, F12 = F21 , .
, ,
, , .
p . p, pp,
p q1 q2 , p p v1 v2 pp, p,
p , p p p.
, p p. 5.1. p
p p . p p p
, p p
E=

qr
,
r3

H=

q [v r]
,
c r3

(5.4)

p p r p p . ,
p, p q1 p ,
p q2 p p q1 p ,
p. p q1 p p q2 , p ,
p , p q2 . p ,
p, p p p, , p q1 , p p p H. Hp,
, , p 1 2 /c2 1.
p H ,
,
, . (,
, , ?)
300
L

108 ,
c
3 1010 /

(5.5)

L ( 108 , 100 /,
3 103 /, 3 105 ).
,
, . . ,
2

F1

q1
[v H ]

c 1 1
F2 = q 2 E 2

q2
q1 E1

q1

v1
v2

. 5.1. p p p.

,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, - , m 2 r
, m , p, r
. ,
, . ,
, , , ,
.

, , . , ,
. , , , . ( )
, , . .
( ), ,
( ),
, .
, ( ),
, , . -

2

a=
= 2 R 3,4
,
(5.6)
R
2
R
=

2
0,73 104 1 ,
8,6 104

R 6,4 108 .

(5.7)

3,4 /2 . 0,3 % g 980 /2 , , ,


, ,
. - , pp, , ( , , ,
).
, ,
. ,
=

2
2 107 1 .
7
3

10

(5.8)

R = 150 106 = 1,5 1013 a = 2 R 0,6 /2 ,


, .
,
p 300 /. , . , R,
3

S
V

x, x

. 5.2. p .

30 .

2
3 107 /
2

2
a= R=

3 108
,
22
2
R

3 10

(5.9)

30 . .

. , ,
, .
,
, , ,
. , 1 .
, ( ).
, , , , . , ,
, , . , .
.
, .

.
. S - , S , V (p. 5.2).
x , y , z , S , x, y, z S. ,
V x. , c S ,
, , S .
, .

, . S
x . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
S 1, 2, 3, . . . S, S
S. ,

t = t (V c).

(5.10)

p . p p ppp p .
p p ppp .

, , S , S. t S, t
S .
. , S ,
S . .
, , S
. ,
L = L (V c).

(5.11)

t = t L = L ,
x , y , z t - , S , x,
y, z, t S. , ,
, t = 0 t = 0,
. , ,
:
t = t ,

x = x + V t,

y = y ,

z = z.

(5.12)

. , ,
:
r = r + Vt , t = t .
(5.13)
, ,
S S , , .
(
).
, , , , ,
, t = t. -
, , , .
( : , , V c).
:
ma = F.
(5.14)
a = dv/dt, v = dr/dt, ,
dr
dr
=
+ V, v = v + V.
dt
dt

(5.15)

,
dv
dv
=
dt
dt

( V = const),

(5.16)

a = a , . ,
, p H
,
ma = F,
(5.17)
ma = F
(, ). a = a , , F = F ,
, , .
, , ,
,
:
m1 m2
F12 = G 2 .
(5.18)
r12
5

m1

r12

m1

. 5.3. p p p r12 .
p (p , V c).

, ,
1 2:
r1 = r1 + Vt ,
r2 = r2 + Vt .
,

r12 = r2 r1 = r2 r1 = r12 ,

(5.19)

(5.20)

, , .

. .
.

:

dp
= F,
dt

(6.1)

p = mv,

(6.2)

. , m p (
) :
ma = m

dv
d(mv)
dp
=
=
.
dt
dt
dt

(6.3)

? , p ? :
dp
= F.
(6.4)
dt
, , .
, .
, , m1 m2 ,
, (p. 6.1). , , ,
, .
p ,
, . , . ,
? ( ),
.
, , ,
1 2:
dp1
= F12 ,
dt

dp2
= F21 ,
dt

(6.5)

F12 , , F21 ,
. ,
:
F12 = F21 .
(6.6)
:

dp1
dp2
+
= F12 + F21 = 0.
dt
dt

(6.7)


d
(p1 + p2 ) = 0.
dt

p1 + p2 = const.

(6.8)

(6.9)

,
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = const,
(6.10)
7

m1

m1

m1

m2

m2

m2

. 6.1. , p.

dr1
dr2
= const,
+ m2
(6.11)
dt
dt
d(m1 r1 ) d(m2 r2 )
= const,
+
(6.12)
dt
dt
d
(m1 r1 + m2 r2 ) = const.
(6.13)
dt
, m = m1 + m2 ,

const
d m1 r1 + m2 r2
=
= const .
(6.14)
dt
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
m1

m1 r1 + m2 r2
.
(6.15)
m1 + m2
Rc ( ) . (6.14) , ,
, p dRc /dt = const. p, ( ).
Vc :
dRc
= Vc .
(6.16)
dt
Rc ,

m1 v1 + m2 v2
d m1 r1 + m2 r2
=
= Vc .
(6.17)
dt
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
Rc

Vc . ,
1 . ,
m1 + m2 Vc , (m1 + m2 )Vc .
,
(m1 + m2 )Vc = m1 v1 + m2 v2 = p1 + p2
(6.18)
. ,
, , , .
, , .
, .
, F1 F2 ,

dp1
= F12 + F1 ,
dt
(6.19)
dp2
= F21 + F2 .
dt
,
d
(p1 + p2 ) = F1 + F2 ,
dt

(6.20)

dVc
m
= F1 + F2 .
dt
1

, Vc , .

,
,
, , .
.
- ,
. , ,
,
.



, , , .
(
, , : , ). ,
. : , , ,
.
, S S V . , v S, v
S , , ,
v = v + V.

(6.21)

S m1 m2 v1
v2 , , w1 w2 .
S :
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 w1 + m2 w2 .

v1 = v1 + V,

v2 = v2 + V,

w1 = w1 + V,

w2 = w2 + V,

(6.22)

(6.23)


m1 (v1 + V) + m2 (v2 + V) = m1 (w1 + V) + m2 (w2 + V),
(6.24)
m1 v1

m2 v2

+ (m1 + m2 )V =

m1 w1

m2 w2

+ (m1 + m2 )V.

(m1 + m2 )V, , S
:
(6.25)
m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 w1 + m2 w2 .
, , :
m1 M1 m2 M2 , m1 + m2 = M1 + M2 .

(6.26)

, .
,
,
.
. H
, ? ,
.
9

,
- ,
, , (p. 6.2).
. ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
( ).

v=0
m

. 6.2. p p p.

,
, (p. 6.3).
( ), , .
, (p. 6.4).
2. ,
, . ,
, , , ,
/2 (. p. 6.5). !
pp p , p p p. p , p 1 ,
p p 2 p (1 > 2 ) (p. 6.6). p
p? p , p p .
p p () p 1 2 . ,
p p p (1 2 )/2.
2 , p
1 2
1 + 2
+ 2 =
.
2
2
p p
1
m1 + m2 = 2m (1 + 2 ).
2

(6.27)

p, p pp p
p . pp p ,
p . H p , p
, - . p ,
.
. .
( ),
. . . (/)
. , , /2
(p. 6.7).
, m 2m? .
= 0 (. p. 6.8)!
, .
, m 2m,
/2? , , ,
10

m
v =0

. 6.3. Hp p p .

v =0
m

2v

1
v

. 6.4. Hp p p .

. , :
t t. , .
for granted. , , p p. 6.9.
, , 2m.
p. 6.9, p , p , p /2.
(. p. 6.10),
. !
, .
! !

11

v=0
m

v/2

. 6.5. Hp p p , p , .

v1

v1 v2

v2

2
(v1 + v2)

2
m
m

(v1 v2)

2
m
m
1
2

v=0

. 6.6. Hp p p , p p. pp , p , .

m
2

m
3
v =0
v
)
m
m
3
2
v/2
v
)
m
m
m
1
3
2
. 6.7. p : ) p, ) p p p p, )
p p p.
m
1
v
m
1

v =0
m
2

m
3
v/2
m
m
3
2

m
1

v
m
1

. 6.8. m 2m.

m
)

23 v

v/2

v
m
m

v =0

m
)

v/2

v =0
. 6.9. ) Hp m 2m. ) , ,
p 2m .

v=0
m

v
m
m

v3

. 6.10. .

12

. .
. . .
.

, ,

d2 r
m 2 = F(r, v, t),
(7.1)
dt
F :
r ( , F = kx, ,
F 1/r2 ),
v ( : 2 , ),
t ( ).
, , ,

q
F = qE + [v H] ,
(7.2)
c
q . , !
, , .
r(0) v(0),
t = 0.1 , , (7.1)
r = r(t).
, , r(t),
, dr/dt = v, , d2 r/dt2 = a, ,
. , .
, , .
p .

