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Descrierea CIP a Camerei Naionale a Cri


". . ", . .-. . (2011; ).
- , 20-
". . ", 11 . 2011 . - : . . -, 2011. - 300 p
Antetit.: . . -. - Texte: lb. rom., engl., gguz, rus. - Bibliogr. la sfritul art. -150 ex.
ISBN 978-9975-4050-2-7.
082:378.4(478-21)=00
34

ISBN 978-9975-4050-2-7


316.32:004.9(478)
..


The present article studies questions on integration policy. Nowadays these questions are more important and are widely
discussed in the Republic of Moldova. The countrys entering the global digital world is a strategical component on the
way to stable development. The article shows the possibility of harmonizing interstate relations from the one hand, and
the relations between state, society and personality, from the other hand; thus approaching our country in the matter of
its integration to European and global digital world.
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636.082.474.3 (478 )
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Summary
The same humidity level has different impact on the fetus at different periods of his life. High humidity during the
first days of incubation influences negatively on all indicators of embryonic development. The reduced humidity during
this same period increases the percentage of "missed during average days" and "missed during last two days and
reduces the hatchability. High humidity in the average days of incubation increases the amount of "missed during
average days" and "non-standard" chickens up to 20%.
Rezumatul
Unul i acelai nivel de umiditate are un impact diferenial asupra ftului, la diferite perioade ale vieii sale.
Umiditate mare n primele zile de incubare, un impact negativ asupra tuturor indicatorilor de dezvoltare embrionar.
Umiditate redus n aceeai perioad, crete procentul de "ratat primul trimestru" i "zadohlikov i reduce Clocirea.
Umiditate mare n zilele media creterilor de incubare suma de "zadohlikov" i "substandard" pui de pn la 20%.
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ExpoVinMoldova; 2011 :
CHIINU WINES&SPIRITS CONTEST, O.I.V.
ExpoVinMoldova.

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332.14(478)

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Resume
Date scientific literature has many papers devoted to problems of regional development and, in particular, regional
marketing. However, the marketing aspects of the formation and management of the export potential of Russian regions
are still poorly understood problem. The author sees the reason that the application of marketing at the regional level, in
general, and especially - the development of marketing strategies out of the region to external markets - are
fundamentally new for Gagauzia. However, a qualitatively new conditions of world economic development requires
clear and articulate new goals and objectives of the marketing activities of regional exporters, as well as to develop
effective ways of achieving them, and solutions.This article attempts to identify some of the author's approach to this
issue.
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Abstract. A study was carried out in the central and southern zones of wine growing of Moldova Republic,
during 2007-2009 to evaluate the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) on the productivity of vines and quality of
grapes. It was established that the treatment of inflorescence of the seedless Loose Perlette, Summer Muscat, Monukka,
Thompson Seedless, Ruby Seedless and seed Cardinal, Black Magic (Codreanca), Muscat Hamburg, Italia table grape
varieties by biological active substances - gibberelic acid (GA3) leads to increase in the sizes and weights of clusters and
berries, productivity of vines and grape quality. Productivity of vines increases on 10,0-92,3%, depends on biological
particularities of grape varieties, concentration of growth regulators and terms of their application. We have established
that for seedless grape varieties optimal concentration of biological active substances in phases of postfertilisation (3-5

11

days after flowering) is GA3-100 ppm, for seed grape varieties - GA3-50 ppm.
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, 08.819.04.01A: Optimizarea
productivitii i calitii recoltei soiurilor de struguri pentru mas n baza aplicrii bioreglatorilor de cretere.
339.187.44(478)
..

,

The solution to many economic problems in Moldova at the present stage of development requires a new
economic mechanisms. Franchising provides an opportunity for an entrepreneur to make money by buying ready-made
business technologies with minimal investment. For the economy of Moldova is a relatively new area of business.

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Abstract: If the enterprise cant find investors or enough size of investations, it must use its own financial
resources. In this context the improvement of the using of the current actives has an important and actual mean. From
theoretical point of view, temporarily free money can be directed to the production development. In this article was
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PROSPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF GRAIN AND A PROBLEM OF ITS STORAGE IN THE
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
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Resume: In article importance of grain for the Russian Federation is shown, prospects of an increase of its
manufacture are proved, the problem of storage of grain in modern conditions is mentioned and innovative technologies
of storage are presented.
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.In Republic Moldova the idea about a system of management forms gradually, which is carried by corporations
like one of the best ways in order to extricate Moldavian enterprises from crisis. In various periods of development of
Moldavian economics were suppositions of forming effective corporative sphere, but in the same time were certain
contradictions in the systems of corporative management, with which we have necessity to come across in practice at
the present moment.

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Abstract: There were established the ways of rational use of agrotechnical processes that are related to vines
preparation for plantation and foundation of vineyard that are homogenous in development and productivity.


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2. .., .., .., .. -. : , 1998,
510.
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331.108.26

,



Resume:
One of the most important components of a companys success is high quality policy in the field of personnel
management. Therefore every company has to aim to be the preference for the people who are ready and capable of
bringing their maximum use to the company.
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Industria fructelor i legumelor are un rol important n aprovizionarea populaiei cu alimente, avnd o valoare
biologic ridicat. n industria de conserve urmrete n mod constant o politic de substituire a importului prin
creterea produciei i organizarea de noi de producie, cererea de pe pia. Acest articol ofer o descriere comparativ a
ratei de producia de conserve n 2009 i 2010, care reflect dinamica de cretere a produselor agro-procesare.
Fruit and vegetable industry has an important role in supplying the population with food, having a high
biological value. In the canning industry consistently pursues a policy of import substitution by increasing the
production and organization of new production, demand in the market. This article provides a comparative description
of the rate of production of canned food in 2009 and 2010, which reflects the dynamics of growth of agro-processing
products.
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378:005:339.138
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Resume: On an input in the XXIst century social and economic transformations and an openness of Russia to
integration processes and the innovative phenomena world economic, together with educational community have led to
establishment of the new external and internal environment of functioning of system of the higher professional
education of Russia which result has become not only necessity of introduction, but also requirement for improvement
and modernization of systems of management and marketing both separately taken educational institution, and all
market of educational services.

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1983. . 3.
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The problem agricultural branch workers labour motivation is considered. Its role is studied in unity of
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effective motivational environment come to light.
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1. . / . . .: , 2000.
2. Enright M.J. Why Clusters are the Way to Win the Game? // World Link, No 5, July/August, 1992.
3. Marshall A. Principles of Economics. Variorum edition overseen be C. Guillebaud. L.: McMillan Press, 1961.
4. Becattini G. From Marshalls to the Italian Industrial Districts/ www. copetitivness.org.
5. .. . .: , 2000.
004.9:339.138
, ,
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Depechevl70@mail.ru
, . , . 204 /4 .: (298) 2-22-02



OPTIMIZATION TOOLS MARKETING COSTS
IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The resume
The article discusses a method of designing the function cost optimization marketing services in the information
and accounting system, with the aim of reducing costs and improving enterprise management decisions. To better
assess the marketing costs, the author defined the procedure for calculating the coefficient of return on marketing
investment.


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procedure TFormMarketing.ButtonReportClick(Sender: TObject);
var i,j: Integer;
cDate1, cDate2: TDateTime; //
St: real; //St-
begin
St:=0; //
//
cDate1:=FormMarketing.DateTimePicker1.Date; cDate2:=FormMarketing.DateTimePicker2.Date;
//
DataModule1.ADOTable_Marketing.First;
for i:=1 to 12 do //
begin //for i:=1 to 12
//
DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.Filtered:=false;
DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.Filter:='>='''+DateToStr(cDate1)
+''' and <='''+DateToStr(cDate2)
+''' and =''''';
DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.Filtered:=true;
//
DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.First;
//
for j:=1 to DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.RecordCount do
begin
St:=St+DataModule1.ADOTableOperationsDSDesigner6.AsFloat;
DataModule1.ADOTableOperations.Next;
end; //
//
DataModule1.ADOTable_Marketing.Edit; // .
DataModule1.ADOTable_Marketing_2.AsFloat:=St;//
DataModule1.ADOTable_Marketing.Post; //
DataModule1.ADOTable_Marketing.Next; //
St:=0; //
// 1
cDate1:=incMonth(cDate1);
// 1
cDate2:=incMonth(cDate2);
end; //
end; //End of procedure
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1995
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http://rarus.ru/
5. .. - . 1996
6. http://www.sethgodin.com/sg/
64.02(476)
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The condition agrarian production in rural homestead, their modern problems and prospects of the development is
nalysed.
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A comparative method was applied upon the anatomical investigation of the large intestine of the Black
African Ostrich and four kinds of the domestic birds (hen, turkey, goose and duck). It was determined that the large
intestine is two times longer than the small intestine, and its mass exceeds three times the mass of the latter. In case
with the domestic birds vice versa - the small intestine is better developed. It is 15 times longer than the large
intestine. Its mass exceeds 4 times the mass of the latter. Elongation of the intestine is due the presence of the colon
which is morphologically similar to the colon of the Ruminants. A complex structure is a characteristic of the ostrich
cloaca having clitoris and veslibular gonads.


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,
, .

1.BEZUIDENHOUT A.J. The topography of the thoraco-abdominal viscera in the ostrich (Strutio Camelus).
Ondersepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 53, 1986, p.p. 111-117.
2.BEZUIDENHOUT A.J. Anatomy. In: The Ostrich. Biology, Production and Health. Ed. By D.C. Deeming, Cabi
Publishing Wallingford, Oxon. UK and University of Manchester, 1999, p.p. 37-41.
3. CAULEY MATTEW A. Strutul. Bucuresti, Alex, 2001.
4. GERLACH H. The ostrich a new agricultural animal. Tierarztlihe Umschau 50, 1995, 111-115.
5. GHETIE V., GHITESCU S.T., COTOFAN V.A. Atlas de anatomie a pasarilor domestice. Editura Academiei
R.Romania, 1976.
6. HOLZHAUSEN A. and KOTZE M. The ostrich. C.P. Nel. Museum, Oudtshoorn, South Africa,1990.
7. KOCAN A.A., CRAWFORD I.A. Ostrich Book. Oklahoma State University/Oklachoma, 2000.
8. .. . .: ; : , 2005, . 5-30.
9. .., .., .. : .//
, 4, 2003, .17-21.
10. ..
- .//
, 1, 2001,.36-39.
11. ., . //, 1, 2004, .56-58 .
12. . . , , . ., 2000.
338.22 (477)
..,
...


Abstract. The article presents the essence of innovative entrepreneurship and its establishment in the Ukraine. It
researches the specifics of innovative entrepreneurship development, including the one at small enterprises, based and
compared to the achievements of the global experience. The article demonstrates the major indicators of innovative
activity of Ukrainian enterprises in 2008-2009.
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1. .. . , 2008.
2. . - . .
, N 2, 2005.
3. ., ., . .
, N 4, 2005.
4. . . .
, N 8, 2005.
638.14
.., - ,


Abstract: Winter hardiness is a property of bees families, describing their ability to withstand extreme winter
conditions.
The aim of our research was to examine the degree of training of different breeds of bees to winter and their hardiness
in our conditions.
Our results show that during winter the greatest amount of feed spent bee families of Caucasian breed - 7.46 kg, the
local bee - 6.26 kg, and Carpathian - 5.32 kg.
It was noted that the mass of dry matter in the body of bees ranged from 33.19 to 37.31% of absolutely dry substance
from 31.78 to 35.83%, the percentage of combined water ranged on the average on groups of 1.41 to 1.82.
Thus, we can note that then there is the combined water in the body of bees, so they are more winter-hardy. In this
case, it is clear that the Carpathian breed of bees is better adapted to our conditions and prepared for winter.
Key words: Bee, Family bees, honey, hardiness, breed.

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1. .., .. . : . 2006, 5, . 18.


2. .. , : , 1970, 312 .
3. .. . . 2006, 8, . 18-19.
4. . . :, 1981, c. 23.
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338.43 (478)
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,

: ; ;
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Key Words: efficiency of land exploitation, cost of production, agricultural crop yield, net profit.
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. .
Abstract. The article gives an evaluation of modern efficiency of land exploitation and explains the mathematical link
between the production cost and the crop yield. It introduces a number of formulas which allow computing profitability
per 1 centner of production and per 1 hectare of land as well as profitability growth due to growth of the crop yield.
The article also introduces the methods of computing marginal profit.
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1. .. . , - . 1999.
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4. , 2009.
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Summary
In article the description of quality of an udder of cows of various families of Kostroma breed is given. The
substantiation of the practical importance of studying of leading families is given. The analysis of dairy efficiency of
cows and anatomic features of an udder is resulted.
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FUND of ASSISTANCE to REFORMING of HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES the LEVER of
MODERNIZATION of AREA of HOUSING-AND-MUNICIPAL SERVICES
: - ,
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Resume: Housing and communal services was and remains that branch of economics where state regulation
prevails.One of the tools, to progress of market mechanisms in area of granting of housing-and-municipal services, the
Fund of assistance to reforming of housing and communal services is assisting.
Activity of Fund can be considered as the mechanism of the state investment in carrying out of major overhaul of
apartment houses and resettlement of citizens from an emergency available housing.
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. In the development of furniture industry of Autonomy can be definitely seen the tendency of increased
interaction mechanisms of market self-regulation. Furniture industry producing consumer goods takes a special place
among non-food industry of autonomy. Production and consumption of furniture determines mostly the social and
cultural level of society development. Local products are sold not only in Gagauzian autonomy but both in RM and
abroad. Increasing of furniture export is seriously limited due to non-introduction of international quality and
management standards necessary for European market. At the same time lack of skilled labor, consulting services in
business area, effective marketing system and shortage of development strategy inhibit the development potential of the
furniture industry.
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3. 2005-2009 .
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81

. - 2006.- 11-.23.
3. -
http://www.mcx.ru/

334.735(091)(470)
. ., ...,

-
(,. )


. .
.
.
Resume. In article the history of progress of the Russian system of consumers' cooperative society is considered. Stages
of progress of the Russian consumers' cooperative society are resulted. The period of reforming of the Russian
consumers' cooperative society is analysed.

, 1918 .
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633.2.03:636.2(560)
Doc.Dr.Y. Bozkurt
Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture,
Department of Animal Science, Isparta, Turkey
ybozkurt@ziraat.sdu.edu.tr
THE POTENTIAL GRASSLAND AREAS DETERMINED BY REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
APPLICATIONS FOR BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION IN THE HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN TURKEY
Abstract
In this study, it was aimed to determine the potential grassland areas to be utilised for beef cattle producition in the
highlands of Eastern part of Turkey with special reference to Kars Province located in the East, using Remote Sensing
(RS) techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications.
LANDSAT 5 TM satellite images taken in 2005 were used and land use and land cover classification maps were
produced using GIS. In order to determine the current status of grasslands, red (0.45-0.52 m), near infra-red (0.52-0.60
m) and infra-red (0.63-0.69 m) bands of Landsat images were used and unsupervised classification was applied and
the distribution map of grasslands showing the present status was produced.
It was found that 2/3 rd of the total area of Kars province is grassland. However, in terms of plant cover density this
accounts for only 1/3 rd of the total area. In other words, only 181 275.7 ha of the total of 638 393.5 ha of whole
grassland area is in a better status in terms of plant cover to be utilised by cattle. The best quality grasslands for beef
cattle production lies in the North-west part of the province starting from the West of Sarikamis forests to the Northwestern range of Allahuekber mountains and to the foothills of Erdagi mountains.

.

,
, ,
() ().
Landsat 5 TM , 2005,
.
Landsat
, (0.45-0.52 ), (0.52-0.60 )
(0.63-0.69 ), , .
, 2/3- .
1/3 .
, 181275,7 638 393,5 ,

84

, .
- ,
- Allahuekber
Erdagi.
INTRODUCTION
Remote sensing (RS) is the science of obtaining and interpreting information from a distance, using sensors that are not
in physical contact with the object being observed. In its broadest sense includes aerial, satellite, and spacecraft
observations of the surfaces and atmospheres of the planets in our solar system (Jensen, 1996).
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated
attributes which are spatially referenced to the earth. It is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing,
analyzing, sharing, and displaying geographically-referenced information (Chandrakar and Thomas, 2010).
RS and GIS technologies have been of great use to planners in planning for efficient use of natural resources at national,
state and district levels. Application of these technologies in the management of natural resources are increasing rapidly
due to great strides made in space-borne RS satellites in terms of spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions
(Venkataratnam, 2001). RS and GIS are being used increasingly as tools to assist in grassland resource inventory and
integration of data and as a mechanism for analysis, modelling, and forecasting to support decision-making.
Therefore, it was aimed to classify grassland types and to determine the potential grassland areas to be utilised for beef
cattle producition in the highlands of Eastern part of Turkey with special reference to Kars Province located in the
North- East, using RS techniques and GIS applications.
MATERIAL and METHODS
Kars province has a unique place in the region in terms of both the number of cattle and sheep (large and small animals)
and the larger area of grassland available (Anonymous, 1984). In general, beef cattle production is carried out under
extensive conditions and based on grasslands in Eastern part of Turkey where Kars Province is located and 41.4% of the
whole grassland area of the country is present (Avcioglu, 2000).
Study area covered provincial boundaries of Kars with an altitude of above 2000 m. The area of Kars province is
918.117 ha. It lies between 260 000-390 000 km East, 4 420 000 - 4 530 000 km North according to UTM Geographic
Coordinate System. Ardahan province is in the North; Agri in the South; Erzurum in the West and Armenia in the East.
Figure 1 shows geographical location of the study area.
LANDSAT 5 TM satellite images taken in 2005 were used and land use and land cover classification maps were
produced using GIS. In order to determine the current status of grasslands, red (0.45-0.52 m), near infra-red (0.52-0.60
m) and infra-red (0.63-0.69 m) bands of Landsat images were used and unsupervised classification was applied and
the distribution map of grasslands showing the present status was produced (Figure 2).
The grasslands in the study area were classified as Type I, II and III together with 3 sub-classes within each type
according to biomass quality and vegetation cover and compared according to NDVI (Normalised Difference
Vegetation Index).
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
The results showed that the whole grassland area occupied 638968.3 ha and accounted for 66.7% of the total area of the
province. The grassland types I, II and III occupied 216917.7, 326334.7 and 95716 ha and accounted for 22.6, 34.1 and
10% of the total grassland area respectively in the study region.
It was found that 2/3 rd of the total area of Kars province is grassland. However, in terms of plant cover density this
accounts for only 1/3 rd of the total area. In other words, only 181 275.7 ha of the total of 638 393.5 ha of whole
grassland area is in a better status in terms of plant cover to be utilised by cattle. It was also found that the best quality
grasslands for beef cattle production lies in the North-west part of the province starting from the West of Sarikamis
forests to the North-western range of Allahuekber mountains and to the foothills of Erdagi mountains (Figure 3).
The defined types will certainly contribute to grazing management decisions such as determination of starting date of
grazing season, stocking rate and the most suitable grazing systems to be applied in the region.
It was concluded that in this region where the economy is based on animal production, determination of grassland areas,
stocking rates, estimation of biomass available for grazing, the length of vegetation period and monitorring the change
in grassland must be included in Regional Development Plans and the results obtained from this study can be beneficial
for the improved beef cattle production in the Region.

85

Figure 1. Geographical location of the study area

Figure 2. Classified satellite data (A) and the map produced from these data (B)

Figure 3. Land use map of Kars and grassland classification distribution.


References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Anonymous, 1984. Statistical Year Book, T.C State Statistical Institute, Ankara.
Avcolu, R., 2000. Trkiye hayvanclnda kaba yem retim stratejileri, International Animal Nutrition
Congress, Isparta, Turkey.
Jensen, J. R., 1996. Remote sensing of the environment: An Earth Resource Perspective. 3th Edn., Prentice
Hall, USA, pp: 1-28.
Venkataratnam, L., 2001. Remote sensing and GIS in agricultural resources management. Proceedings of the
1st National Conference on Agro-Informatics, June 3-4, Dharwad, India, pp: 20-29.
Chandrakar, S and Thomas, A. 2010. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications, International, Journal of
Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 1 No. 14

86

CZU 338.24.01:159.923
Cristafovici P.P. dr., onf.univ. ASEM, Chiinu
ROLUL PERSONALITII N FORMAREA IMAGINII NTREPRINDERII
In this article the problematic of personality and image of on individual, their points of interference with culture
and image of the enterprise are considered. So, there are analyzed the components of an image of the enterprise, the
place of the communication in formation of an image of the enterprise is shown.
n condiiile micorrii resurselor, diminurii pieelor, intensificrii luptei concureniale pentru un loc de munc sau
un loc n cadrul pieei, creterii impactului deciziilor politice asupra activitii, tot mai muli oameni ncearc s se
regseasc pe sine, s se dezvolte ca personaliti puternice, cu imagini notorii pentru a se adapta la condiiile mediului
existenial i a nvinge greutile caracteristice etapei actuale. Factorii principali care impun reconsiderarea valorilor ,
rolului i locului individului n societate sunt urmtorii:
- frustrarea i stresul, constrngerile caracteristice organizaiilor i ntreprinderilor n care activeaz indivizii;
- erozia convingerilor, valorilor tradiionale i orientarea oamenilor spre noi valori materiale i spirituale;
- libertatea de a alege n condiiile diminurii semnificative a posibilitilor de angajare n cmpul muncii;
- complexitatea problemelor ce se cer soluionate n condiiile resurselor limitate;
- necesitatea soluionrii unor probleme globale prin eforturi comune, activnd n echipe;
- schimbarea rolului i statului individului, creterea responsabilitii lui n luarea deciziilor;
- necesitatea implementrii marketingului intern i a managementului participativ, ca urmare a creterii decalajului
relaiilor interpersonale dintre angajai i conducerea ntreprinderii, dintre populaie i conducerea rii, n scopul
asigurrii competitivitii entitilor;
- etc.
n acest context o importan deosebit revine studierii personalitii i identificrii posibilitilor de realizare a
acesteia.
Conceptul de identitate a fost ntrit de ctre tiinele umane. Totui, nu exist o abordare unic a acestei noiuni.
Astfel, psihanalitii Z. Freud, A. Adler trateaz aceast noiune ca ansamblul imboldurilor subcontiente iraionale.
Concepia freudian susine c atributele identitii individuale nu sunt nici stabile, nici venice, fiind simple trsturi
ca produs al istoriei i culturii care se definesc n funcie de punctul de vedere proiectat asupra individului. n
psihanaliza freudian n cadrul noiunii de Subiect se delimiteaz Eul i Supra-Eul.
n psihologia ideal personalitatea este definit ca fiin, esen specific spiritual constant. Aceast definiie pune
accentul pe nsuirile interioare caracteristice individului. n realitate, ns, orice individ este produsul unei culturi, prin
cultur nelegndu-se valorile, atitudinile i simbolurile nvate i transmise de la o generaie la alta n societate. nc
Aristotel meniona c personalitatea este constituit din intelect, temperament i trsturile de caracter (voin) asimilate
i formate pe parcursul vieii i activitii.
Mai muli autori n domeniul psihosociologiei trateaz personalitatea ca totalitatea relaiilor sociale care se formeaz
n procesul includerii individului n viaa social i comunicare. Pentru G. H. Mead personalitatea omului deriv din
apartenena sa la o anumit comunitate, din ale crei instituii individul i asum atitudinile i activitile sale. Prin
urmare, sunt posibile reacii identice la indivizi din aceeai comunitate, iar n cadrul relaiei cu ceilali individul i
construiete propriul su Eu: Structura n jurul cruia se construiete Eul este o reacie comun tuturor, cci, pentru a
fi un Sine, condiia este s fii membrul unei comuniti[1 p.65].
Un alt autor E. Goffman a dezvoltat aceast concepie, ajungnd la concluzia c comportamentele individului se
refer la relaiile Sine-Sine, Sine-Cellalt, Sine-Instituie. [1.p.65] Aceste relaii se realizeaz n cadrul comunicrii
verbale sau non-verbale i dezvluie parial intenionalitatea persoanei n cadrul aciunii sale. Conform sistemului Horni
[2, pag.329] comportamentul omului rezult din trei intenii principale: cedarea (conformismul), agresivitatea i izolarea
(individualizarea). Indivizii care cedeaz (se conformeaz), de regul, depind de cei din jur, au nevoie de dragostea lor
i sunt legai de acetia, fiind gata s mearg dup ei. Motivaia oamenilor agresivi se fundamenteaz pe necesitatea de
putere i de aciuni, contrar opiniei altor persoane. Individualitii sunt independeni i au tendina de a se ndeprta de
ceilali.
Sub aspectul cantitativ caracteristicile personalitii sunt: capacitile de comunicare i de relaxare, gradul de
autocontrol interior. Aceste caracteristici sunt specifice tuturor indivizilor, ns au o intensitate diferit i se rsfrng
diferit asupra comportamentului individului i relaiilor interpersonale. Totalitatea interaciunilor interpersonale, la
rndul lor, realizeaz unitatea fenomenului cultural i comunicaional n cadrul organizaiei.
Fenomenul cultural este cercetat n relaia individului cu grupul. Cultura organizaiei este definit ca un ansamblu
de reguli, norme i valori mprtite de membrii unei organizaii susinute i reproduse prin procesele de comunicare.
Cultura organizaional reflect modul de abordare a problemelor legate de activitatea organizaiei, concepia asupra
mediului n care activeaz; tradiiile i valorile personalului organizaiei, codul vestimentar, particularitile limbajului,
atitudinea fa de clieni i altele; istoricul i misiunea organizaiei, inclusiv personalitile din viaa ntreprinderii.
Conceptul de cultur are relevan n cadrul ntreprinderii doar n relaii cu conceptul de identitate al organizaiei,
acesta din urm fiind un dat istoric cu origine, evoluie, schimbri. Identitatea ntreprinderii reflect caracterul
permanent i fundamental al ntreprinderii care este exprimat prin urmtoarele caracteristici: statutul de funcionare,
obiectivele activitii, naionalitatea, caracteristicile fondatorului i acionarilor i altele.
Trebuie s menionm faptul c la etapa actual se observ o ruptur din ce n ce mai mare n relaiile interpersonale
la toate nivelele, ceea ce se rsfrnge negativ asupra imaginii organizaiei, dezvoltrii socio-econiomice i umane n
genere. La baza relaiilor interpersonale stau valorile i interesele de grup, n defavoarea valorilor morale general

87

umane. Ca urmare, observm organizaii cu valori false, denaturate, caracteristici ale unei civilizaii bazate din ce n ce
mai mult pe instincte.
Fenomenul comunicrii presupune un locutor, un subiect al enunrii, care folosete un limbaj comun grupului.
Prin urmare, la nivelul conceptului de identitate de ntreprindere acest aspect capt dou fee: planul individ
organizaie pe de o parte, i planul organizaiesocietate pe de alt parte. Comunicarea are menirea de a spori coeziunea
intern, de a stimula personalul n sensul desfurrii unei activiti eficiente, de a orienta angajaii spre realizarea
obiectivelor globale ale organizaiei. n cadrul ntreprinderilor nsi personalul constituie un important mijloc de
comunicare. Este important s se asigure coerena ntre mesajele difuzate prin personalul ntreprinderii cu cele difuzate
prin canalele de comunicare nepersonale. Prin urmare, ntreprinderea trebuie s aib i s promoveze aceleai valori,
att n interior, ct i n exterior. Aceasta iar permite s-i formeze o imagine favorabil i performane concureniale.
Personalitatea individului conduce nu numai la formarea imaginii proprii, dar i a ntreprinderii. Maestrul
managementului Peter Drucker, persoana care poate pretinde c a schimbat lumea recomand urmtoarele valori
culturale de care trebuie s se conduc managerii n activitatea lor [3]:
- abordarea unui subiect nou la fiecare trei - patru ani i studierea pn la limita curiozitii; lcomia intelectual
ca o form a nnoirii de sine;
- riscul, responsabilitatea i controlul;
- de a pune accentul pe ceea ce oamenii pot s fac i nu pe ceea ce nu pot s fac;
- de a nva din succese; nu e trziu niciodat s ncerci s ajungi perfeciunea;
- de a forma stilul, deoarece acesta este secretul puterii de convingere;
- limbajul - ecologia social i a sufletului;
- ntreinerea unei comunicri favorabile cu cei din jur;
- respectarea i tratarea interlocutorilor ca pe egalii si, cu atenie;
- demnitatea angajatului trebuie reconceliat cu elementele coercitive ale muncii;
- un salariat nu datoreaz loialitate, dragoste i atitudine el datoreaz doar performan; etc.
Precum individul, ntreprinderea i formeaz imaginea n creierul angajailor i consumatorilor pentru a-i asigura
succesul activitii de pia. La aceasta contribuie principiile de care se poate conduce personalul:
Sinceritatea - onestitatea, integritatea i bunvoina n exprimarea propriei opinii i percepia opiniilor celor din jur.
Echifinalitatea - toi angajaii companii au ca scop atingerea scopului final. Evaluarea final a propriilor aciuni, ct i a
aciunilor altor persoane, se bazeaz pe rezultatul acestor aciuni n form de criterii pentru atingerea scopului propus.
Stima reciproc - este egalitatea reciproc a posibilitilor. Ne respectm unii pe alii i i tratm pe toi ca i cum am fi
egali.
Dezvoltarea - fiecare angajat al companiei tinde s-i dezvolte i s-i perfecioneze calitile sale personale i
profesionale.
Individualitatea - percepem i susinem sentimentele, motivele i prerile altora. Fiecare angajat al companiei este o
personalitate individual.
Disponibilitatea - preuim aspiraiile la o influen mai mare asupra proceselor i disponibilitatea de asumare a
responsabilitii pentru rezultate.
Responsabilitate-libertate - suntem contieni de faptul c suntem liberi ntr-att, n ct suntem responsabili de toate
aciunile noastre.
Spiritul de echip i identificarea cu ntreprinderea - fiecare angajat al companiei este o parte a echipei, mprtind
aceleai idei, mndri de a lucra n ntreprinderea dat.
Imaginea ntreprinderii este rezultatul combinrii unor imagini pariale a ntreprinderii, i anume[4]:
- imaginea intern - arat msura n care angajaii sunt implicai n activitatea firmei i ader la obiectivele
organizaiei;
- imaginea tehnologic - se refer la modul n care sunt percepute perspectivele tehnologice ale firmei;
- imaginea financiar este aprecierea valorii financiare a ntreprinderii, credibilitatea i perspectiva dezvoltrii
unei activiti profitabile;
- imaginea comercial - arat ncrederea n performanele produselor i accesibilitatea preurilor;
- imaginea public - se refer la opinia mediului extern viznd, integrarea ntreprinderii n comunitate i
contribuia acestea n soluionarea problemelor sociale globale.
Concluzie: Imaginea ntreprinderii reflect identitatea ntreprinderii, aceasta din urm fiind format din cultura i
comunicarea de ntreprindere. Cultura antreprenorial este fondat pe ideea c dezvoltarea calitativ a produciei,
competena i implicarea salariailor pot s rezolve problemele sociale. Valorile cheie care contribuie la creterea
flexibilitii i competiiei sunt inovaia, diversificarea, reacie oportun rapid la schimbare. Aceste valori trebuie s
devin cunoscute prin comunicarea de ntreprindere care poate fi mprit n comunicare instituional, comunicare de
tip marketing, comunicarea intern. Interaciunea eficient a culturii i comunicrii organizaionale este instrumentul
formrii identitii i imaginii ntreprinderii. Iar cultura i comunicarea, la rndul lor, nu sunt altceva dect caracteristici
ale personalitii salariailor ntreprinderii.
Bibliografie
1. Jean Caune, Cultur i comunicare, - Bucureti, Cartea Romneasc, 2000. 146pag.
2. . ., . ., . ., - : , 1999. 768
3. Jack Beatty. Lumea n viziunea lui Peter Drucker, Traducere de Brndua Scarpet. Bucureti, Teora, 1998.
,

4. M. H. Westphalen,Le communicator. Guide operationnel pour la communication d entreprise , Paris Dunod,

88

1994.
5. ., . . . .: , 1991. 320 .
6. . / . p. .. . - .: , 1990. 494.

CZU 638.1
N.G. Eremia, doc. hab, profesor
T. Dabija, Iu. Neicovcena, I. Dodon, N.M. Eremia
Universitatea Agrar de Stat din Moldova (Chiinu)
STUDIUL MICRO, MACROELEMENTELOR I METALELOR GRELE N COMPONENA
PRODUSELOR APICOLE I CORPUL ALBINELOR
Abstract: The quality and biologic value of bees products depend on their chemical composition and on the
ecological situation the study of the content and dynamic of micro- macroelements and heavy metals in their
composition presents an interest as theoretically as well practically. Our experiences had the aim to study micro- and
macroelements from bees products and bees` body.
There was established the content of micro-, macroelements and heavy metals accordingly to atomic
spectroscopic method at the chemical Institute of Science Academy of Moldova.
The experimental results showed that, all quantity of studied honey microelements was 0,80-1,53 mg/kg, in
pollen 65,05 mg/kg, propolis 95,52 mg/kg and in bees body 103,76 mg/kg.
All quantity of studied macroelements from bees` products varied between 640,16 kg/mg (sun flower honey)
18087,15 mg/kg (pollen), but in bees body it was 24350,23 mg/kg.
The result of study of heavy metals dynamic showed that the composition in bees products and bees body was
not identical. Higher Pl quantity (1,67 mg/kg) and Zn (78,6 mg/kg) had been determined in propolis.
There was established that all quantity of honey heavy metals consisted 0,47-1,01 mg/kg, pollen 44,11
mg/kg, propolis 83,01 mg/kg and in bees` body 89,3 mg/kg,.
As it is known that the ecological situation in the world it is getting worth as well the territories under the
influence of human factors an especial place has the question of increasing the sanitary quality of received products.
Key word: bees, honey, pollen, propolis, micro-, macroelements, heavy metals.
Introducere
Produsul principal care l obinem de la albine este mierea. ns tot odat de la albinele melifere putem obine
un ir de produse biologic-active ca: polenul, pstura, propolisul, lptiorul de matc etc. Produsele apicole (mierea,
polenul, pstura, propolisul , lptiorul de matc) sunt necesare omului nainte de toate ca resurse alimentare, cosmetice
i farmaceutice.
Aceste produse posed caliti antimicrobiene i antivirale, stimulatoare i de conservare etc. n afar de
aceasta, produsele menionate cu unele excepii, au capacitatea de normalizare a produselor metabolice din organismul
omului i de a-i mri rezistena la boli.
n legtur cu ntrebuinarea din ce n ce mai mare a produselor apicole n sfera medicinal impune o calitate
nalt a acestor produsei.
Pe parcursul mai multor ani s-au efectuat cercetri n domeniul studierii compoziiei chimice a polenului [1]
i propolisului [2,3].
Avnd n vedre c calitatea i valoarea biologic a produselor apicole depind de compoziia chimic i innd
cont de condiiile situaiei ecologice, studierea coninutului i dinamicii micro-, macroelementelor i metalelor grele n
componena lor prezint interes teoretic i practic. Scopul cercetrilor noastre a fost studierea substanelor biologic
active n componena produselor apicole colectate din zona Central a Republicii Moldova.
Material i metod
Pentru ndeplinirea obiectivelor puse, ca obiect al investigaiilor au servit produsele apicole obinute de la
familiile de albine din zona Central a Republicii Moldova.
n perioada sezonului activ s-au colectat mostre de produse apicole (miere, polen, propolis) i albine, n care sa studiat coninutul micro-, macroelementelor i metalelor grele.
Compoziia i cantitatea micro- i macroelementelor i prezena metalelor grele n produsele apicole i corpul
albinelor s-au determinat prin metoda spectroscopiei atomice n laboratorul de ncercri de Spectroscopie Atomic al
Institutului de Chimie al Academiei de tiine al Moldovei.
Datele obinute au fost prelucrate prin metoda variaiilor statistice, dup .. [4] cu ajutorul
programelor calculatorului.