, , . r
A = F r = F r cos ,

(7.3)

.
dr

F
. 7.1. p p p p.

, , L,
, ,
F p ,
1

p , pp p ( p) p p.

13

dA = F dr. ,

A=
F dr.
(7.4)
L

p F L.
, , :
dA
.
dt

(7.5)

dA
dr
dt = F
dt,
dt
dt

(7.6)

P =

dA =


A=

t2

P dt =

t1

t2

t1

F v dt,

(7.7)

,
. ,
, , pp p v, p p .
, pp, p p (p p
p (7.2)).

F = dp/dt:

dp
v dt = dp v.
(7.8)
A = F v dt =
dt
p = mv, dp = m dv.
A=

dp v =

mdv v = m

v dv = m

2
m 2
=
+ const.
2
2

(7.9)

, d 2 = d(v v) = 2v dv. p
1 2,

2
2
2
m 2
m22
m12
A12 =
dp v = m
v dv =
=

.
(7.10)
2 1
2
2
1
1
, p

K=

m 2
2

(7.11)

. , ,
.
, , , . , ,
( ), , , . .
, (p).
.
.
, :
K=

mi 2
i

14

(7.12)

:
, , .
. : ( ), .
, , . , p p p
. , , , , .


, p ,
. ,
( ).
2
a
b

A12(a) = A12(b) = A12(c)


c

1
. 7.2. p p.

, , .
1 2 r12 :
1
r12

h1
g

h1 h2

h2
2
. 7.3. p h1 h2 .

A12 = mg r12 = mgr12 cos = mg(h1 h2 ) = mgh1 mgh2 ,

(7.13)

h1 h2 , .
- ,
.
A12 = mgh1 mgh2 1a2 1b2. a

h1

b
h2

. 7.4. , p p, p pp .

, .
A12 = mgh1 mgh2 ,
. ,
.
.
15

,
A12 =

m22
m12

2
2

A12 = mgh1 mgh2 ,

,
m22
m12
= mgh2 +
,
2
2

mgh1 +

E = mgh +

m 2
= const.
2

(7.14)

, , . U = mgh.
. , -,
, (p. 7.5).
, .
F2

F1

r20

r10

0
. 7.5. 0 . F1 (r10 ) F2 (r20 ) .

( ). p. 7.5 , ,
.
,
.
dr. |dr| cos = dr, dr (p
F

dr

dr

r + dr

0
. 7.6. p .

p. 7.6). , dA = F dr
A12 =

F dr =

r2

F (r)dr.

(7.15)

r1

p p r1 r2 ,
, .
. , m
M r :
F = G

mM r
.
r2 r

(7.16)

, M ( , ,
), m, r ,
(7.16) (p. 7.7).
16

2
F

r2
r1

M
. 7.7. p p .


A12 =

GmM

2
1
mM r

dr
=
GmM
r dr =
3
r2 r
1
1 r

1 2
1
1
dr
=

GmM

=
GmM

.
r2
r r1
r2
r1

F dr =
2

(7.17)

, r dr = (1/2)dr2 = r dr. ,
A12 =

GmM
GmM

.
r2
r1

(7.18)

, ,
A12 =

m22
m12
GmM
GmM

,
2
2
r2
r1

(7.19)

,
GmM
m12
GmM
m22

= const.
2
r2
2
r1

(7.20)

, ,
,
E = T + U,
(7.21)

U =

GmM
.
r

(7.22)

p, p.
p , 1 2. ,
A132 = A142 . 1 2, 2 1,
3

2
A132 + A241 = 0
4

. 7.8. p p p .

, ,
A142 = A241 ,

(7.23)


A132 = A241 ,

A132 + A241 = 0.

, ,
.
17

(7.24)

FT P

. 7.9. p p p p .

, , .
, , , ,
.
, . .
, , ,
. ,
!
FTP

. 7.10. p p p .

, .
. ,
! .
, p p, , , p , p! p,
p p p , pp , , p ..
p p p pp
, p p p p .
p p , p,
p p p. Hp
p p p p, .
p, p p p ,
p p, p ! p. p
p . p p p. p
p!
. ,
. .
- .
, ,
,
q
[v H] .
(7.25)
c

p p
p
, ,
():
F(r, v, t) F(r).
(7.26)

r(t).
(7.1)
t t.
18

(7.27)

, r = r(t)
m

d2 r
= F (r) ,
dt2

(7.28)

r = r(t). ,
t t:
d2
d2
=
,
dt2
dt2

(7.29)

t = t.
, , ,
, - , , ,
, ,
v(0)

r(0)
r(t )

v(t )

0
. 7.11. p . pp!

( ) . ,
.
. , ( )
, .
,
,
, . , ,
- -
, .
, H:
[v H] = [(v) (H)] .

19

(7.30)

. .
. .
.
-
p , p p p ,
. - ,
, .
p, p
, U .

U (1) = A10
2

U (2) = A20

0
. 8.1. p p.

,
. ,
U .
, p, , . 0, 1 U = A10 ,
1 0. 0 ,
U = A10 .
A10 = A10 + A00

U1 = U1 + A00 .

(8.1)

A00 , 1.
0 0 .
, ,
. ,
, -
.
.
,

.
, ,
. , .
1 2 - 12. ,
. 8.3,
A12 = A10 + A02 = A10 A20 = U1 U2 = (U2 U1 ),
20

0
0
. 8.2. p p .

0
. 8.3. p p p .


1 2.
, p p pp p

A12 = U1 U2 = K2 K1 ,

(8.2)

K1 + U1 = K2 + U2 .

(8.3)

E.
, 1 2 : E1 = E2 , , ,
:
E = K + U = const.
(8.4)
p,
( ) .
, .
.
:
U = mgh . h = 0.
U = kx2 /2 . x = 0.
U = GM m/r m
M . .


F(x, y, z), ( )
1
U1 = U (x, y, z) U (0) = A10 = A01 =
F dr
(8.5)
0

( p p ,
0 1, , , p. 8.4).
F(x, y, z) U (x, y, z). ,
, .
, r + dr r.
U (r + dr) U (r) = dU = F dr.
(8.6)
21

1 (x,y,z)

0
. 8.4. p .

,
dU = (Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz).
,

dU
U
Fx =

dx y,z=const
x

(8.7)

(8.8)

( ) , ,
Fy =

U
,
y

Fz =

U
.
z

(8.9)

U (x, y, z)
..
x
, ,
x, y z.
i, j k X, Y Z,
:
Fx (x, y, z) =

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k =
=

U
U
U
i
j
k=
x
y
z

U
U
U
i+
j+
k grad U,
x
y
z

:
grad U

U
U
U
U

i+
j+
k.
r
x
y
z

(8.10)

(8.11)

, , U (U (x, y, z) ).
, .
, . .
4 , ,
:
Ai = ik Ak .

(8.12)


xi = ik xk ,

xk = ik xi ,

U
U xk
U
U
=
=
ik = ik .

xi
xk xi
xk
xk

(8.13)

(8.14)

, , U/xi
.
grad U U , () :

i+
j+
k.
r
x
y
z
22

(8.15)

grad U = U =
i+
j+
k U=
x
y
z

(8.16)

U
U
U
i+
j+
k.
=
x
y
z


, , U :
U (x, y, z) = const.

(8.17)

U , O,
(p. 8.5). . Z
(n ), X Y ,
O. x y U :
U
U
= 0.
=
x
y

(8.18)

U
n,
z

(8.19)

,
grad U =

k = n. U Z, U/z > 0 , , n
. , :
grad U =

U
n.
n

(8.20)

, ,
U , U (x, y, z) = const U . U .
, , . c .

. , . ,
(p. 8.6).
, p

m

dv
U
=
.
dt
r

(8.21)

U + dU

0
U
y

. 8.5. p p (dU > 0).

23

, .
v = dr/dt:
mv

U
U dr
dU (r(t))
dv
=
v =

=
dt
r
r dt
dt

(8.22)

(p

p
pp

).

d m 2
dU
=
,
(8.23)
dt
2
dt
, ,

d m 2
m 2
+ U = 0 =
+ U = const
(8.24)
dt
2
2
. , , t ( U [r(t), t]).
, r(t) ( U [r(t)] ).


p p, , p . ,
2
dx
1
+ U (x).
(8.25)
E= m
2
dt
,
m 2
= E U (x) > 0
2

(8.26)

( ) .
, , E > U (x).1
, p. 8.7, . pp,
xA < x < xB ,
xC < x < . ,
. xA , xB xC ,
.
H p p x p t. (8.25)

dx
2
=
[E U (x)].
(8.27)
dt
m
, ( p):

dx
= t.
(8.28)

2 [E U (x)]
m
1

, .

U = const
. 8.6. .

24

U (x)
B

xA

xB

U =E

xC

. 8.7. p p .

U (x)

x2

x1

. 8.8. p .

, ,
E (. p. 8.8):
x2

dx

T (E) = 2m
,
(8.29)
E U (x)
x1

x1 x2 , , E = U (x).

U (x) =
x2 = x1 =
T =

2m

2E/k

2E/k

dx

E kx
2

T = 2 2m

= 2 2m

2E/k

2E
x=
y =
k

(8.30)

2E/k (. p. 8.9),

kx2
.
2

dx =

dx

2
E kx
2

2E
dy.
k

2E
2E dy
1

dy
k

= 2 2m k
.
1 y2
E 0
E k2 2E y 2
k

dy

1 y2

= arcsin y.

m
arcsin =
T = 4
k
0

m
m
0 = 2
,
=4
k 2
k
25

(8.31)

(8.32)

(8.33)

(8.34)

(8.35)

U (x)
E

x1

x2

. 8.9. p . p .

m
T = 2
k

(8.36)

, ( ).
( ).


-
-, x, U/x = 0,
,
dpx
= 0,
(8.37)
dt
px = const . U x , x,
p :
U (x, y, z) = U (x + a, y, z).

(8.38)

, () - .
E. ,
U (x, y, z, t) t,
, U (x, y, z),
E = T + U = const.

(8.39)

,
.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

. . . . ., H, 1979 520 .
., H ., p . , 1, . ., H, 1975 480 .
., ., . (12 ). ., p, 1976 440 .
. ., . . p 10 , 1, . ., H, 1973 208 c.
. . . ., H, 1988 416 .

26


5.
.
.
.
.

6.
.
.
.

7.
.
.
.
.
.
.

13

8.
.
.
.
.
.

-

20

27

H
-H H . . .
-

. . p, . . p

H .

( p )

H-

p pp. p .
p
, ,
-. , pp
p, p p
p .
, N .
:
U = U (r1 , r2 , . . . , rN ).

(9.1)

p ,
p . p , , ( ,
).
, - ra ,
:
ra = [ ra ].
(9.2)

U =

U
U
ra =
[ ra ].
ra
ra
a
a

(9.3)

p H U/ra
p a =
,

U =

U
.
ra

(9.4)

p a [ ra ].

(9.5)

, :
A [B C] = C [A B] = B [C A]
(9.6)

( , A, B C). p, ,

U =
[ra p a ] =
[ra p a ].
(9.7)
a


. ,

[ra p a ] = 0.
(9.8)
a

[ra pa ] = 0

(9.9)

( r a = va , pa = ma va , [ra pa ] = ma [va va ] = 0
).

([ra p a ] + [ra pa ]) = 0.
(9.10)
a

p, ,
[ra pa ]:
d
[ra pa ] = [ra pa ] + [ra p a ].
dt

,
d
dt


M=

[ra pa ]

= 0.

(9.11)

(9.12)

[ra pa ] = const

(9.13)

. 1 p . ,
, , . ,
.
: p
ma 2
a
+ U (r1 , r2 , . . . , rN ),
(9.14)
E=
2
a

P=

ma va ,

(9.15)

[ra pa ].

(9.16)


M=

p p-p , , p, p p. -p r r
, p b, ra = ra + b.

M=
[ra pa ] =
[ra pa ] + [b
pa ],
(9.17)
a

M = M + [b P],

(9.18)

P = a pa p . p , ,
( P = 0), . ,
, , .
( ) p ,
ppp , (p,
p). ,
, , ; , ,
- ( ), .
H , ,

() . ,
, . , M , , (
).
, z,
Mz , , ,
.
z, Mz ,
. p ,
pp, .
1

. pp .

, ,
F12 F21 . p H, F12 = F21 ,

[r1 p1 ] + [r2 p2 ] = const.

(9.19)

:
[r1 p 1 ] + [r2 p 2 ] = 0

(9.20)

, p H,
[r1 F12 ] + [r2 F21 ] = 0.

(9.21)

[(r1 r2 ) F12 ] = 0.

(9.22)

F12 = F21 ,

, r1 r2 F12 . r1 r2 F21 .
, F12 F21 ,
. p F12 = F21 p p
p H.
, p p, p ,
.
p .

p
p , p
p , . p
p , p
p-p. p p
E=

m1 12
m2 22
+
+ U (|r1 r2 |) .
2
2

(9.23)

p p
r = r1 r2

(9.24)

p p p,
m1 r1 + m2 r2 = 0.

(9.25)

p
r1 =

m2
r
m1 + m2

r2 =

m1
r.
m1 + m2

(9.26)

m1
v,
m1 + m2

(9.27)

pp p p,
v1 =

m2
v
m1 + m2

v2 =

v = dr/dt .

1
1
m22
1
m21
1
2
m1 12 + m2 22 = m1

+
m
2 =
2
2
2
2
(m1 + m2 )2
2
(m1 + m2 )2
=

1 m1 m2 2
1
= m 2 ,
2 m1 + m2
2
4

(9.28)

r + dr
d
r

dr

. 9.1. p p.

m1 m2
.
(9.29)
m1 + m2
m p . p
p
1
(9.30)
E = m 2 + U (r).
2
,
U (r). p ,
.
, .
m=

M = [r p].

(9.31)

M r , (
) , - r
, p M.
p
. ds, , r dt ( dr), 2 . , p. 9.1,
ds =

1
1
[r (r + dr)] = [r dr].
2
2

(9.32)

p dt,

ds
1
dr
1
1
M
=
r
= [r v] =
[r p] =
,
(9.33)
dt
2
dt
2
2m
2m

ds
1
=
M.
(9.34)
dt
2m
s = ds/dt p , p p p.
p p. , ,
p p -
.
, 1609 . .
p p p p p .
p p dr , p pp p r, dr = dr +dr .

1
1
ds = [r dr] =
r dr + dr .
(9.35)
2
2

r dr = 0, dr = [d r],
ds =
=

1
1
[r dr ] = [r [d r]] =
2
2
1
1
1
dr2 r (d r) = r2 d,
2
2 2

(9.36)

=0

p , r, r + dr ds p p p (p p).

ds
1 d
1
= r2
=
M.
dt
2 dt
2m

(9.37)

M = mr2 .

(9.38)


, .
x y , p p
, p ,
r (p. 9.2).
Y
r

y
r

. 9.2. p p.

p p r, pp .
. p p
2 2
dy
dx
2
2
2
= x + y =
+
=
dt
dt
(9.39)
2
2
2
(dl)
(dx) + (dy)

.
=
(dt)2
(dt)2
H pp p p. p. 9.3 , p

p
p
p
(dl)2 = (dr)2 + r2 (d)2 ,
2
2
dr
d
(dl)2
(dr)2 + r2 (d)2
2
2
=
=
=
+r
.
(9.40)
(dt)2
(dt)2
dt
dt

2
2
m 2
dr
d
1
1
E =
+ U (r) = m
+ mr2
+ U (r)
2
2
dt
2
dt

1 2 1 2 2
mr + mr + U (r).
2
2

(9.41)

d/dt Mz = M = mr2 d/dt. ,



M
d
=
,
(9.42)
dt
mr2

2
dr
1
M2
E= m
+
+ U (r).
(9.43)
2
dt
2mr2

dr
2
M2
r
=
E U (r)
.
(9.44)
dt
m
2mr2

r(t). pp,

dr

(9.45)
dt + const.
=
2
M2

E U (r)
m
2mr2
6

Y
dr

rd

dl 2 = (dr)2 + (rd)2

. 9.3. p p.

, , r t,
t:
d =

M
dt,
mr2

M dr
mr2

+ const.
2 E U (r) M 2
m
2mr2

(9.46)

(9.47)

p p.
,

U(r) = U (r) +

M2
.
2mr2

(9.48)

M 2 /2mr2 .
r,
M2
= E,
(9.49)
U (r) +
2mr2
.
r . (
), . r = 0
, r(t)
.

10

p. pp p
,
r , , r2 . . , ,
, , .

U =

(U 0 r ),

(10.1)

= Gm1 m2 > 0 m1 m2 .

M2
,
(10.2)
U(r) = +
r
2mr2
, , m p .
p p p. 10.1. p r = M 2 /m , p1
(U)min =

m2
.
2M 2

(10.3)

pp U(r) , E < 0
E > 0 (. p. 10.2). p. 10.2 , (r = 0)
, .
, r 0
1/r2 .
, E < 0.