Rezultate i discuii

89

n componena produselor apicole au fost depistate un ir de elemente i substane, dintre care sunt micro-,
macroelementele i metalele grele.
Microelementele variaz cantitativ i calitativ ct n produsele apicole att i n corpul albinelor lucrtoare.
Activitatea biologic a multor microelemente este legat de faptul c ele acioneaz sinergic cu enzimele i vitaminele.
Fierul ntr n compoziia enzimelor respiratorii, zincul n compoziia fermenilor, care particip la metabolismul
glucidic i proteic.
Rezultatele cercetrilor au demonstrat, c cantitatea total a microelementelor studiate de noi (Mn, Cr, Co, Zn,
Cu) n miere constituie 0,80 - 1,53 mg/kg, n polen - 65,05 mg/kg, propolis - 95,52 mg/kg i corpul albinelor lucrtoare
n perioada de pregtire ctre repausul de iarn - 103,76 mg/kg (tabelul 1).
S-a constatat c cantitatea maximal de mangan (18,75 mg/kg) se conine n polen, crom (1,48 mg/kg) i zinc
(78,6 mg/kg) n propolis, cobalt (2,0mg/kg) i cupru (22,86 mg/kg) n corpul albinelor. Fracia masei de cenu n
produsele apicole a fost de 1,99 - 2,62 %, iar n corpul albinelor 2,62 %.
Cantitatea total a macroelementelor studiate (Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Na, P 2O5) n produsele apicole a variat de la
640,16 mg/kg (miere de floarea soarelui) pn la 18087,15 mg/kg (polenul), iar n corpul albinelor constituie - 24350,23
mg/kg.
S-a relevat c produsele apicole sunt bogate n macroelemente, dintre care cantitatea maximal de calciu (2516
mg/kg) i magneziu (821,35 mg/kg) se conin n polen, iar fierul, potasiu, sodiu i fosfaii - n corpul albinelor.
Tabelul 1. Cantitatea micro- i macroelementelor n produsele apicole i n corpul albinelor n perioada pregtirii ctre
repausul de iarn, mg/kg
Miere
Denumirea elementelor

Polen

Propolis

n
corpul
albinelor fr
intestine*

de salcm

de floarea soarelui

0,08
0,7
0,10
0,26
0,39
1,53

0,20
0,10
0,10
0,30
0,10
0,80

18,75
1,35
1,25
33,25
10,45
65,05

11,5
1,48
1,25
78,6
2,69
95,52

10,77
2,0
2,0
66,13
22,86
103,76

40

49,9

2516

1452,9

455

17,3

31,9

821,35

229,6

759,4

1,77

2,06

87,9

415,85

116,03

Potasiu (K )

390

235,1

5030

1297,5

7699,15

Sodiu (Na+)

39,9

29,3

41,9

77,65

687,3

Fosfai (P2O5)

5250

291,9

9590

690,0

14633,35

Cenua, %

2,62

1,99

2,18

Cantitatea macroelementelor

5738,97

640,16

18087,15

4163,5

24350,23

Cantitatea total a micro- i


macroelementelor

5740,5

640,96

18152,2

4259,02

24453,99

Microelemente
Mangan (Mn)
Crom (Cr)
Cobalt (Co)
Zinc (Zn)
Cupru (Cu)
Cantitatea microelementelor
Macroelemente
Calciu (Ca2+)
Magneziu (Mg2+)
Fier (Fe)
+

*Corpul albinelor fr intestine, uscate la t-65

Rezultatul studiului dinamicii metalelor grele a demonstrat c componena lor n produsele apicole i corpul
albinelor nu este identic. Cantitatea maximal de plumb (1,67 mg/kg) i zinc (78,6 mg/kg) a fost depistat n propolis,
iar cadmiu (0,06 mg/kg) i cupru (22,86 mg/kg), (tabelul 2).
S-a constatat c cantitatea total a metalelor grele din miere constituie 0,47 - 1,01 mg/kg, polen - 44,11 mg/kg,
propolis - 83,01 mg/kg i corpul albinelor - 89,3 mg/kg.
n legtur cu tendina total n ntreaga lume a nrutirii situaiei ecologice pe teritoriile supuse aciunilor
antropogene, un loc deosibit capt ntrebarea majorrii calitii sanitare a produselor obinute.

Tabelul 2. Cantitatea metalelor grele n produsele apicole i n corpul albinei n perioada pregtirii ctre repausul de iarn,
mg/kg

90

Miere
Metale grele

Polen
de salcm

Plumb (Pb)

Propolis

floarea
soarelui

n corpul
albinelor
fr
intestine

0,34

0,05

0,37

1,67

0,25

Cadmiu (Cd)

0,02

0,02

0,04

0,05

0,06

Cupru (Cu)

0,39

0,10

10,45

2,69

22,86

Zinc (Zn)

0,26

0,30

33,25

78,6

66,13

Cantitatea metalelor grele

1,01

0,47

44,11

83,01

89,3

Rezultatul studiului dinamicii metalelor grele a demonstrat c componena lor n produsele apicole i corpul
albinelor nu este identic. Cantitatea maximal de plumb (1,67 mg/kg) i zinc (78,6 mg/kg) a fost depistat n propolis,
iar cadmiu (0,06 mg/kg) i cupru (22,86 mg/kg), (tabelul 2).
S-a constatat c cantitatea total a metalelor grele din miere constituie 0,47 - 1,01 mg/kg, polen - 44,11 mg/kg,
propolis - 83,01 mg/kg i corpul albinelor - 89,3 mg/kg.
n legtur cu tendina total n ntreaga lume a nrutirii situaiei ecologice pe teritoriile supuse aciunilor
antropogene, un loc deosibit capt ntrebarea majorrii calitii sanitare a produselor obinute.
Aa dar, cantitatea de micro-, macroelemente i metale grele n produsele apicole i n corpul albinelor nu este
identic i n mare msur depinde de proveniena lor.
Concluzii
1. n scopul ameliorrii eficacitii potenialului biologic al familiilor de albine se recomand utilizarea lor nu
numai pentru producerea mierii, dar i a altor produse apicole (polenul, pstura, propolisul etc.) bogate n substane
biologic active.
2. S-a stabilit c cantitatea total a microelementelor studiate n produsele apicole variaz ntre 0,80 - 1,53
mg/kg (miere) i 95,52 mg/kg (propolis), iar a macroelementelor - 3923,5 mg/kg (propolis) i 20563,2 mg/kg (polen) i
a metalelor grele 1,01mg/kg (miere) i 78,98 mg/kg (propolis.
Bibliografie
1. Eremia N., Dabija T. Letude du contenu des metaux lourds danslepropolis // Lucrari tiinifice. Zootehnie i
Biotehnologii. Timioara, 2005, vol. 38, p. 585-587.
2. Eremia N., Dabija T. Particularitile producerii i calitile biochimice ale propolisului. Chiinu, 2007. 25 p.
3.
.., .. . ,
. . 2. , 1988. .19-30.
4. .. . .: , 1971, . 3-259.
631.6 (478)
Fedotova Liudmila, doctor, docent
Comrat State University (Moldova)
BUDJAC DRINKING WATER
( Cirsovo)
. - ,
.
, , .
, ,

Keywords: Water Resources, Water Quality, Health, Sources


The quality of the water and accessibility of the fresh water sources are the two global problems, which the mankind
tries to solve nowadays.
In the country side of Budjac the majority of the people use the ground water from the wells. The ground water is not
very deep. The quality of the water depends as on the natural conditions as on the economic activity. We researched the
quality of the drinking water of Cirsovo village in Comrat district. We explored the organoleptical characteristics, the
chemical structure and the microflora character. Twenty eight wells were researched: 13 wells in the lowland of the
village and 13 wells in the highland of the village and also 5 artesian wells, which are used by the great part of the
population of the village. According to the organoleptical data the majority of the models correspond to the State
Standard Specification except some wells in the lowland of the village, the colour indicator data of which 9 degrees

91

exceeded, and some wells in the highland of the village where some models didnt correspond to the State Standard
Specification according to such points as turbidity and coloration (table.1).
ble 1.Organoleptical characteristics of the drinking water of the wells in the village Cirsovo

Well address

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Tanasoglo Street 51
Tanasoglo Street 67
Cotovskogo Street 229
Cotovskogo Street 239
Cotovskogo Street 253
Cotovskogo Street 273
OlympiskayaStreet 184
Olympiskay Street 145
Olympiskay Street164
Lenin Street 241
Lenin Street 209
Lenin Street 165
Lenin Street 309

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Sadovaya Street 193


Sadovaya Street 149
Sadovaya Street 186
Gagarin Street 72
Gagarin Street 43
Gagarin Street 111
Comsomolskaya Street 170
Comsomolskaya Street 160

9
10
11
12
13

Comsomolskaya Street 59
Lenin Street 112
Lenin Street 308
Lenin Street292
Lenin Street160

1
2

Artesian well 2
Artesian well
Fine-C
Artesian well of the grain
store
Artesian
well Zlatovchen
artesian well
Invineprom

3
4
5

Turbidity
Coloration
(PDK-5g/d3) (PDK-200)
The lowland of the village
3,8
29
0,26
6
0,51
15
3,8
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2,8
15
0
0
0
0
The highland of the village
0
29
0,51
6
0
15
5,1
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,26
0

Smell
(PDK-2 ball)

Smack
(PDK-2ball)

0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

0
0
1,28
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
Artesian wells of the village
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1

0
1
0
0
1

10,5
6

1
0

10,5

17

0,26

The water from the artesian well of the grain store does not correspond to the requirements of th State Standard
Specification on the organoleptical data, such as smell and smack. According to the sanitary and chemical data the
water from the artesian wells does not correspond to the state standard specification on ammonia content and the
general rigidity. In some tests of water, e.g. in the artesian well of the grain store the ammonia concentration 9 times
exceeds PDK and is 4,73 g/d 3 ( table.2).

able 2.The sanitary and chemical data of the water from the artesian wells

92

1,5

0,05

6,5-9

223,7

0,92

0,3

8,4

68,1

111,4

0,7

0,3

8,45

12,7
25,3
116,7

442,5
112,7
40,8

0,74
1,29
0,39

0,9
0,25
0,3

8,5
8,4
8,35

0,5

0,5

50,0

250

4,91

0,05

5,2

24,7

1,24

0,037

2,4

4,73
1,13
2,37

0,087
0,031
0,023

2,2
3,3
1,3

cloride

rigidity

sulphate

nitrate

fluorine

State Standard
Specification

Bestvine

Fine-C
Grain Store
Zlatovchen

Invinprom

nitrite

ammonia

Artesian wells

/3
250

According to the bacteriological indicators the .Coli data were taken. Mostly the water in the wells corresponded the
requirements of the State Standard Specification on the bacteriological indicators. In the models of the water from
Olympiskay Street .Coli was found.
The analyses allowed to expose the problems in the village on the problems of the drinking water, evaluate the wells
conditions:
The specialists of the sanitary and chemical laboratory should make the analyses of the drinking water in the wells
more often.
The Mayor staff should make control of the conditions of the wells.
The population should organize the sanitary cleaning of the territory near the wells.
The sanitary and epidemiological office should use the passport system of the wells.
Literature
1.Lebedinsky U.P., Sklyankin U.B., Popov P.I. Economy of the resources and ecology. Kiev. Politizdat. Ukrain, 1990.
p.233.
2.Drinking Water. Sanitary requirements to the drinking water quality of the centralizing systems of the water support.
Quality control. SanPin 2.1.4.55996. ., 1996. 111p.
CZU 366.5
Panfil I.M., confereniar universitar, dr., ASEM
ASPECTE PRIVIND PROTECIA CONSUMATORILOR
The presentation of this article is dedicated the role and importance such science as science about merchandise
in maintenance of quality of life of the population in struggle against falsification of products is shown. Also large
attention is given to an opportunity of introduction Codex Alimentarius, ISO and system HACCP on Republic of
Moldova.
Aderarea Republicii Moldova la Organizaia Mondial a Comerului (OMC) i perspectivele de integrare n
Uniunea European (UE) impune schimbarea atitudinii i mentalitii fa de calitatea mrfurilor i protecia drepturilor
consumatorilor. Calitatea n Republica Moldova a fost i, cu prere de ru, mai este i astzi neglijat i ignorat.
Aceasta constituie o grav greeal strategic a statului cu implicaii nefavorabile asupra ntregii societi.
n condiiile globalizrii economiilor naionale i extinderii rapide a legturilor comerciale competiia dintre
mrfurile autohtone i cele strine se desfoar nu numai pe pieele externe, dar din ce n ce mai mult i pe piaa
intern. De aceea asigurarea unui nalt nivel calitativ reprezint una din cele mai importante forme de materializare a
capacitii competitive a mrfurilor autohtone. Calitatea este cheia pieelor de desfacere i a devenit n zilele noastre
unul dintre factorii decisivi n competitivitatea internaional.
Un rol deloc de neglijat n extinderea pieelor de desfacere i asigurarea calitii mrfurilor revine merceologiei,
obiect de studiu al cruia este calitatea mrfurilor. Marfa, categorie economic de mare complexitate, constituie o
unitate dialectic a valorii i valorii de ntrebuinare. Capacitatea produsului de a satisface o nevoie uman reprezint
valoarea lui de ntrebuinare. Valoarea de ntrebuinare a produselor alimentare se manifest prin valoarea nutritiv cu
cele patru componente indispensabile ale sale: valoarea energetic; psiho-senzorial; biologic i sanitaro-igienic.
Studierea nivelului de acoperire i de satisfacere a nevoilor socio-umane prin intermediul valorii de ntrebuinare i
diversitii sortimentale revine merceologiei, care are ca obiect de cercetare proprietile mrfurilor care le confer
distincie, utilitate, respectiv calitate, realizat n strns corelaie cu cerinele pieei, societii n condiii de eficien
economic.
Datorit faptului c calitatea mrfurilor are un caracter complex i dinamic, merceologia studiaz produsele din
punct de vedere tehnic, economic i social. Studiul mrfurilor din punct de vedere social presupune cunoaterea

93

temeinic a proprietilor care influeneaz direct sau indirect starea de sntate a consumatorilor, precum i asupra
gradului de poluare a mediului ambiant, care are consecine, mai devreme sau mai trziu, asupra calitii vieii. Funcia
social a merceologiei const n aplicarea n practic a cunotinelor referitoare la protecia consumatorului i a
mediului nconjurtor de aciunea nociv a unor mrfuri necalitative. Aceast din urm funcie sensibilizeaz
interesul societii fa de activitatea de producere, comercializare i consum a mrfurilor.
Preocupri n acest domeniu exist la nivelul celor mai mari organizaii internaionale elaboratoare de standarde
Codex Alimentarius, care a elaborat i un Cod de Etic pentru comerul produselor alimentare. Pentru a asigura
controlul produselor alimentare astfel, nct s se protejeze sntatea populaiei contra pericolelor pe care acestea ar
putea s le prezinte, Comisia Codex Alimentarius a adoptat Codul deontologic al comerului cu produse alimentare.
Normele Codex Alimentarius include prevederi referitor la igiena produselor alimentare, aditivii alimentari, reziduurile
de pesticide, contaminani, modaliti de marcare i prezentare a produselor alimentare. Aceste norme sunt menite s
asigure consumatorul cu produse de o bun calitate, solubre, nutritive i nefalsificate. Actualmente membri a comisiei
Codex Alimentarius sunt 165 de ri. Republica Moldova a aderat la Statutul Comisiei Codex Alimentarius, iar prin
Hotrrea Guvernului 419 din 2000 a aprobat regulamentul Comitetului Naional Codex Alimentarius al Moldovei
(CNCA). Obiectivele principale a CNCA sunt protejarea sntii consumatorilor n raport cu factorul alimentar i
asigurarea unor practici oneste n organizarea comerului internaional cu produse alimentare.
O alimentaie inofensiv, calitativ din punct de vedere al solubritii este indispensabil pentru a asigura un
nivel de via acceptabil. Aceast cerin este proclamat n declaraia Universal a Dreptului Omului n care se
precizeaz c orice persoan are dreptul la un nivel de trai ndestultor pentru a-i asigura sntatea i bunstarea sa, n
special cu produse alimentare i nealimentare, ngrijire medical.
Produsele alimentare sunt nu numai valori de ntrebuinare ce fac obiectul activitii comerciale, ci i produse cu
nsuiri speciale, destinate satisfacerii necesitilor nutriionale a organismului uman. Alimentaia constituie condiia de
baz a existenei umane, iar produsele alimentare pot avea un rol pozitiv n direcia desfurrii normale a
metabolismului, ori dimpotriv, pot s influeneze negativ, dac nu corespund unor cerine nutriionale, sanitaroigienice definite de standardele n vigoare.
ntre produsele alimentare i medicamente exist o asemnare. Problema dozei i a modului de administrare a
acestora are consecine asupra sntii i este identic n ambele cazuri. Produsele alimentare constituie factorul
principal i determinant al sntii populaiei, fiindc aproximativ 70% din substanele duntoare sntii ptrund n
organism prin intermediul hranei i apei pe calea digestiv i respiratorie. Considerm actual, pentru Republica
Moldova, introducerea i aplicarea n toate ntreprinderile, ce desfoar activitile de producere i comercializare a
produselor alimentare, a sistemului Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). Implementarea sistemului
HACCP n activitile de producere i comercializare va contribui la ridicarea calitii igienico-sanitare a alimentelor, la
crearea unei concurene loiale n avantajul consumatorilor i n alinierea activitilor de producere la cerinele i
normele UE.
Ca urmare a evoluiei ascendente a pieei contrafacerilor se obin profituri foarte mari prin practicarea falsului la
aproape toate grupurile de mrfuri prin folosirea mrcilor sau a ambalajelor mrcilor unor firme de prestigiu pentru
mrfuri neconforme i periculoase. Lund proporii amenintoare i cuprinznd toate ramurile industriale, falsificrile
alimenteaz o grav criz moral care afecteaz att situaia economic a rii, ct i sntatea naiunii. Aceste activiti
frauduloase i pun amprenta asupra strii sntii consumatorilor. De aceea un rol important n lupta contra falsificrii
produselor care pun n pericol sntatea consumatorilor i revine merceologiei, precum i responsabilitii social-etice
de marketing a ntreprinztorilor.
Cauzele i factorii ce favorizeaz falsificarea mrfurilor sunt multiple, dintre care: factorii geografici, tehnici,
economici, sociali, politici etc. Factorii economici in de obinerea unor avantaje concureniale prin posibilitatea
realizrii unui profit rapid cu eforturi minime, inclusiv n domeniul inovaiei. Tendina de scdere a costurilor n scopul
realizrii de produse concureniale are efecte negative asupra calitii produselor, deoarece falsificatorii pot recurge la
contrafaceri n scopul comercializrii lor la un pre inferior celui practicat de productorii reali. Un alt factor este preul
ridicat al unor mrfuri produse n serii foarte mici sau unicate. Mrfurile de lux i n special mrfurile unicate au un pre
foarte mare ( blanuri, bijuterii, obiecte de arta,
automobile .a.), satisfacind cerintele unor segmente foarte
mici de consumatori. Pentru a satisface cerinele unui numr ct mai mare de consumatori, de a fi accesibile lor,
produsele sunt imitate, contrafcute. La aceast contrafacere se ine cont de nivelul de dezvoltare al pieei i dorin
consumatorilor pentru mrfurile de o anumit valoare i calitate, ceea ce i servete drept motiv de falsificare, falsuri
ce se vor comercializa la preuri mai mici.
Ali factorii care favorizeaz activitatea frauduloas de falsificare n condiiile actualei economii de pia sunt:
posibilitatea unui ctig ilicit; facilitatea tehnic de executare a falsului; lacune n documentele normativ tehnice privind
proprietile mrfurilor i reglementarea acestora; dificultile tehnice de scoatere la iveal a falsului; controlul
insuficient i lipsa responsabilitii angajailor, lipsa de educaie a unor segmente de consumatori. Sunt muli
cumprptori care nu au cunotine privind calitatea i preul mrfii nainte de cumprare, marcarea i ambalarea
mrfurilor, comportamentul agresiv i de manipulare al vnztorului, posibilitatea de a face reclamaii prin apelarea la
Asociaia Consumatorilor, Moldova Standard i alte organisme de control.
n asemenea situaii consumatorul are nevoie de protecia statului. Drepturile consumatorilor sunt reglementate n
Republica Moldova de Legea Republicii Moldova Privind protecia consumatorilor, nr. 105-XV din 13.03.2003.
conform acestei legi consumatorul nu trebuie s fie subiectul riscurilor din partea productorilor i a practicilor
comerciale abuzive. Legea stabilete norme i reglementri specifice pentru protecia vieii, sntii i securitii
consumatorilor; obligaiile productorului i vnztorului (cap. II), protecia intereselor economice ale consumatorilor
(cap. III), obligaiile productorului i vnztorului privind caracteristicile calitative a mrfurilor oferite (cap. V), i alte

94

informaii referitoare la produsele oferite consumatorilor.


Asigurarea unui nalt nivel calitativ a mrfurilor trebuie s devin una dintre cele mai de seam preocupri a
ntreprinderilor autohtone. Producerea i desfacerea de ctre industriai a mrfurilor calitative impune implementarea
sistemelor calitii certificate n conformitate cu ISO-9000 i promovarea sistematic a calitii de ctre stat. Un astfel
de sistem ofer credibilitate consumatorilor i faciliteaz extinderea pieelor de desfacere a produselor autohtone.
O nsemntate deosebit n obinerea produselor calitative revine perfecionrii i armonizrii standardelor
naionale cu cele internaionale, care simultan nltur i barierele tehnice n comerul internaional i asigur
competitivitatea produselor autohtone pe piee externe.
Pentru protejarea de ctre stat a persoanelor n calitatea lor de consumator e necesar:
de a depune eforturi pentru ameliorarea situaiei privind calitatea, punnd accent pe eficacitatea
activitilor de asigurare a calitii i atingerea unui grad mai nalt de aplicabilitate a reglementrilor i legilor adoptate.
ntr-o lume concurenial calitatea poate fi asigurat numai printr-o mbuntire continu a performanei tehnice i o
pregtire adecvat a angajailor care s perceap calitatea ca o creaie nu numai material, dar i spiritual.
de a crea un sistem naional (Comitet interministerial) coerent de supraveghere prin stabilirea
responsabilitilor, mecanismelor de protecie, modalitilor de control i perfecionarea colaborrii ntre organele
administraiei publice abilitate cu funcii de protecie a consumatorilor prevzute n articolul 23 a Legii privind protecia
consumatorilor.
Bibliografie
1. Legea Republicii Moldova Privind protecia consumatorilor Nr. 105 XV din 13.03.2003. Monitorul Oficial al
Republicii Moldova nr. 126-131/507 din 27.06.2003.
2. Hotrrea Guvernului Republicii Moldova cu privire la Etichetarea produselor alimentare. Monitorul Oficial al
Republicii Moldova nr. 189-190 din 29 august 2003.
3. Hotrrea Guvernului Republicii Moldova nr.419 din 3 mai 2000 cu privire la Aprobarea Regulamentului
Comitetului Naional Codex Alimentarius.
4. Dima D., Pamfilie R., Procopie R., Mrfurile alimentare n comerul internaional, Editura Economica, Bucureti
2001.
5. Panfil I. Calitatea n contextul globalizrii Simponzion Internaional Problemele regionale n contextul procesului
de globalizare, 9-10 octombrie 2002, Chiinu ASEM, pag. 173-175.
339.5(478)
Stratan Alexandru, dr. hab., conf. univ.
Institutul de Economie. Finane i Statistic
PROBLEMELE I PERSPECTIVELE COMERULUI EXTERIOR AL REPUBLICII MOLDOVA
Abstract. The external trade growth trend of our country during the last decade was determined rather by an accelerated
growth in imports than that in exports. In this context a question appears why in condition of free access in the main
export markets for the majority of products, our exports remain so small?
This paper is aimed to analyze the opportunities and the risks that occur from the preferential trade regimes that
Republic of Moldova is benefiting from its main trading partners: the European Union countries and the east partners
from Commonwealth of Independents States.
De-a lungul ultimului deceniu, valoarea comerului exterior al Republicii Moldova a avut o cretere progresiv, cu
excepia anului 2009, care a coincis cu criza mondial, cnd s-a produs o scdere a tranzaciilor comerciale externe cu
29,5%.
Figura 1. Evoluia comerului exterior al Republicii Moldova
n perioada 1997-2009, USD

Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza datelor comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova disponibile pe:
http://www.statistica.md/category.php?l=ro&idc=336&

n anul 2009, valoarea comerului exterior a constituit 4565 mil. USD sau de 3,65 mai mare n comparaie cu anul
2000. Dezvoltarea comerului exterior, n perioada analizat, a fost determinat de creterea, cu ritmuri nalte, a

95

importurilor1, care, n anul 2009 au sporit pn la 3,3 miliarde USD, fiind de 4,2 ori mai mari ca n anul 2000.
Exporturile, la fel, au nregistrat o majorare, dar cu ritmuri mult mai modeste dect cea a importurilor. Astfel, n anul
2009, comparativ cu 2000, exportul, exprimat n dolari SUA, a crescut de 2,75 ori, iar n valori fizice de 2,25 ori.
Astfel, se poate constata c pe perioada ultimului deceniu care a coincis i cu aderarea Republicii Moldova la OMC,
comerul exterior a nregistrat o cretere constant, dar care a fost determinat mai curnd de creterea cu ritmuri
accelerate a importurilor, dect cea a exporturilor. Astfel rata de acoperire a importurilor prin exporturi a sczut timp de
9 ani de la 60,73% n 2000 la 39,27% n anul 2009.
Regimul de comer preferenial cu rile CSI
Datorit relaiilor comerciale stabilite nc n perioada sovietic, grupul rilor CSI reprezent un important
partener comercial pentru Republica Moldova. ncepnd cu anul 2006, s-a produs un schimb de poziii, partenerii din
cadrul CSI, cednd poziia de ntietate Uniunii Europene. Cu toate acestea, piaa rilor CSI continu s fie una de o
importan major pentru produsele indigene (aceasta fiind destinaia a circa 40% din exporturile Moldovei). Pe piaa
CSI, Federaia Rus continu s-i menin rolul de frunte n clasamentul rilor a cror destinaie sunt exporturile
moldoveneti. n anul 2009, Rusia a deinut 22,08% din valoarea total a exporturilor naionale, iar n perioada ianuarie
noiembrie 2010, cota s-a a crescut, constituind 25,7%.
Figura 2. Structura geografic a exporturilor Republicii Moldova ctre CSI n perioada 2000-2009, %

Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza datelor privind comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova disponibile pe:
http://www.statistica.md/category.php?l=ro&idc=336&

n ultimii trei ani, cota CSI n exportul Moldovei, a constituit aproximativ 40%. Dar n proporie de 91%,
exporturile spre CSI sunt orientate spre trei piee principale: Rusia (58%), Ucraina (17%) i Belarus (16%).
n prezent, comerul dintre Republica Moldova i rile CSI se desfoar n baza unui regim de comer preferenial
[2]. Regimul de comer preferenial n baz multilateral a fost instituit prin Acordul cu privire la crearea zonei de
comer liber, semnat de ctre rile comunitii la 15 aprilie 1994 i Protocolul privind modificarea i completarea
Acordului, la 2 aprilie 1999.
Moldova are semnate, cu majoritatea rilor CSI, acorduri bilaterale de comer liber, inclusiv cu Rusia, Ucraina i
Belarus. Aceste acorduri prevd facilitarea tranzaciilor comerciale reciproce prin reducerea taxelor i impozitelor
vamale, precum i eliminarea restriciilor cantitative sau a altor msuri cu efect echivalent, respectnd regulile de
origine a produselor, cu unele excepii 2.
Dei eliminarea barierelor n comerul reciproc n cadrul CSI constituie un obiectiv important, stipulat n mai multe
acte normative, precum: Concepia de dezvoltare a statelor CSI, semnat la 5 octombrie 2007 i Strategia de
dezvoltare economic a statelor CSI pn n anul 2020 din noiembrie 2008, actualmente, n comerul interstatal
continu s mai existe bariere comerciale, att de ordin tarifar ct, i netarifar.
Deseori, unele probleme pot aprea spontan i par a fi nefondate din punct de vedere economic, chiar mai mult,
avnd o conotaie politic (acest fenomen fiind mai mult vizibil n relaiile comerciale Rusia rile CSI).3
Regimul de comer preferenial cu rile Uniunii Europene
n calitate de membri ai OMC, cadrul general de reglementare al relaiilor comerciale ale Republicii Moldova cu
rile UE l constituie regulile i principiile sistemului comercial multilateral al OMC. ns, avnd statut de ar vecin,
Republica Moldova, conform Planului de Aciune din cadrul Politicii Europene de Vecintate, beneficiaz de un regim
preferenial asimetric - Preferine Comerciale Autonome (ATP), cu condiia respectrii anumitor condiii de export (n
special, mbuntirea considerabil a sistemului de control i de certificare a originii mrfurilor) [1].
Dup aderarea Republicii Moldova la OMC, n vara anului 2001, ncepnd cu anul 2003, a fost nregistrat un proces de reduceri succesive a tarifelor
vamale la import. n prezent, ca urmare a acestor reduceri tarifare, cota medie a taxelor vamale la import este de 7% din valoarea bunurilor. Pentru
produsele agricole media este de 13,6%, iar pentru produsele neagricole media este de 6%. Mai mult de 50% din liniile tarifare sunt evaluate la cota
0%.
1

Excepiile acestui regim vamal vizeaz Nomenclatorul de mrfuri concordat care se vor perfecta prin documente
bilaterale i sunt parte integrant a acordurilor de comer liber.
3
Aici pot fi menionate embargourile impuse de Rusia, Republicii Moldovei: 2005 stoparea importurilor de carne i
mezeluri, 2006 stoparea importurilor de vinuri.
2

96

ncepnd cu anul 2006, Moldova a devenit una dintre cele 15 ri beneficiare ale noului regim de preferine
comerciale - GSP Plus [4]. GSP Plus oferea comparativ cu schema precedent urmtoarele avantaje:
- noul sistem GSP cuprindea 7200 de grupe de produse sau cu 300 de grupe mai mult dect sistemul precedent i a
fost extins, preponderent, asupra unor produse agricole, pete i produse din pete;
- majorarea considerabil a accesului pe piaa UE;
- simplificarea administrrii sistemului GSP.
Noul sistem GSP a extins perioada de revizuire a condiiilor sistemului GSP de la 1 an la 3 ani, fapt ce a fcut acest
regim mai previzibil i mai static pentru comunitatea oamenilor de afaceri. [5]
n sfrit, n anul 2008, regimul preferenial a fost extins i pentru alte produse considerate sensibile pentru UE prin
implementarea regimului ATP. Acest regim bilateral asimetric permite, n prezent, scutiri tarifare i cantitative pentru
importurile UE, originare din Moldova, cu excepia unui numr limitat de produse agricole. Aceste preferine au drept
scop sporirea accesului i performanei exporturilor moldoveneti pe piaa UE, avnd n vedere, c exporturile
moldoveneti, la acel moment, nu constituiau dect 0,03% din importurile pe piaa European. 1
Un pas important n liberalizarea comerului ntre Moldova i rile Uniunii Europene, nu numai prin eliminarea
taxelor vamale, dar i a celor netarifare, este semnarea unui potenial Acord de Liber Schimb Comprehensiv i
Aprofundat. Semnarea acordului de liber schimb ar putea contribui la eficientizarea comerului prin reducerea esenial
a barierelor de ordin tehnic, precum i la sporirea favorizrii investiiilor strine. Un prim pas n acest sens este
adoptarea H.G. nr. 1125 din 14 noiembrie 2010, ce vizeaz Planul de aciuni al Republicii Moldova privind
implementarea Recomandrilor Comisiei Europene pentru instituirea Zonei de Liber schimb Aprofundat i cuprinztor
dintre Republica moldova i uniunea european.
Concluzii:
Att regimul de comer liber cu rile CSI, ct i acordul de comer liber asimetric cu rile UE privind preferinele
comerciale autonome ofer Republicii Moldova o serie de beneficii, dar i anumite riscuri.
De-a lungul anilor CSI a reprezentat un partener important n comerul exterior al Republicii Moldova, iar
dezvoltarea exporturilor pe aceast pia este determinat de existena unor oportuniti: accesul liber pe aceste piee,
pentru marea majoritate a produselor moldoveneti; exigenele relativ mai modeste cu privire la aspectele calitative ale
produselor moldoveneti, ceea ce permite exportul acelor produse, care nu pot fi exportate pe alte piee cu cerine mai
nalte; relaiile de veche tradiie cu partenerii comerciali din aceste ri etc.
Dac aspectele structurale i calitative asociate comerului cu rile CSI, existente la moment, par s ofere anumite
avantaje productorilor naionali, acestea pot deveni pe termen lung un dezavantaj, ntruct aceasta ncurajeaz
productorii naionali de a-i pstra capacitile nvechite de producie i nu i stimuleaz s mbunteasc oferta de
export calitatea produselor i valoarea adugat a acestora.
Comerul exterior cu rile UE este reglementat dup principiile i regulile internaionale de comer ale OMC, ceea
ce asigur, n mare parte, desfurarea relaiilor comerciale ntr-un cadru regulatoriu viabil i echitabil cu aceste state.
Ca urmare a succesiunii schemelor de preferine comerciale acordate de ctre UE, n prezent, majoritatea produselor
exportate pe aceast pia beneficiaz de acces liber, ceea ce a contribuit la o cretere progresiv a exporturilor n UE
pe perioada ultimilor ani. Cu toate acestea, piaa UE s-a dovedit a fi una ostil pentru produsele agroalimentare
moldoveneti bunuri, pentru care Moldova dispune de cel mai nalt grad de specializare. n pofida preferinelor
comerciale oferite prin prezentul regim comercial pentru aceast categorie de produse, exportatorii naionali nu pot
beneficia din plin de avantajele acestuia, acest fapt este cauzat de prezena unor cerine exigente referitoare la calitatea
produselor i de existena unui decalaj semnificativ ntre sistemul naional i cel european de reglementare tehnic.
Bibliografie
1. Council Regulation (EC) No 55/2008 of 21 January 2008 introducing autonomous trade preferences for the
Republic of Moldova and amending Regulation (EC) No 980/2005 and Commission Decision 2005/924/E. Disponibil
la: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:020:0001:0008:EN:PDF;
2. , , 15 1994 . ( 2
1999 .. Disponibil la: http://www.businesspravo.ru/Docum/DocumShow_DocumID_45964.html;
3.
17 2010 . Disponibil la: http://www.mec.gov.md/sector/241/2072;
4. Expert Group, Evoluia exporturilor Republicii Moldova n uniunea European: Rolul regimurilor comerciale,
aprilie august 2008. Disponibil la: http://www.expert-grup.org/library_upld/d56.pdf;
5. Ministerul Economiei i Comerului, Sistemul Generalizat de Preferine oportunitate de dezvoltare a comerului
exterior al Republicii Moldova, Chiinu, 2006. Disponibil la: http://www.case.com.md/upload/3/GSP%20Plus.pdf;
6. http://www.stastica.md.
636.2:084
M. Turan Toker, Prof. Dr.
1

n anul 2009 ponderea exporturilor moldoveneti n importurile europene s-a ridicat pn la 0,076%.