U=E

M2

+
E = 0.
r
2mr2

1/r. :

2
2
M
2

1

1 + 2EM2

+
4E
2m
1
m
=
=
.
r 1,2
M2
M2
2
2m
m

M2
p=
m
1

1+

2EM 2
.
m2

(10.5)

(10.6)

p p p dU/dr = 0.

U
M 2/mr 2

/r
. 10.1. p p p.

(10.4)

U
E>0
rmax

rmin

r
E<0

. 10.2. .

, E < 0, < 1! ,


1
1
=
.
(10.7)
r 1,2
p
p
rmin =

p
1+

rmax =

p
.
1

(10.8)

= 0, , p.
p E, (10.3).
, .
=

M dr
mr2

+ const

2
M2
E U (r)
m
2mr2

(10.9)

p U (r) = /r. r(), , . p ,


p. ,
r
(10.10)
A = [v M]
r
, .

dA
v r(v r)
= [v M]
+
.
dt
r
r3

(10.11)

, r

1
dr
= (v r),
(10.12)
dt
r
v - r.
(10.11) M = [rmv]
:
v r(v r)
dA
= [v [r mv]]
+
=
dt
r
r3
v r(v r)
v(r mv)

= r(v mv)
+
.
r
r3
mv :
mv =

r
.
r3

dA
r
r v r(v r)
= r v () 3 v r () 3
+
.
dt
r
r
r
r3
9

(10.13)

(10.14)

(10.15)

, p , p p p
,
dA
= 0,
. . A = const,
(10.16)
dt
.
A X p
p p r A (p. 10.3). (10.10)
r:
Ar cos = r [v M] r.
(10.17)

. 10.3. p p p.

:
Ar cos = M [r v] r,

(10.18)

M/m

M2
r.
m

Ar cos =

(10.19)

p p r,
r=

M 2 /m
=
A cos +

M 2 /m
.
A
1 + cos

(10.20)

A , r ( p p)
= 0. p , (10.6), M 2 /m = p,
rmin =

p
A
1+

(10.21)

p p (10.8),
A
= ,

A = =

1+

2EM 2
.
m2

(10.22)


:
p
r=
.
(10.23)
1 + cos
< 1 , p , p.
p, = 0. , p p
A p p. p p .
p , p p
A B ( ) :
r1 + r2 = L = const

(10.24)

(p p. 10.4).
, p (10.23).
B . p. 10.5 ,
10

C
r1

r2

. 10.4. p .

C
r

. 10.5. p p p.

AB = l,

BC = r,

AC =

(l + r cos )2 + (r sin )2 ,

(10.25)

p p p :

r12 = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2 .

p r1 r2 p AC BC, r1 + r2 = L = const
p

(10.26)
r + (l + r cos )2 + (r sin )2 = L,

l2 + 2lr cos + r2 = L r.

(10.27)

l2 + 2lr cos = L2 2Lr.

(10.28)

L2 l2 = 2r(L + l cos ),

(10.29)

p p r ,
2

p p

L l
l
1+
= r
cos

,
L

2L

2

(10.30)

p (10.23), p pp p p
=

l
L

p=

L2 l2
L
= (1 2 ).
2L
2

(10.31)

2p
.
1 2
p p
x 2 y 2
+
= 1,
a
b
L=

(10.32)

(10.33)

a , b . p, p. 10.6, 2a = L.
p , b p

2
2
L
l
L
p
.
(10.34)
b=

=
1 2 =
2
2
2
1 2
11

p p p
pp p p :
a=

,
=
1 2
2|E|

b=

p
M
=
.
2
1
2m|E|

(10.35)

p
:
1
s =
M.
(10.36)
2m
,
2ms = M T,

(10.37)

T . s = ab, , (10.35),
M T = 2m
, p M ,

.
2|E|
2m|E|

T =

(10.38)

m
.
2|E|3

(10.39)

p, p p p p .
(10.35) (10.39) , p p , pp ,
2 2 m/2|E|3
m
T2
(10.40)
=
= 4 2
3
3
3
a
/8|E|

pp 2 , p pp , p . ,
, .
p p, p p , , .

d2 r
(10.41)
m 2 = 3r
dt
r

r r ,

(10.42)

t t .

(10.41)

d2 r
1 r
m 2 = 2 3.
2

(dt )
(r )
2

(10.43)

p pp p m.

y
b
L/2
x
A

l/2

. 10.6. p p p.

12

1
= 2,
2

3 = 2,

(10.44)

, . ,
- ,
,
r 3
r

2
t
,
t

(10.45)

, . , ,
1/r2 .

M2
2EM 2
p
, p =
= 1+
,
(10.46)
r=
1 + cos
m
m2
E < 0, , E 0,
. , E > 0 ( > 1)
(. p. 10.7). p p p rmin = p/(1+).
E = 0 ( = 1) rmin = p/2.

y
cos = 1/

rmin

. 10.7. p p.

, .
?
. , p , 2 / 2 = 1/:

mv 2
E=
=
2
r

2
2

m( )2
1

=
E,

2
r

(10.47)

, 2 / 2 p p p p,

2
E
=
.
(10.48)
E

,
p
( ). . p
.. p p p p p.


p p , p
U=
13

,
r

(10.49)

> 0. Hpp, p q1 p q2 ,
= q1 q2 p
U=

M2
+
r
2mr2

(10.50)

r (p. 10.8). p E
, .
U

E>0
r

. 10.8. p p .

pp , p
p. p (10.20) p . p pp
p

M2
2EM 2
p
, p =
= 1+
(10.51)
r=
cos 1
m
m2
( > 0) -p p. p , , p p
(p. 10.9).
y

1
. 10.9. p .

. p
p p . p ,
t = +

t =
. 10.10. p .

p. 10.10, ( p) , p
p X, p
+ 2 = ,

(10.52)

= tg .
2

(10.53)

ctg

14

p p, p p r p (10.51).
,
1
(10.54)
cos =

1
2EM 2
1 = 2 1 =
.
(10.55)
ctg = tg =
2
2
cos
m2

p E M p p t = :
E=

2
m
2

M = m ,

(10.56)

p , p p. p (10.55), p p pp
=

ctg ,
2
m
2

(10.57)

p p p . ,
p p p U = /r.

15

11

.

( ,
). ?
, (
).
. ,
XY Z (pp ). , x1 = x,
x2 = y x3 = z, .
,
.
p ,
( p p ). - R Z

x3

x2

x1

Y
X
. 11.1. p.

O (p. 11.1). x1 , x2 x3 .
R . ,

.
p .
.
( ). ( p !)
. ,
( ,
, ).
- P
r, - . d P dR
[d r] p O:
d = dR + [d r].

(11.1)

dt, ,

d
dR
d
= v,
= V,
= ,
(11.2)
dt
dt
dt

v = V + [ r].
(11.3)
16

p V . p .
. d
p. , v (
) V
.


p .
m 2
,
(11.4)
T =
2

, . p
, , . , ,
dV, dV ( ),
V.

T =
m 2 /2 v = V +
[ r]:
m

m
m
2
(V + [ r]) =
V2+
mV [ r] +
[ r]2 .
(11.5)
T =
2
2
2

V p.
m ,
V 2 /2 ,
M.

mV [ r] =

mr [V ] = [V ]

mr.

(11.6)

, O
, ,
mr = 0. ,
, ,
:

[ r]2 = [ r] [ r] = [r [ r]] =

= r2 r(r ) = 2 r2 ( r)2 .
T =

MV 2
1 2 2
+
m r ( r)2 .
2
2

(11.7)

(11.8)

,
. (11.8) .
, M .
,
. H ,

.
p, ,
(11.8),
:
Tp =

1 2 2
m r ( r)2 .
2

(11.9)

, .
.
2 = = i i 2i ,
r2 = r r = xl xl x2l ,
( r)2 = (i xi )(k xk ) = i k xi xk ,
17

(11.10)

1 2 2
m i xl i xi k xk =
m i k ik x2l i k xi xk =
2
2

1
= i k
m(x2l ik xi xk ).
2

T =

(11.11)

i = ik k , ik .

Iik =
m(x2l ik xi xk ),
(11.12)

1
MV 2
+ Iik i k .
(11.13)
2
2

Iik =
m(x2l ik xi xk )
, , ,
. ,
. , . ,
, Iik .
,
Iik = Iki ,
(11.14)
T =

. p
:

Ixx Ixy Ixz


Iik = Iyx Iyy Iyz .
(11.15)
Izx Izy Izz

, , , , ,
, Iik
.
, - (
)
xi = ik xk ,

(11.16)

) , , , ik = cos (ik
. , p p
p. (11.16) (11.12):

Iik =
m(lm xm ln xn ik ip xp ks xs ).
(11.17)


xl

xl

xi

xk

, lm ln = mn ( ),
( p p)
ik = ip kp = ip ks ps

(p p).