97

Stepan Varban Prof. Dr.


Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Agriculture,
Dept. of Animal Science 32260 nr /ISPARTA
Nicolae Statov Komrat State University,
Faculty of Agro-technological,
Department of Animal Science, Comrat, Moldova
PLANNING OF BEEF FEED LOT SYSTEMS
AIK BES YER PLANLAMASI
SUMMARY: It is well known that Turkey has remarkable sources for domestic animal production in terms of
geographical settlement and climatic features. Applicability of cattle feeding in non-agricultural fields make possible
to evaluate the opportunities for adding value to forage. In cattle feeding carried out as to traditional methods in closed
barn systems, farmers meet problems in order to control and reduce the costs because of the high level investment, farm
expenses and request of labor.
However, feed lot system gives serious advantages in the light of presenting of low investment costs, giving an
opportunity for applications of mechanization and low labor costs. Planning and designing of beef cattle systems and
feed lot as to rules of intensive production have a great effects on the reducing the cost and profitability.
In beef cattle enterprises, deciding the place of farm, determining the environmental arrangement and capacity
of feed lot, watering, manure management, and lighting, organizing the service roads, deciding on mechanization tools
and machines and other factors have enormous importance being a successful and profitable entity besides selecting of
beef cattle, feeding, nursing and management methods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of factors
given above in the light of latest technological developments and present the applicability of feed lot system under the
circumstances of our country.
Key Words: Feed lot, cattle feeding, feed cattle housing
Genel Yapm Kurallar: Bir ak sr besi iletmesi retim amacyla srlarn tamamen serbest olarak barndrld,
elle ya da mekanizasyon uygulamalar ile sulama ve yemleme yaplan ak ahr alan ile snrldr. (Anonim, 2003).
Akta besi sistemi, srlarn besi sresince barndrld, yemleme, sulama ve gbre temizliine imkn veren yeterli
meyile sahip ak barnaklardr. Bir ak besi yerinin veya mevcut olann geniletilmesi iin uygun bir planlama
gereklidir.
Yer Seimi Kurallar: Feed-Lot iin yerleim yeri seilecei zaman aadaki hususlar gz nnde bulundurulmaldr
(Anonim, 2006): Tahsis edilecek mekn ve hacimlerde kaba yem, kesif yem ve hayvanlara uygunluk; su tesisat,
elektrik tesisat ve i yollar gibi altyapnn bakm ve servisine uygunluk salanmal; Feed-Lot zemin eimi yemliklerden
uzaklaan ynde %2 6 arasnda olmaldr
leriye dnk planlamalar feedlot geliimi bakmndan nemlidir. Yem depolama, yem krma ve kartrma, hayvan
blmeleri, drenaj, sv atk vb blmlerin hepsinin de mantkl olarak yerletirilmi olmas gerekmektedir. Birok
feedlot kuruluundan sonra birka yl iinde byr ve geniler. Bu yzden gelecekteki gelimeye ynelik bir
planlamaya hassastr. letmede sr kapasitesinin ve buna bal yem materyallerine olan ihtiyacn artna ynelik
tedbirler alnmaldr (Anonim, 2006).
na Kurallar: letme besi kapasitesi: letmenin besi kapasitesi zerinde besi sresi, besi periyodu, her periyottaki
besi hayvan says ve herbir besi blmesine konulacak hayvan says etkili olmaktadr. Ayrca, iletmenin kurulduu
blgedeki ya miktar da dikkate alnmaldr (Table 1). Bir besi blmesinin genilii 40 m'den fazla olmamal,
padoklara hayvan blmelerine konulacak hayvan saysna gre uzunluk belirlenmelidir. Herbir blmeye 40-200 ba
hayvan decek ekilde planlama yaplmaldr.
Table 1. yllk ya miktar ve hayvan bana alan ilikisi (Toker, 1999).

Hayvan bana gerekli alan miktar (m2)


7
25-30
40

Yllk ya miktar (mm)


<250 (kurak blgeler)
250-700 (yal blgeler)
>700 (ok yal blgeler)

Besi Yeri Dzenleme: Ak besi yerlerindeki suni tepeler; hayvanlar iin gbre biriktirme yeri olmayan dinlenme ve
amurdan uzaklama ve korunma alanlardr (Murphy and Harner, 2001). Ahr blmeleri genellikle 100-200 besi sr
iin dzenlenmelidir.
Padok (Barnak Blmesi) Tasarm ve itler: Besi yerinde padoklarn etraf 100-110 cm yksekliinde evre iti ile
evrilmelidir. it dikmeleri boru, ray demiri, kalas vb. malzemeden olmal ve 3 m arayla dikilmelidir. Hayvanlarn
padok dna kmalarna engel olmak iin dikmelerin arasna besiye alnan hayvanlarn byklne gre 3-5 sra yeni
veya kullanlm salam boru, demir tel, elik halat vb. yerletirilmelidir. elik halat kullanlmas halinde uygun yerlere
gerdirme tertibat konulmaldr. Yemlik blmne ait itlerin ilk sras hayvan byklne gre yeme ulamasn
engellemeyecek ekilde aa yukar ynde ayarlanabilir olmaldr. Padoklardan oluan besi yerinin tm evresi ayrca
ikinci bir itle evrilmeli ana giri ve k salayan en az bir kap bulunmaldr.
Kaplar: Padoklarn arka ve n blmlerinde hayvan giri ve klarn salayan en az 3 m geniliinde ara giriine
engel olmayacak kaplar bulunmaldr. Kaplar evre itlerinin devam grnmnde, salam mentee sistemi ile
dikmelere monte edilmi, alp kapanmasn salayan pratik balama sistemleri ile donatlmaldr.

98

Yemlikler: Yemlikler padokun yem servis yolu tarafna yerletirilmeli, tercihen taban dar, yamuk eklinde beton,
metal, ahap plastik vb. malzemeden yaplmaldr. Hayvan bana 25-30 cm yemlik boyu hesaplanmaldr. Yemlik
malzemeleri sivri keli olmamal, hayvanlar yaralayp zarar vermeyecek ekilde yaplmal, malzeme olarak sa, boru
gibi ince malzeme kullanlmsa hayvanlarn boyunlarnn ve baka organlarna zarar vermeyecek ekilde yuvarlatlm
veya gerekli tedbirler alnm olmaldr. Yemliklerin nne, hayvanlarn bastklar yerde ar amurlanmay nlemek
amac ile 3 m eninde, beton platform yaplmal bu pltform padok istikametinde meyilli olmaldr
Suluklar: Suluklar padok'a yemliklerin tersi istikametinde yerletirilmelidir. Suluklar, yan yana dizilen padoklarn
arasndaki itlerin altna ve her iki padoktaki hayvanlarn su iebilecei ekilde konmaldr. Bylece suluklarn iine
hayvanlarn girmesi nlenecei gibi, bir suluktan iki padoktaki hayvanlarn istifade etmesi de salanm olmaldr.
Suluklarn altna hayvanlarn n ayaklarn basmalarna imkn verecek ekilde suluk alt ve nne 90 cm geniliinde
beton platform yaplmaldr. Suluklarn tabannda, temizlik iin boaltma vanas bulunmaldr.
Glgelikler: Besi yerinde glgelikler, sadece ok scak blgelerde (glgede srekli olarak 40C'nin zerinde)
yaplabilir, bu maksatla yaplan glgeliklerde rt malzemesi aralkl denmeli, bylece hava sirklsyonuna mani
olunmamaldr. Bu ekilde glgelik yaplacaksa yemlik stne deil padok ortasna yaplmaldr.
Aydnlatma: Aydnlatma, besi yerinde zorunlu olmamakla birlikte, gece kontrolleri ve emniyet asndan, yem
yemelerine kolaylk salamak bakmndan yaplabilir. Aydnlatma yapldnda hayvanlarn belli noktalarda ylmasna
sebep olmayacak ekilde yeteri kadar yaplmaldr.
Serinletme: ok scak blgelerde zeminin tozumasn nlemek ve hayvanlar serinletmek iin yamurlama balklar
yaplabilir, bu balklar ykseke salam direkler zerine monte edilmelidir.
Ykleme rampalar: Besi yerine hayvanlarn boaltlp yklenmesini salayacak tat aralarnn yanamasna imkn
verecek ekilde rampalar yaplmaldr. Rampalarn yan taraflarna, hayvanlarn rampadan dar kmamalar iin
salam parmaklk yaplmal ve rampann besi yerine ulaan alt ucunda hayvanlar numaralamak, alamak, tartmak vb.
ilemler iin bir tespit travay ve tart kantar bulunmaldr.
Servis yollar: Besi yerinde, yemlik tarafnda yemliklere yem datacak aralarn gemesini salayacak genilikte, sert
zeminli bir servis yolu bulunmaldr.
Gbre ynetimi: Besi yerinde birikecek gbreler besi periyodu sonunda bir seferde temizlenerek besi yerinden
uzaklatrlmal, bu temizlenmi padoklara yeni besi hayvan konulmaldr. Sinek ve d parazitlere kar gerekli
ilalamalar yaplmal, bu ekilde hayvanlarn ve evrenin rahatsz edilmeleri nlenmelidir.
Yardmc Tesisler: Yem, ila, ara-gereler vb.'nin retimi muhafazas ve depolanmas iin st kapal, yeteri
byklkte sundurma eklinde veya kapal yardmc tesisler bulunmaldr. alan iilerin sosyal ihtiyalar ve ynetim
hizmetleri iin yeterli tesisler yaplmaldr.
References
1.
Anonim, (2003), National Guidelines for Beef Cattle Feedlots in Australia, Standing Committee on Agriculture
and
Resources
Management
Report
no:
47,
CSIRO
Publishing
pp:56.
Australia.
http://www.publish.csiro.au/Books/download.cfm?ID=114, (accessed:12.06.09).
2.
Anonim, (2006). Guidelines for the establishment and operation of cattle feedlots in South Australia; second
edition Feb, 2006). http://www.epa.sa.gov.au/pdfs/cattle.pdf (Eriim tarihi:22.07.09).
3.
Ensminger, M.E., et al., (1990). Feeds and Nutrition. California, USA.
4.
Murphy P. and Harner, J., (2001), LESSON 22 Open Lot Runoff Management Options, MidWest Plan Service.
http://www.extension.org/mediawiki/files/d/d2/LES_22.pdf (eriim 12.11.2009).
5.
Toker, M.T., (1991) ABD'de Feed-Lot Uygulamas Yem Sanayii Dergisi, Say: 71 Ankara.
6.
Toker, M.T., (1999). Akta sr besi yeri yapm ve iletme kurallar., Akta sr besisi paneli bildiriler kitab,
25 kasm 1999. SD-Isparta, s:6-20.
7.
Zincirliolu, M. et al., (1993). Akta Serbest Sistem Besicilik U.S. Feed Grains Council, zmir
633.2.03:636.2:338.24.01
Prof.Dr. S. Varban, Doc.Dr. Y. Bozkurt
Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture,
Department of Animal Science, Isparta, Turkey.
Doc.Dr. A. Beoglu Komrat State University,
Faculty of Agro-technological,
Department of Animal Science, Comrat, Moldova
EFFECTIVE GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR CATTLE PRODCUTION
Abstract
The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the major grazing systems that can be used on
rangelands and to summarize the conditions under which they may be applicable and to highlight the advantages and
disadvantages of continuous and rotational grazing systems: strip grazing is regarded as a refinement of rotational
grazing. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to indicate under what situations the different grazing systems could be
applied.

,
,

99


.
.
INTRODUCTION
Ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, can digest cellulosic substances and can convert plants to products
such as milk, meat, wool, and mohair. Grassland, therefore, is critical to the production of these ruminants and the
products they provide. In order to obtain maximum profits from pasture grazing, producers must manage the land for
high production and must manage the animals to minimize forage waste and to ensure that they are growing sufficiently
[1].
Grazing systems provide high-quality forage and reduce feed and veterinary costs while avoiding manure
buildup. Feed costs are reduced because farmers and ranchers do not have to grow or purchase forage and grain yearround, and veterinary costs are reduced because animals on pasture have fewer health problems than those that feed in
the barnyard. In addition, pastures require few or no pesticides and allow natural recycling of manure. They also
provide a continuous soil cover, thus protecting wildlife and important ecosystems. [2]
Perceived shortcomings in earlier view that the presence of cows on pasture increases emissions of nitrous oxide
from soil N2O - a greenhouse gas, according to several scientists interpreted incorrectly. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl of the
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany and his colleagues showed that in fact the cattle grazing in the steppes
leads to a decrease in the number of microbes in the soil, making conditions less favorable to it to produce N2O. Thus,
all emissions are directly related to livestock, can be compensated for this effect. [3]
GRAZING SYSTEMS IN GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT
Grazing systems used by farmers vary widely in the degree of control. Three main types of grazing system are
defined in practice. These grazing systems which are known as "set stocking", "paddock grazing" and "strip grazing".
Continuous Grazing
Set stocking, or continuous stocking is the simplest form of grazing management. It occurs when a group of
stock have access to just one area of grassland for the whole season and in a pure sense is only found in extensive
grazing systems, such as are found in the uplands. Under continuous grazing conditions some grass growth in the spring
will become mature and be wasted, however the less intense pressure from livestock reduces poaching damage over the
area as a whole.
Continuous grazing has a number of particular advantages. Fencing and water troughs can be kept to a minimum
and the continuous general nature of the grazing encourages a close dense sward that is usually rich in clover. With
continuous grazing the animals are placed in a site at the beginning of the season and remain there for the entire grazing
period of each year. The number of animals may be varied during the grazing season.
The advantages of continuous grazing include the following:
Least management input of all the grazing systems, since the animals are placed in a camp and remain
there for the growing season of the pasture.
Least cost of all the systems with one boundary fence and possibly only one watering point.
Least disturbance to animals since the animals do not need to be moved from one site to another.
Easy to keep grazing records and at light stocking rates good production per animal can be expected.
The disadvantages of continuous grazing include:
The "precise" stocking rate needs to be known, otherwise it may be necessary to add animals or
remove animals as the pasture growth rate varies over the season, or an area may have to be closed off.
Seasonal fluctuations in yield are difficult to cater for.
Herbage cannot be rationed during drought periods.
Area selection (particularly with sheep) leads to inefficient pasture growth rates and inefficient pasture
utilisation.
Application of fertiliser, particularly nitrogen, can cause distinct poisoning problems, both from the
high nitrate content in the herbage following fertilisation and from fertiliser lumps and spills during
application.
Since the animals are not moved from site to site, continuous grazing tends to lead to complacency and
the animals often are not "seen" for extended periods, with the result that sick animals or animals in poor
condition often are noticed only after the "poor" condition has become so severe that it has affected
profitability.
Supervision of licks and water points is often neglected.
Rotational Grazing.
Rotational or paddock grazing is a system of grazing management where livestock are grazed on a rotational
basis within a large number of paddocks. Typically a paddock may be utilised for just a single day before the stock are
moved on. Rotational grazing systems are sometime called paddock grazing systems. With rotational grazing there are a
number of sites for each group of animals. The group of animals is moved from one camp to another, thus allowing a
period of absence from each pasture area after it has been grazed [1].
Rotational grazing is a more intensive management systems and requires higher capital costs in fencing, water
supply infrastructure and access routes. Rotational grazing is often carried out on a 20-30 day cycle and allows the
farmer to more accurately match the nutritional demands of the livestock with the availability of forage. Rotational
grazing also ensures that stock do not regraze the same area of land on a day by day basis and this can help reduce the

100

parasitic worm burden that livestock can suffer from. Rotational grazing offers an additional advantage in the
management of the grassland on a farm in that it is possible for the farmer to allocate relatively small areas of grass for
conservation (ie silage of hay) where grass growth has exceeded livestock requirements [1].
Perceived shortcomings in earlier view that the presence of cows on pasture increases emissions of nitrous oxide
from soil N2O - a greenhouse gas, according to several scientists meniyu interpreted incorrectly. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany and his colleagues showed that in fact the cattle grazing in the
steppes leads to a decrease in the number of microbes in the soil, making conditions less favorable to it to produce N2O.
Thus, all emissions are directly related to livestock, can be compensated for this effect.
The advantages ascribed to rotational grazing include:
Uniform grassland areas (soil, slope) are fenced separately so that areas with different production
potentials can be treated separately to maximise production.
Efficient utilisation of the pasture is possible because varying periods of stay or different sized camps
can be used to attain the required degree of utilisation, or leader and follower herds can be used.
Herbage of the desired quality (age of regrowth) can be offered to animals by adjusting the number of
camps or the period of regrowth following utilisation.
During periods of drought or slow growth of the pasture, herbage can be rationed to the animals.
Excess growth can be used for hay, silage or set aside for foggage.
It is easy to control the degree of defoliation to ensure that the pastures are maintained at high growth
rates.
The adverse effects that may result from applying nitrogen can be reduced.
With irrigated pastures the adverse effects of puddling and footrot can be reduced by irrigating once
the animals are removed from a site.
There is regular "informal inspection" of animals as they are moved from one camp to another and
"unhealthy" animals can be spotted easily.
The disadvantages of rotational grazing include:
Increased fencing and watering costs and increased managerial time required.
Application of fertiliser, and establishment of the pasture could be a problem with small areas (well
designed electric fencing can help to alleviate these problems).
Access, to each site, by animals and machinery could be a problem.
Increased labour is required to move stock and lick troughs.
Compared with continuous grazing, animals are disturbed relatively frequently.
Strip grazing is regarded as a refinement of rotational grazing and is a grazing management system that involves
giving the livestock a fresh allocation of pasture each day. It is usually organised within a paddock grazing system and
the animals are controlled by the use of an electric fence. Strip grazing systems are often employed where there is a
significant excess of forage early in the season and where providing the livestock with access to a larger area would
result in waste - for example through trampling or spoiling by dung. In the studies conducted by us in Kars in the
eastern part of Turkey showed that altough it seems to be advantageous to use a system of continuous grazing according
to the current conditions,however we recommended to use a system of rotational grazing for efficient utilisation of
grasslands in the region [4].Strip grazing systems are widely used in the dairy sector and for beef and sheep where these
animals are being provided with root crops as their primary forage [2].
CHOOSING THE CORRECT SYSTEM
Besides the advantages and disadvantages of rotational and continuous grazing, there is certain pasture species
which are better suited to continuous grazing, while other species are better suited to rotational grazing. The following
are some guidelines to help the decision of which grazing system to follow [2].
At light stocking rates (high performance per animal) continuous grazing may give better animal
performance than will rotational grazing. However, with continuous grazing there is inefficient utilisation of
species like kikuyu, coast cross II, star grass, nile grass and perennial ryegrass and it is necessary to ensure that
these species are defoliated short at least once during the growing season. This short defoliation is necessary to
maintain the stand, reduce the effect of area selection and to remove ungrazed material that reduces the quality
of the pasture on offer.
With high stocking rates rotational grazing is necessary to allow for rationing of the available herbage.
Temperate or cool season pastures, such as Italian ryegrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot
and oats, are usually limited in terms of area and/or irrigation and should be grazed rotationally to achieve
optimum utilisation.
If the grasses are low quality of at the base of the plant, attempts to achieve efficient pasture utilisation
will result in poor animal performance and poor pasture persistence. If rotational grazing is used it should be at
light stocking rates. Forcing the animals to graze the pasture down to the base by using high stocking rates
results in poor animal production. Thus if the pasture is grazed at light stocking rates there is little advantage of
rotational grazing over continuous grazing. In most cases, continuous grazing at light stocking rates may prove
to be the most economical.
The use of a leader and follower system to allow for good animal performance and good pasture
utilisation requires the use of rotational grazing.
Where the soil varies over short distances rotational grazing should be used.

101

In the case of irrigated pastures, it is necessary to maximise pasture production and pasture utilisation.
This indicates rotational grazing.
Where the growth rate of the pasture varies markedly over the season it is advisable to use rotational
grazing to allow for long rests during the slow growth periods and for short rests during fast growth periods.
CONCLUSION
In practice grazing management systems tend to be dependant upon the overall intensity of the livestock system
itself. There are many arguments for and against the different grazing systems to improve performance of grazing
animals. However, there is no one system that best for all situations. Producers that utilize grazing livestock are
continually faced with the need to develop, implement, monitor and evaluate their grazing systems.
REFERENCES
1.Leidner, J. 1993. Fast Fencing. Progressive Farmer: What's New in Electric Fencing. pp.24.
2.Parker, W. 2002. Pasture and Grazing Management Published: Temmuz 29, 2002.
3.Chunyan Liu, Jirko Holst, Zhisheng Yao, Nicolas Bruggemann, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Shenghui Han,
Xingguo Han, Bart Tas, Andreas Susenbeth, Xunhua Zheng, Growing season methane budget of an Inner Mongolian
steppe, Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009) 30863095.
4. Bozkurt Y. (2009) Determination of Grassland Quality by using Remote Sensing and GIS. TUBITAK
104V124 Project Final Report.

102


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Ansamblul obiceiurilor cu caracter juridic, transmise prin tradiie, i care reglementau viaa economic, social a
comunitilor. Drept cutumiar are o origine strveche i s-a dezvoltat i n condiiile societii feudale. Nu dispunea de
texte legale scrise, nu avea un caracter sistematic i specializat.
Drept cutumiar era prezent n cazurile de hotrnicie, n drept de motenire, nstrinare, n relaiile individului cu obtea,
n sancionarea delictelor; stipula obligaiile cu caracter colectiv etc. n ara noastr, ncepnd cu secolul al XVII-lea,
mai ales datorit formulrii de pravile" de ctre Vasile Lupu, sub influen bizantin, drept ncepe s se fixeze n scris,
dar a existat o perioad destul de lung n care drept scris i cel c. aufuncionat oarecum n paralel.
Summary
Set of legal traditions transmitted by tradition to regulate economic and social life of the community. Customary law is
of ancient origin and was developed in a feudal society. At that time, not to write legislation
Customary law was present in the provisions of inheritance, alienation, crime and punishment, etc. obligations of a
collective nature. In our country, to XVII, especially because it realized the development of "codes" Vasile Lupu
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The purpose of a real message is an attempt to introduce the concept of "national idea" to the system of
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Autoreferat al tezei de doctor n tiine politice. Chiinu: CEP USM, 2005. 20 p
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2
Pogone G. Statutul juridic al minoritilor etnice n Republica Moldova. Autoreferat al tezei de doctor n drept.
Chiinu: SPA Moldpres, 2007. 26 p
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Chiinu: Gunivas, 2006. 384.
4. Morozan A. Minoritile naionale n Republica Moldova: starea i problemele de integrare (analiz politologic).
Autoreferat al tezei de doctor n tiine politice. Chiinu: CEP USM, 2005. 20 p
5. . :
. n: Minoritile naionale i relaii interetnice tradiia
european i experiena noilor democraii pentru Moldova. Vol. II. Iai: Pan Europe, 2002, p.143-157
6. Pogone G. Statutul juridic al minoritilor etnice n Republica Moldova. Autoreferat al tezei de doctor n drept.
Chiinu: SPA Moldpres, 2007. 26 p
7. .
52 (, 18-19 . 2002). , nr.
190/2002, CDL-AD (2002), 23 rev. 65 c
347.633(478)

,
.
,

Summary
Legal institution of adoption has been known for a long time, but practical and theoretical importance for us
today the bodies of adoption process play.The children without parental care are sent to the foster families by the
bodies of guardianship.The guardian departments find the children the guardians for the adoption on they are sent for
the special institutions for children with the state care and support.These departmens are the main state foundations
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A political symbol is an emotional, irrational and at the same time rational structural component of public
consciousness. Being the element of a symbolic organisation of political space, sculpture complexes include different
kinds of monuments to outstanding statesmen, as well as memorials dedicated to the most important events in the
history of a state. Architecture complexes as a constituent part of political symbolics consist of various public buildings,
squares, and residences of heads of states and governments.
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342.56(478)

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Summary
Any lawyer must know well how bodies are formed and work actively taking part in the realization of legal
instruction. These bodies represent the main link of the enforcement mechanism without which a modern state can not
exist. Justice is one of the directions of state activity realized by law enforcement agencies.
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In the modern European states the market system of soci-economic development is accompanied by the
increasing role and importance of territorial regulation. It is shown in granting of enough wide rights and possibilities of
independent development of regions, in increasing of responsibility of territories for the decision of their own problems
and questions.
The further advancement of reforms is impossible without active involving in this process of local factors and
resources, without development of territorial self-government and self-financing. The account of territorial factors of
managing is extremely important and for our country. Without the scientific well-founded account of these distinctions,
without the formation of scientifically-methodical bases of territorial self-government, without an active regional and
local socio-economic policy, essential successes in the way of promoting of reforms and creation of an effective
economic system are impossible. Therefore the creation of legal and socio-economic base of the stable functioning and
dynamic development of territories has a special value has now. For formation of an economic basis of selfmanagement and carrying out of an active local policy, it is necessary to form an effective system of planned regulation
of development of the territory which is based on municipal planning. Municipal plans define major goals, objectives
and reference points of development of territory, as well as mechanisms for their achievement and realization.

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1. 436 28.12.2006 .
Monitorul Oficial . 032 09.03.2007.
2. 435 28.12.2006 .
Monitorul Oficial . 029 02.03.2007.
3. , 15 1985 . M
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343(478)

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Summary
In the juridical spheres, the problem of enforcing of the decrees of Plenum of Supreme Court is being
constantly discussed which fill the gaps in the criminal law. Taking into account the fact that Supreme Court in its
decrees reflects not the law itself but explains what a criminal law is, it wouldnt be correct to say that the decrees of
Plenum of Supreme Court are obligatory for court instances or for the law enforcement agencies, as far as they are of
recommendation character. The only way of filling in the gaps in the field of law is issuance of a law rule or a group of
rules that are subject to life, by certain authorized body (Parliament).
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132

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Summary
The concept of "democracy" is difficult to explain and understood by different people in different ways. The
problem of democracy is one of the most pressing issues facing contemporary society in general, for Moldova in particular.
In Moldova, the problem of democracy is particularly acute because the country seems to be experiencing the
beginning of a long anddifficult period of democratic forms of government. Democracy and equitable system of
state power are not set by themselves. To create a democratic state needs the knowledge, experience and skillful
organization.
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3. Sofia Popescu. Statul de drept n dezbaterile contemporane. Bucureti: Editura Academiei Romne, 1998.
061.2(4785)

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Summary
Sociological interpretation of NGO ATO in Gagauzia, as an independent subject of social policy, is given in the
article. Essential features of NGO are allocated, including its social status, directions and kinds of activity in social
sphere. The basic problems of NGO formation in Gagauzia, as a subject of social policy in a changing Moldavian
society, are revealed on the basis of statistical data and results of empirical social research.
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Nr.153-156
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Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei ()
(3-7 )
Rezume
n articol de fa sunt descrise bazele pedagogice de proiectarea a curriculum-ului educaiei artistico-motorie
copiilor precolari (3-7 ani): definiia curriculum-ului educaiei artistico-motorie, sursele de baz la elaborarea lui,
principiile generale i specifice de proiectarea curriculum-ului educaiei artistico-motorie.
Summary
This article raises a problem of projecting curriculum artistic and motor education of children in kindergartens.
In the work the foundations of elaboration of artistic and motor education curriculum are determined pedagogical: the
definition of artistic and motor education curriculum, principles of projecting, sources of the content`s selection.

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1. Chi V. Pedagogia contemporan, pedagogia pentru competene. Cluj, 2005.


2. Gutu V.,(coord), Chicu V., Dandara O., Solovei R., Solcan A. Psihopedagogia centrat pe copil, CEP USM,
Chiinu, 2008
3. . ., . . :
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372.8:51.046.16
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.

Summary
One of the best of our system of education is the students self dependence, which they do use when they
form their individual thoughts in the process of overcoming study difficulties.
We have analyzed the notification of self - dependence, and the development of knowledge assurance of the
student, while feeing independent and dependent realizing of this.
Independence mean such human action, that he is doing without any special heap.
Independence is any of the important notifications of the human activity.
Organization of the individual work of the student in the university is the process of two generations
relationships, is the correlation between students and professors interests.
Rezumat
Unul dintre caracteisticile ale succesului n educaie, este independinta studenilor, care este necesar pentru
a asigura procesul de depaire a dificultrilor n educaie.
n acest articol tiinific amanaliyat noiunea de sine stttor anpreun cu mersul procesului de activitatea de
cunoatere a studentului; fiind Independent i indurumat n realiyarea acesteia.
Noiunea de independen arseamn aa aciune a omului indiviorului care este efectuat fr un ajutor
nemijlocit.
Independena este un factor important de activism a personei.
Organizarea creaiei individuale ale studenilor in universitate este un process de nelegere ntre generativ
diverse, este o corelare de atingere a succesului ntre studeni i profesori.
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The modern pedagogical theory, at the same time and educational system integrate the entire pedagogical
process including training, formation and education, under one term "education". Training and education have always
acted as means of formation, education of the person with the desired properties. Thus, training has been mainly
connected with the properties of the person, providing knowledge of the surrounding natural world, and education with the properties connected with the social world (communication between people).
Scientists-educators are inclined now to consider the content of education and training as a whole, as in the
educational programs and standards, in the content of school subjects (in curricula and textbooks) both basic knowledge
of sciences, and social norms, values, relations are given in unity.
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ULIM ()

Nowadays one of the most spread kinds of affects is stress. In modern life the stress plays the important role.
They influence the person,s behaviour, his capacity to work, health, relationships with the other people and in the
family. In this article the general conceptual approaches in the studying the stress are considered. It is also mentioned
the variety of notion stress the author gives the reasons of stress origin.
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Abstract:
The article reflects the correlation of higher education and global education, providing analysis of six
common hindrances on the path to reform in higher education.
Este reflectata corelarea invatamintului superior cu educatia globala. Sunt indicate ase capcane in calea
reformei invatamintului superior.
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5.
Kuhn, T.S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
6.
21- . http// pvpcenter.narod.ru/pvp_pedagogie.htm
7.
Deming, W. Edwards (1984). Statistical Adjustment of Data. Dover Publications.
8.
Deming, W. Edwards (1986). Out of the Crisis. MIT Press.
9.
Deming, W. Edwards (2000). The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education 2nd Edition. MIT
Press.
10. Deming, W. Edwards (1966). Some Theory of Sampling. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-64684-X.
11. Juran. Juran`s Quality Handbook. McGraw-Hill.2000
378.146:004
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MOODLE

Abstract. The goal of this article is to show the possibilities of organizing of students knowledge control in
the Moodle system, the advantages of this system in comparison with other program products for the realization with
testing. The author has analyzed the possibilities of the Moodle system. The use of different types of questions and
processing mechanisms of testing results were examined. The author considers that the use of Moodle system in the
educational process will help to increase objectivity of students evaluation more than any other computer testing
system.
Rezumat. n articol se relateaz despre evaluarea cunotinilor n sistemul Moodle, eficacitatea sistemului
fa de alte programe pentru realizarea testrii computerizate. Snt analizate de ctre autor posibilitile Moodle, care
ofer posibilitatea de a organiza diferite forme de evaluare n regim Online. Snt analizate probleme de utilizare a
diferitor subiecte n procesul de elaborare a testelor, astfel i mecanismele de verificare a rezultatelor testrii. n opinia
autorului utilizarea Moodle n procesul de instruire la nivel universitar d posibilitatea de a concretiza obiectivitatea.
MOODLE
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The present system of professional orientation of young people needs new and more effective work methods
because the socialization and adaptation of young people in the education and job market depends on it. New methods
of professional orientation work with school - leavers and graduates is very important in pedagogical science today.
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372.8:004.046.16
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Rezume
In the message the condition of application of the free software at university is considered . The application of the free
software is attractive by that it free-of-charge, gives the teacher freedom of a choice. Other advantage of use of the free
software is that for the student allows to be allocated in the market of work and to become more competitive. The
experience of use of the free software at economic faculty of Comrat state university on an example of office package
OpenOffice.org is resulted. A number of measures for expansion and distribution of experience of use of the free
software is offered:
o
the equipment of an educational computer class at university under management OS Linux, or similar, for
realization of employment(occupations) on application of the free software;
o
processing and coordination of the working programs of various rates readable at universities;
o
ordering of methodical materials and methodical recommendations for use of the free software;
o
organization of reading of a rate for the teachers " Use of the free software in educational process ", which can
be visited(attended) by(with) all employees of university;
o
inclusion in the programs of retraining of the teachers of schools of a rate " Use of the free software .

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The article presents the experimental data of the thesis Self-esteem among modern students. The relationship
between self-esteem levels and features of the communicative sphere of students personality is shown on the basis of
qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results.
Psychological research, conclusively, demonstrates that the self-esteem development among students is
impossible without interpersonal communication of full value with their colleagues and other people.


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Accentuarea direciei aplicate la disciplina colar de matematic poate fi realiza cu ajutorul completrii cu
exerciii practice, n baza crora se dezvoluie particularitile aplicrii matematicii pentru nsuirea realitii, se
formeaze abiliti i capaciti necesare pentru via, apropie metodele colare pentru rezolvarea cerinelor i
metodele aplicate n practic. n disciplina colar de matematic pentru rezolvarea cerinelor aplicate se recomand
metoda modelrii matematice.
Intensification of the applied direction of the school course of Mathematics can be made with the help of
satiety it with tasks of the practical character. They help to show the peculiarities of the implementation of Mathematics
to the reality study, to make the skills necessary in the life, to connect the school methods of the tasks solving with the
methods implementing at practice. In the school course of Mathematics at applied tasks solving the real stage is the
mathematics modeling in the real processes.
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The communicative direction comes instead of grammatical one in training of languages, i.e. the training of
language as a means of communication is on the first place. Communicatively-competent approach to system of
educational process in the field of a native language was a priority direction of the state educational documents of the
Republic of Moldova - modernized curriculum of Russian language for I - IV classes.
Strategy of training of native language assumes also inclusion in process of training of such components, as
integration of related disciplines, such as Russian and literary reading, perception and producing of integrating unit, for
example - the art text.
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Autorilor articolelor li se propune pentru a face cunotin cu ndrumarul metodic Sarcinile de instruire i
testare pentru reyolvarea ecuaiilor i inegalitilor cu parameter. Acest ndrumar metodic este preyentat n form de
dou caiete-suport,care include n sine un algoritm de reyolvare a problemelor, testelor summative de evaluare a
cunotinelor i de asemenea rspunsurile la ele. Materialul ndrumarului metodic este predestinat studentilor care se
confrunt cu anumite dificulti n studierea cursului soluii practice n reyolvare problemelor de matematic.
The authors of this article offer for consideration the methodological elaboration on the theme Training and
testing tasks on solving the equations and inequalities with the parameters.
This methodological elaboration is represented in the form of two notebooks which include the algorithm for
solving some tasks, tests for final control of the knowledge level. There are answers to each test.
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The development of the inclusive education has relatively short history. Nowadays it is the world process in
which all highly developed countries are involved. The inclusion is considered to be more developed, humane and
effective system of education not only for the children with the special education needs, but also for the healthy
children.
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This paper describes questions connected with the structure of the Germanys higher education system and its
reformation in the Bologna Process, in particular, with the introduction of study programs leading to the Bachelor and
Master degrees in different educational institutions and different federal lands of Germany.
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1.Glossary on the Bologna Process. English German Russian: Beitrge zur Hochschulpolitik 7/2006. Bonn,
August 2006. 196 S.
2.Mller-Solger, H. Bildung und Europa: die EU-Frdermanahmen // Hermann Mller-Solger, Armin Czysz,
Wolfgang Petzold, Ulrich Pfaff. Bonn: Economica-Verlag, 1997. 223 S.
3. .
(Fachhochschule, FH). .: (DAAD) ,
2001. 112c.
4.Statistische Daten zur Einfhrung von Bachalor- und Masterstudiengngen. Bonn: HRK
(Hochschulrektorenkonferenz), 2006. 45 S.
5.Statistische Daten zur Einfhrung von Bachalor- und Masterstudiengngen. Wintersemester 2007/2008. Statistiken
zur Hochschulpolitik 3/2007. Bonn: HRK (Hochschulrektorenkonferenz), 2007. 68 S.
37.01:004.738.5
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Rezumat.Acest articol descrie posibilitile de utilizare a resurselor Internet, interactive tehnologii Web 2.0 n
procesul educaional. A formulat principiile de baz ale Educaiei 2.0 n compararea lor cu sistemul de nvmnt
clasic. Ofer ndrumri cu privire la utilizarea noilor tehnologii n mediul educaional.
Summary.This article describes the possibilities of using Internet resources, interactive Web 2.0 technologies
in educational process. Formulated the basic principles of Education 2.0 in their comparison with the classical education
system. Provides guidance on the use of new technologies in the educational environment.

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Summary
The article describes the particularities of preschooler socialization. The stages and features of including
children in society are analyzed. The special role of playing activities is noted. The exemplas of socialization within the
framework of integrative model of education process in different groups of preschools are given.
Rezumat
Articolul este dedicat descrierii particularitilor procesului de socializare a precolarului. Sunt analizate
etapele i caracteristici includerii copilului n societate. Este remarcat rolul special al activitii de joc n procesul
de socializare. Sunt prezentate exemple de socializare n cadrul unui model integrativ de instruire i educaie n
grdinie.
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Curriculumul educaiei copiilor de vrsta timpurie i precolar (1-7 ani) n Republica Moldova. Chiinu: Cartier
educaional. 2008.
372.8:004.046.16
.. .
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C
Abstract.Test system is one of the most extended computerizing systems in organization of knowledge control
nowadays. Tests as part of the pedagogical innovations help get the objective evaluation of knowledge and skills level.
After testing of the theoretical material of the first attestation on the discipline Information technologies on the
topic Information systems for the students of economic faculty, the analysis of the computer software for MY Tester
and ADSoft Tester showed the advantages and disadvantages of the given software products.

180

Rezumat. Una dintre cele mai varioase sisteme calculatoric n organizarea controlului tiinei n acest moment
este sistem testic. Este o parte nnoutii pedagogice, teste ofer o evaluarea obiectiv a nivelului de cunotiine.
Software de analiza pentru testul MyTest i ADSoftTester a artat avantajele i dezavantajele acestor produse
software n timpul de testare a materialelor teoretice de evaluare prima disciplina "Tehnologia Informaiei", pe tema
"Sisteme informatice" pentru studenti ai facultatilor economice
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Incomplete monoparental families are the families where the single parent takes care of his/her one or more
children without the assistance of the other parent. This can happen because of many reasons: divorce, adoption, nonmarriage pregnancy, the death or abandonment of one parent. Incolpete families are associated with a great risk of
negative material, social, emotional and behavioral results for he children. The monoparental family nowadays
represents an indubitable reality, being treated as an unfavorable family that experiences an economic dependence and
has a precarious status. This status can lead to the isolation and marginalization of the members I of the family, so the
family becomes the subject of the social protection.

183

Familiile incomplete monoparentale sunt familiile n care printele celibatar este printele care are grij de
unul sau mai muli copii fr asistena altui printe. Aceasta poate avea loc din mai multe motive- divor, adopie,
sarcin extramarital, decesul sau abandonul de ctre un parinte.
Familiile incomplete sunt associate cu un risc mare de rezultate negative materiale, sociale, emoionale,
comportamentale pentru copii. Familia monoparental reprezint astzi o realitate incontestabil, fiind tratat ca
defavorizat, ce experimenteaz dependen economic, cu un statut precar i pentru c aceast stare de lucruri poate
ajunge la izolarea i marginalizarea persoanelor din cadrul ei, ea devine subiectul proteciei sociale.
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In article various approaches to definition of concept readiness reveal, conditions of formation of readiness of
students to pedagogical activity in polycultural educational space in the conditions of high school are shown. Results of
monitoring of motives of a choice of a pedagogical trade are presented.

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The convergence of ethnic groups, strengthening of their interdependence and interaction and enhancing
tendency of labors mass migration around the world are the reasons that increase the level of polyethnicity. The
Republic of Moldova and Gagauz-Yeri are examples in this case. On the one hand, about six ethnic groups live there.
On the other hand, labor migration process, which is supported by the irregularity of economic development, led to a
significant increase of variety ethnic groups representatives even in those areas of the country where the cultural-ethnic
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378.046.4:911:33
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190

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This article discusses the problems of teaching the geographical courses in universities of the Russian
Federation; justified the importance of this discipline to form the professional competency of Bachelors of various
directions of education, examines the experience of Peoples Friendship University of Russia and the University
Network of CIS.

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192

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Summary
The main theoretical approaches have been de fined in these articles which explain the motives of labor
migration.
On the basis of experimental investigations the author shows that there various factors that affect on the
formation of motives of labor migration in the face of Gagauzian youngsters: material and subjective, as well as family
and kindred persons influence.
Sumar
In articol se determin motivele teoretice de baz, care motiveaz emigraia forelor de munc. In baza
investigaiilor experimentale autorul argumenteaz c la motivaia emigraiei forelor de munc din rndul tineretului
gagauz influeneaz diferiti factori: materiali i subiectivi. nflueneaz familia si persoane cu o anumit pandere.

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5. Levis R., Rowland R. Population Rediistribition in the USSR 1897-1977. New York, 1979. P. 15-19
159.933.4
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The national problem for every person connects with the belonging to one or the other nation is the universal
characteristics of all people without any exceptions. The problem of the truthful ethnic stereotype and needs of the
ethnic belonging are considered in this article.
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CZU-37.015.3
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ASERTIVITATEA CA COMPONENT A COMPETENEI SOCIALE
Assertivity is a complex psychosocial phenomenon termed as the ability to self-promotion and asserting
capabilities, to express oneself fillings and beliefs without over anxiety, to protect oneself rights without hurting the
others.
The assertivity dialogue competence is a component of the social competence. The great value has competence
formation of assertivity dialogue in the polyethnic environment. In the article reveal prominent aspects of
communicative assertivity competence formation process.
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Realiznd o sintez a diverselor definiii date conceptului de competen, putem spune c, n plan subiectiv
psihologic competena este o rezultant a cunotinelor, aptitudinilor, deprinderilor, priceperilor, capacitilor,
abilitilor i trsturilor temperamental- caracrerologice care conduc la performan n diferite domenii.
Spre deosebire de aptitudini, competena are o sfer de cuprindere mai mare, ea presupunnd i rezultatele
activitii, pe lng capacitatea i abilitatea de a efectua un lucru bine, corect [9, p. 19].
Abilitile cere faciliteaz interaciunile de grup sunt abilitile sociale. Pornind de la abilitatea social, se
poate dezvolta competena social, ce reprezint caracteristica persoanelor capabile s produc o influen social
dezirabil asupra altor persoane [5, p.74].

197

n concepia lui Chelcea [apud, p.161] competena social presupune un tip de comportament ce conduce la
performana social.
Competena social este asigurat de ansamblul de abiliti necesare optimizrii ralaionrii interumane cum ar
fi:
capacitatea de a adopta un rol diferit;
capacitatea de a influena uor grupul (de elevi) precum i indivizi izolai;
capacitatea de a stabili uor i adecvat ralaii cu ceilali;
capacitatea de a comunica uor i eficient cu grupul i indivizii separa;
capacitatea de a utiliza adecvat puterea i autoritatea;
capacitatea de a adopta uor diferite stiluri de conducere [9, p.20].
Dezvoltarea abilitilor formeaz indivizii capabili de performan n viaa i activitatea social. Aceste
abiliti componente sunt: comunicarea, empatia, asertivitatea, gratificaia, prezentarea de sine, rezolvarea de probleme.
Dup cum menioneaz L. Iacob [8, p.181], comunicarea uman, n accepiunea sa cea mai larg, poate fi
definit ca fiind relaia bazat pe co-mprtirea unei semnificaii. Dac informaia este premisa adsolut necesar a
unui act de comunicare, ea nu este ns i suficient. Absena nelegerii acelei informaii i a cadrului relaional care
s-i ghideze i s-i fixeze semnificaia, anuleaz Stare de comunicare.
Comunicarea eficient presupune intenia de a comunica unul cu cellalt, capacitatea de a prezenta mesaje
clare pentru ca individul s se fac neles i s-l neleag pe cellalt. n cadrul procesului de comunicare, ncercnd s
convingem, s exprimm, s educm sau s ndeplinim orice alt obiectiv, urmrim ntotdeauna patru scopuri
principale:
s fim receptai (auzii sau citii)
s fim nelei
s fim acceptai
s promovm o reacie (o schimbare de de comportament sau de atitudine) [11,p.1].
Datele obinute n urma administrrii testului Metodica de studiere a capacitilor comunicative i
organizatorice cu scopul de a cerceta nivelul de dezvoltare a capacitilor comunicative ne demonstreaz c din 247 de
studeni ai anului nti i doi a Universitii din Comrat, ce i fac studiile la diverse faculti, pun n eviden faptul ca
majoritatea respondenilor, att de la anul I (50%), ct i de la anul II (44,5%) au capaciti comunicative medii, totui
mai mult de 1/3 dintre ei denot un nivel sczut de dezvoltare a capacitilor comunicative. Este similar situaia i n
cazul capacitilor organizatorice: majoritatea (53% - anul I i 61,8% anul II) manifest acest capacitate la un nivel
mediu, iar numarul celor cu capaciti organizatorice nalte este considerabil mai mic dect al celor cu capaciti
organizatorice slab dezvoltate.
Comunicarea contemporan se ncadreaz urmtorilor parametri: transfer de informaie care presupune o
deplasare a mesajului, n timp ce transferul potenial ntrunete condiiile ca informaia s fie integrat ntr-o viitoare
comunicare. Transferul realizeaz urmtoarele funcii: a) apare la nivelul comunicrii umane ca mijloc de cooperare,
admitnd valenele creative ale cooperrii, deschiderea i restriciile proprii acestui procedeu de colaborare;
b) are loc ntre dou entiti scop- orientare. Scopul introduce ideia de necesitate n comunicare, menine
relativizri, dar exclude dezordinea absolut.
Variantele transferului: situaia unul-unul; situaia unul- mai muli; situaia mai muli- unul; situaia
mai muli- mai muli; mai muli- unul- mai muli; mai muli- unul- unul- mai muli. Structura prezentat conine
niveluri de desfurare ale transferului, situaie care demonstreaz c procesul comunicrii conine faze precise de
realizare i fiecare activitate comunicaional se desfoar pe un nivel care i este adecvat. Transferul informaional
devine comunicare atunci cnd informaia din masaj este neleas i se ntreprinde o aciune corespunztoare.
nelegerea devine un mijloc pentru atutudinea activ, practic a subiectului pentru formularea unor scopuri ale aciunii
umane.
Dup Z. Bogathy [2, p.p.129-134] trei factori determin nelegerea complet a mesajului transmis: semantica
mesajului; percepia mesajului; oportunitatea pentru feed-back(confirmarea).
n esen, a comunica, scrie Stanton N. [11,p.1], nseamn a fi mpreun cu, a mprti i a te mprti, a
realiza o comuniune de gnd, simire, aciune. Pentru a ne exprima gndurile, utilizm limba,un cod care poate fi
descifrat numai dac ambele pri (emitorul i receptorul) confer aceai semnificaie simbolurilor pe care le
utilizeaz. Cuvintele sunt simboluri care reprezint lucruri i idei crora li se atribuie diferite nelesuri, mai mult sau
mai puin vagi, rezultate din modul n care fiecare interpreteaz lumea nconjurtoare.
Competen de comunicare const n nsuirea unor cunotine privind: rolul contextului n determinarea
substanei i formei mesajelor de comunicare; rolul comportamentului non-verbal; rolul tcerii n comunicare.
Comunicarea se afl n centrul performanei i al competenei sociale. Competena de comunicare se exprim n plan
psiho-social prin abilitatea persoanei de a produce, emitnd, un pertener activ n relaie.
Asertivitatea a fost uneori comperat cu competena social, reprezentnd capacitatea de a influena fr a
blama sau a trata cealalt persoan ca pe un adversar. Asertivitatea se sprijin pe dezvoltarea celorlalte dou
componente, comunicare i empatie, presupunnd alegere contient, un grad de flexibilitate i abilitate, ncredere n
procesul comunicrii. Asertivitatea necesit i un tip de comunicare nonverbal specific la nivelul vocii, feei,
atitudinii, iar nelegerea, cooperarea i atenia acordat celorlali sunt puse la dispoziia asertivului prin intermediul
empatiei.
Comportamentul asertiv este definitt ca fiind comportament ce permite unei persoane atingerea intereselor
personale, aprarea propriului punct de vedere fr anxietate exagerat, exprimarea sincer a sentimentelor, aprarea

198

propriilor drepturi fr a le nclca pe ale altora.


Asertivitatea a fost ntrodus de unii specialiti n terapia comportamental, fiind preluat apoi i utilizat n
relaiile de munc, n tehnicile comerciale, n nvmnt i n pedagogie. Unele situaii tiinifice au demonstrat marea
eficiena a exersrii asertivitii i impactul favorabil asupra persoanelor n toate domeniile vieii lor.
Astfel, aceast component a competenei sociale ar putea face parte din educaie de baz, ncepnd din
copilrie. n sprijinul acestei idei vine aprecierea lui A. Adler [1,p.76] c aspiraia de a te pune n valoare se manifest
nc din primele zile de via i se constituie ca un puternic factor psihologic ce influeneaz procesul actualizrii de
sine. Adler leag aspiraia de a te pune n valoare de manifestarea sentimentului de inferioritate i insecuritate,
consedernd-o ca principal modalitate de atingere a superioritii.
Pentru determinarea tipului de comportament al studenilor, a fost administrat Testul de asertivitate.
Persoanele la care predomin varianta A au reprezentri despre asertivitate, dar nu prea fac uz de ea n viaa cotidian.
Deseori aceste persoane sunt nemulumite de sine i de cei din jur. Din aceast categorie fac parte 23% respondeni, din
ei majoritatea sunt studeni la anul I.
Persoanele la care predomin varianta B au toate ansele s posede aceast calitate asertivitatea. Aceste
persoane deja fac ncercri de a se manifesta asertiv, dar acestea deseori pot trece n agresivitate. Aceast caracteristic
este proprie pentru aproape 1/2 dintre studenii participani la studiu.
Persoanele la care predomin varianta C au deja propria prere despre sine i comportamentul su, se
apreciaz realist, aceste caliti servind drept baz pentru asimilarea deprinderilor necesare pentru a contacta cu
oamenii. Doar 3,2% dintre studeni se manifest asertiv n raport cu cei din jur.
13,3% dintre studeni au obinut aceeai valoare i la varianta A, i la varianta B, deci aceti studeni cunosc ce
este asertivitatea, fac ncercri de a fi asertivi, dar ajung s fie agresivi. Aceti studeni nu sunt prea sinceri i au
tendina de a se supraaprecia, de a se considera mai avantjai dect cei din jurul lor. 5,2% stiu ce este asertivitatea, i
apreciaz realist propria persoan i comportament, nu le rmne dect s exerseze n a fi asertivi; 1,6% nu ntotdeauna
reuesc s utilizeze ansele pe care le ofer viaa, dar conteaz s nvee s triasc n armonie cu ei nii i s tie ce
vor s fac; alte 3,2% din studeni au aceeai valoare la toate variantele. Asta ar putea fi categoria de persoane a crei
imagine de sine variaz de la situaie la situaie, respectiv, ei ar putea fi uneori agresivi, alteori pot rata ansele, alteori
pot fi asertivi.
Asertivitatea nseamn siguran de sine, satisfacie de sine i propune a veghea att la mplinirea ikntereselor
proprii, ct i ale celorlali. nseamn ncredere crescut n forele proprii, susinerea i evaluarea propriilor preri
[4,p.7].
Aceleai idei se regsesc sub forma a apte masaje principale ce rezum asertivitatea la C. Cungi [3, p.1]:
1. Ctigarea respectului celorlali
2. Afirmarea drepturilor
3. A nu cuta ntotdeauna acceptarea din partea celorlali
4. Pstrarea unei imagini pozitive despre sine
5. Lupta contra depresiei
6. nfruntarea celorlali
7. Nu contez eecul, nportant este afirmarea.
Doar 12,5 % dintre studenii participani la studiu (ponderea o dein cei din anul II) sunt persoane timide i
insuficient de ncreztoare n forele proprii. ntmpin dificulti n a-i exprima emoiile i dorinele, din care cauz
ceilali i impun prezena, le limiteaz opiunile de a fi n ctig, le constrng n drepturi. Totdat, acestor persoane le
sunt proprii puseuri de furie i comportament agresiv n raport cu persoanele ce depind de ele.
Majoritatea studenilor (71,3%) sunt persoane cu nivel mediu al ncrederii n sine. Ele pot riposta n cazul n
care le sunt compromise interesele sau nu se respect obligaiile, dar pentru asta au nevoie de emoii intense. n caz
contrar, prefer s tolereze comportamentele celorlali, s inghit n tcere, evitnd confruntrile. Dac doresc, uor
pot nva s se comporte n conformitate cu regulile de conduit i s-i ating scopurile n comunicare cu cei din jur.
Doar 6,2% dintre studeni sunt persoane cu nalt nivel al ncrederii n sine. Le este caracteristic calmul,
stpnirea de sine n diverse situaii, abilitatea de a-i exprima emoiile i dorinele fr a ofensa persoanele din jur i
fr a le confrunta. Aceste persoane nu tolereaz nclcarea drepturilor lor, dar fac asta fr agresiune, plngeri i
implorri, dar intr-o manier destul de hotrt, corect i acceptat de societate.
Formarea i dezvoltarea abilitilor i competenelor sociale se dovedete a fi o necesitate pentru ntreaga
populaie, de gradul lor de dezvoltare deprinznd obinerea eficienei n societate i profesii care presupun contactul i
relaiile cu oamenii.
Asertivitatea ofer indivizilor posibilitatea ca viaa lor s aib o mai mare parte de influen, un mai mare
impact asupra celorlali i s-i organizeze mai bine propria via.
Referine bibliografice:
1. Adler A. Cunoaterea omului. Bucureti: tiinific, 1991.
2. Bogathy Z. Negicierea n organizaii. Timioara: Eurostampa, 1999.
3. Cungi C. Cum s ne afirmm. Iai: Polirom, 1999.
4. Fleming I. Cum s devii sigur pe tine. Bucureti: VOX SRL, 1998.
5. Chelcea S. Dicionar de psihosociologie. Bucureti: I.N.I., 1998.
6. Golu M. Dicionar de psihologie social. Bucureti: tiinific i eniclopedic, 1981.
7. Guu V., Muraru E., Dandara O. Proiectarea standardelor de formare profesional iniial n nvmntul
universitar. Ghid metodologic. Chiinau: USM, 2003.
8. Iacob L. Comunicare didactic n vol. Psihologie colar. coord. Cosmovici A., Iacob L. Iai: Polirom, 1998.

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9. Marcus S. Competena didactic. Bucureti: ALL Educaional, 1999.


10.Socoliuc N., Cojocaru V. Formarea competenelor pedagogice pentru cadrele didactice din nvmntul universitar.
Chiinu: Publishing HOUSE Cartea Moldovei, 2007.
11. Stanton N. Comunicarea. Bucureti: tiin i Texnic, 1995.
12. chiopu Ursula. Dicionar de psihologie. Bucureti: Babel, 1997.
CZU 37.015.3
Conf. univ. Dr. Liuba Botezatu
PENTRU CORECTITUDINE N CULTURA EDUCAIEI

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, , , , , ,
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.
SUMMARY
The given material contains full terminological conceptualization: the manual, the purposes, the results,
competence, standards, principles, values, continuous formation, culture of education, formation improvement - to be
resourceful in life, ability to bear with advantage the sacred calling.
Materialul n cauz conine o ampl atitudine conceptual n cheie terminologic-reprezentativ:
manual, obiective, finaliti, competen, standarde, principii, valori integratoare, formare continu ,orientare
oportun, cultur a educaiei, vizavi de imperativele nvmntului de performan - a cunoate pentru a fi
descurcre n a ti s poi s-i pori cu demnitate Mandatul divin.
Termenul manual de altfel ca i termenul management deriv din latinescul: manus (mn), mnuire,
manevrare, pilotare. De la lexemul manus s-a format n italian mannegio, n francez-manege, iar n romnmanual,manager-care disponibilizez arta de a conduce reuit ntr-o aciune n vederea atingerii unor obiective
educaionale. Noiunile n cauz, dup Emil Pun poart interpretare explicit de dimensiuni moral-axiologice,
determinate de specificul activitii pedagogice n coal, formarea elevilor n baza unui sistem de valori prefigurate ca
finaliti ale educaiei. Din aceast perspectiv considerm ca drept corect expresia manualul conine competene;
competena aferent valorii, manualul ca atare constituind un coninut integru de valori. Or, manualul, n general,ca i
produs valoric complex (semnificat i semnificant,consilier/consultant) reprezint produsul finit al valorii prestat pe
competene, pe creativitate, arta de a face/realiza bine ceva n linii mari, ca de exemplu: a lucra chiar cu manualul, a
interpreta exerciii tehnice, a mnui calculatorul, a realiza o investigaie, a lucra productiv asupra unui proiect etc.
Cartea de nvminte este manualul prim de centrare a educaiei pe cel ce nva; mijloc i scop de axare a subiectobiectului educaiei pe competene, pe racordarea continu la idealul educaional, deghizat din dorina de complinire
competitiv perpetu. Cartea, ca i instrument generator de competene, este primul manager/ghid de busolare a
individului pe fgaul cercetrii/aplicrii i regsirii sinelui complinit. n aceast vigoare, zicem noi, manualul
stipuleaz competene, n primul rnd competena/ele celui/celor ce l-a/l-au elaborat. De competenele univoce ale
autorului/lor depinde capacitatea vital/valoric a manualului n general. ntregul coninut al manualului introvers
/extravers este pretat pe competene evolutiv/evaluative de calitate, nafara crui fapt (manualul) nu se poate incifra ca
i produs creator generator.
Conform explicaiilor DEX-lui limbii romne competena desemneaz capacitatea cuiva de a se pronuna
asupra unui lucru, pe temeiul unei cunoateri adnci a problemei n discuie..., capacitatea de a intra n atribuiile cuiva
pentru a se iniia ntr-o problem. n cazul nostru manualul/autorul, autorii manualului, constituie
capacitatea/competena de a intra n atribuiile subiect/obiectului cointeresat n a se iniia n problema rezolvrii
enigmei sinelui la nivel polifuncional de cultur a educaiei: disciplinaritate / interdisciplinaritate / transdisciplinaritate.
Aceasta este motivaia prin care susinem c manualul conine/trebuie s conin competene ncepnd cu substratul su
formtiv/formator de perspectiv, n urma crui fapt - orice or urmeaz s se circumscrie ca i laborator de
creaie/procreaie a sinelui.
Este de recunoscut faptul c de cele mai multe ori ne mpotmolim n noianul semnificaiilor
termenologice(chiar i dac avem dezvoltat un oarecare sim al limbii) nu cnd suntem mai puin, ci cnd suntem mai
mult implicai n procesul cutrilor i anume la etapa de vrf al acestora. De aceea avalana de dimensiuni noionale ne
joac uneori festa. Dar, cum suntem contieni de harul strduinelor i frumoaselor realizri care ne aparin/ne pot
aparine, prindem la curaj i-o pornim dinnou pe drumul neobosit al cutrilor de adevr.
Predeterminaiile la tem vin i din acea invocare neleapt, dup Valentin Mndcanu, cuvntul potrivit la
locul potrivit. Una nelegem, cnd spunem: Manualul are competene i alta, cnd spunem: Manualul conine
competene. La prima vedere lucrurile par a fi similare. Dar la o eventual reconceptualizare principial, n primul caz
predicia: are competene se raporteaz subieciei- manualului/autorului n msura n care l-ar disponibiliza de-a gata pe
adresat ceea ce pe un veritabil psihopedagog, nscut sub zodie paidic, desigur, nu poate dect s-l suscite lucrurile
reclamante, fiind destul de contient c cele mai preioase adevruri, fr exclusivitate idealul incorporrilor de sine, se
atinge/realizeaz continuu printr-un enorm efort atitudinal. Varianta a doua: Manualul conine competene,dup cum
am mai menionat ni se pare destul de reuit din punct de vedere att logico-semantic ct i funcional. Enunul vizat n

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aceast ipostaz nu-i defileaz ,,declin competena(vezi DEXLR,p.203), ci, o acoper, acoper o valoare; incit spre
revalorificare, provocndu-i disponibilii la receptare, la cercetare, la aplicare, la elegan n gndire - n luri de
atitudini, la soluionri variate de probleme, la competitivitate; adic la formare de competene. i aceasta e acel Ceva
pe care l cutm n fiece manual, regsindu-l pn la urm n noi nine, pentru a afirma cu certitudine: da, acest
manual conine competene..., cutai-le i bucurai-v de ceea ce suntei capabili s gsii.
Valoare-nsuirea unor lucruri, fapte, idei, fenomene de a corespunde necesitilor sociale i idealurilor
generate de acestea, Suma calitilor care dau pre unui obiect, unei fiine, unui fenomen etc...; nsemntate, pre, merit;
Efect obinut n pictur prin alturarea a dou nuane diferite ale unui ton.
Credem c, n opera de personalizare noiunea competen este similar noiunii valoare n msura n care
variatele cunotine vin s complineasc un tot valoric cuantizat - individualitate .
Obiectiv/e ceea ce se ncadreaz n vizorul optic al realizrilor unui individ, int,scop binedefinit; ceea ce
urmeaz s fie realizat.
Finalitate - tendin sau orientare a cuiva, sau a ceva spre un anumit rezultat preconizat de obiectivul
urmrit/trasat.
Finalitatea nvmntului de toate gradele, azi mai mult ca alt dat, este orientat spre formare de competene.
Redundana valoric: obiective-finaliti la nivel de interdisciplinaritate / transdiciplinaritate n cadrul cursului
disciplinar preconizat exceleaz fenomenului competitivitii cmpetenelor n sfera angajrilor sociale.
Spre deosebire de celelalte vieuitoare, Atotcreatorul ne-a proclamat ca fiine deosebite, oferindu-ne cel mai de
seam mandat al vieii - Mandatul de Om, deghizat n competena voit: a ti s fim oameni, a ti pe tot parcursul vieii
s ne afirmm ca i coninut al marelui Su har.
Competena de a fi descurcre, de a ti oricnd s i poi proclama mandatul realizrilor/angajrilor de sine
ca i individualitate, ca i persoan activ n viaa social, cere azi mai mult ca oricnd responsabilitate deosebit,
respectarea unor obligaii de ordin principial ntreprinztor: exersarea/stipularea deprinderii de orientare rapid n
arsenalul bogat al cunotinelor acumulate i priceperea de selectare i operaionare original a lor la momentul
oportun vizavi de o anumit secven spaial/temporal a angajarilor intelectuale.
Biblia ncuviineaz c unul din cele mai grele pcate pmnteti alturi de omor este lenea, sau n contextul
vieii suntem dispui a nelege c noiunile n cauz sunt ntr-un fel similare.
Dac fiecrui individ al societii i revine n parte sarcina revendicrii pe parcurs a mandatului cretin (s fim
ateni! rdcina lexemului n cauz circumscrie aciunea de a crete, a evolua), de conlucrare asidu asupra propriei
deveniri; s-i descopere pe parcursul ntregii viei lumea misterului din care vine-aciune mai mult sau mai puin
stihiinic; apoi sarcina de baz a colectivitii n care se ncadreaz individul, toate etapele de instituionalizare a
nvmntului sub egida psihopedagogului, e s contientizeze aceste aciuni prin a pune pigment orientativ pe
crearea condiiilor optime de performan (implementarea unor tehnolohii educaionale n baz de proces reglator: ax
epistemic, obiective-finaliti, particulariti de vrst-coninuturi) ntr-un sistem curricular - modern de deprindere
etapizat a subiect/obiectul educaiei n cum s-i startizeze/eficientizeze continuu voina/fora vital a afirmrilor de
sine la nivel valoric tridimensional: loc/spaiu, timp, mod. Or, numai dup modul de individualizare a indentitii A ti s poi s-i pori cu demnitate Mandatul divin- putem judeca spaiul i timpul ( ca i cultur a
spiritualitii) care l-a produs ca i competen univoc premergtoare peste ani.
Prin urmare anume procesul de instituionalizare voit curricular ntr-un sistem formativ: interrelaia
manager/manager: educator-educat i viceversa servete drept principal motiv de formare a convingerilor binevenite i
anume faptul c, drept stimulent principal al acestei operaii poate servi exerciiul deliberat de convertire continu a
diverselor cunotine n competene prin mnuirea cu pricepe a diverselor tehnici de munc. Aceast funcionalitate,
pe viu, a motivaiei,intenioneaz s circumscrie ca i drept finalitate valoric - existena unui stat puternic civilizat, cu
perspective de viitor - principiu general de sensibilizare uman, ideal educaional de via, familii sntoase, copii istei
n cei apte ani de-acas.
Or, obiectivul int al didacticii contemporane, axat pe cmpetene, trebuie
s fie
descoperirea/revalorificarea omului ca i valoare integr, ca i ,,Orizont al misterelor/ al marilor minuni, prin
revenirea continu la esen, la unitatea spiritualitii sale care l-a nlat/l nal spre universalitate.
n terminologia didacticii moderne romne alturi de competen/e se nghesuie tot mai mult i alt noiune:
subcompeten/e n sens de subordontoare competenelor de baz edificatoare rezolvrii enigmei Om.
n cele ce urmeaz vom insista asupra corelaiei /incorelaiei logico-semantice i funcionale competen/
subcompeten.
Cu aceast ocazie inem s atenionm faptul c nu ntotdeauna prefixul, alteori morfemul sub posed anumite
disponibiliti de subordonare docil a anumitelor situaii verbale, mai ales atunci, cnd e vorba de acoperirea /
depozitarea unui arsenal mai bogat sau mai puin bogat de cunotine i convertirea lor n competene, iar nu i n
subcompetene.
Suntem decii a observa c subcompetena, din punct de vedere numai logic, nu i semantic se subordoneaz
competenei, dar subordoneaz nu ca i competen subordonat altei competene mai mult sau mai puin superioar, ci,
ca i subcompeten n tot sensul adevrat al cuvntului. Dac competena desemneaz nivelul/norma, standardul de
acumulare a cunotinelor la limita convertirii lor n produse/forme diverse de eviden creativ, apoi subcompetena
reprezint ceea ce e mai jos de norma complinirii. Subcompetena n toate cazurile echivaleaz nu ca i succesoare a
competenei; ci, din pcate, cu incompetena subnivelul, sublimita cunoaterii suficiente. Or, pe cnd competena
reprezint finalitatea msurabil a profunzimii cunoaterii ajuns la linia de transcendere n produs creator/n
valoare
productoare
de
noi
valori,
subcompetena/incompetenadesemneaz
nonvaloarea,
incapacitatea/insuficiena de orientare/ integrare n viaa social. i, logica semantizrii/disemantizrii, ne vei

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spune, e cunoscut mai mult sau mai puin, dar ce facem cu rolul funcional-vital al acestui termen? Totui termenul
corect/incorect funcioneaz; ca i specialiti/profesioniti simim necesitatea s dm dreptul la via unui semem care
s caracterizeze corect aceast subordonare/complinitoare de sens. Care este acest termen n stare s exprime
introvers/extravers adevrul funcional-vital? Firete, tocmai adevrul ne spune c nu ntotdeauna ce este funcional (
impus s funcioneze) e i valoric-vital. Or, mai corect e s contientizm c ceea ce este vital-necesar trebuie s fie
n fond i valoric- funcional. Anume condiiile unui atare echilibru de anvergur factologic performatoare solicit
elocvent respectarea coraportului logic: obiective-finaliti, unicul n stare s aduc lumin n acest fga al cunoaterii
fr a scoate/transforma/hcui pivotul firesc al matricei didactice ncetenite deja. Dac finalitile sunt competene,
iar competenele sunt valori, atunci de ce iniierea/startizarea pailor de complinire a lor nu le-am lsa s-i poarte
numele pe care l au i-l merit (experiena a reuit s contesteze deja acest fapt) ntr-o proiectare/strategie didactic
obiective - obiective generale, de referin, operaionale?
La capitolul prioriti i necesiti venim cu certitudinea c n nvmnt, n vederea satesfacerii necesitilor
sociale, s-a pledat dintotdeauna pe formare de competene poate nu fiecruia de fiecare dat a reuit... Dintotdeauna
prioritate s-a dat pregtirii tnrului pentru via. S-au schimbat mereu formele, s-au schimbat coninuturile, n msura
cuvenit ne integrm, rspundem la apel, m rog, viaa merge nainte, salutm tot ce e nou n limita utilului, frumosului,
adevrului. Numai c n ultimul timp (recent) punem accentul voit exagerat pe schimbare...Erou al zilei (doar al zilei)
este acel care schimb ceva (indiferent dac are rost). i, n fond, totui nu suntem satesfcui, de ce!? Pentru c,
probabil, se face o goan de exces; nu reuim s ncetenim ceva, c iari schimbm, schimbm totul, din rdcini,
pn se ajunge la profanare.
i, continuitatea, valorile perene, marea noastr spiritualitate, tradiiile de totdeauna ale nvmntului
romnesc...? Cum rmne cu Mecanismul gndirii pozitive a lui Onisifor Ghibu, cu coala gndirii lui Boris Dnga de la
noi, deasemenea a Viorici Aram, a lui Ion Iachim ca i nvtor Emerit al Poporului, a attor Profesori ai Anului,
crescui/oblduii la vatra Miestriei pedagogice a d- lui profesor Virgil Mndcanu, a tiinei psihopedagogice mereu
n curs de promovare a d-lui profesor Vl. Guu, a Artei comunicrii D-nei profesor T. Callo, a tiinei valorilor d-lui
profesor N. Silistraru, a leagnului tiinelor Educaiei ...mcar i acele realizri pozitive ntr-un sistem axate cu atta
zel pe personalitate, pe liberul arbitru/pe idealul educaional nc acum 18-20 ani ca i finalitate a unei ntregi
activiti/continuiti paideice: Retroaciunea n educaia lingvistic i literar-artistic a elevilor, sau Retroaciunea i
Graierea la etapa de parteneriat ale subsemnatei?!