Iik =
m mn xm xn ip ks ps ip ks xp xs =

= ip ks
m (xn )2 ps xp xs = ip ks Ips
,

Iik
=

2
m (xl ) ik xi xk

(11.18)

(11.19)
(11.20)

p p (p) p.
, , Iik

Iik = ip ks Ips
.
(11.21)
18


xi = ip xp ,
xk = ks xs ,
xi xk = ip ks xp xs .

(11.22)


, , .
, .
. .
:

2
2
m(y
+
z
)

mxy
mxz

.
m(x2 + z 2 )
Iik = myx
(11.23)

myz
mzx
mzy
m(x2 + y 2 )

Ixx , Iyy Izz


. ,
.
, p Iik (. (11.12))
:

Iik = (x2l ik xi xk )dV.


(11.24)
,
. , ,

x1 , x2 x3 .
, . I1 , I2 I3 . x1 , x2
x3 p Iik

I1 0 0
Iik = 0 I2 0
(11.25)
0 0 I3
p :
T=

1
(I1 21 + I2 22 + I3 23 ).
2

(11.26)

,
. ,

I1 + I2 =
m(x22 + x23 + x21 + x23 ) =

=
m(x21 + x22 + 2x23 )
m(x21 + x22 ) = I3 .
(11.27)

, , . , pp I1 = I2 = I3 ,
.
x1 x2 ( p, pp ).
, .

(p p p p )1 .
1

: , .

19

,
. ,
.
, , . , .
pp p , . . ,
x1 x2 , , x3 = 0,

mx22 , I2 =
mx21 , I3 =
I1 =
m(x21 + x22 ),
(11.28)

I3 = I1 + I2 .

(11.29)

p, p n- p,
p p 2/n p . , (n = 1), .
, .
(n = 3, 4, . . .), . ,
( ) , 180 .
, , . pp p ( p) p p,
p p .
, p p, ,
. x3 , x1 = x2 = 0,
, :

mx23 , I3 = 0.
(11.30)
I1 = I2 =

. ,
( ) ,
x1 x2 . , , .
,
. (. p. 11.2)
~
O
r~

. 11.2. p p p .

Iik =

m x
l ik x
i x
k .

i + ai , , x
i = xi ai ,
r = r + a, xi = x

Iik =
m (xl al )2 ik (xi ai )(xk ak ) =

m (x2l 2xl al + a2l )ik xi xk + ai xk + ak xi ai ak =


=

mxl + ai
mxk + ak
mxi +
=
m(x2l ik xi xk ) 2ik al
+ M(a2 ik ai ak ).

O ,

(11.31)

(11.32)

mxi = 0,

Iik = Iik + M(a2 ik ai ak ).

(11.33)

, Iik , Iik p. p p p
p . ( C) p p p p , p
20

( A) p a. , p p z z
,
Izz = Izz + Ma2
(11.34)

( az = 0). .

21

12

.
. .
, p , p,
p p, p p. ,
p p p V = 0,
p .
p p p p. p

M=
m[r v]
(12.1)
p v [ r]:

M=
m [r [ r]] =
m r2 r( r) .

,


Mi =
m i x2l xi (k xk ) =
m(ik k x2l xi xk k ) =
= k

m(x2l ik xi xk ) = k Iik .

(12.2)

(12.3)

, M
Mi = Iik k .

(12.4)

x1 , x2 , x3 ,
p p p
M1 = I1 1 ,

M2 = I2 2 ,

M3 = I3 3 .

(12.5)

, , , I1 =
I2 = I3 = I,
M = I.
(12.6)
p, p
p .
M, , . .
M 1 .
, .
M = const = const. ,
p .
. , I1 = I2 = I, I3 = 0 ( 3
), M = I, .
,
.
.
x1 x2 ,
x3 . , x2 , M x3 (p. 12.1)
x2 {M, x3 } .
M2 = 0, , 2 = 0. , p M, x3
p . , , , v = [ r]
1

22

x3 . , (. ) M,
pp = const. .
x3 .
M


x3
x1

. 12.1. p p .

M
x3 M.
3 :
M
M3
3 =
=
cos .
(12.7)
I3
I3

x3 p M. p x3
,
. , sin = 1 , 1 = M1 / I1 =
M sin /I1 ,
M
.
(12.8)
=
I1
, = const.
p , M p
T. , ,
T=

1
Iik i k ,
2

(12.9)

,
Mi = Iik k .

T=

1
1
1
Iik k i = Mi i = M ,
2
2
2

(12.10)

(12.11)

Mi


p ( p p
m 2 /2 = (p v)/2). , T = (M )/2 = const
M = const, , p p M p p .


,
.
p p p .
p
p = f , p , f
.
P=

p = MV

23

(12.12)

f = F,
dP
= F.
dt

(12.13)

F f , ,
. , F ,
,
. , ,
, , F = 0.
U , F :
F=

U
.
R

(12.14)

, p
M, . ()
,
.
.

= d
+
M
[r p] =
[r p]
[r p].
(12.15)
dt
, V = 0, r
. v p = mv
v =
, [r p] = 0. p f ,
dM
= K,
dt

K =

[r f ].

(12.16)

[rf ]
f , K ,
. F, [r f ] .
, ,
, .
, , , , .
. p p , p p
. , a - r
r :
r = r + a.
(12.17)

K=

[r f ] =

, a ,

[r f ] +

K = K + [a F].

[a f ],

(12.18)

(12.19)

, , , ,
F ( , ).



dP
=F
dt

dM
=K
dt

(12.20)

, . p p, P = MV,
M p, p p p p p . p p,
24

p p , M p p p p Iik . , p
( ) p, p p (pp) . p p
p p. p p
p, p, p, p p Iik . p p
pp p p , . pp p
p .
p p, p , p
p p , Iik p, , ,
M . p p , p, p
p. p (12.16) pp
x1 , x2 , x3 .
dA/dt - A
. A ,

dA
= [ A]
dt

(12.21)

( p dr/dt = [ r]).
A .
d A/dt.
dA
d A
+ [ A].
=
(12.22)
dt
dt
p p p pp p . , p A p p p:
A = A1 n1 + A2 n2 + A3 n3 .

dA
=
dt
,

dA1
dA2
dA3
n1 +
n2 +
n3
dt
dt
dt

dn1
dn2
dn3
+ A1
+ A2
+ A3
dt
dt
dt

(12.23)

(12.24)

dn2
dn3
dn1
= [ n1 ] ,
= [ n2 ] ,
= [ n3 ] ,
(12.25)
dt
dt
dt
p p (12.22), p p p
(12.24).
,

d M
+ [ M] = K.
(12.26)
dt
p,
M1 = I1 1 , M2 = I2 2 , M3 = I3 3 , p x1
dM1
+ [ M]1 = K1 ,
dt

I1

d1
+ 2 M3 3 M2 = K 1 ,
dt

(12.27)
(12.28)

d1
+ (I3 I2 )2 3 = K1 .
(12.29)
dt
p pp p p , p p
I1

d1
+ (I3 I2 )2 3 = K1 ,
dt
d2
+ (I1 I3 )1 3 = K2 ,
I2
dt
d3
+ (I2 I1 )1 2 = K3 ,
I3
dt
I1

25

(12.30)

p . K = 0
d1
I3 I2
+
2 3 = 0,
dt
I1
d2
I1 I3
+
1 3 = 0,
dt
I2
d3
I2 I1
+
1 2 = 0.
dt
I3

(12.31)


. I2 = I1 , ,
3 = 0,

3 = const.

(12.32)

:
I3 I1
d1
+
2 3 = 0,
dt
I1
d2
I1 I3
+
1 3 = 0.
dt
I1

(12.33)


= 3

I3 I1
,
I1

(12.34)

1 = 2 ,

(12.35)

2 = 1 .

i ,
d
(1 + i2 ) = i(1 + i2 ).
dt

(12.36)

p p, , :
1 + i2 = Aeit ,

(12.37)

A , (
). ,
ei = cos + i sin ,

(12.38)

,
1 = A cos t,

(12.39)

2 = A sin t.

p , ,

, , :
21 + 22 = A. 3 c, p ,
x3 ,
.
M1 = I1 1 ,

M2 = I1 2 ,

M3 = I3 3

(12.40)

M, ( ) ,
, M. , , p ,
p p pp .
26


, p
. , , . , ,
(12.41)

I3 > I2 > I1

x2 . 1 = 3 = 0 2 = 20 = const = 0.
p p, ,
d1
d2
d3
= 0.
=
=
(12.42)
dt
dt
dt
, x2
. , , .
p p x2 ,
x1 x3 :
1 = 1 ,
3 = 3 ,

(12.43)

1 , 2 20 ( p 2 p p pp).
I3 I2
d1
+
20 3 = 0,
dt
I1
d3
I2 I1
+
20 1 = 0.
dt
I3

(12.44)


1 3 ept .