CZU 372.8:004
Camerzan Inga dr., conf.univ,
Universitatea de Stat din Tiraspol
caminga2002@yahoo.com
PRINCIPIILE NVRII EFICIENTE LA INFORMATIC
Principiile didactice sunt sisteme de norme cu caracter general, care pot fi aplicate la orice tip de activitate
instructiv educativ, aplicarea lor n diverse situaii de nvare putnd conduce la multiplicarea sau la integrarea lor n
principii cu o sfer de cuprindere mai mare. Curriculumul modernizat la informatic propune un model de studiu
integrat al acestei discipline, model care contribuie la formarea la elevi a unei concepii unitare asupra informaticii ca
tiin i asupra metodelor de implementare a conceptelor informatice pentru dezvoltarea perpetu a societii
contemporane. Procesul general de predare-nvare a disciplinei informatica este elaborat n contextul sistemului de
competene, competenele fiind definite ca un ansamblu/sistem integrat de cunotine, capaciti, deprinderi i
atitudini dobndite de elevi prin nvare i mobilizate n contexte specifice de realizare, adaptate vrstei elevului i
nivelului cognitiv al acestuia, n vederea rezolvrii unor probleme cu care acesta se poate confrunta n viaa real.
Pentru o bun organizare i desfurare a procesului de nvmnt, precum i pentru o nvare eficient a
informaticii, deci i de calitate trebuie satisfcute cerinele educative ale individului, iar profesorul trebuie s respecte i
s aplice n afar de principiile specifice disciplinei, corect i urmtoarele principii ale nvrii eficiente la informatic:
1. Implicarea activ este principiul care fiind respectat impune acionarea ntr-un mod activ i unic a studentului
manifestnd un comportament care denot participarea activ. Studentul gndete creativ oferind propriile
soluii/sugestii, propunnd interpretri noi ale subiectului i poate aplica cunotinele anterior acumulate n
contexte noi. El este capabil s aplice o strategie de nvare ntr-o anumit instan de nvare, totodat
informaia nu este primit pasiv, se ndeplinesc anumite sarcini care conduc la nelegere i nvare.
2. Modele i conexiuni implic realizarea unor reele ntre concepte, elemente ale deprinderilor, oameni i
experiene. Studentul este capabil s se adapteze la noi contexte i sarcini educaionale prin stabilirea legturii
ntre deprinderile i cunotinele anterioare, prin organizarea i modelarea acestora sub forma unor noi structuri
oferindui o gndire flexibil. Prin folosirea unor cunotine anterioare a comparaiei, analizei i seleciei se pot
gsi cele mai bune soluii ale problemei. ntr-un context educaional specific, studentul este capabil s utilizeze
tipare care i sunt familiare i pe care le reorganizeaz cptnd sens ntr-o nou situaie.
3. nvarea informal reprezint nvarea implicit, care de cele mai multe ori, ocaziile de a nva pot aprea n
afara colii, producndu-se n orice situaie din viaa real. Studentul are posibilitatea de a recunoate i de a
nelege o situaie educaional nou, interacionnd cu mediul real n scopul explorrii i al nvrii. n
centrele de pregtire create n snul comunitii, studenii i pot pune n practic cunotinele teoretice. Acest

202

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

principiu este respectat n special cnd studentul nva sub supravegherea i ndrumarea unui instructor
(metodist), cum este n cadrul practicii pedagogice.
Experiena direct se refer la ocaziile inerente de implicare activ ntr-un mediu educaional care modeleaz
nelegerea fiecruia. Studentul intr n contact cu un mediu care i ofer ocazia s dobndeasc cunotine i
deprinderi n urma observrii directe a obiectului sau a fenomenului care urmeaz a fi studiat, fcnd asocieri
ntre cauze i efecte, asocieri care l ajut pe individ s neleag situaiile noi. El folosete aceleai conexiuni
mentale n scopuri noi, construind noi asocieri bazate pe tipare anterioare ale nivelului de ateptare.
Refleciile personale l stimuleaz pe student s foloseasc gndirea crititc n examinarea informaiei care i se
prezint, s i pun la ndoial validitatea i s trag concluzii bazate pe ideile rezultante, permindu-le s
restrng aria soluiilor posibile i, n cele din urm, s trag o concluzie. Situaiile n care se produce nvarea
eficient cer timp de gndire, studenii se gndesc la ei nii ca indivizi care nva, n timp ce i evalueaz
propriile procese de gndire folosite pentru a decide care sunt cele mai bune strategii. Dialogul interior
(metacogniia) i ajut s-i construiasc deprinderi care le vor permite s anticipeze rezultatele nvrii i s
i controleze nelegerea. Studenii compar identificnd diferenele dintre cunotinele familiare, cu cele noi,
cu scopul de a gsi soluii aplicabile acelui context specific.
Situaii stimulative combin elemente ale experienei directe i ale disponibilitii motivaionale. Studentul este
motivat i nva cel mai bine n contexul unei probleme complexe i stimulante care l intereseaz, soluiile ei
fiind percepute ca avnd consecine reale. Situaia stimulativ este complex i motivant, dnd natere
implicrii emoionale, ateniei i efortul de gsi o soluie. Situaiile stimulative cel mai bine este s fie legate
de lumea real, deoarece rezultatele unei probleme reale au aplicabilitate practic n viaa de zi cu zi.
Feedback-ul frecvent ofer studenilor posibilitatea de a exersa ceea ce au nvat. Deoarece psihicul tinde s
rezolve problemele cele mai presante, este necesar s exersm acele lucruri pe care dorim s le reinem i s
primim un feedback care s includ sugestii explicite care vor conduce la mbuntiri, cum ar fi cele oferite n
mod deliberat de profesori sau de colegi. Calitatea feedback-ului dezvluie greeli sau discrepane uor de
corectat i care in de practicile curente sau de modelele mentale care stau la baza lor. Fr un feedback
frecvent i fr exersare, mai ales n domenii cum ar fi matematica, informatica, pn i deprinderile cele mai
bine fixate dispar.
Cadru agreabil reprezint un context care d natere unor interaciuni, unor nivele considerabile de sprijin
personal i care creeaz oportuniti de nvare. Interaciunea personal favorizeaz comunicarea amical ntre
indivizi. ncurajarea i sprijinul demonstrat prin diferite interaciuni cu un mediu educaional agreabil
acioneaz ca un stimulent pentru studeni, n special pentru cei care sunt dezavantajai, s i asume riscuri i
s le depeasc, ofer experiene pozitive pentru toi indivizii i promoveaz starea lor psihosocial bun,
respectul de sine i ncrederea n sine. Totodat nvarea care se produce prin anumite activiti, n coala
prietenoas, implic o interacionare armonioas i ncredere, cum ar fi, de exemplu, prin jocuri, oferind
educaie n baza realitii vieii indivizilor, ajut copiii, prinii i profesorii s stabileasc parteneriate
armonioase n spiritul colaborrii. Pe lng crearea unui cadru agreabil este necesar i prezena unor profesori
competeni, adic care lucreaz n echip cu colegii; i asum roluri noi n educaia studenilor; posed o
inteligen emoional ridicat, care l ajut s se autocunoasc, s fie eficient, s se concentreze asupra muncii,
s coopereze i s gestioneze situaiile conflictuale cu elevii, colegii sau prinii; i exercit autoritatea
constructiv, prin crearea unui mediu favorabil nvrii, n care exist reguli clare, ateptri reciproce, o foarte
bun comunicare, un sistem de recompense i sanciuni care funcioneaz eficient; are un stil didactic
democratic: studenii sunt consultai n legtur cu coninuturile, se accept opinii i se adreseaz ntrebri la
care exist rspunsuri i soluii alternative, se folosesc strategii didactice inovative prin care se urmrete
formarea la elevi a competenelor necesare funcionrii cu succes ntr-o lume n schimbare, gndire critic,
rezolvare de probleme, comunicare, spirit de echip.

n contextul sistemului bazat pe competene nvarea care l situiaz pe individ n rol central reprezint o
abordare care asociaz accentul pus pe particularitile fiecruia (ereditate, experiene, perspective, pregtire, aptitudini,
nevoi). Astfel sunt impuse respectarea urmtoarelor principii i norme de elaborare a proiectelor constructiviste:
Respectarea, adaptarea sarcinilor la stilul propriu de construire, de autonomie, n nvare a individului.
Acceptarea sprijinirii nelegerii proprii, prin flexibilitate cognitiv i individual.
Organizarea unui context care s ofere oportuniti pentru reflecie, rezolvare.
Apelul la situaii reale, experiene directe, studii de caz, reflecie, prelucrare, interpretare.
Tratarea informaiilor n mod problematizat, critic, situaional, creativ.
Proiectarea n variante strategice i acionale, potrivit nivelului i ateptrilor cognitive ale studenilor.
Diversificarea instrumentelor metodologice.
Prevederea de situaii de valorificare a experienei anterioare.
Conturarea momentelor de evaluare calitativ, de progres.
Afirmarea metacogniiei, a instrumentelor de autocontrol, autoevaluare, autoreglare.
Evidenierea stilului propriu de concepere i realizare a proiectrii de ctre studentul viitor profesor.
Promovarea alternativelor argumentate, nlturarea reetelor, a rigiditii n construcie, pentru a se
nltura rutina n favoarea flexibilitii proiective.
Bibliografie

203

1.
2.
3.
4.

Albulescu I., Pragmatica predrii. Activitatea profesorului ntre rutin i creativitate, Editura Presa
Universitar Clujean, Cluj-Napoca, 2004.
Camerzan I., Vascan T., Didactica informaticii, suport metodic, Editura Elena V.I., Chiinu, 2010, 200 p.
Masalagiu C., Asiminoaei I., Didactica predrii informaticii, Polirom, Iai, 2004.
Joia E., A deveni profesor constructivist, Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic, R.A., Bucureti, 2008.

372.8:51
Hariton A., profesor universitar,
UST, Chiinu
MAI MULTE METODE DE REZOLVARE A ECUAIEI

x 2 1 2 2

Ecuaiile, inecuaiile i sistemele acestora ce conin modulul unui numr real reprezint o surs preioas n
procesul dezvoltrii logice a elevilor la orele de matematic. Dar, spre regret, n ultimii ani de studiu n gimnaziu i
liceu, spre deosebire de anii 60-70 ai secolului XX, rezolvrii ecuaiilor, inecuaiilor i sistemelor lor ce conin modul se
acord o atenie insuficient. Despre acest situaie ne demonstreaz i faptul c mai muli profesori de matematic
sosii la cursurile de perfecionare din cadrul UST n ultimii trei ani de studii, studenii i masteranzii Facultii FMTI,
ntmpin greuti n procesul de utilizare corect a noiunii modulul unui numr real.
Cele observate se refer n mod deosebit atunci cnd numrul real se afl sub aciunea dubl, tripl etc a
modulului. Spre regret, unii dintre profesori de matematic au dat uitrii minunata carte editat n Moldova [1].
Printre exerciiile propuse profesorilor de matematic din gimnaziu i liceu, masteranzilor n anul de studii
2009-2010 a fost ecuaia:

x 2 1 2 2 [1, pag.66]. n aceast publicaie, vom spune c e binevenit a enuna

cteva ci de rezolvare a acestui exemplu. Metodele propuse n acest articol pot fi de folos n procesul de rezolvare i
altor ecuaii, inecuaii i sisteme de ecuaii de conin modulul unui numr real.
I.Metod:

x 2 1 2

x 2 1 2 0

x 2 1 2 2

x 2 1 2 0

x 2 1 2 2

204

x 2 1 0
x 2 1 4
x 2 1 2
x 2 1 0

x 2 1

x 2 1 0
x 2 3
x 2 3

x 2 1 2
x 2 1

x 2 1 0
x 2 1
x 2 3

x 2 1 2

x 2 1

x 2 1 0
x 2 1
x 2 5

x 2 5

x 2 1 4

x 2 3 x 2 1

x 2 1

x 2 1 0
x 2 1

x 2 3
x 2 1 4
x 2 1

x 2 1
x 2 1 0

x 2 1

x 2 3
x 2 1 2

x 2 1

x 2 1 0
x 2 1

x 2 1
x 2 1 2

x 2 1
x 2 1 0

x 2 0
x


x 2 5
x

x 2 5
x

x 2 0
x
x 2 1
x


x 2 0
x


x 2 1
x
R : x 7; 3; 1; 1; 3; 7.

2
7

x 7
x 7
2
x 7

3
x 3

x 3
.
x

3
x

x 1

x 1
x 1
3

x 1
2
1

II. Metod:
n componena membrului stng avem modulele:

x ; x 2 ; x 2 1;

x 2 1 2.

Vom examina toate cazurile popsibile a eliberrii de simbolul modulului:

x 0x 2 0 x 2 1 0
x 2 1 2 2 x 0x 2x 3 x 5 2
x 3; 7.

x 3x 7 x 3

x 0x 2 0 x 2 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 31 x 2 x 2x 3x 1 x 3 x .

x 0x 21 x 0 1 x 2 x 0x 2x 1x 1 x 3
205

x 0x 2 02 x 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 1 x 1 2 x 0x 2x 1x 1 x 3 x .

x 0 x 2 0 x 2 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 3 x 5 2 x 3x 7 x 3 x 7; 3.
x 0 x 2 0 x 2 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 3 x 1 2 x 2x 3x 1 x 3 x .
x 0 x 2 0x 2 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 1 x 1 2 x 0x 1x 1 x 3 x 1.
x 0 x 2 0x 2 1 0 x 2 1 2 2
x 0x 2x 1 x 3 2 x 1x 2( x 1 x 5) x .
R:

x 7; 3; 1; 1; 3; 7.

III.Metod:
E uor de observat c:

x 2 1 0 4.

Examinm fiecare caz:

x 2 1 0 x 2 1 x 2 1 1 x 3 x 1
x 3 x 3 x 1 x 1 .
2) x 2 1 4 x 2 5 x 2 5 5 x 7 x 7 x 7.
1)

R:

x 7; 3; 1; 1; 3; 7.

IV.Metod:
Vom construi graficul funciei
1) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 1 2.
y x

(fig.1)

Fig.1
2) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 (fig.2)

206

Fig.2
3) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 (fig.3)

(Fig.3)
4) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 1 (fig.4)

(Fig.4)
5) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 1 (fig.5)

(Fig.5)

207

6) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 1 2

(fig.6)

(Fig.6)
7) Construim graficul funciei

y x 2 1 2 (fig.7)

(Fig.7)
8) Construim n acelai plan de coordonate graficele funciilor
intersecie ale acestor grafice sunt rdcinile ecuaiei

y x 2 1 2

y 2 (fig.8).Punctele de

x 2 1 2 2

(Fig.8)

R:

1.
2.
3.

x 7; 3; 1;1; 3; 7 .
Bibliografie
, . , , , 1966.
Grati, I., Suceveanu, V. Metodica rezolvrii ecuailor i inecuaiilor, Lumina, Chiinu, 1991.
Hariton, A. Teorem, condiie necesar i suficient, UST, Chiinu, 2007.

CZU 364.443-053.2
Lapoina Emilia, dr., conf.
K . .
RELATRI CU PRIVIRE LA CONSILIEREA PRINILOR COPIILOR CU DISABILITI
Family problems which educates children with disabilities in most cases are studied only in terms of problems
of children, is limited to advice given to parents to child education. But as practice shows such cooperation proves to be

208

insuficient, because they overlook the wide range and depth of the problems parents of children with disabilities. An
intervention assistants placed in the center of family, marital couple is essential in balancing the dual position of the
parents' reaction is to reject controversial - protection of the child to solve their own problems and social adjustment.
,
, .

.
Problemele familiei care educ un copil cu disabiliti se studiaz n majoritatea cazurilor doar prin prisma
problemelor copilului, se limiteaz la recomandrile date prinilor pentru educaia copilului. ns dup cum
demonstreaz practica asemenea colaborare se dovedete a fi insuficient, pentru c se scap din vedere spectru larg i
profunzimea problemelor prinilor copilului cu disabiliti. O intervenie asistenial care plaseaz n centru familia,
cuplu marital, este esenial n echilibrarea poziiei prinilor de la reacie dubl controvers de respingere protecie a
copilului spre rezolvarea propriilor probleme i adaptarea social.
nceputul studierii caracteristicilor emoionale ale prinilor copiilor cu disabiliti a fost pus peste hotare.
Printre problemele analizate se descriu diapazonul larg al dereglrilor neurotice, nivelul manifestrii i durata stresului
emoional, tendina spre izolare social i nstrinarea acestor familii, problema stabilitii familiei i schimbarea
statului social al prinilor [Deschamps i al., 1981, Ringel, 1987, Tcaceova V. V., 1998 etc.].
n familiile cu copii cu disabiliti trebuie s se in cont simultan de dou drepturi: dreptul copilului de a tri
aproape de familia sa i dreptul celorlali membri ai familiei de a se bucura de aceleai avantaje ca i ali ceteni
(meserie, studii, ngrijiri, relaxare). Pornind de la aceste aspecte, n cadrul consilierii individuale se va aborda varietatea i
diferena de ropuri a prinilor i impactul realizrii acestora pentru ntreaga familie.
Psihiatrul american Elisabeth Kubler-Ross a descris reaciile unei persoane n faa unui prognostic grav. Aceste
reacii sunt cunoscute sub numele de cele 5 stadii ale agoniei. Mettey a studiat aceste 5 stadii i a ajuns la concluzia c
reaciile prinilor la anunul deficienei copilului corespund acestor stadii. El propune nglobarea tuturor acestor reacii
sub numele de reacii fa de anunul inevitabil. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross a fost de acord cu extinderea acestui model i
asupra situaiilor de doliu, accidentelor, pierderii averii. Ea a denumit aceste reacii reacii n faa unei nenorociri
[Mettey i Serville, 1996].
Cele 5 reacii descrise sunt:
La vestea deficienei genetice sau malformaiei congenitale a copilului, prinii reacioneaz iniial printr-o
stare de oc, nencredere i uneori chiar negare. Ei nu vor s aud ceea ce li se spune, sunt ocai, disperai i se
ntreab de ce tocmai copilul meu?. Refuzul deficienei este o etap natural a dramei trite de prini.
Urmeaz faza a doua, de furie, manifestat prin dorina obinerii unei alte preri (apelarea la un alt
medic). n urma unei serii de consultaii cu diferii specialiti i confirmrii diagnozei, prinii reacioneaz prin
sentimentul de vin i autoacuzare. Vina apare din necesitatea de a nelege cauzele acestei situaii (frecvent mama se
consider vinovat a consumat buturi alcoolice, a fumat, nu s-a alimentat corespunztor etc.) Capacitatea de a-i
controla resentimentele i autoacuzrile reprezint un factor esenial n determinarea acceptrii de ctre prini, a
copilului cu deficiene [Whaley i Wong, 1987].
A treia faz de evoluie este stadiul de tranzacie, n care printele accept diagnosticul, dar continu din
ce n ce mai puin s atepte minuni c copilul va fi ca toi. Dup unii autori, aceast negociere reprezint tot un
refuz al deficienei. Prinii negociaz cu specialistul, refuz s cread rezultatele testelor, atribuie simptomele bolii
unor probleme minore, amn tratamentele, refuz s vorbeasc despre situaia copilului etc.
In faza a patra, resemnarea i depresia apar ncetul cu ncetul. Prinii sunt incapabili s fac fa
situaiei copilului, astfel c ei se retrag fie fizic, fie emoional. Frecvent, devin incapabili de a mai reaciona n modul
lor obinuit, astfel c ncep s evite contactele interpersonale. Cercul familial se restrnge prin respingerea bunicilor,
mai ales atunci cnd n stadiul de furie au aprut reprouri. Reacia de izolare individual, familial i social este foarte
rspndit, deoarece este legat de sentimentul de vin al prinilor i datorit dorinei de protejare a copilului de
agresiunile masive, dar tcute pe care le triesc. Izolarea apare la toate nivelurile: soul fa de soie, n cadrul grupului,
a prinilor fa de copiii sntoi, a familiei fa de comunitate [Deschamps i al., 1981].
Pentru multe familii ultimul stadiu este caracterizat prin acceptare i reintegrare n viaa de familie. Unele
familii sufer adevrate transformri cu ocazia acestei acceptri. Cuplul se cimenteaz dnd natere unui alt copil sau
apare o orientare ctre aciuni umanitare n cadrul unei asociaii sau o reorientare ctre religie.
Felul n care prinii se vor adapta la aceast situaie extrem de dificil este un moment important nu doar
pentru viitorul acestui copil cu nevoi speciale, ci i pentru ntreaga familie. Etapa de acceptare nseamn de asemenea
reinseria social a familiei n activiti ce implic relaii n afara familiei, relaie n care copilul cu deficien va fi
acceptat ca un membru al grupului [Whaley i Wong, 1987]. Specialitii consider c vestea naterii unui copil cu probleme de
dezvoltare trebuie comunicat prinilor ct mai repede, dac este posibil pentru a urgenta depirea strii de criz. Prinii vor
avea o reacie dubl, de respingere-protecie. Reacia de respingere apare deoarece acest copil nu este aa cum a fost visat i se
manifest prin refuzul de a vedea copilul, printr-o dorin precoce sau tardiv de a-1 abandona. Din fericire, pe msura trecerii
timpului, intervine necesitatea de protecie a acestui copil.
Ataarea emoional timpurie i schimbul de emoii i impresii ntre prini i copii sunt baza unei dezvoltri
mentale i sociale normale a copiilor i prezint dou pri strns legate ntre ele n comunicarea dintre prini i copii.
Pentru ca relaiile reciproce s apar i s fie percepute ca pozitive i importante, att prinii ct i copiii trebuie s fie
nu numai cointeresai dar i capabili s-i aduc aportul de impresii, simuri, nevoi i interese att n relaia dintre ei ct
i cu lumea nconjurtoare. Aceasta nseamn c este important nu numai felul n care prinii i exprim dragostea,

209

emoiile i grija, dar i faptul c micuii s-i poat exterioriza emoiile ntr-un fel care ar demonstra prinilor c
aciunile lor au fost percepute de copil i c ele i plac. Respectiv aceste semnale, care vin din partea copilului sunt
percepute de prini; acetia le atribuie sens i astfel se stabilete baza dialogului.
Copilul are nevoie de mult grij i dragoste de la cei apropiai, are nevoie s fie acceptat aa cum este,
necondiionat, indiferent de problemele pe care le are. Aceasta i permite copilului s se dezvolte ntr-un mediul
favorabil. De obicei, atunci cnd se vorbete despre dezvoltarea copilului cu disabiliti, se evideniaz doar importana
acesteia i doar foarte puini neleg ct de important este i dezvoltarea prinilor.
Cel mai frecvent, prinii reacioneaz printr-o poziia de reparare, deoarece nu este posibil o reparare
efectiv (dispariia deficienei). Prinii ngrijesc copilul, nu doar pentru c se simt vinovai, ci pentru c simt nevoia si ofere ngrijire, protecie i ajutor. n relaia cu acest copil, ei dau dovad de o profund generozitate, inteligen i
rbdare [Ringler, 1998, Whaley i Wong, 1987].
O alt reacie frecvent ntlnit printre prini este cea de supraprotecie. Prinii sunt speriai n faa
dificultilor cu care se confrunt copilul, astfel c se simt obligai s preia controlul total al existenei copilului lor. n
acest context, copilul i pierde spaiul de libertate indispensabil dezvoltrii autonomiei [Ringler, 1998].
O alt metod de aprare fa de sentimentul de vinovie const n a da vina pe persoanele din anturaj. Astfel,
printele atribuie o parte din vin partenerului de via, unei rude apropiate sau societii n ansamblu. El nu va fi
vinovat, ci ntotdeauna alii, n unele cazuri chiar copilul.
Alt soluie folosit de prini pentru a se autoproteja este refuzul acceptrii deficienei. n aceast situaie,
copilul nu va putea fi ngrijit corespunztor, nici urmrit pe plan medical sau educaional [Ringler, 1998].
i ultima soluie n faa sentimentului de vin este respingerea nchis a copilului reprezentat de nevoia de
pedeaps. Aceti prini au impresia c au de pltit o imens datorie, c pltesc pentru o greeal personal [Whaley i
Wong, 1987].
Copilul diferit se adapteaz greu la relaiile interpersonale; de aceea prinii trebuie s joace rolul de mediator
ntre copil i persoanele strine. Uneori prinii pot dramatiza excesiv reaciile inadecvate venite din partea unei
persoane strine, identificnd o fals rea-intenie ntr-un gest orict de neutru. n alte situaii, ei neag tot ceea ce copilul
observ n jurul su legat de propria deficien, insist pe rutate persoanelor din anturaj, cultivnd la copil convingerea
c lumea n care triete este rea [Ringler, 1998].
Ar fi bine ca prinii s contientizeze c nu doar copilul are nevoi speciale, dar ei nii au astfel de nevoi i,
cu toate aceste, viaa continu. Este bine ca prinii s petreac ceva timp n intimitate; au nevoie de distracii,
comunicri cu prietenii, teatru, cinema; au nevoie de satisfacie n viaa sexual i c trebuie, de asemenea, s petreac
timp n comunicare cu ceilali copii din familie. Orice fel de modificare a vieii normale pe care o are o familie, va fi
att n detrimentul copilului, ct i n detrimentul frailor, surorilor i a prinilor. Nu trebuie s se preia atitudinea de
jertfire complet de sine, c trebuie sacrificat totul de dragul copilului cu deficiene care, n acelai timp, este un joc
pentru prinii exagerat de protectori, fiindc suferinele continue ale copilului cauzeaz suferine i celorlali membri ai
familiei.
Adaptarea social a cuplului marital la rolul de printe al copilului cu disabiliti poate fi stimulat prin
intervena asistenial n scopul schimbarii viziunilor ale mamei/tatlui copilului cu probleme de dezvoltare asupra
situaiei lor i modificarii comportamentelor. n realizarea acestora sunt necesare activitile de consiliere a prinilor
copilului n vederea echilibrrii strii psihologice interne a mamei i tatlui, revitalizrii i stimulrii comunicrii
reciproce, colaborrii n cuplu i a prinilor cu copilul.
Consilierea prinilor i pune scopul de restructurare a ierarhiei valorilor ale copilului cu probleme de
dezvoltare. Atingerea efectului psihoterapeutic se realizeaz prin colaborarea personal a prinilor cu specialistul n
scopul diversificrii relaiilor cu cei apropiai, de exemplu implicarea corect cu metode speciale a mamei copilului n
procesul educativ. Respectiv coreca strii ei psihologice se realizeaz prin evidena reuitei desfurrii activitilor
individuale educative cu copilul.
Precizm c n urma interveniei asisteniale este posibil de corectat formele neconstructive ale
comportamentului prinilor, aa ca agresivitatea, aprecierea neobiectiv a comportamentului copilului, tendina de a
evita dorinele copilului etc.; formarea nelegerii de ctre prini a problemelor copilului i anume: prelucrarea treptat
de pe poziia ce neag prezena problemei (el este la fel ca i ceilali), spre poziia opunerii fa de ceilali i trecerea
la poziia colaborrii (Dar cum s-l nv? Eu nu pot); excluderea treptat a ateptrii minunii ce ar face copilul
sntos complet, orientarea prinilor de pe poziia inactivitii i ateptrii minunii spre poziia activitii cu copilul;
excluderea treptat a exagerrii problemei copilului, a prerii c lipsete perspectiva dezvoltrii copilului, (Nu, din el
niciodat nu se va primi nimic); stimularea relaiilor reciproce cu copilul (din relaiile caracterizate prin protecie
excesiv sau insuficient la relaii optime); echilibrarea strii psihologice interne a mamei, deoarece starea de retrire a
insuccesului legat de insuficiena psihofizic a copilului se modific treptat n nelegerea posibilitilor copilului, n
bucuria micilor lui succese; reconstruirea ierarhiei valorilor morale ale mamei/tatlui copilului cu disabiliti (e
important doar faptul c el exist, dar nu ceea cum este, e scump pentru c el i iubete mama, iar mama l iubete pe
el); trecerea mamei/tatlui de pe poziia retririi pentru defectul copilului la poziia cutrii realizrii posibilitilor lui;
ridicarea autoaprecierii personale a mamei\tatlui prin aprecierea rezultatelor muncii lor, evideniind succesele
copilului; transformarea procesului de interaciune realizat de mam/tat n privina copilului, ntr-un proces terapeutic
de fa de sine.
Concluzionm, c intervena asistenal profesionist n familia copilului cu disabilit, poate realiza
urmtoarele obiective majore:
1. nvarea procedeelor speciale, necesare pentru efectuarea activitilor cu copilul n condiiile casnice i
dezvoltrii personalitii lui.

210

2. Stimularea colaborrii reciproce dintre mama-tata, mam/tat i copil i corecia strii psihologice interne
a prinilor.
Nu se poate nega faptul c prezena unui copil cu disabiliti n nucleul familial duce la modificri de echilibru
n acea familie, care este obligat s nfrunte probleme noi i neobinuite i constrns la o redefinire a stilului de via
pentru toi componenii. Dar deseori aceast redefinire, care fiind neutr n sine s-ar putea traduce ntr-o bogie, ce
desfoar ntr-o situaie de solidaritate i se alimenteaz cu incertitudini n reorganizarea dinamicilor i rolurilor.
Comportamentul natural al prinilor copiilor cu disabiliti n societate ofer cele mai bune condiii pentru informarea
societii despre nevoile acestor copii i pentru schimbarea stereotipurilor formate.
Bibliografia
1. Lenore Ringler, Carole Rhodes. A Leg Up: Enhancing Your child's Reading and Writing, 2007.
2. Ringel, Edwin. The suicidal syndrom. London, 1999.
3. Mettey R., Serville F. En collaboration: PETER J.: Le diagnostic antnatal. 1 volume de 237 pag. Paris,
Editions Frison-Roche, 1996.
4. Whaley, L.F., and Wong, D.L: Nursing care of infants and children, ed. 3, St. Louis, 1987.
5. Deschamps,I.P. Manciaux, M.Saibreux, R.Wetter, Zucman,E., Lienfaut handicappe etliecalle. Flamarion, Medicine
Scins, 1981.