(12.45)

(12.44), p
p1 +

I3 I2
20 3 = 0,
I1

I2 I1
20 1 + p3 = 0.
I3

(12.46)

( )
:

I3 I2
p

20
I1
= 0.

(12.47)

I2 I1
20
p

I
3

p
p2

I3 I2 I2 I1 2

20 = 0,
I1
I3

I3 > I2 > I1 ,

p1,2 = 20

(I3 I2 )(I2 I1 )
,
I1 I3

(12.48)

(12.49)

p1 > 0, p2 < 0. , 1 = 3 = 0,
2 = 20 = const ,
:

(I3 I2 )(I2 I1 )
1 3 exp 20
t .
(12.50)

I1 I3
27


[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

. . . . ., H, 1979 520 .
., H ., p . , 1, . ., H, 1975 480 .
., ., . (12 ). ., p, 1976 440 .
. ., . . p 10 , 1, . ., H, 1973 208 c.
. . . ., H, 1988 416 .

28


9.
p pp.
p
.
p

10.
p.
pp p

11.
.

16

12.
.
.
.

22

29

H
-H H . . .
-

. . p, . . p

H
( p )

H-

13

.
. .
.

, .
pp ,
. , p pp . p p,
p - p . ,
pp , p.
,
U (q) p q .
dU/dq, .
q q0 . q q0 ,
q q0 , .
U (q)
q = q0 :
U (q) = U (q0 ) +
+ ... +

1
1
U (q0 )(q q0 ) + U (q0 )(q q0 )2 +
1!
2!

1 [n]
U (q0 )(q q0 )n + . . .
n!

(13.1)

, , q0
U (q) p pp ,
p p (U [k] (q0 ) = ), , ,
. p p, , q = q0
, U (q),
U (q) q = q0 .
U (q0 ), p
( ).
, p , p ,

dU

= 0.
(13.2)
U (q0 ) =
dq q=q0
p :
U (q) U (q0 )
=

k
(q q0 )2 ,
2

k = U (q0 ) > 0

(13.3)
(13.4)

. , U (q0 ) = 0,
x = q q0 ,

(13.5)

k 2
x .
(13.6)
2
p p q
U (x) =

1
1
a(q)q2 = a(q)x 2 .
2
2
2

(13.7)

, ,
a(q) q = q0 . 1
a(q0 ) = m,

(13.8)

p
E =T +U =

mx 2
kx2
+
,
2
2

(13.9)

, +,
(p. 13.1). p, p p p p , p
.
m

. 13.1. p p p p p.

p, , ma = F , p F = kx,

m
x + kx = 0 (ma = kx).
(13.10)

m,

x
+ 2 x = 0,

(13.11)

(13.12)

k
.
m

x
+ 2 x = 0
. ,
. ,

(13.13)
sin t cos t.
:2
x = c1 cos t + c2 sin t,

(13.14)

c1 c2 .
x = a cos (t + ).
cos (t + ) = cos t cos sin t sin , , (13.14),

c2
a = c21 + c22 , tg = ,
c1

(13.15)

(13.16)

c1 = a cos , c2 = a sin .
, . a ,
, , , , .
, .

,

, p. (13.12), = k/m,
1

m , x !
, x(t) , C x(t) .
x1 (t) x2 (t) , x1 (t) + x2 (t) .
2

. H, , p,
.
. p
.
, , pp, U (x) p x = 0 p: U (x) xn ,
n > 2.
, ,
E=

kx2
mx 2
m
m
+
= (x 2 + 2 x2 ) = 2 a2 .
2
2
2
2

(13.17)

.
p

x = Re Aeit ,
(13.18)
A .

A = aei ,

(13.19)

x = Re aeit+i = a cos (t + ).

(13.20)

A . ,
.
, , .
(, , ,
), ,
.


p
, p
. . -

l cos

h = l (1 cos )
. 13.2. .

, , .
.
p p p. p p
U = mgh = mgl(1 cos ).
p
T =

(13.21)

1
1
1
m 2 = m(l)
2 = ml2 2 .
2
2
2

(13.22)

1 2 2
ml + mgl(1 cos ).
2

(13.23)


E=

p . 1,
cos :
cos 1

2
.
2!

(13.24)

1
g
1 2 2 1
ml + mgl2 = ml2 ( 2 + 2 ).
2
2
2
l
(13.9),
E=

E=

m
mx 2
kx2
+
= (x 2 + 2 x2 ),
2
2
2

g
=
,
l

(13.25)

(13.26)

(13.27)

. , (13.11):
+ 2 = 0.
(13.28)
, , pp, p p. pp
(13.25) p pp p , p p
1
d 2 g 2
dE
= ml2
+ = ml2 (
+ 2 ) = 0.
dt
2
dt
l

(13.29)

ml2 = 0, p p p .


p p . p
p p, p p p C
(p. 13.3). p pp, , p . p
p p
1
(13.30)
T = I 2 ,
2
I p p C. p
p p p p a. p p p
p:
1
U = mga(1 cos ) = mga2 .
(13.31)
2
p p p

E=

1 2 1
1 2 mga 2
I + mga2 = I
+

,
2
2
2
I

2

. 13.3. .

(13.32)

mga
=
I

g
,
l

(13.33)

l = I/ma .


. , p p
p
E=

kx2
mx 2
= const.
+
2
2

(13.34)

p = mx.

p2
kx2
+
= E.
2m
2

(13.35)

p E, p
x2
p2
= 1,
+
2mE
2E/k

2mE

2E/k

(13.36)

= 1.

(13.37)

x p 2mE 2E/k.
.
p

2mE

2E/k

. 13.4. pp p p pp.

p,

. , p x2 /a2 +
y 2 /b2 = 1, , ab, pp p
p

2E
m
E
= 2E
= 2 ,
S = 2mE
(13.38)
k
k

S
E
= .
(13.39)
2

S, , 2,
.
p p p
I=

E
S
= .
2

(13.40)

, I .
, ,
m k ( ).
6

, ( , )
. , , ,
. ,
k, t = T (T )

dk

t = kT.
(13.41)
k =
dt
k:
k.
kT

(13.42)

, I
. , k,
I=

E
E
E
=
= const, = const.

k
k/m

(13.43)

,
, pp, k ,
E k,
1
1
E = m 2 a2 = ka2 ,
(13.44)
2
2

2
E/ k = ka /2 = const. , p k
a

1
k 1/4

(13.45)

p p
.
( ) . , p
p p .

E=

m 2 kx2
x +
.
2
2

(13.46)

k . :
dE
1 2
= mx
x + kxx + kx
=
dt
2
1 2
= x(m
x + kx) + kx
.
2

(13.47)

, , , ,
1 2
dE
= kx
,
dt
2

(13.48)

p p pp pp k.

p p k x
m
x + kx = 0,

(13.49)

k , x = a cos (t + ).
1 2
dE
= ka
cos2 (t + ).
dt
2

(13.50)

3 . , k
p, , p cos2 (t + ) = 1/2,
1 21
dE
= ka
.
dt
2
2
3

, k .

(13.51)

E = m 2 a2 /2. p a2
(13.51),

dE
1 E
1 kE
= k
.
(13.52)
=
k
dt
2 m
2 k
m
E p E.

dE
1 dk E
=
.
(13.53)
dt
2 dt k
dt, p
dE
1 dk
=
.
2 k
E

(13.54)

,
ln E =

1
ln k + const,
2

ln E ln k = const,


ln E/ k = const,

E
= const.
k

(13.55)
(13.56)
(13.57)

k/m, m , , p
I=

E
= const,

(13.58)

p pp p p pp
. p , k p m.
, ,
p , p , pp p p p. Hpp, ,
p p. 13.2, p l p. , p
, ,
. p p, ,
. , p p p

1
I=
pdq,
(13.59)
2
p , q
p ( p p).
pp pp , p , p ,
, , p
( ) (p. 13.5).
v

L
. 13.5. .

p, p p. 13.6. 2pL,
p = m . p :
I=

1
1
2pL = pL
2

(13.60)

px

L/2

L/2

. 13.6. pp pp , .

pL = const.

(13.61)

L.
, L ,
p

1
.
L

(13.62)

p , p p p
, .

14

. . .
p. p p.
p p
p p pp , p p p
F (t). , ,
pp p.
p
m
x + kx = F (t),

(14.1)

F (t) . p p
F (t)
,
(14.2)
m

= k/m.
p, p (14.2) p p
p p . p ,
p p . p, p p p p p
p,
x
+ 2 x =

x = x0 + x1 ,

(14.3)

x0 p p p ( p p ), x1
p p p. x0 p pp
p .
p, , p p ,
p p p p :
F (t) = f cos(t + ).

(14.4)

p p (14.2)
x1 = b cos(t + )

(14.5)

p . p p
2 b cos(t + ) + 2 b cos(t + ) =

f
cos(t + ),
m

(14.6)


b=

f
.
m ( 2 2 )

(14.7)

p p p p, p
x = a cos(t + ) +

f
cos(t + ).
m ( 2 2 )

(14.8)

p a p, p, .
p , p p p
.
p (14.8) p p, , p = . p
10

p (14.8) p . ,
p t pp p
. p p p p
. p,
p , p p p = .
p
a cos(t + ) = a cos(t + )

f
cos(t + ).
m ( 2 2 )

(14.9)

Hp , p p p p.
p p p p p
x = a cos(t + ) +

f
[cos(t + ) cos(t + )] .
m ( 2 2 )

(14.10)

y+x
yx
sin
.
2
2
p p , sin( )t/2 = ( )t/2,
cos x cos y = 2 sin

x = a cos(t + ) +

f
t sin(t + ).
2m

(14.11)

(14.12)

Hp pp, p p p p
( p) p = . p, ,
p p p.
p p p p.
p, p, = + ,
. p p

x = Aeit + Bei(+)t = A + Beit eit ,


(14.13)
A B , p :
A = aei ,

B = bei .

(14.14)

pp A + Beit p
p p eit . p , , p.
p C,

C = A + Beit ,
(14.15)
, p A B,

C = aei + bei(t+) = a + bei(t+) .

(14.16)

C 2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab cos(t + ),

(14.17)

|a b| C a + b.

(14.18)

, C p p

(p. 14.1).


p pp p , p
p , , p p pp.
H , p p p,
p . p p p
. p, p.
11

. 14.1. .

p p. Hp
p p, p, . p , p
p p p. p,
p ,
: p p p . , pp,
p p , . p,
p ( p p , pp
p p), p, .
p p p p
p, p p p
p p,
p . , pp, p
p, . p , p
p . H p p ,
. p pp p 1 .
p
fp = p x.

(14.19)

p , , p p p .
p p ,
m
x = kx p x.

(14.20)

p m
02

k
m

p
> 0.
m

(14.21)

0 p.
. p p
x
+ 2x + 02 x = 0.

(14.22)

p p p x = ert . p p ert ,
r pp p
r2 + 2r + 02 = 0.
(14.23)
p p p:
r1,2 =

2 02 .

(14.24)

p p (14.22)
x = c1 er1 t + c2 er2 t ,
c1

(14.25)

p .

1 p p p p p, p
p .

12

p .
< 0 , p r1,2 p p p:

r1,2 = i 02 2 .

p p

2
2
,
x = Re A exp t + it 0

(14.26)

(14.27)

A p . a ,

x = aet cos(t + ), = 02 2 .
(14.28)

, p, p . p p
(p. 14.2). p p .
X
et
t

. 14.2. , < 0 .

, 0
p. p p p p .
p , 0 p p 2/ . p
p p. p
p:

m 2
mx 2
kx2
E=
+
=
x + 2 x2 .
(14.29)
2
2
2
x p p (14.28). pp p, p
x = aet sin(t + ) aet cos(t + ).

(14.30)

p p p p,
pp. p
E=

1
m 2
x + 2 x2 = ma2 2 e2t .
2
2

(14.31)

, p p
E = E0 e2t ,

(14.32)

E0 = ma2 2 /2 p.
pp p p Q, p. p 2 p p, p p T = 2/:
E
.
Q = 2

T dE
dt
13

(14.33)

p p 0
Q = 2

0
=
=
1.
2ET
T
2

(14.34)

pp T 1 p p .
p p , > 0 . r p. p

2 02 t
+ 2 02 t
x = c1 e
+ c2 e
.
(14.35)
, , p , |x| ,
2 . pp p
(p. 14.3).
X

. 14.3. p , > 0 .

pp p = 0 . pp p
() p r = , , p
p p p
x = (c1 + c2 t) et

(14.36)

(pp ). p .
pp.

p p
p p p p p f cos t, f , . p

f
cos t.
(14.37)
x
+ 2x + 02 x =
m
p p. p cos t
eit :
f
x
+ 2x + 02 x = eit .
(14.38)
m
, Re x p p (14.37). , p p (14.38)
p , p p (14.37).
p p (14.38) x = Beit . p
(14.38),
f
(14.39)
(i)2 Beit + 2(i)Beit + 02 Beit = eit ,
m
p eit , B
B=

m (02

f
.
2 + 2i)

(14.40)

p B
B = bei ,
2 p

x(0) > 0 x(0)

> 0 p x(t) .

14

(14.41)

b B,
b = |B| =

.
2
m (02 2 ) + 42 2

(14.42)

p , B
B=

f 02 2 2i
= bei = b cos + ib sin .
m (02 2 )2 + 42 2

tg =

2
Im B
= 2
.
Re B
02

(14.43)

(14.44)

p,

Re bei eit = Re bei(t+) = b cos (t + ) .

(14.45)

p, p , p p p p p p p p
( p p !) p p p. ,
pp, 0 > p p (14.37)
x = aet cos(t + ) + b cos(t + ).

(14.46)

p p p,
p p ( p t ) p
x = b cos(t + ).

(14.47)

p (14.42),
p p p 0 .
- p p , p p
p. p
p

(14.48)
m = 02 22 .
p 0

2
,
(14.49)
0
m 0 p p .
p p p p, p 0 .
= 0 +, . p (14.40)
B p
m = 0

02 2 = (0 )(0 + ) 20 = 20 ,
p
B=

2 20 .

f ( + i)
f
=
.
2m0 ( i)
2m0 (2 + 2 )

b=

,
2m0 2 + 2

tg =

(14.50)

(14.51)

(14.52)

p (14.51) , Im B < 0, p p. . p p
. p p < 0 ( < 0) 0.
, > 0 ( > 0), p , p . p,
= 0 , = /2. 0 p p
p p . , p 15

ImB

ReB

>0

<0

=0
. 14.4. p B.

/2

4
. 14.5. p .

p p = 0 (p p (14.8) p
). p p .
p , p
(14.47), p, , . p pp p p . , pp (
) p, p p p p.
I() p, p p,
. , , p p
p, (p p):
dA = f (t)dx,

dA
dx
= f (t)
.
dt
dt

(14.53)

, p ,
A = f (t)x = (m
x + 2mx + m02 x)x = m
xx + 2mx 2 + m02 xx.

(14.54)

p p p p p p, p
, , . p p
A = 2mx 2 .

(14.55)

x = b sin(t + ) p p p,
I() = A = mb2 2 .

(14.56)

p 0 b p p (14.52).
I() = m

f2
4m2 02 (2

2 )

02 =

f2

.
2
4m + 2

(14.57)

pp p ( p 0 ) p. p p p (. p. 14.6) ||, p p I() p


p = 0. p (14.57) , pp = . p
p,
f2
(14.58)
I(0) =
4m
16

I /I (0)

0.5

. 14.6. p .

p pp . p p p p
, p. p p
p . , p p


I()d =
I()d.
(14.59)
0

I() p = 0 p p ||. p
|| p. p pp
I() p (14.57), p .


f 2
f 2
d
.
(14.60)
I()d =
=
4m 2 + 2
4m

p , p ( p
), p , p p p
.
, pp, , p , ,
p p p
f (t) = f1 (t) + f2 (t).

(14.61)

, pp, p p p 1 2 .
p
m
x + p x + kx = f1 (t) + f2 (t).

(14.62)

p p,
p p p p
,

x(t) = x1 (t) + x2 (t),

(14.63)

x1 (t) x2 (t) p p
m
xj + p x j + kxj = fj (t),

j = 1, 2.

(14.64)

pp

p
p
.

p p (14.64) p. p p (14.64), p pp p p
. , p (14.3) , , p.

17

15

pp p
p , . , p
p pp. p pp p , p l p p
, p p p (p. 15.1).

. 15.1. p .

p p pp , , p p,
p p (p. 15.2)1 . p p

. 15.2. .

. pp p.
p

pp
p

pp p p m p ,
p p p k. Hp , p,
p, p, ,
p pp p (
p ). p
m
x + k(t)x = 0.

(15.1)

p p p k(t) = k0 (1+h cos t). ,


p , p p :
x
+ 02 (1 + h cos t)x = 0,

(15.2)

0 = k0 /m .
h , h 1.
p p p pp h. p, p h = 0, p p (15.2) , , a0 cos(0 t + ).
p , h , p
p.
x = a0 cos(0 t + ) + x1 ,
1

p, p .