372.853
Prof. Dr. hab. Dmitrii Nedeoglo, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Natalia Nedeoglo, MSc. Ivan Radevici,
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Konstantin Sushkevich, Moldova State University (Chisinau)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vadim Sirkeli, Comrat State University (Comrat)
Prof. Dr. Reino Laiho,University of Turku (Turku)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alexander Lashkul, Prof. Dr. Erkki Lhderanta,
Lappeenranta University of Technology (Lappeenranta)

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF IRON-DOPED ZnSe CRYSTALS


Rezumat. Au fost cercetate proprietile magnetice ale cristalelor ZnSe:Fe. S-a depistat c, proprietile magnetice ale
cristalelor de ZnSe:Fe sunt sensibile la metoda doprii. S-a stabilit, ca n cristalele de ZnSe:Fe dopate n procesul de
cretere, proprietile magnetice sunt determinate de dou subsisteme: paramagnetic i antiferomagnetic.
. ZnSe:Fe. ,
ZnSe:Fe . , ZnSe:Fe,
, :
.
INTRODUCTION
The AIIBVI compounds doped with magnetic d-elements, as well as solid solutions on their basis, are also of
interest for their magnetic properties.
The Zn1-xFexSe solid solutions may be grown by MBE technique with x
ranging from 0 to 1 [1], that allows obtaining the compounds with various band gap energies and Fe 2+ ion
concentrations. This opens large possibilities for using the mentioned compounds in spintronics [2]. As the ground state
of Fe2+ ion lacks a permanent magnetic moment, the magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe differ from those of ZnSe doped
with other transition metals, for example, Mn [3].
Theoretical and experimental studies of magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe [4] and Fe/ZnSe [5], Fe/ZnSe/Fe [6]
structures have been widely reported for several decades. Nevertheless, there is no a common opinion concerning the
mechanism of Fe magnetism in ZnSe, and even more, the views of different authors are opposite. For example, the
authors of the papers [3-6] report that as-grown zinc selenide and Zn1-xFexSe solid solutions show paramagnetic
properties at low temperatures and in low magnetic fields, while the authors of the papers [7] predict weak
ferromagnetic properties for as-grown ZnSe and the presence of spin-glass phase for Zn1-x FexSe solid solutions.
In the present paper we report on magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe crystals doped by various methods and
propose a model that explains the observed magnetic properties of the samples and their sensibility to the doping
method.
SAMPLE PREPARATION
Three series of ZnSe samples doped with magnetic d-elements were prepared by different techniques. In the
first technique, the as-grown ZnSe crystals were annealed in Zn + Fe melt during 100 hours at 950 C. Fe concentration
in the melt was 5, 10 and 20 at%. In the second technique, the as-grown ZnSe crystals were annealed in Bi + Fe melt
during 100 hours at 950 C. Fe concentration in the melt was varied from 0.1 to 0.9 at%. In the third technique, ZnSe
crystals were doped with Fe during the growth process. Growth temperature was 780 and doping impurity
concentration in initial material was varied form 0.008 to 0.3 at% for ZnSe:Fe. The magnetic properties of the samples
were investigated using SQUID magnetometer at temperatures between 4.2 and 300 K in magnetic fields up to 1 T.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

211

Magnetic properties of AIIBVI compounds doped with d-elements, as well as diluted magnetic semiconductors,
are presented in detail in [3]. It is affirmed that all these compounds have two magnetic phases: a high-temperature
paramagnetic phase and a low-temperature antiferromagnetic phase. The first one is due to sp-d exchange interaction
and the second one appears only in case of high concentration of d-elements due to the nearest-neighbour exchange
interaction between the d-element spins. Some authors divide the second phase into an antiferromagnetic phase and a
spin-glass phase. The antiferromagnetic phase represents a semiconductor state with d-element clusters having opposite
spins, while the spins of all d-elements in the ferromagnetic domains are aligned. The spin-glass phase represents a
frozen state of spontaneously disordered antiferromagnetic clusters. Consequently, this state may be observed only at
low temperatures. Villain [8] attributes the spin-glass-like behaviour to fluctuations of antiferromagnetic interactions
between the d-element ions. However, the magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe differ from those of ZnSe doped with other
transition metals, as the Fe2+ ion in the ground state lacks a permanent magnetic moment [3]. The authors of the papers
[3, 5, 6] affirm that Zn1-xFexSe compounds show Van Vleck paramagnetism at low temperatures, while the authors of
the papers [7] report that these compounds should reveal the spin-glass-like behaviour.
Magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe crystals doped both during the growth process and by high-temperature
annealing in Zn + Fe melt have been investigated. Temperature dependences of inverse magnetization, 1/M, measured
at 67 and 970 G for ZnSe:0.1 at% Fe sample doped during the growth are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. Two
linear portions with different slopes may be distinguished. Intercepts on the temperature axis (Fig. 1) show the presence
of two magnetic subsystems: a paramagnetic one and an antiferromagnetic one with T = 130 K (for magnetic field of
67 gauss). As the magnetic field increases up to 970 gauss (Fig. 2), the second subsystem transforms to normal
paramagnetic state, and the sample behaviour becomes similar to a typical paramagnetic.

FIGURE 1. Temperature dependence of inverse magnetization for the ZnSe:0.1 at% Fe crystal doped during the
growth process (()zero-field-cooled (ZFC) data, () field-cooled (FC) data). B = 67 gauss.

FIGURE 2. Temperature dependence of inverse magnetization for the ZnSe:0.1 at% Fe crystal doped during the
growth process (()zero-field-cooled (ZFC) data, () field-cooled (FC) data). B = 970 gauss.
We propose the following model to explain our experimental results: the semiconductor matrix may be
represented as a combination of paramagnetic subsystem and antiferromagnetic subsystem consisting of iron clusters.
At low temperatures and low magnetic fields, the antiferromagnatic subsystem gives the basic contribution to
magnetization. As temperature or magnetic field increases, the antiferromagnetic subsystem is destroyed and
semiconductor exhibits typical paramagnetic properties. As the sample is weakly doped, the exchange interaction
between the nearest-neighbour clusters is weak and the formation of spin-glass phase is hardly probable.
Completely another character of magnetization temperature dependence is observed for ZnSe:Fe samples
doped by annealing of as-grown crystal in Zn + Fe melt. The M(T) dependence for the ZnSe:Zn:10 t% Fe sample is
typical for spin glasses with the transition temperature Tsg = 45 K (Fig. 3).

212

FIGURE 3. Magnetization temperature dependence for the ZnSe:Zn:10 at% Fe crystal (() zero-field-cooled (ZFC)
data, () field-cooled (FC) data).
B = 67 gauss.
The investigation of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) has showed that the typical relation for spin glasses
TRM = MFC MZFC is valid at temperatures T < Tsg (Fig. 3), confirming our suggestion about the presence of a spinglass magnetic phase in the sample at low temperatures. The negative TRM values observed at temperatures between 25
and 100 K are caused by remanent magnetic field in solenoid and do not reflect the sample properties.
It is known that doping of ZnSe by annealing in Zn + Fe melt leads to non-uniform distribution of Fe impurity
over the crystal volume: Fe concentration is much higher in the surface layer compared with the bulk. The sample
doped using this technique may be represented as a combination of three magnetic subsystems: paramagnetic
(semiconductor matrix crystal core), weak antiferromagnetic (near-core regions weakly doped with Fe) and
antiferromagnetic (near-surface region with high concentration of the doping impurity). Both antiferromagnetic
subsystems may be represented as two antiferromagnetic clusters, taking into account that the dimensions and density of
the first weak antiferromagnetic system are much less than those for the second antiferromagnetic subsystem. Due to
high Fe concentration in the near-surface layer of the sample, the spin-exchange interaction between the
antiferromagnetic clusters is great and, therefore, its fluctuations are significant. Our assumption is based on the model
of metallic spin glasses proposed in [9]. As temperature decreases, the size of antiferromagnetic clusters increases and,
at a certain temperature that corresponds to the temperature of spin-glass transition Tsg, the antiferromagnetic clusters
come in contact, and a freezing of their spontaneously oriented antiferromagnetic moments takes place. Unusual
behavior of the M(T) dependence at temperatures below 45 K may be specifically explained by the presence of the
exchange interaction between the antiferromagnetic clusters in the near-surface layer of the semiconductor.
Thus, magnetic study of ZnSe:Fe crystals shows sensibility of magnetic properties to the doping method and
demonstrates more uniform distribution of doping impurity in case of doping with Fe during the growth process in
comparison with the doping by high-temperature annealing in Zn + Fe melt. Our experimental data confirm the
assumption made in [7] about the presence of spin-glass phase in ZnSe:Fe crystals and Zn1-xFexSe solid solutions at low
temperatures.
CONCLUSIONS
Investigation of magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe crystals demonstrates the possibility of the presence of iron
impurity in both 2+ and 3+ charged states. It is shown that the magnetic properties of ZnSe:Fe samples are sensible to
the doping technique. We propose the model that explains the presence of few magnetic phases (paramagnetic,
antiferromagnetic and spin-glass phase) in ZnSe:Fe as a result of a non-uniform doping and formation of impurity
clusters in the sample. It is established that the more uniform doping of the samples is obtained in the case of doping
during the growth process or by thermal annealing in Bi + Fe melt.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Supreme Council for Science and Technological Development of the
Academy of Sciences of Moldova under Grant No.: 06.408.037F and by INTAS under Grant No.: 06-1000014-6370. N.
Nedeoglo and V. Sirkeli thank the Wihuri Physical Laboratory, University of Turku, for warm hospitality and the
Lappeenranta University of Technology Foundation for assistance.
References
1. B.T. Jonker, J.J. Krebs, S.B. Qadri, and G.A. Prinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50 (1987) 848.
2. A. Twardowski, H.J.M. Swagte et al., Solid State Commun. 65 (1988) 238.
3. J.K. Furdyna, J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1998) R29.
4. H. Serre, G. Basterd, C. Rigauz, J. Mycielski, and J.K. Furdyna, Proceedings of the 4 th Inter. Conf. on the Physics
of Narrow-Gap Semicond., Linz 1981, in vol. 52 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1982) 321.
5. A. Stollo, M. Madami, S. Tacchi, G. Carlotti, et al., Surface Science 601 (2007) 4316.
6. L.B. Steren, J. Milano, M. Eddrief et al., Physica B 320 (2002) 162.
7. H. Katayama-Yoshida, K. Sato. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64 (2003) 1447.
8. J. Villain, Z. Physica B 33 (1979) 31.
9. J.A. Mydosh. Magnetism in Solids, edited by A.P. Cracknell and R.A. Vaugh, (SUSSP Publications, Edinburgh,
1981) 85.

213

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CZU 81246;3:378 (478 )
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ABORDAREA INTERCULTURAL N PROCESUL DE NVMNT

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Summary
The latest transformations: the formation of common European space and enlarging the European Union,
migration, the disappearance of clear boundaries between countries - all these are obvious realities. In this situation, the
cultural pluralism is an integral part of Europe, and possession of several foreign languages is now conditioned not only
by economic factors, but, substantially, by common cultural factors, as a means of personal development. Thus, at
present, the role of intercultural education is significantly increasing, which from a means of learning should become a
mechanism of development of culture, forming ideas about the world and man in it.
Transformrile de ultim or: formarea spaiului european comun i lrgirea Uniunii Europene, migraia
populaiei, multiplicarea contactelor, dispariia frontierelor nete snt realiti evidente. n situaia creat pluralismul
cultural constituie o parte integrant a Europei de azi i de mine, iar posedarea ctorva limbi strine e condiionat n
prezent nu numai de factorii economici, dar i n mare msur de factorii de cultur general ca mijloace de dezvoltare a
personalitii. Astfel, la momentul actual al dezvoltrii societii crete simitor rolul educaiei interculturale care din
mijloc de instruire trebuie s se transforme ntr-un mecanism de dezvoltare a culturii; formare a imaginii integre despre
lume. Concepia nvmntului european pune accentul pe om ca i produs al propriei culturi la nivel de toleran: a
ine cont de prerile altora vizavi de cele personale. Totodat tolerana unui om complinit este neleas nu numai ca o
ngduin constrns, dar i ca recunoatere a unei alte concepii despre lume ca egal n drepturi, recunoaterea
viziunii unei alte personaliti i culturi - condiie necesar de apropiere treptat a divergenelor dintre popoare. nsi
noiunea de cultur n concepia dat se caracterizeaz prin patru aspecte:
toate culturile snt heterogene, multilaterale i includ n sine elementele ctorva culturi simultan; astfel toat
culturile europene demult au devenit combinate, incluznd n sine concomitent cteva culturi;
culturile nu prezint ceva static, ci se afl permanent n schimbare sub influena evenimentelor istorice;
culturile cuprind tot spaiul existenei omeneti: toate produsele contiinei omului i aciunile lui concrete (poezia,
muzica, ecologia, filozofia, agricultura etc.), dar i experiena, legile i regulile ce determin coexistena ntre oameni,
ndeosebi, atitudinea omului fa de nou i necunoscut, dar i fa de idei, valori i forme ale vieii;toate culturile au, n
principiu valoare egal.
Astfel, astzi evidena unei culturi integre din perspectiva educaional implic i ipostaza interaciunii
culturilor. Diferenele aparente ntre felul de gndire i convieuire uman sunt cele care ne fac contieni de rosturile
integralitii culturale. Prin urmare, cultura nu poate fi gndit doar ca o cultur, trebuie gndit/conceput i ca
multiculturalitate-,,diverse culturi [3, p. 18].
Culturile naionale au o fireasc deschidere spre universal, spre dialog i schimb de valori cu alte culturi i
spaii spirituale. Epoca modern i cea contemporan a intensificat comunicarea social a valorilor i comunicarea
dintre culturi, culturile interfernd i comunicnd ntre ele.
Interferenele culturale sunt fireti n contextul unei societi pluraliste. Cultura nu mai este vzut ca un dat, ci
ca un proces ce se construiete prin interaciune cu ceilali. Aadar, avem de a face cu o perspectiv diferit asupra
conceptului de cultur. Acesta este perceput prin descoperirea i accentuarea laturii sale dinamice, n continu
restructurare i construcie. Aceast viziunea asupra culturii se distinge prin "deprtarea conceptului de perspectivele
descriptiviste, normative sau istorice de definire a sa. Cultura nu este doar un bogat i impresionat "tezaur" de valori
spirituale i materiale, nu este perceput ca fiind doar o sum finit de trsturi punctuale, ci este n acelai timp i un
proces ce implic i responsabilizeaz individualiti i grupuri" [1, p. 18].
n condiiile diversitii culturale i ale schimbului liber de valori la scara local, naional i mondial,
educaia revendic anumite schimbri pentru a rspunde eficient necesitii de inserie social-economic i culturalspiritual a tineretului, pentru funcionare n comunitile lor culturale i n afara frontierelor lor culturale (J.Banks).
Astfel, educaiei i revine un rol primordial n studierea i comprehensiunea diversitii culturale, deoarece "trim ntr-o

214

lume ce devine din ce n ce mai independent i o bun nelegere reciproc n plan global trebuie s prezinte un
comportament obligatoriu al educaiei" [7, p. 52]. Procesul educaional presupune transmiterea de cunotine, iar acele
cunotine trebuie s-i ajute individului s triasc i s interacioneze cu ceilali.
Educaia este, n primulrnd, o activitate de transmitere i difuzare a culturii. Graie acesteia, cultura se propag
de la o generaie la alt, mbogindu-se i diversificndu-se continuu.
Cultura, civilizaia i limba sunt foarte semnificative n plan educaional i prin sistemul de instrumente de
cunoatere pe care l ofer omului;
Cultura nu trebuie privit ca o entitate sttic, fix, ci ca una dinamic, shimbtoare;
Dialogul ntre culturi este elementul fundamental al convieuirii sociale i o permis a educaiei interculturale.
Trecerea nvmntului la educaia intercultural presupune i o reformare a sistemului de nvare a limbilor
nematerne/strine, deoarece nu poi s schimbi scopul i obiectivele nvrii lsnd neschimbate toate celelalte
componente: coninuturile, metodele, mijloacele i formele de organizare a nvrii. Principiile i valorile educaiei
interculturale n sistemul educaional contemporan trebuie s fie realizate nu doar prin cteva procente din program
colar, ci printr-o atitudine generalizat care trebuie realizat prin toate disciplinele de studii n nvmntul
preuniversitar. Locul de frunte n aceste condiii i revine predrii/nvrii limbilor nematerne/strine. Astfel, educaia
intercultural schimb i rolul limbii materne n procesul de nvmnt: ea devine un aspect inseparabil al comunicrii
interculturale.
Dac ne referim la situaia din Republica Moldova, putem constata c mediul social al Republicii Moldova s-a
caracterizat dintotdeauna prin diversitate cultural. Referindu-ne la relaiile interetnice, n ara noastr nu numai c
locuiesc reprezentanii ai multor grupuri etnice, ci, mai mult, n componena fiecrui grup etnic exist diverse categorii
de persoane care difer prin provenien, mentalitate i atitudini. Dei sunt ncercri pentru a favoriza apropierea ntre
grupurile etnice este elaborat cadrul legislativ favorabil minoritilor naionale, exist diferite societi etnoculturale,
organe de presa, radio i emisiuni consacrate culturii etniilor conlocuitoare calitatea relaiilor interetnice este departe
de a fi mulumitoare. n aceste condiii, educaia intercultural rmne unica perspectiva pentru un stat multicultural ca
Republica Moldova.
Educaia intercultural oblig coala s cultive valori universale autentice prin realizarea a patru obiective:
luarea n consideraie a dimensiunii culturale a dezvoltrii, afirmarea i mbogirea identitilor culturale, lrgirea
participrii tuturor la viaa cultural, promovarea cooperrii culturale internaionale din care reiese c programele
de nvmnt ar trebui racordate la diversitatea culturilor i a interaciunilor culturale, ceea ce ar promova o nou
mentalitate n care s-ar ilustra c dezvoltarea societii trece prin dou dimensiuni: cultur i educaie, care capt
amploare i care, n opinia lui C. Cuco, deschid ctre valori multiple viznd o mai bun inserie a individului ntr-o
lume spiritual polimorf i dinamic, adic pentru alteritate [5, p. 14].
Prin educaie, aa cum s-a mai afirmat, este posibil a shimba vechea mentalitate i a forma, a dezvolta una
capabil s ofere lumii un nou model de convieuire a popoarelor. Ideea de la ce pornim este aceea c diversitatea
cultural nu mai este un prejudiciu, ci o realitate care trebuie fructificat n mediul colar. Pluralitatea cultural pune nu
numai problema aprrii diferenelor, ci a dialogului cultural, care recunoate c fiecare trebuie s contribuie la
mbogirea experienei umane. De aceea, abordarea pedagogic cea mai bun este acea care face din diferenele
culturale un avantaj, o potenial surs de mbogire pentru fiecare participant, i nu un handicap care trebuie ascuns
i care genereaz probleme i dificulti.
Perspectiva intercultural reprezint att o nou provocare ct i o condiie pentru realizare a coeziunii sociale care
are la baz cultivarea respectului reciproc i a nelegerii. Angajarea n interaciuni interculturale este inevitabil, i mai
mult ea poate aduce att un plus al cunoaterii ct i al mbogirii culturale. Astfel, "diferenele nu constituie obstacole,
ci, dimpotriv, pot s devin o mbogire reciproc" [2, p. 367].
Familiarizarea cu conceptele, normele i principiile educaiei interculturale ofer pregtirea viitorilor cetieni
pentru o via armonioas n societile multiculturale, presupune evitarea conflictelor interetnice, rasismului,
ovinismului i xenofobiei.
Bibliografia
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Budnic, A., Comunicarea intercultural n predarea-nvarea limbilor strine // Revista de tiine socioumane.
2006 Nr. 2 (6).
Cozma, T., O nou provocare pentru educaie: interculturalitatea. - Iai: Polirom, 2001.
Cozma, T., Alois, Ghergu. O perspectiv intercultural asupra educaiei integrate. Iai: Polirom, 2001.
Cuco, C., Educaia. Dimensiuni culturale i interculturale. - Iai: Polirom, 2000.
Cuco, C., Educaia. Iubire, edificare, desvrire. - Iai: Polirom, 2008.
Dasen, P., PERREGAUX, C., REY, M., Educaia intercultural. Experiene, politici, strategii. - Iai: Polirom, 1999.
aulean, M., Formarea atitudinii pozitive fa de cultura naional la elevii claselor primare // Teza de doctor n
pedagogie. - Chiinu: SRL, 2007.
Videanu, G., Educaia la frontiera dintre milenii. - Bucureti: Editura Politic, 1988.

215

811.161.1,243,367,625
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-
Rezumatul: n articol se determin locul limbii materne n procesul studierii verbului prefixal rus de ctre
studenii turci. n legtur cu aceasta se examineaz ntrebrile legate de influena limbii materne asupra limbii
studiate, procesele de interferen i transpoziie, cauzele apariiei i modalitile de depire. Se prezint etapele de
lucru asupra verbului prefixal rus studenilor turci, obiectivele fiecrei etape i strategiile de lucru n procesul didactic.
Annotation: The goal of this article is to determine the place of native language in the process of teaching
Russian prefixal verbs to Turkish students. In connection with this, the essence of the process of mastering the second
(Russian) language is discovered, questions dealing with the interfering influence of the native language on the studied
language are discussed, stages of the process of mastering the Russian language as a foreign one and dependence of
techniques and methods of teaching on the characteristics of both studied and native languages are shown.

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(
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Situaia lingvistic din oraul Comrat prezint totalitatea limbilor i a unor subsisteme lingvistice n care unele
componente snt egale, iar altele se gsesc n relaii ierarhice. Conform clasificrilor terminologice propuse de lingvitii
rui A. D. veior i L. B. Nicolschii. Situaia lingvistic din Comrat apare ca sistem izoglosic nebalansat. Conform
tezelor propuse de lingvistul bulgar M. Videnov despre aplicarea diglosiei, situaia lingvistic din Comrat e prezentat
sub form de bilingvism i sistem dizoglosic.
The language situation in Comrat represents a system of languages and subsystems where some components
are functionally equal whereas the others are in hierarchic positions. According to terminological classification
suggested by Russian linguists A.D.Shveytser and L.B.Nikolsky, the language system in Comrat of present days is
exoglossive and unbalanced. But according to the solution of diglossia suggested by Bulgarian linguist M.Videnov,
language situation in Comrat is presented by bilingualism and diglossia.

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( . . )

In articolul aceasta autorul acord atenie, n primul rnd, la comparaia frazeologismelor, care se studiaz n
cadrul leciilor de folcloristic rus. Exemplele demonstreaz c irul de asociaii frazeologige la deferite popoare ale
lumii este diferit. Studiind particularitile culturale ale unui popor sau altul n ceea ce privete structura
frazeologismelor, se poate nelege mai bine individualitatea lor.
Cuvinte-cheie: frazeologisme, semn, exprimare, istorie, cultur, cretinism, text biblic, colorit naional.
In this article the author pays attention to comparing of fhrazeological units, which is holding during lessons in
Russian Folklore. The examples prove, that sequence of associations of various nations in the world is different.
Inspecting pecularities of culture of certain nation, which are fixed in a fhrazeological unit, we can better
understand and discover the individuality.
Key-words: fhraseology, sign, expression, history, culture, Christianity, biblical texts, national colour.
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, 1996

81271:371
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231

This article discusses the problem of the relationship of language and culture in Linguistics and Pedagogy.
Presented several approaches in linguistics to solve this problem, as well as modern trends in teaching methodology,
both foreign and culture.

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81373
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233


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Resume: Semantic structure of a word can be introduced like many oppositions. Figurative meaning, presented
or not, can show the possibility of using this word in a concrete style. But a metaphor can be used not only in the
literary style, but also in the colloquial and the scientific style.
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Necessity is a hard nurse? But she raises strong children. [1]

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: Good my lord, will you see the players well bestowed? Let
them be well used, for they are the abstracts and brief chronicles of the time; after your death you were better have a
bad epitaph that their ill report while you live. [2]

1.
2.
3.
4.
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6.
7.

Galsworthy, J.The Man of Property. - .: ,1994.


Shakespeare, W. Sonnets. .: , 1967.
, .. . .: ,
, 1957, 2.
, .. . .: , 2000.
, .. .- .: . ., 1966.
, .. .- .: ,1977.
, .. .- .: , 1968.
, .. .- .: , 1978.
81' 342
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Abstract: Limba este cel mai important mijloc de comunicare interuman. A poseda o limb nseamn a putea
fi participant al procesului de comunicare n aceast limb, ceea ce presupune anumite competene comunicative
productive i receptive la nivel oral i scris. n acest context, n articol se abordeaz problema antrenrii pronuniei n
cadrul formrii i dezvoltrii competenelor comunicative orale.
Abstract: Language is the most important means of human communication. To possess a language is to be
able to communicate in this language, which presupposes certain productive and receptive communicative competences
at oral and written levels. In this context, in the given article there is touched upon the issue of pronunciation training
within forming and development of oral communicative competences.
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1.Cadrul european comun de referin pentru limbi: nvare, predare, evaluare. Chiinu: S. n., 2003. 204 p.
2. .., .. : . :
Academia, 2004. 336 .
3. .. : .
: Academia, 2010. 192 .
4. .., .., .. . :
, 2004. 264 .
5. .. . . :
, 2003. 522 .
81373:009
.., ,
-
(--)


The article analyzes terms of metamorphosis and transformation. The author has formulated definitions of
terms of metamorphosis and transformation, having adapted them to use in sphere of humanitarian knowledge.
n aceast lucrare am analizat termenii metamorfoza i transformare. Autorul a formulat definiiile de
metamorfoza i transformare, adaptndu-le s foloseasc n domeniul tiinelor umaniste.

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4- ., ., . 2. ., 1999. . 259.
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4- ., ., . 4. ., 1999. . 399.
3. ., ., . . // http://ecsocman.edu.ru/univman/msg/145039.html [.
].
4. . ., 2000. . 81.
5. .-. : . . .. , . ..
. . : - , 1957. . 102.
314.7(4785)

,

This article considers the problem f labor migration for the 1villages of Gagauz Autonomy; it also reveals the
directions and the constituents f migrating trends, the min reasons and consequences f the process under
consideration.

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239

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1.Esanu C., Krauze A. Securitatea national si migratia // MOLDOSCOPIE: (Probleme de analiza politica) Partea XII
Chisinau, USM, 1999; , . .
// Moldova, Romania, Ucraina: integrarea in structurile europene Chisinau,
"Perspectiva", 2000.
2. .., . (1918-1940), .,
1947

240

3.. . \ . .. . , 2006.
4. . , , 1973.
5. . . . . - ., , 2006.
6. . - , "Perspectiva", 1999.
7. .., , ., 1927
8. 2004. . , 2006, . 2. .
9. . . 2. . Ch.: Statistica, 2006.
10. 100 (1811-1913). , ., 1956
11. , .2.l.1, . 33
12. .. //.
. .,2006.
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94(=512.165):929
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Resume
The information in the brief form about the life and activity of the distinguish Bulgarian poet and revolutioner G.
Rakovsky is given in this report.
Taking into account the article of G. Rakovsky it is shown his attitude to Gagauzian people.
Rezumat
Comunicarea n cauz reprezent o elocvent informaie despre viaa i activitatea poetului revoluionar bulgar G.
Racovschi, lurile sale de atitudine respectuas fa de poporul gguz.
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821.161.3-219
..,
,

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.
. ( , , .).
Summary. In this article deals with the attempt is made to investigate the specific characteristics of the
reflection of death in Belarusian dramatics art the end of the 20th century (for example, of plays of Jury Stankevich,
Mihas Stryzhou, Vjachaslau Adamchyk, etc.).

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The resume: In article it is told about the analysis of educational process of teaching of the Bulgarian language in
Moldova, about difficulties at training at school. It is offered to consider for better teaching a real condition of speech of
pupils corresponding to geographical components ethnic and geographical structure in them socioculture development.
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249

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. ,
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.
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Summary
In the given article are researched ethnic symbols of gagauz and their role in the shaping of ethnic identity and
consolidation of gagauz society. Gagauz symbol are the wolf, blue colour of the official gagauzian flag, holiday
Hederlez, mounted horse racing (ko), painted decorative pumpkins (susak), folk song "Oglan", historical personalities
(the cultural hero). The mane part of these symbols was created for epoch of the perestroyka - at the period of ethnic
mobilizations on the territory of former USSR . For instance, wolf was expressed on the flag and blazon of
unacknowledged Gagauz Republic. The author comes to conclusion that at present time ethnic symbols of gagauz
become the part of ethnic valuables system and reflects the attribute of gagauzians to the turkic world.
Key-words: ethnic symbols, gagauz, ethnic identity, wolf, gagauzian flag, Hederlez, susak, "Oglan", historical
personalities, ethnic mobilizations.
,
(, 2004; Smith, 2009, 32; ). ,
, ( - ).
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, () : , ,
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(, 2004).
, 1,

250

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3. . . .
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4. . . // ,
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5. . . , , 1991.
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. , 2002. . 7. . 7083.
7. . . //
2004 , (1)//www.ssu.samara.ru/.../200410702.html
8. . . //
: (-
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9. . . . . . , 2004// litopys.org.ua/smith/smt.htm
10. . . . , 1997.
11.
.

//
www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Polit/Article/schnir_nac_simv.php - 98k 12. Smith A. Ethnosymbolism and nationalism/ a cultural approach/ London and New York, 2009.
1.
2.

: 811.11125373.7:811161.1
..,
,
DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH PROVERBS INTO RUSSIAN
: ,
, ,
. . ,
, ,
.
Peoples experience show and prove that a good translator must not only understand the sense of the text in
English, but also must know the English proverbs and their translation into Russian. As for these two languages, both of
them have their own peculiarities and difficulties of translation. The English language has its word order in the sentence
and the Russian language has its own with an exception that it is not as strict as in English. In the English language we
can not use two negations (I have never not been to Rome), we always use one (I have never been to Rome). As for
Russian, there can be used two negations ( ).
There always existed difficulties with proverbs translation. It is a well-known fact it is very difficult to translate
the text that belongs to culture, because every culture is unique in its own way. So happens and with proverbs. For
instance, the English proverb The pot calls the kettle black (1) will have the following word for word translation in
Russian (2). If an Englishman understands the meaning of this proverb it

253

does not mean that a Russian will understand it too. This proverb will be something new for him. So in order to
understand this proverb a Russian must know its equivalent in Russian. Its Russian equivalent will be:
, (3). This variant in Russian is understandable for a Russian. But if we translate this
Russian equivalent into English we shall get the following: Anyone's cow may moo, but yours should keep quite (4). As
we can see the first variant (1) is too far from the last one (4).
The comparison of proverbs of different people shows how much in common these people have, what promotes
their best mutual understanding. It is necessary to note that many English and Russian proverbs have some meanings
what makes them difficult to translate and understand. During the selection of a Russian equivalent to an English
proverb we have chosen the most appropriate meaning. For example, the English proverb The glass is always greener
on the other side of the fence (1). If we translate it word for word we shall have
(2). As for Russian, it does not have such proverb, but it has another ,
(3). In fact, these two proverbs are equivalent in sense, but word for word translation of the Russian proverb will be
the following: Life is better there where we are not present (4). Thus, we may conclude that English people will not
understand the translation of the proverb (4) and Russians will not understand the translation of the proverb (2).
Lets analyze another English proverb. Every dog has his day (1) has the following word for word translation
(2) that does not fit to the Russian culture. The Russian equivalent for this
proverb is (3). If we translate the Russian equivalent (3) into English we shall
get the following proverb which will not be understood by English people We shall have a holiday in our street, too
(4).
The English proverb Brevity is the soul of wit (1) will be translated into Russian as -
() (2). The Russian analogue of the English one is - (3). If we render this
one (3) into English we shall have the following proverb Brevity is the sister of talent (4). The last one (4) will not
be clear to the English people; as for the Russian people they will not understand the word for word translation of the
proverb (2).
Lets move on and examine the next proverb Adversity is a good teacher (1). If we translate it into Russian we
shall have (2). This translation of the English proverb will not be understood by
Russian people. Therefore, we have to find the Russian equivalent to it (3). Now when we
translate the Russian equivalent into English we shall have the following: There is no science without trouble (4).
This variant (4) does not make any sense to English-speaking people. They just will not understand it because it does
not render the message properly.
The next proverb The Devil makes work for idle hands (1) represents a difficulty in translation because it is
translated word for word as (2) what makes a nonsense for Russians.
Lets find the Russian equivalent - (3). Now if we render the variant (3) into English we
shall have Idleness is the mother of all vices (4). It becomes clear that the variant (4) is too far from the variant (1).
The Table 1 given below summarizes the all said above.
The English proverb(1)
1. The pot calls the kettle
black
2. The grass is always
greener on the other side of
the fence
3. Every dog has his day
4. Brevity is the soul of wit
5. Adversity is a good
teacher
6. The Devil makes work for
idle hands

Word
for
word
translation(2)



The Russian equivalent(3)


,

,

The English translation of


the Russian equivalent(4)
Anyone's cow may moo, but
yours should keep quite
Life is better there where we
are not present

-
()

We shall have a holiday in


our street, too
Brevity is the sister of talent

There is no science without


trouble
Idleness is the mother of all
vices

Table 1: Translation of English proverbs into Russian


Having analyzed six English proverbs here we have come to the following conclusion. Proverbs are figurative
phrases and if we translate them word for word we get an absolute nonsense, something like
(1). It is the literal translation of English saying It rains cats and dogs (2). But when we look for the
Russian equivalent we find the following (3). So, we must always look for the Russian
equivalent of an English proverb, otherwise we may hear something like ifs ands
(1). The translation (1) is the variant of an English proverb If ifs and ands were pots and
pans (2). That is why when we know its Russian equivalent , we may
correct the situation.
Literature
1. Wolfgang M. Proverbs. A Handbook Greenwood Press 2004
2. .. 1993
3. . . 2000
811.111373

254

.., .
,
.
Resume
The specific professional terminology is a very important part of the sphere of communication. The terms represented
in the forms of the words, group of words with the key word can make the terminological unit. The translation of this
terminological unit is the complicated process of logical operations implementing in the definite sequence.
Rezumat
Terminologia de specialitate constituie un element important n procesul de comunicare. Termenii inclusivi n cuvinte,
n sintagme de cuvinte au capacitatea de a forma grupuri terminologice. Traducerea continutului grupurilor date
prezint un proces logic dificil i cere respectarea unei anumite consecutivitti.
80- 90- XX -
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255

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316.75(=161.3)
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The national culture and language represent value for any people, through them features and originality of the
nation are shown. Results of researches in the Mogilev area have shown, that at various socially demographic groups
unequal representation about the national Belarusian culture and its values.
- 2010
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260

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1946-1947
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.
One of the "white spots" in the history of Moldavia, attracting attention of readers, and needs a
deep investigation is the question of the causes and effects of famine that took lace hits in the republic in1946-1947.
The problem of post-war famine in Moldova continues to be in the center of the public attention in our state.
Until now, many facts from those years are not disclosed and require long-term research work.

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6. (1946-1947). . , 1993/
811.111374.3:61
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Abstract: The paper deals with the study of lexico-semantical system of English traumatologic terminology and the
development of synchronical fields structure principles. The thesaurus-network method allowed representing the complex
terminological apparatus of traumatology and terminological notions correlated to it as a well-structured field. This
permitted to determine the character of hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships among the terms, which form
microfields and terminological nests on inter- and extra- field plans.
Abstract: Articolul de fa este dedicat studiului lexico-semantic a terminologiei traumatologice engleze n baza
evoluiei principiilor structurilor sincronice. Metoda reea-arbore a permis reprezentarea corelaiei dintre aparatul
terminologic complex al subdomeniul medical dat cu noiunile tiiifice respective. Aceasta a dat posibilitatea de a
determina caracterul relaiiilor ierarhice i non-ierarhice ntre termenii ce formeaz microcmpuri i cuiburi
terminologice din afara i din nuntrul cmpului.
( )
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Wheeless Textbook of Orthopedics [5].
, : Traumatology - a branch of
medicine, dealing with wounds and disabilities from injuries.
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263

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2. .. .- .: , 1987.-141 .
3. .. - (
. ..): . . ..:10.02.20. - ., 2005. 468 .