18

(15.3)

x1 p, pp pp h.
x p (15.2), p x1
x
1 + 02 x1 = h02 a0 cos t cos(0 t + ),

(15.4)

pp , pp p hx1 , p p
, h2 . , p p 0 f , p.
( ) p p :
f = ha0 02 cos t cos(0 t + ) =

1
= ha0 02 {cos [( + 0 ) t + ] + cos [( 0 ) t ]}
2

(15.5)

, p p, p p (15.4) p
. p, p
, p .
p , , , p , p 0 . p, p
p. p p,
+ 0 = 0 ,

= 0.

(15.6)

H p p, = 0, , pp
p . p
0 = 0 ,

= 20

(15.7)

, = 20 , p p x1 p
p p2 . , p ,
pp p. p, = 20
pp p.
, p
p 20 . ,
= 20 + ,

(15.8)

pp, , p pp p

h0
h0
<<
.
(15.9)

2
2
, p , p x
p:
x
+ 2x + 02 [1 + h cos (20 + ) t] x = 0.
(15.10)
(. p), pp p p

2
h0
|| <
42 .
(15.11)
2
p = 0 p (15.9). , p p p p h,
p p
4
.
(15.12)
hc =
0
, pp p p ,
20 /n, n . p p (
) n p , hn .
2 p x , p . p
1
, .

19

p
H pp p , p
x
+ 2x + 02 (1 + h cos t)x = 0.

(15.13)

p p
x = ae(s+i/2)t + a e(si/2)t ,

(15.14)

s p , a . s > 0,
p p p, pp p .
p x p. , p /2,
p x cos t p p /2:3

x cos t = ae(s+i/2)t + a e(si/2)t eit + eit /2 =


=

a (si/2)t a (s+i/2)t
e
+ e
+ p..
2
2

(15.15)

pp p p (15.13) p eit/2 eit/2 , a p:

h02
a = 0
s+i
+ 2 s + i
+ 02 a +
2
2
2
(15.16)

2
2

h0
a+ si
+ 2 s i
+ 02 a = 0,
2
2
2

p p p p:

h02

s + i + 2 s + i + 2
0

2
2
2

= 0.

2
2

h0

si
+ 2 s i
+ 02

2
2
2
p p,
2 2 2

s + i + 2 s + i + 02 = h0
.
(15.17)

2
2
2
p pp

2
2 2
h0
2
+ 2s + 2 (s + )2 =
s2 + 02
.
4
2

(15.18)

p p p, s = 0 (p p s ).

2 2 2
h0
2
02
=
2 2 .
(15.19)
4
2

= 20 + , ,

2
h0
=
42 ,
2
p .

p p pp h 1.

20

(15.20)

16

H . pp p
p. p p. p.
p
, p p U (q) p p
p x = q q0 x p.
p , pp, pp
p. Hpp, p p
p k p (p). p k
m

k (x)

x
. 16.1. p p p.

x:

k = k(x) = k0 (1 + x2 ),

(16.1)

> 0 , pp p p p. p p :

F = k0 x 1 + x2 .
(16.2)
p
U (x) =

k0 2 k0 4
x +
x .
2
4

(16.3)

, p p. p (p, ) p p p
() . p
, p p E.
p
pp
p

. p
p p
U = mgl(1 cos ).
(16.4)
, p. H, p. 16.2, p p . , p
U ()

2mgl

. 16.2. p U ().

. , p p ,
p E < 2mgl, p p || < 2.
21

p E > 2mgl, pp, p p p


, p 2.
pp p p. 16.3 p

. 16.3. pp .

, p
E=

1 2 2
ml + mgl(1 cos ) = const
2

(16.5)

p p .
pp, p. ,
p p E = 2mgl,
pp. p E
2mgl pp p

=
2E/ml2 . p E 2mgl p

= g/l.
, pe , p p p, ppp , , p,
pp. , , p
p p p . ppp
p p. (p p) p , 1978-1979 (!) .
, p p. p, ,
, p p pp 300 , , p
p, p!
pp p pp
p . p p
p :
m
x + p x + k0 x(1 + x2 ) = f cos t.

(16.6)

p f ( x2 ) pp. , , p p x =
b cos(t + ) . pp (x, x)
pp p
.
p f p p p b cos(t + ), ,
p 2, 3, ... , p
( p) . pp pp p
p , -p p p, p
p p, p p T = 2/ (p. 16.4). pp : p p ,
p.
p p p p,
pp p, , p. p pp p (16.6) ,
p. p . ,
p p t p p .
H, p. 16.5, pp p,
p . p , , p p, p .
p , p f
p . p p f = f1 p
22

. 16.4. pp p : x
+ 0.05x + x + x2 = 0.9 cos 0.7t.

. 16.5. p p x
+ 0.01x + x + x3 = 1.9 cos(0.7t), p
. pp p T = 2/, p
p p p 3T .

p , T 2T . , p p p
, /2. pp pp
(p. 16.6).

. 16.6. p p : x
+ 0.01x + x + x3 = f cos(0.7t): ) f = 9.2, ) f = 9.28,
f1 = 9.24.

p p pp p.
p (16.1), p p p p
k. p p f p T = 2/
p. , p p p , p ( p T ) p p,
p pp , , p pp p. p p
p p p, T1 = 2T . p p p
p p p p.
p, p p pp p k(x). , p p,
p, p , p p p f2 p 2 2T = 4T . p, p
p p: 2T , 4T ,
... , p .
p 70- , p p p f
p p p. p f1 , f2 , ... fn , , p f . p , p p f > f
p . p x(t) p ,
p p , pp, .
pp p p pp , 23

pp, (p. 16.7). p


4

5
0

2
0
2
5
4

4
2

0
x

. 16.7. pp p f > f p p x
+
0.01x + x + x3 = 14 cos(0.7t).

, p p p. H ,
t, , p, pp,

tn = 2n (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .). p (x, x)
( p) p. p
x(t)1 .
, , p p, p , p p , pp p (p. 16.7).
p. Hpp, p p,
p pp .
p. 16.8. p, pp p

. 16.8. p pp p.

p.
, p p pp. p
1 , p p p , p . p p pp (p. 16.9). p
1

N=1

1/3
1/9

1/3
1/9

1/9

1/9

N=2
N=4

. 16.9. pp p .

p p p , p pp ,
p 1:

1 2
4
1
2 4
1 1
=1
(16.7)
+ +
+ ... =
1 + + + ... =
2
3 9 27
3
3 9
3
1
3
, p p .
pp p .
p .
1 p p , p
, ..

24

p : p p, p . p ( ).
p p p pp pp.
pp pp p p pp df (p ) (p p p):
0 < df < 1.

(16.8)

p p. p pp pp?
p. p p pp
N () p , p p . , p,
pp p , , p, p pp, p
df = lim

ln N ()
.
1
ln

(16.9)

, p p p L, N () = L/
df = lim

ln(L/)
= 1.
ln(1/)

(16.10)

N p N () = N ,
df = lim

ln N
= 0.
ln(1/)

(16.11)

pp p p pp p = 1/3n ( n ). , p. 16.9, N () = 2n ,
ln 2n
ln 2
=
0.6309.
n ln 3n
ln 3

df = lim

(16.12)

, pp p , p ,
p p. p pp. , p pp, p
pp 1 2:
1 < df < 2

(16.13)

, p pp pp ,
p p ( ) p
() . p , pp p,
pp , ,
pp . p, p p ,
p pp. p p pp p
p p ,
p .

p
p pp p , p
p p p .
p pp p (p p) p x(t). , p, p pp.
p p, , pp , p ,
p p p p p
pp . p p p p p (p. 16.10).
p, p p, p, . p ,
, .
25

. 16.10. p p p.

p p.
p . . p pp
. p p p, p pp , p (), p p
, p p p p . , pp pp ,
. p. 16.11 , p pp, p 1 , /2. p, p pp
p p.

. 16.11. p p pp p
p p.

p p , p p
pp , p. ,
p, p p, p, p p,
p .
p p p
p pp. p p pp
p. p p p, p p .
p p p p2 .
p pp p p. p p p ,
pp, , p .
p, p . p p p p p p.

p .

26

. 16.12. Hp p p.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

. . . . ., H, 1979 520 .
., H ., p . , 1, . ., H, 1975 480 .
., ., . (12 ). ., p, 1976 440 .
. ., . . p 10 , 1, . ., H, 1973 208 c.
. . . ., H, 1988 416 .

27


13.
.
.
.
.

14.
.
.
.
p.
p p.
p p

10

15. pp p

18

16. H .
pp p p.
p p.
p.
p

21

28

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