264

4. .. : . . ...:
10.02.04. - ., 1986.- 23 .
5. Wheeless textbook of orthopedics// www.worldortho.com.
027.021
..,

The aspects of CSU activitz as the factor of cultural development of autonomous foundation are considered in this
article. The creation of the scientific literature fund assisted the consolidation of Comrat State Universisy position as
the scientific and cultural centre in Autonomy. Enlarging the fund of the educational literature is the factor providing
the access to the education.

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CZU 811.135367
Conf. univ. Dr. LIUBA BOTEZATU
CULTURA FILOLOGIC LA NIVEL DE INTER/TRANSDISCIPLINARITATE

.


: -; - ;
; : , , -.
Summary
Culture is a high level of intellectual development which someone reaches, all material and the cultural
wealth created by mankind. The spiritual culture, as a product / process of the eternal human surpasses of the
phenomenological purpose tight / hermetic achievement of a line overcoming of subjective spirit in a purpose kind,
giving particular attention to an estimation of actives / to modernization. However, educational space for selfregulation there should be a press academic expression of conscious means of production / reproduction proceeds
from subjective to objective value and vice-returning individual actions of agents (of bird the Phoenix for the reason)
an essence itself supplementation of a stage:" The person horizon of Secrets "(the Appendix 1). Besides, a main
objective of our occupation any day training with a stress on skills at level II stage partnership (University) it is
necessary to encourage possibility of salvation operations to avoid danger, the Supreme Creator of damagetransforming of acceleration the core beautiful in the world the technology Mechanism / spirit automation;
privatizations of moral liquidation of assimilation of faculty of walking of the human person.
Un spaiu educaional aferent autoreglrii academice trebuie s poarte pecetea expresiei unei modaliti
contiente de producere/reproducere valoric continu dinspre subiectiv spre obiectiv i viceversa- rentoarcerea
revigorat/individualizat a agentului aciunii (motivul Pasrei Phoenix) la esena startizrii complinirilor de sine pe
treapt: ,,Om-orizont al misterelor(Anexa1). Complinirea culturii educaiei filologice, la etapa de parteneriat, este
conceptualizat/exersat de noi ca i proces complex de convertire a cogniiei n metacogniie, axat pe varietatea celor
trei tipuri de competene individualizat/contientizate pe treapta devenirii: iniial-reprezentative; analitico-sincretice;
valorico-divinatorii. Cu toatele corespunznd (succesiv) celor trei contingene integratorii: disciplinaritate;
interdisciplinaritate; transdisciplinaritate.
n aceast favoare, din lips de spaiu prezentm aici doar un fragment al Curriculumului disciplinar
/Programa analitic la Limba Romn Contemporan- Sintaxa propoziiei, preconizat pregtirii specialistului de
educaie lingvistic i literar. Studiul n cauz, fiind axat pe Principiul logico-semantic i funcional al gramaticii
limbii romne va servi studenilor alolingvi ca drept exerciiu sacralizant de reconceptualizare valoric complex a
limbii romne n plan funcional de sensibilizare social (interaciunea etic/estetic) la nivel de statalitate: S-i

266

cunoti/iubeti aproapele ca pe tine nsui; prin care, urmeaz cursul psihopedagogic de: Metodic a
predrii/receptrii limbii i literaturii romne n coal la nivel etapizat de creativitate.
Partea relevant a prezentului curs cuprinde exersri/sintetizri plauzibile ntr-un sistem sincretic unitar: cercetareaplicare, aferent funciilor i valorilor comunicativ-expresive: fonetic, morfologie, sintax, lexic, stilistic,
semantica textului, retoric, psihopedagogie, metodic, filosofie a educaiei. Fiecare tem este solicitat s elucideze
coninutul problemelor-cheie att teoretic ct i praxiologic/senzaional cuprinznd forme i strategii de nvare
autoreglat. Din aceast perspectiv prezentul demers educaional al cursului se axeaz pe interrelaia obiective/
competene:
Iniial-reprezentative la nivel de disciplinaritate
- Asimilarea minimul de cunotine la Sintaxa propziie
- Cunoasc/contientizarea rosturilor plauzibile ale Principiului logico-semantic i funcional n gramatica
limbii romne la nivel de disciplinaritate;
- Avizarea n continuu cu noutile cotidiene ale domeniului investigaional aferent;
Cunoasc principiilor i teoriilor de baz ale studiului disciplinar n cauz;
- Formarea abiliti/competene: de nvare continu, de comunicare eficient, de colaborare, de fuzioionare
efectiv n cadrul grupului, schimbare a modului de comportament, de exprimare clar a ideilor, de
argumentare a poziiei luate.
Analitico-sincretice/aplicative la nivel de interdisciplinaritate
- Dezvoltarea propriilor aptitudini de munc independent la exersarea teoriei gramaticale n practica de vorbire
prin realizare de exerciii din propria iniiativ;
- Elaborea materiale de analiz i sintez ca i finalitate a consultrii surselor informaionale recomandate;
- Formarea abilitilor/competenelor de: luarea a deciziilor profesionale;capaciti de lider, de utilizare a noilor
tehnologii educaional informaionale de evaluare /autoevaluare, de manifestare a toleranei , de formare a
motivaiei pozitive, de cercetare a fenomenelor din domeniu , de analiz i sintez a studiului de curs.
Valorico-divinatorii la nivel de transdisciplinaritate:
- Integrarea n sfera cercetrilor tiinifice;
- Corelaionarea teoria cu practica ;
- naintarea i susinerea propriei opiuni;
- Contientizarea propriei formri la nivel de capacitate autoreglatoare;
- Exersarea competenelor de: proiectare, cercetare, implementare i prezentare a proiectelor de autoreglare
academic, de revalorizare a sinelui, de elaborare a unei cercetri eficiente n baza studiului de caz, de
manager, de consilier, de comprehensivitate.

267

Nd/r
.Cursul/
Semestr
ul

1.

2.

Coninuturi

Cur
s:
30
ore

Introducere
n
studiul
SINTAXEI. Locul sintaxei
ntre alte compartimente ale
limbii. Sintaxa lexicologia.
Sintaxa i fonetica. Sintaxa i
morfologia.Sintaxa
i
semantica.Sintaxa i stilistica.
Principiul logico-semantic
n
sintax.
Structura
sintactic a limbii romne.
mbinareadecuvinte.Caracter
ul
nominativ.Legtura
cuvintelor n propoziie.
Coordonarea.Subordonarea:a
cordul,reciunea,aderarea.Iner
ena.raliereaPropoziia.Fraza.
Superfraza.Textul

Sintaxa propoziiei.
Criteriul de clasificare a
propoziiei dup structur i
dup scopul comunicrii.
Prile
principale
ale
propoziiei.
Subiectul

tipologia
lui.Subiectul
exprimat prin diverse pri de
vorbire.Subiectul
neexprimat:inclus,
subneles,nedeterminat,
inexprimabil.
Subiectul
simplu,
complex,multiplu..Paradigma
tica lor. Cazuri dificile de
identificare a subiectului.
Subiectul gramatical i logic.
Prile
principale
ale
propoziiei.Predicatul
Predicatul verbal. Predicatul
nominal. Predicatul angrenat
Predicatul verbal- simplu.
Exprimarea
predicatului
verbal simplu: prin verbe,
locuiuni verbale, i expresii
frazeologice la cele 5 moduri
flexibile/ personale i cele 4
forme
nominale/impersonale/neflexi
bile la una din cele trei
diateze:activ,
pasiv,
reflexiv.Predicatul
verbalcomplex.Exprimarea
lui Tipologia predicatului
verbal complex .

Forme i strategii de nvare independent


Pra
ctic Seminare/ laborator
Prelegeri
e:
Evaluare/autoevaluare
30
ore
Familarizarea
cu
2
Consultarea dicionarelor
demersul educaional
la descifrarea termenilor
al programei analitice
cheie:
Startizarea
Principii,Competene,
obiectivelor, axate pe
Sintax.
formare
de
Realizarea
studiului
competene.
comparat
Prblematizarea
Dzvoltarea i prelucrarea
Luarea
de
comunicrilor
notie.Luarea
unor
Evaluarea punctual
decizii
de
Racordarea la cele 8
implimentare
a
principii de integralizare
tehnicilor de munc
autonom
interactive vizavi de
cele 8 principii ale
autonomiei academice

Reactualizarea
noiunilor de formare a
competenelor
comunicative,lectorale
, comportamentale

Elaborarea algoritmilor de
analiz i
sintez a diferitelor tipuri
de
propoziii dup
structur i dup scopul
comunicrii
Stabilirea standardelor de
evaluare a competenelor
la nivel de disciplinaritate,
interdisciplinaritate,
transdisciplinaritate
Evaluarea punctual

Discuia ghidat
Prelucrarea de comun
acord a unor situaii
educaionale

4
Consultarea
notielor.Documen
tarea
n
baza
bibliografiei
,
recomandate
la
tem.

Dezvoltarea listei
bibliografice

Schiarea
colaj
la tem
4

Brinstormingul

Individual:
60 ore

unui

Consultarea
notelor la curs.
Consultarea
bibliografiei.(Vezi:
A.Ciobanu.N.Matc
a.)

Elaborarea
comunicrilor
atitudinale

Formularea unor opinii


controversate
2

Recomandarea
biblografiei la tem
Dezbateri cu referiri la
indicii bibliografici, la
atitudinile
cercettorilor
n
domeniu

Elaborarea colajului,

a schemelor de reper:
Predicatul verbal simplu i
complex
Reperarea pe exerciii de
analiz i sintez

Luarea de atitudini pe
marginea conspectelor
de reper cu trimitere la
Morfologie: Verbul ca
parte
de
vorbire
flexibil

Iniierea lucrului n grup

4
Elaborarea
discursului: Prile
principale
ale
propziiei,
atitudinile
cercettorilor
n
domeniu.(
E.
Coeriu,
A.ahmatov,V.P.
Suhotin,
V.Khiparsky. vezi
n Bibliografie: P.
Butuc)Principiul
logico-semantic i
funcional,
la
elucidarea prilor
principale
ale
propoziiei Vezi:
P.Butuc

Not! Activiti de evaluare la nivel de cultur filologic:


1. n baza exemplelor oferite argumentai rolul tautologiei verbale ca i structur logico-semantic i
funcional a PVS angrenat;
2. De motivaionat rosturile diferitelor forme angrenate ale predicatului ca i
corelaie integr att la nivel de unitate logico-semantic n sens restrnspropoziie, fraz; ct i n sens larg de context / text artistic, oper literar n
general;
3. Demonstrai abiliti de analiz i sintez a subiectului/tipurile de subiecte
ca parte principal a propoziiei la nivel de shem recapitulativ;

268

4. Prin exemple de analiz argumentai modalitile de desemantizare a verbului,,a lua


vizavi de de coraorturile logico-semantice i funcionale ale PVS angrenat;
5. Exemplificai cu enunuri plauzibile motivaia variatelor particulariti de desemantizare parial i total a
verbului,,a apuca ca i segment deictic de conceptualizare a PVS drept unitate logico-semantic sintetizatoare;
6. Distingei tipurile de predicate din urmtoarele exemple:Eu vreau s nv, i, Eu vreau s nvei.De vorbit nu
poate vorbi, i, De vorbit nu vorbete;
7. Comentai unitile predicative propuse din punct de vedere a structurii lor
gramaticale, ct i a celei logico-semantice;
8. Prin lurile de atitudine a mai multor savani cu renume mondial argumentai
originea trinomului PVS( a luat i a plecat), n mai multe limbi;
9. n exemplele propuse demonstrai abiliti de discernere a tipurilor de predicate:
De mncat mnca cu poft; de but bea slav Domnului, nu-l ducea la
ureche; de cntat cnta bine; i, de muncit muncea ct trei, da n rest - era
cam anapoda. Ce-i frumos e frumos, n-ai ce zice! s bun ct s bun , dar i
cnd mi ies din srite... A fost cu adevrat om. A fost un an cu lapte. Ei
sunt nite copii ageri la minte;
10. Demonstrai abiliti de analiz i sintez a predicatului/tipurile de predicate
ca parte principal a propoziiei la nivel de shem recapitulativ;
11. n textul propus disecai valorile stilistice ale complementelor
circumstaniale i necircumstaniale.
12. Luai atitudine fa de paradigmatica complementelor circumstaniale, e
posibil un atare complement circumstanial angrenat?;
13. Demonstrai abiliti de analiz structuralist la nivel semantico- imagistic;
14. Demonstrai abiliti divinatorii de lectur expresiv/recital a textelor
literare analizate;
15. Demonstrai abiliti de analiz i sintez a atributului/tipurilor de atribute
ca parte secundar a propoziiei la nivel de shem recapitulativ;
16. Demonstrai abiliti de naintare i susinere a opiunii la nivelul studiului
de caz Rostul cuvintelor nelegate sintactic cu propoziia; Principiul logicosemantic i funcional n sintaxa limbii romne; Valorile stilistice ale
diferitelor tipuri de pri de propoziie.
17. Demonstrai abiliti de analiz i sintez a complementului/tipurilor de
complemente ca parte secundar a propoziiei la nivel de shem
recapitulativ;
18. Demonstrai abiliti analitico-sincretice la nivel recapitulativ de
interdisciplinaritate/transdisciplinaritate n baza cursului dat:Limba romn
contemporan. Sintaxa propoziiei;
19. Descifrai semantismul lexemului SINTAXA, conceptualizai-l, racordndul la obiectul de sudiu al Sintaxei propoziiei ca i drept expresie final a unei culturi
filologice divinatorii n tiinele educaiei.
Am menionat deja, c o cultur a educaiei filologice ca i proces complex de convertire a cogniiei n metacogniie,
trebuie s fie exersat de competene, pe competenele cunoaterii sinelui, i exteriorizrii interiorizrilor sale pline de
mister.
n acest context am insistat n limita posibilitilor asupra integralizrii lor, asupra capacitii de autoreglare,
asupra competenilor de formare continu a unei culturi educaional filologice la disciplina academic -Sintaxa
propoziiei.
Anexa: N1,,Om-orizont al misterelorn contextul disciplinei Sintaxa propoziiei aferent principiului logicosemantic i funcional ne preocup deopotriv dezvoltarea diferitelor tipuri de gndire creativ la nivel de sensibilizare
afectiv, Sintaxa ca i sintez a axei de valori spirituale ascunse n cuvnt,mbinri de cuvinte,propoziii, fraze ,text.
Textul ca i spaiu valoric de formare a individualitii, a stpnitorului de limb literar a statului n care convieuim cu
toii dimpreun...

Simbolistica enigmei:
OM Orizont al misterelor(L. Blga). Centrarea pe OM, ca drept prim valoare vital de complinire/descoperire a

269

sinelui finalitate integr-obiectiv int. Litera M - trei de V: valoare, via, victorie - preponderena sacrului
asupra profanului.
Omul poate fi descoperit doar n spaiul integru al Graierii G, aferent chintesenei sale armonizante/omniprezente.
EU - educaie umanist. Educaia de la persoana I; SEG Spaiul educaional al Graierii. SE din SEG- Standarde
educaionale/ norme de comportament. LA din LAG Liberul arbitru , capacitatea sinelui de a se autoarbitra, de a-i
autocontientiza rosturile, de a se autocomplini/autodescoperi prin satesfacerea nevoii continuii de
depire/autodepire; - liberul arbitru, manivela prim a Gratierii ca i principiu primordial de autodepire/
autodefinire a sinelui; C cultur, competene, calitate,; CEL Cultura educaiei lingvistice; CELA Cultura
educaiei literar- artistice; EU/CEL/A cellalt retroviziunea sinelui inversat, vzut cu ,, cellalt ochi.
Reconsemnarea sinelui ntr-un tot-ntreg senzaional.
Graierea, principiu al axiologiei generale, exprim condiia prim a realizrilor de sine; garantul
integralizrlor/realizrilor armonioase a eului prin raiune i revelaie.
Bibliografie
1.
Butuc Petru, Predicatul angrenat n limba romn, Chiinu, 2004.
2.
Constantinescu-Dobridor Gh. Sintaxa limbii romne, Bucureti, 1998.
3.
Botezatu, Liuba, Graierea principiu/spaiu axiologic global de umanizare a politicii educaionale, n:
Schimbarea Paradigmei n Teoria i Practica Educaional, Materialele Conferinei tiinifice Internaionale,Volumul I,
Chiinu, USM, 2008, p.73-81.
4.
Matca Nicolae, coala gndului, Chiinu,1983.
5.
Popescu tefania, Gramatica practic a limbii romne, Bucureti 2004.
6.
Guu,Vladimir, nvmntul centrat pe competene:Schimbri de paradigm, n:
Schimbarea Paradigmei n Teoria i Practica Educaional, Materialele Conferinei
tiinifice Internaionale,Volumul I, Chiinu, USM, 2008, p.11 -19.
81373.612.2 : 338
MA, Chiroglo O. S.
Comrat State University
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AS A METAPHOR
Abstract in Romanain: Cercetarea metaforei a devenit una dintre cele mai importante direcii in tiinta moderna
cognitivist, care studiaza metafora ca o comparaie simplificat. n cognitivistica modern se considera c metafora
este o operaie fundamental intelectual, un mijloc de cunoatere, structurare, apriciere i explicare a lumii. Articolul
dat este dedicat studierii problemei de dezvoltare economic ca model de metaforizare n economie. Metafora
conceptual influeneaz autocontiina naional, social i personal; aceast formeaza relaiile si poziia personalitii
fa de lume. Personalitatea exprim gndurile sale nu numai cu ajutorul metaforei, persoana deja gndeste metaforic;
omul creaz aceasta lume prin intermediul metaforei. Dezvoltarea economica ca o metafora este investigat conform a
apte tipuri de concepii metaforice.
Abstract in Russian:
, .
,
,
, .
. ,
; .
, ;
. .
Economics is the realized system of human activities related to the production, distribution, exchange, and
consumption of goods and services of a country or other area.[ .., ..
, -- 2004, .299] The composition of a given economy is inseparable from technological
evolution, civilization's history and social organization, as well as from Earth's geography and ecology, e.g. ecoregions
which represent different agricultural and resource extraction opportunities, among other factors. Economy refers also
to the measure of how a country or region is progressing in terms of product.
The word "economics" can be traced back to the word , "one who manages a household", derived
from , "house", and , "distribute (especially, manage)". From of a household or family" but also
senses such as "thrift", "direction", "administration", "arrangement", and "public revenue of a state".
About 14 years ago the irreplaceable Rob Mier [Rob Mier Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development:
Issues in Theory and Practice, New York 1993,p.56] and the well-published Richard Bingham (both based at the
University of Illinois at Chicago and Viet Nam vets) edited an interesting group of articles in a book entitled Theories
of Economic Development: Perspectives From Across the Disciplines, that, in turn, described and applied most of the
theories and models of economic development that existed at the time. These included: cost minimization models,
cluster theories, agglomeration economies, central place theory, product cycle theory, stage/cycle/wave theories, export
base theory, entrepreneurial theories, growth machine models, and many others. Originally, the editors had planned to
synthesize all these perspectives and expound ways in which they could be better applied in the field. Needless to say,

270

given the 51 different interpretative frameworks covered by the articles in the book, this proved to be too ambitious of
an assignment.
The economic developer needs new angles for seeing problems and devising solutions, narratives for
explaining their work, metaphors for inspiring action, and concrete tools for delivering the goods more employment
and a stronger tax base. Consequently, Mier R. and Bingham S. developed seven common (but generally unstated)
metaphors that they believed guided policy and practice and were not hard discrete categories, but fuzzy, alternative
frameworks for understanding and action. [Mier R.Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development: Issues in Theory and
Practice, New York 1993, p.70].The authors also demonstrated how the varied theories fit into different
metaphors. Here are the seven types of metaphorical concepts:
Economic development as problem solving This metaphor was based on the need to limit and prioritize the
data needed to reach a decision. Targeted industry strategies and transportation cost minimization modes are just two
examples of methods within this paradigm. The metaphors general thrust is to focus by defining the types of data
gathering that is truly essential, establishing the nature of the problem or opportunity to be addressed, moving quickly
into action planning and pursuing strategic and tactical courses that avoid conflict. Its chief pitfall is premature closure
defining the nature of the communitys development challenge too quickly and being a development copy-cat, not
innovator or customizer. For e.g. time ; the economical metaphors which express the time in economical
discourse: time account - ; time bill -
.
Economic development as running a business Government is secondary to the process. Organizational and
management thinking is more relevant than economics. You need to be able to speak corporate to succeed. There
are attendant tendencies to over-emphasize the role of capital investment as the most important factor in the
development process, to privilege organizations and persons commanding capital, to work mainly with mainstream
business constituencies, to adopt conventional business climate notions as the lens for viewing development realities, to
emphasize the sanctity of private markets and the importance of elite partnerships. For e.g. movement ; the
act of changing location from one place to another; in economical terminology price move .
Economic development as building a growth machine This perspective sides with the pro-growth factions
in the area most local officials, place-based business interests such as utilities, retail, real estate, bankers, and others.
Export base models and project impact analyses are among its favored tools. Those that are less powerful and are
either run-over or bypassed by growth are rarely among its foremost concerns. For e.g. growth ; this construction
is presented which contains the quantitative rate growth rate. The annual rate at which a variable, such as gross
domestic product or a firm's earnings, has been or is expected to grow; monetary growth ,
company growth .
Economic development as preserving nature and place This metaphor emphasizes the homegrown
economy, smart growth, and local initiative. It is more critical of standard practice than the earlier views. It may have a
social justice vision, a small is beautiful ethos, a nature and heritage preservationist mentality, a not-in-my-backyard
anger. Its pitfalls include: minimizing ties with other localities, regions, and nations, ignoring economies of scale, and
allowing better land use planning to trump equity issues. For e.g. in nature: bull , the general meaning is an adult
male bovine mammal or sometimes in the animal world is the male of certain other large animals, such as the alligator,
elephant, or moose. In the economical terminology it characterize the person or optimistic investors who are presently
predicting good things for the market, and are attempting to profit from this upward movement. bull speculation ; bull spread - ; bull pool , .
Economic development as releasing human potential This metaphor makes up for decades of the fields
neglect of human capital and entrepreneurial initiative. It also focuses more clearly on the fact that development is
ultimately about people and their standard of living and inclusion, not just profits. For e.g. physical abilities
; physical abilities proper to people in different social status, or their ages; every person has
own abilities. In economical terminology due to transfer of the meaning they acquire a new meaning: opinion
consistency .
Economic development as exerting leadership This is a strong undercurrent in development today. Planner
Edward Blakely captures this concept in a simple formula: economic development equals capacity times resources.
And by capacity, he means leadership and organizational strengths. Viewing this mathematically, a c that is less than
one lowers the impact of other resources, such as a good location, a skilled workforce, low energy costs, etc.
Leadership has always been important, but now its shifting from sheer civic boosterism to vision, collaborative and
negotiating skills, reaching out and mobilizing. For e.g. realize o; in general it means to comprehend
completely or correctly. In economical terminology to exchange holdings or goods for money, realized price ; realized profit - .
Development as a quest for social justice A lot of development projects are sold on the basis of aiding those
that are most disadvantaged and struggling. Sadly, few really deliver on this promise. While operating within market
parameters, this view calls for broadening asset ownership and expanding economic opportunities for places and people
left behind. At times, it even embraces conflict as the only way to bust a logjam. The view also tends to amplify the
indigenous development and community capacity and control ideas of some of the other metaphors. Needless to say,
this is a tough row to hoe. Race and class issues come to the fore, along with the need to nurture people power. For e.g.
the profession: plunger ; the person who plunges or dives; in economical terminology it has another semantic
meaning , .
Thus, a given development strategy is not just context dependent or ordained by science; its associated

271

values, stories, vocabulary, and metaphors shape its destiny, its successes and failures. Mier R. and Bingham S. [Mier
R. Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development: Issues in Theory and Practice, New York 1993p.56] remind us that
promoting alternative, better futures is a thread running through all seven metaphors. But to do this with more
effectiveness, environmental sensitivity, and inclusion, developers must increase their mindfulness of the omissions
and biases and politics hidden in these common metaphorical models.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bibliography
.., .. , -- 2004, .299
Mier R. Dilemmas of Urban Economic Development: Issues in Theory and Practice, New York 1993, p.56
Rosch E. Principles of categorization // ognition and categorization. Hillsdale, New York, 1978.
. . : ,
, 1994.
English-Russian Dictionary of Economics and Finance, The School of Economics Press, St.Petersburg, 1993

811.135367.623
Copacinschi Angela, lector superior,
Universitatea Pedagogoc Ion Creang Chiinu, Republica Moldova
CLASA LEXICO-GRAMATICAL A ADJECTIVULUI
SI TRANSPOZITIA SA
The translation usually known as transposition marks the evidence of the functional equality among the elements of the
nature and the diversity inside the phrase. The study is focused on fixing the knowledge about using adjective,
especially it is relationship with different types of transposition. Is that whot we hope that wewe achieved basing on
reference body and other given examples .
Summing up these notices we can say that at least the category of adjective has some similarities through
semantic-pragmatic characteristics, particulary the ability of subdivision. Semantically, adjectives are used to
choracterize a noun destinating a person or an object in terms of quality. It should be noted that the adjective is not the
only way express the quality of an object. French language has multiple ways of highlighting the quality of an object,
for example a noun used in postposition towards the determined term, an adnominal complement, a relative sentence.
,
.
. - ,
,
.
Reprezentanii non-prototipici ai speciilor gramaticale ( categoriile semantico-funcionale, transversalele ) sunt
cteodat considerate drept rezultatele ale unei transpoziii ( le rouge et le noir ) sau ale unei translaii (une robe
prune, une allure peuple ) sau mai mult ale unui transfer (un monsieur bien) ntre dou specii.
S ncepem cu L. Guilbert,, care se inspir direct din conceptele colii de la Geneva, n special de la A.
Sechehaye. Noiunea de transpoziie joac un rol de prim plan, chiar dac ea nu este exploatat la nivel infra-lexical. [
Guilbert, L., 1971: 152].
Fundaia teoretic din gramatica lui L Galichet de fapt se bazeaz pe teoria semantic i lexical a
transpoziiei lui A. Sechehaye.
Influena lui Ch. Bally i a lui A. Sechehaye la aceast tem este printre altele recunoscut n mod explicit
de ctre autor care citeaz procedeie transpozitive ale lui A. Sechehaye [ Sechehaye, A., 1926 : 180 ]. La rndul
lor, Ch.Bally i G. Galichet distinge aspectele sincronic i diacronic n domeniul
transposziiei.
Transpoziiile condiioneaz crearea a noi prepoziii, ceea ce duce cteodat la valori mixte. G. Galichet nu
exploateaz cu adevrat transpoziia la nivel infra-lexical, n afar poate dect n cazul adjectivelor i adverbelor n
ment.
Schimbarea prii de vorbire este o manifestare particular a fenomenului mai general numit transpoziie
funcional. ( Aici termenul transpoziie funcional denot funcia sintactic n mod special. )
Transpoziia funcional demonstreaz corelaia ntre clasele lexico-gramaticale ale cuvintelor ( pri de
vorbire ) i clasele funcionale ale cuvintelor n fraz. Cuvintele i mbinrile de cuvinte care pot ndeplini aceeai
funcie formeaz o clas funcional.
De exemplu, n secvenele: un homme bon, un homme de bont, un homme plein de bont elementele
subliniate exprim acelai sens, realiznd o funcie identic, i aparin aceleiai clase funcionale ( funcia adjectival ).
n ultimele dou cazuri, substantivul bont este transpus n clasa funcional a adjectivelor ( cu ajutorul elementelor
de, plein de ).
Exist un paralelism ntre prile de vorbire, pe de o parte, i funciile cuvintelor, pe de alt parte. Este vorba
despre ntrebuinarea prilor de vorbire n funciile lor secundare, despre ntrebuinarea lor n calitate de forme
suplimentare. Studiul transposiiei funcionale prezint un dublu interes :
a. Interesul teoretic rezid n faptul c transpoziia demonstreaz convingtor asimetria lingvistic,
diferitele raporturi ntre form i coninut.
b. Interesul practic const n faptul c transpoziia funcional deine un loc important n funcionarea
general a limbii, asigurndu-i o mare suplee i o varietate infinit de exprimare.

272

Potrivit opiniei lui L. Tesnire, anume datorit ei, subiectul vorbitor nu rmne niciodat bouche be,
fr a putea termina fraza .[ Tesnire, L., 1959 : 159].
Termenul transpoziie este nterpretat neunivoc. n domeniul gramatical, ne servete pentru a desemna orice
fel de substituire a mijloacelor de exprimare, i anume : a) substituirea formelor morfologice ( de exemplu,
ntrebuinarea viitorului n locul trecutului sau al imperativului );
b) substituirea prilor de vorbire prin exprimarea aceluiai coninut:
il coute attentivement ce quon dit ;
il coute avec attention ce quon dit ;
il coute d une oreille attentive ce quon dit
n limba francez, adjectivul variaz n gen i numr, ns nu dispune, ca atare,de categoria de gen. Genul
adjectivelor este determinat de termenul la care se raport. De fapt, adjectivul depinde totdeauna de un alt termen al
frazei, n mod general, un termen nominal sau pronominal cu care este pus n relaie, i calific, de regul, un nume (
un substantiv ). Adjectivele pot fi simple, marcate printr-un singur cuvnt, sau compuse.
Asemenea predecesorilor si, cunoscutul teoretician A. Sechehaye distinge complementul intrinsec, asociat
calitii exprimate a complementului extrinsec sau relativ, care vehiculeaz raportul ntre dou entiti exterioare una
alteia.
A. Sechehaye [ Sechehaye, A., 1926 : 178 ]. a aprofundat unele aspecte ale teoriei despre transpoziie, emise
de ctre Ch. Bally .a. A. Sechehaye nu pune la ndoial existena transpoziiei, ns limiteaz acest mecanism la trei
tipuri , condiionate de reguli diferite. n acest sens savantul observ :
Este totui sigur c toate aceste cazuri de transpoziie in de resortul derivaiei i al evoluiei semantice i nu
mai este vorba despre transpoziii pure ale unei categorii n alta, ceea ce se confirm, de asemenea. [ Sechehaye, A.,
1926 : 188 ].
Dar ni se pare curios c A. Sechehaye nu aplic acest principiu dect unui numr redus de transpoziii,
dei accept i altele, de ex:
ltoile polaire, victoire romaine ou riposte allie. Drept argunentare, este invocat
capacitatea acestor adjective de a exprima un complement relativ transpus n calitate : une victoire romaine
este o
victorie obinut de ctre romani, dar de asemenea, o victorie care ar conine unele caracteristici calitative absente
pentru o victorie american sau turc.
El susine c adjectivele : lutte antituberculeuse ( contra tuberculosei ), poudre insecticide ( care distruge
insectele ) revin la o categorie cea care implic ideea procesului i care contrar categoriei precedente, transpun
domeniul procesului n cel al calitii.
n lucrrile citate sunt relevate dou valori de ntrebuinare: inerena i relaia, i nu dou categorii de
adjective
Astfel, distincia semantic propus de ctre coala de la Geneva urmeaz cadrul tradiional care separ
adjectivele calificative de adjectivele categoriale, atribuindu-le dou valori semantice diferite. Ori, criteriile semantice
nu sunt suficiente pentru a stabili o nou categorie de adjective.
n orice caz fenomenul lingvistic al transpoziiei ( Ch. Bally ) sau al translaiei ( Tesniere) a suscitat
nencetat atenia specialitilor.
Dei nu insistm s repudiem toate aceste argumentri, vom ncerca s dezvluim poziia noastr n cursul
cercetrii . Este de indicat curentul transformaionalist ai crei exponen au pus la ndoial unele idei ale precursorilor
a) Transpoziia funcional
Analiznd transpoziia funcional n limba francez, observm c tratarea clasic a transferurilor
intercategoriale apare cteodat n limitele conceptelor dezvoltate n cadrul lingvisticii generale geneveze ( Ch. Bally
i H. Frei ). Complexitatea fenomenului o demonstreaz diveri termeni raportai la procesul n cauz: M.Grevisse i
atribuie denumirea de derivare improprie, H. Marchand derivare prin intermediul morfemei zero, Ch.Bally
transpoziie, L.Tesniere translaie sau "conversie".
Dintre termenii semnalai, prevaleaz cel de "derivare improprie ", fr s existe un termen unanim acceptat.
Romanitii rui V.G.Gak i I.S.Stepanov prefer termenul "derivare improprie" celui de "conversie".
. Lingvitii francezi de notorietate F. Brunot, G. Marouzeau, G. Dubois,
E. Benveniste i A. Martinet n volumele Elments de linguistique gnrale [ Martinet, A., 1970:185];
Grammaire foctionnelle du franais
[ Martinet, A., 1985:109 ] descriu fenomenul "derivare improprie", care n concepia tradiional, este un
procedeu de formare a unor uniti lexicale noi, pornind de la un cuvnt de baz, care const fie n antepunerea unor
afixe , fie n postpunerea lor. Prin derivare rezult unitti lexicale simple, pentru c un singur element, constituit prin
acest procedeu, este susceptibil de a fi ntrebuinat n mod autonom n enun n Dicionarul de termeni lingvistici
derivarea este definit drept un procedeu de formare a cuvintelor cu ajutorul formativelor ( formanilor ), al afixelor
(prefixe i sufixe), care se asociaz cu cuvinte-baz sau care sunt suprimate de la acestea, n vederea obinerii unor
uniti lexicale. [Constantinescu, D., 1998: 156 ] n literatura de specialitate se menioneaz derivarea improprie ( sau
regresiv); derivarea parasintetic; derivarea sinonimic (sau semantic). Opiniile cercettorii francezi i romni
vizeaz derivarea lexical n sens larg . A. Martinet distinge dou tipuri de moneme, termen preluat de la H. Frei [
Frei,H., 1963: 427 ]: conjuncte i libere. Monemele conjuncte sunt identificabile ca moneme unice sub orice aspect i
analizabile n dou sau mai multe segmente de sens ce corespund diferenelor formale. De ex. Malpropret ( monemul
mal- + monemul -propre -+ monemul t); salet ( monemul sale-+monemul - t ), etc. Dei monemele ce compun
lit de bb ( ptu ), pot de nuit (oli) se scriu separat unele de celelalte, ele sunt conjuncte, dup cum afirm
A. Martinet. spaiile dintre moneme nu le denot autonomia: , les complexes formes de monmes conjoints seront
dsigns comme des syntmes [idem, p.34]

273

Monemele libere ce formeaz sintagme constituie uniti de baz ale sintaxei. Cercettorul M. Davau,
consider, c unitile lexicale pot trece dintr-o specie n alta, obinnd funcia unui cuvnt care aparine altei specii i
c, schimbndu-i funcia, cuvintele preiau doar o parte nensemnat din caracteristicile morfologice ale cuvintelor, care
au, de obicei funcia nou obinut [ Davau, M., 1949: 199 ].
n consecin variate substantive, adverbe, prepoziii, termeni compui pot constitui adjective invariabile.
Termenul adjective invariabile nu e folosit n toate gramaticile; chiar i moderne care l accept -i restrng
considerabil cmpul de utilizare. n dicionarul publicat anterior - Dictionnaire de la Langue franaise [ Littr et
Beaujean, 1960 :198 ] termenul este limitat la adjectivele de culoare ( marron, groseille,etc...). Lucrrile mai recente
[ Larousse, Quillet, Simont...1960 :198 ] atribuie i lexemelor gagnant, soi-disant...statutul de cuvinte invariabile. M.
Davau remarc utilizrea adjectival a unor substantive: la faade nord [ Davau, M., 1949: 4 ].
b) Transposiia lexical
Dou gramatici integreaz conceptul de transpoziie restringndu-l la domeniul lexical, adic la transferuri
intercategoriale, care afecteaz cuvintele
( considerate izolat ): Larousse, Dauzat .[ Grammaire Larousse, 1991: 147], [ Dauzat, A., 1950: 107].
Autorii gramaticii Larousse indic derivarea improprie, conceput drept o transformare, creia i se asociaz
derivarea ntre categorii, derivare fr schimbarea categoriei gramaticale.
Al treilea tip de derivare cuprinde fluctuaiile ntre subclasele unei singure pri dup cum a remarcat H.Frei. [
Frei, H., 1926 : 102].
Se pare c transpoziia lexical evolueaz spre o interpretare mai sintactic.
Dat fiind faptul c noiunea de transpoziie se bazeaz pe stabilirea unei echivalene funcionale cu prile de
vorbire de baz problema n discuie continu s fie abordat n numeroase gramatici.
Bibliografie
1. Conatantinescu Dobridor Gheorghe, Dicionar de termeni lingvistici, Editura Teora, Bucureti, 1998.
2. Dauzat A. Phontique et grammaire historique de la langue
franaise. Paris, 1950.
3. Davau M., Adjectifs invariables.In Le franais moderne .Paris : 1949, XVII.
4. Frei H., Le signe de Saussure et le signe de Buisens, in Lingua, nr.12, 1963, p. 427.
4. Grammaire Larousse, Paris, 1991.
5. Guilbert,L. De la formation des units lexicales.Paris :1971.
6. Larousse, Dictionnaire de la langue franaise. Paris: 1960.
7. Littr E., Dictionnaire De La Langue Franaise.Abrg Par A. Beaujean. Rvision Et Mise Jour De L dition de
Littre, 1960
7. Martinet A., Elments de linguistique gnrale, Editions Denoel, Paris, Hachette, 1983.
8. Martinet A., Grammaire fonctionnelle du franais , Editions Denoel, Paris, Hachette, 1985.
9. Sechehaye,A. Essai sur la structure logique de la phrase.Paris :1926
10.Tesnire, L.Elments de syntaxe structurale.Paris :1959.
81367.623-115:811.135:811.133.1:811.131.1
Copacinschi Angela,
enseignant-chercheur la Facult de Langues et Littratures
Etrangrs , Universit Pdagogique d Etat Ion Creang , Chiinu, Moldova.
TANGEANCES ENTRE LA TRANSPOSITION DE L ADJECTIF DANS LA
LANGUE ROUMAINE, FRANCAISE ET ITALIENNE
REZUMAT
Translaia cum deseori este numit transpoziia, reprezint evidenierea echivalenelor funcionale ntre elemente de
natur divers n cadrul frazei . Acest studiu are drept obiectiv de a fixa cunotinele despre ntrebuinarea adjectivului
relaional i n special, relaia sa cu diferite tipuri de transpoziie. Este ceea ce noi sperm c am realizat n baza
corpusului de referine i ale exemplelor furnizate.
Din aceste observaii rezult c cel puin categoria adjectivului relaional are tangene prin trsturile semanticopragmatice, n particular prin capacitatea sa de sub-categorizare.
Cercetarea prezent sub forma unei atitudini, unui sistem de aciuni, unei strategii, unui obiectiv. La etapa empiric
am ncercat s clarificm problematica raportului ntre adjectiv i adverb, adverb i substantiv, mecanismul transpoziiei
acestor pri de vorbire n limbile francez i cea romn.
Il est connu que les mots sont groups en parties de discours, tenant compte de leurs sens lxico-smantique.
Les mots adverbialiss mis en discussion plus loin obtiennent un sens nouveau, identique ou synonyme avec celui des
adverbes ou des locutions adverbiales. Donc, ces mots, tant dhabitude des mots diffrents au sens mais ayant une
prononciation identique dans la langue roumaine, peuvent tre considrs, juste titre des homonymes lxicogrammaticaux.
En ce qui concerne leur prsentation dans les dictionnaires, pratiquement, il serait juste, selon F. Cotelnic [ 2,
p.85 ] , classifier les adjectifs adverbialiss dans des catgories spars ou au moins daprs la valeur dans le cadre de
larticle respectif, parce quon a constat quils ont subi des transformations dordre lxical et grammatical. Les
exemples extraits et puis analyss confirment le fait que pas tous les adjectifs participent la formation des adverbes de
mode. On a mentionn, que dans la majorit des cas subissent ladverbialisation les adjectifs qualificatifs. Les adjectifs

274

de relation ne sadverbialisent jamais : ciobnesc, fresc, etc.


En mme temps, il est difficile de trouver la limite entre les adjectifs de relation et les adjectifs qualificatifs.
Dans la langue roumaine on cite une srie de ces adjectifs ( au sens de relation et au sens qualificatif ) : jalnic, zilnic,
mainal, categoric, minuios, pitoresc, eroic, punctual, surprinztor, bucuros, dureros, energic, punctual, surprinztor,
dureros, fantastic, liniar, minunat, milos, metalic, sntos, raional, tangenial, prietenos, cronologic, periodic,
groaznic, statutar.
Iat cele dinti csue, care atrn pitoresc pe coastele Chetricici, ca nite capre. (A.Russo )
De odat o lumin, fantastic, izbucnete
Din zecenali mesteacni cu fruntea nflcrat.
( V. Alexandri )
Dans la langue roumaine contemporaine, la plupart des substantifs sans prposition, qui sont passs dans la catgorie
des averbes, ont t lorigine des comparaisons ou des constructions prpositionnelles. Cet emploi est facile
reconnatre :
Le clbre linguiste F. Cotelnic remarque des formations du type: a dormi ca un butean, a tcea ca chiticul, a pleca
ca sgeata, a zbura ca glontele, a se ntinde ca struna, a se ridica ca un perete, a se ine ca scaiul, a sta ca bul, a
edea ca stlpul, a cdea ca peatra, a tremura ca varga, a se strnge ca o pung, a luci ca oglinda, a lega ca un
burduf, a se nira ca un lan, a se duce ca un vrtej, nflat ca o dob, des ca mtura, rou ca jraticul, negru ca un
corb, drept ca aa, rou ca sfecla, negru ca tciunea, singur ca un cuc, etc. [2, p. 13]
Dans les expressions suivantes cits de la langue italienne le deuxime lment prsente des cas de
transposition du substantif. Dans la langue italienne le substantif obtient la function adjectivale. Il est ncessaire d
oprer avec la distinction entre le plan structural et celui smantique Dans la langue italienne. La prposition da est
moins frquente que la prpozition di Suivons les exempleles:
Una speciale crema che dia alla calvizie artificiale la bella levigattezza di una palla di biliardo ( Tempo 29 avril 64.,
p.3)
Sul tavolino di toeletta, prendi qualche moneta dal mio borselino ( Dom.del Corr. 23 aout 64, p.34)
Guardate i suoi occhi: sono occhi da ragno velenoso, occhi di tarantola. ( La stmpa15 mars 64, p. 11,3)
Una della dame inizia le danze con un cappello da cow-boy in testa. Oggi 16 juillet 64, p.24,2)
In riposo, John Wazne porta il berretto da ammiraglio, come nel film che sta girando ( Epoca 30 aout 64, p.54) .[ 1,
p.166 ]
Paralllement au passage des adjectifs dans la classe des adverbes, dans la langue roumaine les adverbes eux-mmes
passent dans la classe des substantifs. La fonction habituelle de ceux-ci est celle de complment circonstanciel. Selon
lavis de F.Cotelnic [ 2, p.102 ], ladverbe peut avoir les mmes fonctions syntaxiques que le substantif (sujet,
complment, direct ou indirect, attribut, partie nominale du prdicat)
C est surtout la modification de la fonction de circonstanciel ( spcifique pour l adverbe ) vers celle de sujet et de
complment ( spcifique pour le substantif ) qui constitue un des motifs principaux qui ont contribu la
substantivation des adverbes. Il est vraie que parfois ladverbe substantiv peut accomplir la fonction de circonstanciel.
Comparons :
De undeva, de departe, dintr-un ieri
On suppose, que dans ce cas ladverbe substantiv un ieri en fonction de complment circonstanciel de lieu,
premirement a eu la fonction de sujet et de complment. Donc, lopinion de lacadmicien A.A. Sahmatov que
chaque partie de discours en fonction de sujet et de complment peut tre transforme en substantif confirme la
thorie de la substantivation des adverbes.
Un sujet connu par les autres constitue le fait que ladjectif est li avec le substantif par les deux catgories ;
celle de genre et de nombre , et aussi syntaxiquement .Ce qui distingue les uns et les autres est capable de provoquer des
divergeances considrables. Car, comme le souligne T. Lambertz [ 5, p. 222 ] la fonction syntaxique dun terme
nest pas seulement en rapport avec sa catgorie syntaxique, mais aussi avec son statut syntaxique .
Lanalyse directe des phnomnes linguistiques qui est, en fait une totalit dactions orientes
ltude et la solution du problme pos, nous permet de continuer par laffirmation que pas tous les adjectifs ont la
forme de genre et de nombre, mais la possibilit de saccorder est un indice important de ladjectif comme partie du
discours, qui permet de dlimiter ladjectif de ladjectif en fonction adverbiale.
On rappelle dans ce contexte la dlimitation entre les adjectifs qualificatifs et les adjectifs de relation qui se
ralise selons le critre fonctionnel et smantique et permet le passage des adjectifs de relation dans la classe des
adjectifs qualificatifs, spcialement laide de ladverbe dintensit ; trs franais, trs parisien, plus dmocrate.
La transposition nest pas exprime chaque fois par un facteur extrieur, la variation du sens de ladjectif parfois est
conditionne dun contexte plus large, mais la possibilit demploi de ladverbe dans ce contexte peut servir comme
critre de distribution principal.
C. Kerbrat - Orecchioni [ 7, p. 95 ] qui tudie les traits caractristiques des adjectifs dans son ouvrage :
nonciation . De la subjectivit dans le langage. . Elle divise les adjectifs en deux grands groupes ,
objectifs et
subjectifs . Selon elle, cette opposition est cruciale. Un adjectif peut appartenir plusieurs classes de
subjectivit, les limites entre les catgories ntant pas strictes. Il est possible que les adjectifs lintrieur

275

dun mme groupe soient chargs dune dose plus ou moins forte de subjectivit .
Sur laxe objectif subjectif , ladjectif de couleur jaune est plus subjectif que adjectif clibataire (voir tableau
1, ci-dessous) mme si deux adjectifs figurent dans la mme catgorie des adjectifs objectifs. De cette manire,
les adjectifs subjectifs - (petit,e et bon,ne) ne sont plus chargs de la mme dose de subjectivit.
En rgle gnrale, certains adjectifs impliquent les choses dune manire plus forte que les autres. Autrement
dit, les adjectifs subjectifs marquent lopinion dun locuteur plus fortement que les adjectifs objectifs.
Le tableau suivant illustre bien cette opposition graduelle objective- subjective.
Tableau 1.
Objectif
Subjectif
Clibataire

Jaune

Petit,e

Bon,ne

C. Kerbrat-Orecchioni constate que sa thorie nest pas une analyse fine du systme smantique des adjectifs.
Elle propose simplement de montrer quil convient de distinguer plusieurs catgories dadjectifs subjectifs.
Tableau 2.
Adjectifs
Subjectifs
Evaluatifs
Affectifs

Poignant,
Drle,
pathetique

Non- axiologiques

axiologiques

Grand
Loin,
Chaud,
Nombreux,

Bon,
Beau,
Bien,

Dans sa thorie C. Kerbrat Orecchioni se concentre sur les diffrentes classes subjectives et parle trs
peu des adjectifs objectifs.
Elle se contente de mentionner que les adjectifs objectifs dterminent les entits dont la signification ne peut
pas tre nie, par exemple , la situation familiale (clibataire, mari) et le sexe (mle, femelle).
Le sens de ces adjectifs est incotestable, un individu est soit homme soit femme, il est mari ou non. C.
Kerbrat- Orecchioni regroupe aussi les adjectifs de couleur dans la catgorie des adjectifs objectifs :
Tableau 3.
Adjectifs
Objectifs
Clibataire /
Mle /

mari

femelle

En gnral, les lements smantiques objectifs refltent les proprits de lobjet. On utilise les
adjectifs objectifs dans le discours qui ne supporte pas lintrpretation, par exemple les noncs
lexicogaphiques tels que les dfinitions de dictionnaire. Selon D. Maingueneau .[ 6, p. 200 ] le caractre objectif
dun adjectif, si on le dfinit par rapport lacte de lnonciation, peut tre dfini ainsi : les proprits tre
bleu , tre rond , sont dfinissables indpendamment de toute nonciation particulire et permettent de dlimiter
des classes (les livres bleus constituent un sous-ensemble des livres) . Par contre, Maingueneau affirme que les
adjectifs subjectis ne sintrprtent qu lintrieur de lnonciation singulire dans laquelle ils figurent : la classe des
objets poignants, beaux, charmants ... ne prexiste pas lacte de lnonciation ; ne sont poignants, charmants que les
objets dits tels par lnonciateur au moment ou il sexprime
D. Maingueneau est davis que les adjectifs objectifs ont une fonction descriptive. Par exemple, dans
la phrase Jean est blond cest ladjectif blond qui range Jean dans la classe des individus blonds.
En revanche, les adjectifs subjectifs renvoient un jugement personnel de lnonciateur ( par exemple
Jean est beau ). De la proposition, Jean est blond il est plus facile de dire si elle est vraie ou fausse, sauf situation
trs particulire, que de la proposition Jean est beau . Gnralement, il est assez facile de distinguer les adjectifs
objectifs qui dterminent les entits dont la signafication ne peut pas tre nie.Certains adjectifs posent quand mme des
problmes.Les adjectifs de couleur pourraient tre regroups dans certains contextes sous les adjectifs subjectifs. Par
exemple :ladjectif vert,e ajoute son objet une nuance positive quand il dsigne les ides cologiques. Dans ce cas-l
on ne pense pas la couleur verte mais lidologie laquelle on a donn la couleur de la nature : Helsinki est une
ville verte Littralement, le mot objectif peut tre dfini de la manire suivante: Qui fait rfrence la
ralite extrieure indpendante des consciences .
Bibliographie

276

1. Carlsson L. Le degr de cohsion des groupes subst + de + subst en franais contemporain. Avec examen comparatif
des groupes correspondantes de l italien et de l espagnol. Uppsala, 1966.
2. Cotelnic F. Adverbializarea numelui, 1968, p. 85.
3. Cotelnic F. Conversia unitilor lexicale, 1980, p.102.
4. Frei H. La grammaire des fautes, 1929, p. 90.
5. Lambertz T. Translation et dpendance, 1995, p. 222. apud : Monneret Ph. Exercices de linguistique, 1999, p.
358.
6. Maingueneau D. Le discours littraire . Traduction par Muresan Nicoleta-Loredana Academica, 2007, p. 200.
7. .http://www.esnips.com/doc/cd4ac6f4-48c7-467e-8741-e6aaa5f28634/Kerbrat- Orecchioni---La-enunciacion.-Dela-subjetividad-en-el-lenguaje-(prologo-y-I)
- 811.1110136
DECEVA ELENA
Lecturer, PHD Candidate
Comrat State University
ABOUT MULTIPLE GRAMMATICAL NEGATIVES IN OLD ENGLISH
Abstract in Russian:

.
VIII .
.
.
The Old English poem Beowulf is considered representative of types of negative expressions found in Old
English at the beginning of the eighth century. The mode of negative expression in the poem has been cited as evidence
for establishing Beowulf as an Anglian poem of about 725 A.D.
Multiple grammatical negatives within the same clause is a common syntactic feature of Old English. In addition
to the negative particle ne 'not', which precedes the finite verb, the negative occurs with indefinite quantifiers and
adverbs such as nning 'none', nalles 'not at all', and nfre 'never'. A morphological form identical to the preverbal
particle ne precedes other parts of the sentence and also functions as a conjunction to connect short phrases and entire
clauses.
Klima's rules for Modern English cannot generate multiple grammatical negatives in the same clause, since the
occurrences of such forms produce a non-permissible sequence, 'I did not see nobody.' The phrase structure component
of the grammar has been expanded to account for these multiple surface negative forms. The additional negative
morpheme in examples (1) and (2) is homophonous with the preverbal particle ne 'not':
(1) n g lafnesword/ gfremmendra gearwe ne wisson [1, 7]
'not you do not know the permission of warriors at all'
(2) N ic te Swoode sibbe oe trowe/ wihte ne wne [1, 85]
'not I do not expect either peace or trust from the Swedes'
Citation (1) is preceded in the text by a negative clause which contains the negated manner-degree adverb n 'not at all'. The ne
before the subject pronoun may be analyzed as the negative conjunction (see below). A similar interpretation for ne in (2) is hardly
possible, since the clause in which the ne stands as the head word initiates a new thought, not logically the continuation of the preceding
clause. The use of the ne 'not' in the two citations above appears to pick out and negate the subject for emphatic reasons. The clause is
sufficiently negated by the presence of the negative morpheme before the finite verb. The initial ne in (9) discussed below receives a
similar analysis. The emphasis is indicated in the semantic layer as well as the syntactic deep structure of the three-level pattern for (2) as
an example:
(2) C

II

ne ic
ne wene
The negative morpheme used before object noun phrases as in (3) is not emphatic:
(3) r him nnig wter wihte ne sceede,/ n him for hrfsele hrnan ne mehte [1, 44]
'there no water did not harm him at all, and was not able to reach him because of the roofed hall'
Like (1) above, the n here functions as the conjunction 'and not' since the preceding clause contains a negative particle before the
finite verb.
The morpheme ne before the pronominal form he 'they' functions as a conjunction to connect two co-ordinate negated clauses, a
syntactic structure similar to (4).
(4) ne wiston he Drihten God,/ n he hru heofena Helm herian ne con [1, 6]
*'they did not know the Lord God, nor did they not know how to praise the protector of Heaven'
The negative morpheme ne as conjunction is not the only means of joining negated co-ordinate clauses. The conjunction ner
'and not' is used once in the text of Beowulf with the same syntactic and semantic properties as the connective ne.
(5) Ner h hine ne mston, syan mergem cwm/ dawerigne Denia lode/ bronde forbrnan, n on bl hladan [1, 61]

277

'and they did not have the opportunity to burn up the dead Danes with fire when morning came, nor put them on the funeral pyre'
Both conjunctions require that the negative particle ne be repeated before the finite verb in each of the clauses. In the clause
introduced by ner in (5) the negative particle appears before the finite verb, the modal mston; the finite verb is not
repeated in the second abbreviated clause, which contains the infinitive complement hladan 'to put'. Here the AUX is
deleted in the surface form. In examples (4), (1), and (3) with the conjunction ne, the second clause contains the full
predicate, because the verbal concept is not identical in both clauses. The choice of one conjunction ne over another,
ner, does not seem to be determined by syntactic or semantic considerations.
The negative ne also joins units smaller than clauses. In examples (6) and (7) ne 'and not' connects concepts
whose semantic interpretations establish the limits within which the negated verb ranges.
(6) tte s n nor be sm twonum/ ofer eormengrund er nnig / under swegles begong slra nre [1,
25]
'that neither south nor north, between the two seas over the spacious earth, under the expanse of the heavens
there was not none better'
(7) t r nig mon / wordum n worcum wre ne brce [1, 32]
'that there anyone neither with words nor deeds did not break the treaty'
These two citations illustrate the correlative conjunctive function of the particle ne. The first of the two concepts
which the negative connects is not preceded by a negative; one negative suffices for such short phrases.
If to generalize all the above said, we can conclude that negative sentences in Old English could be composed of
several negative elements. Such constructions are called polinegative. Polinegative in an Old English phrase was
created by combining the negative particle ne and negative pronouns, negative adverbs or negative conjunctions.
By the end of the Old English period, another emphatic negative particle naht (noht) appears from the former
negative pronouns. Thus, by the end of the period ne naht (noht) acts as a double negation with a verb more often.
Amplifying negative particles were added to a verb, when there were no other negative elements but the verb in the
sentence.

References:
1. By Anonymous, Beowulf Herausgegeben von Alfred Holder, II a, Academische Verlagsbuhhandlung von
J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) Freiburg i. B. und Leipzig, 1895, P. 187
2. By Anonymous, Beowulf - in Old English and New English ed. by James, H. Ford, translated by Frances
B., - First Ed., - Gummere, El Passo Norte Press, - the USA, July 2005, P. 244.
811.512.165-115
Dr. Gll KARANFL
BAKA DLLERN GAGAUZ DLN ETKS HEM ETKNN GETRD PROBLEMALAR

, , ,
. , ,
. ,
, , , , ,
.
Taa 12 asird yaayan birinci trkolog Mahmut Kakarl trk dillerini aaratrarkan, yazm, ani bir dialekt
br dialekttn taa pak, nk o halk sapa bir yerd yar, da komuu halklarlan gidip-gelmeer, ona gr d pak
saylr [1, 58]. Bn temiz dil yok! Laflarn dildn dil gemesi normal bir i saylr. Dil geler o halk iin yabanc
hem yeni predmetlerin, annaylarn adlar, onnar benimsem proesindn geer da dil uygunnar. Leksika
alnmalarndan dil hi bir zarar gelmeer. Ama aan bir teritoriyada, bir blged kullanlr, iki (bilingvizma) yada
dil, da gegemonnuk eder bir dil, o zaman br dillr etki altnda kalr, da onnarn diil sade leksikasna, ama ansora
fonetikasna da, orfoepiyasna da, sintaksisin d yabanc elementlr girer. Dilin kaavi aaratrma bazas var sa o
yabanc elementlr kabledilmeer, benimsenmeer, dildn uuradlr. Dil eterinc aaratrlmasa, yada yufka bilim
adamnarnnan aatrlarsa o kableder yabanc elementleri, da dild bozukluklar peydalanr.
Bn bu durumda gagauz dili durr. Gegemonnuk eder blged rus dili. Elbetki, gegemon dil taa ok
aaratrld iin hem sk kullanld iin lzm olr kimi nemni (retmk kiyatlarnda gramatika kurallar, masmediyada kullanlan deyimnr hem ayr - ayr cmlelr) yada az nemni (iki yada birka insann lafetmesind
kullanlan deyimnr) tekstleri evirm gagauz dilin.
Bir dildn baka dil evirirkn yaplan yannlklar iin isteerim annatmaa. lkin lzm annamaa, ani rus dili
slavn grupas aylesin girer, moldovan dili roman dil grupasna, gagauz diliys trk dili aylesin. Artk burada
annalr, ani bu dillerin kuruluu, gramatika sistemas taman baka-baka. Teksti bir dildn br dil evirirkn lzm

278

pek kuku olmaa, lzm evirm o cmnenin maanasn minimum maana kaymalarnnan. Ama rus dilindn gagauz
dilin cmleyi olduu gibi, baka trl desk, sz ba sz evirsk, bu olr kalka yolunnan bir evirmk. Bu kalka yolu
bozr dili, hem de korkulu duruma koyr dilin gramatika sturkturasn, rnek:
1. dem istrkn, yaamur gider deynnr var, dooru olacek yaamur yaayr;
2. dem istrkn bk saa ol deynnr var, dooru olacek ok saa ol;
3. dem istrkn ev kulturas deynnr var, dooru, elbetki, kultura evi;
4. c dem istrkn eni yllan deyennr var, dooru, elbetki yeni yl kutluca olsun
5. dem istrkn redici gagauz dilind hem literaturada sleynnr
var, dooru, elbetki gagauz dili hem literaturas redicisi
Bu trl yannlklar yapr rusa dnp, gagauza sleyn kii. Bunu da sleyelim, ani kasabalarda yaayan
universitet bitirmi insannarn, aydnnarn beki 90-95% rusa dner.
Kalka yolunnan yaplan birka rnek:
1.
2.

DICIONAR GAGAUZO (TURKO) - ROMIN gagauzaya sz ba sz, Laflk gagauzca (trk) hem romnca
(moldovanca), ama dooru olaceyd, Gagauza (trk) hem romnca (moldovanca) laflk [2, 192].
Dan este mai nalt dect Oktavian. evirilm Dan taa balaban nekadar Oktavian, dooru olaceyd, Dan
Okraviandan taa balaban.

Biz lzm toplanmaa, biz lzm yapmaa gibi lafbirlemelerin ancak Komratta rasgeldim. Yanatralm rusaylan
, gen greriz, ani kalka yoluylan dzelmi. Dooru olacek biz lzm
toplanalm, biz lzm yapalm, nic d deerlr baka klerd.
Gagauzada z laflar lzm gelsin adet laflarn nn, Tretyakov sokaa, Bk sokak, Oglan trks, Ana
sz gazetas h.b., t nic d bn lafeder insan klerd
Kiyatlarda, TV-d, gazetalarda dayma bu tip bir yannlk yaplr, gen gagauzaya cevirildiin gr: Rusada bu
i olr tersin. retmk kiyatlarmzda bl yazr, uaklar bl rediler, bl d lafediler.
1. iird rek avtor gsterer... ( rek ). Dooru olacek rek
iirind avtor...
2. M .akirin kiyadnda Gagauzlar: istoriya, adetlr, dil hem din... ( . Gagauzlar: istoriya,
adetlr, dil hem din...). Dooru olacek M. akirin Gagauzlar: istoriya, adetlr, dil hem dinkiyadnda
3. Senaya kr vokal- instrumental grupa Serin su ( Serin su). Dooru olacek,
Senaya ikr Serin su vokal- instrumental grupas.
4. ...Trk hem oyun ansamblisi Dz ava. Dooru olacek Dz ava Trk hem oyun ansamblisi
5. Gneik. Dooru olacek Gneik uak baas
6. Fidanck. Komrattak reabilitaiya merkezi Fidanck sleerlr,
dooru olacek Fidanck Komrat reabilitaiya merkezi.
7. O (O) Meras, dooru olacek, Meras Cmn Topluluu
retmk kiyatlarnda bu trl yannlklar yaplr:
1. Aderlik kim yazlr... ( kim ..) Dooru olacek Kim aderlii yazlr...;
2. lik oturmaa yazlr... Dooru olacek Oturmaa ilii yazlr...;
3. Ses T dner ses D ( T D). Dooru olacek T sesi dner D sesin;
4. Komrattak litey 23,( 23). Dooru olacek 23-c Komrat Lieyi;
Yukardak rneklr olr dooru hem dilimizin strukuras bakmndan hem trkologiya bakmndan.
Bizim ofiial blanklarmzda da yannlklar yaplr, var nasl dem, ani 98% i yerlerin adlarnda (tablolarda)
yannlklar var.
kolalarda, alfaviti redirkn yannlk yaplr, universitetlerd d doorudulmr.
Gagauz dilinin , , zl sesleri yann rediler [ya], [yo], [yu], bu da, elbetki, uaklara zorluk
yaradr yazakan, rnek, yaamurun yerin mur yazrlar, yol lafnn yerin l, yukar yerin kar, uyumaa yazrlar
umaa h.b. Sanrm bu yannlk lzm en ksa zamanda doorudulsun.
kolalarda, univeritetlerd rediln taa bir yannlk var. Bu yannlk ansora kullanlr TV-d Radioda
kiyatlarda hem ofiial konumalarda. Ne yazk ki, ansora normal bir hal oldu.
1. Tuna derenin yannda. Lzm olsun Tuna deresinin yan, nk Tuna deresi izafettir. Saabilik halna btn
izafeti lzm koyalm, (biz yok nasl paralayalm izafeti). Ona gr biz hallandrrkan Temel hal Tuna deresi,
saabilik halnda da olacek Tuna deresinin yannda, ama diil Tuna derenin yannda.
2. Moldova Respublikann parlamenti. Hep bu trl, Moldova Respulikasnn parlamenti dooru olacek;
3. Gagauz dilin gramatikas..., temel hal gagauz dili bu formaya eklener -nin saabilik haln afiksi. Olr Gagauz
dilinin gramatikas...;
4. Gagauz literaturann aaratrmaclar lzm olsun gagauz literaturas+nn aaratrmaclar;
5. gagauz resimcileri+nin tablolar dooru olacek;
6. Valkane kasabann yaayannar. Dooru olacek, Valkane kasabasnn yaayannar.
Yukardak rnekler baksak, annrz, ani kullanlan yann formalarn saabilik afiksini alsak, lafbirlemelerin
maanasz kaldn greriz: Moldova Respublika, gagauz literatura, Valkane kasaba. Bu da gsterer, ani kullanlan
forma yann. Taa bir fakt o, ani klerd insan dooru lafeder, hem d 1933-c ylda yazya alnan M.akirin kiyadnda
da teklif olunan forma kullanlr [4] .
Bir sra dnn dillerind var bir merakl baalayc (este, sint moldovan dilind; ist, sind alman dilind, is
ingilisd; yada (tire) ruada). O gagauzada da dr, - dir, -dur, -dr \\ -tr, - tir, tur, -tr afiksind kendini

279

gsterer. rnek, alm. Die Kinder sind unsere Zukunft, rus. () , gag. Uaklar bizim
geleceemizdir. Bu afiksi bn kullansam, Trkiy trkesind lafeder sleyeceklr, nk o dild siirek kullanlr, ama
zamanda dild, insannarn lafetmesind var. Taman kaybelmedi. Bu afiks pek sk razgeleriz folklorumuzda, M.
akirin Gagauzlar: istoriya, adetlr, dil hem din kiyadna: Besarabiyal kolonistlerin ba koloniyasdr, en ann
kydr Komrat [2, s.60], Gagauzlar diildir grek [2, 73]. Hep bu kitapta Avdarmal Vladimir Kasmn M. akir
yazd kutlama kiyadnda da bu afiks razgeleriz: Faydalayalm biz bu gn, ani l anndr Canabiniz iin... [ 2, 94].
Aklamaa istediim, taa bir forma var. Bu formalar gsterer zanaat, yada ofiial yazlar.
Dooru olacek:
Yann olacek:
1. Gagauz Yeri bakan
Gagauz Yerin bakan
2. Halk topluu ba
Halk topluun ba
3. Bilim merkezi mdr
Bilim merkezin mdr
4. Filologiya bilimneri doktoru
Filologiya bilimnerind doktor
5. Gagauz arab yortusu
Gagauz arabn yortusu
6. Gagauz filologiyas kafedras
Gagauz filologiya kafedras.
Durgunalm bitki rnekt. Gagauz filologiya kafedras lafbirlemesini yann hesap ederim, nein ki, gagauz
dilind gagauz filologiya deyimi annalmr, annalr gagauz filologiyas bu bir izafettir, biz yok nasl
paralayalm izafeti, ona gr izafet yamanr isteniln baka bir laf, bizim durumda kafedra sz yamanr, da dooru
olr gagauz filologiyas kafedras.
Taa ileri d konumalarmda slrdim, ani gagauz gramatikasnn bir ksm, taa ok sintaksisi, rus
gramatikasna gr kurulmutur. renmk kiyatlarnda reniciler belliliki dal cmleleri redirkn kiyatlarn trl
rneklrln: Kafadarm, angs avtobustan indi, bana yaklat [3, 65]. Bizim ddularmz, malilerimiz butrl
lafetmeer. Sanrm, taa dooru olacek, Avtobustan inn kafadarm, bana yaklat. Rus gramatikasna uymaa deyni,
nein s zoruna yapma cmlelr kurulr da uroklarda istr-istemz bu yapma cmlelr kullanlr. Ama ddularmz,
malilerimizi seslesk biz dooru formalar bulacez. Onnar bu yapma formalar kullanmr.
ngilised, hem moldovancada bu (rus. ) bukvas, iki trl yazlr, kk bukvaylan yazarsak i, bk
bukvalarlan yazarsak I yazlr, rnek, DICIONAR, moldovanca dikionar okunr. Gagauz dilind var I (rus. ) hem
(rus. ) bukvalar. ki ayr ses, iki ayr bukva. Ama pek ok ofiial yazlarda (gerbmzda da) () bukvasn yerin I ()
yazl, rnek, GAGAUZ YERI, GAGAUZIYA, hem t.b.
Bu yannlklar girdi gagauz dilin baka dillerin etkisindn. Bizim dilimizin kendi fomalar var, baka dillerin
strukturas biz yabancdr. Bitkid dem isteerim, ani bu yannlk problemalarn bn artk yldr kaldrrm,
universitet retmennerinnn, TV hem radio jurnalistlerinnn diskusiyalarda, redicilr iin yaplan kurslarda,
universitett, saatlarm varkan, student auditoriyalarnda, ama dilin gramatikas diil bir kiinin ii.
Sanrm, ani bu tekliflr lzm alnsn hesaba, baka dil aaratrmaclarnnan dnlsn, dartlsn da
kabuledilrs etitirilsin kola redicilerin.
Bizim sintaksisimiz, hem diil salt sintaksisimiz, kaybelmedn lzm k-k gezilip toplansn, son 40-50
ylda yabanc dillerdn geln gramatika elementleri lzm dildn kaldrlsn.
Kullanlan literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.

Kakarl M. Divanonu-lgat-it- trk tercmesi: I-IIIc., Ankara, 1939 -1940


akir M. Gagauzlar: istoriya, adetlr, dil hem din. Kiinev, Pontos, 2007, 194 s.
Bankova .D., Baboglu ..,Stoletnya A.., Vasilioglu K.K., Baboglu N.. Gagauz dili hem literatura, 9 klas,
tiina, 2010, 302 s.
Viaa Besarabiei rev., septembrie 1933

CZU 8127:811.135 (478 )


Mihailov M., Cuitaru N.
LIMBAJ I MULTICULTURALITATE
Ce poate fi mai frumos n viaa unui popor dect s vezi pe nvins ridicndu-se de jos, plin de praful luptei, cu obrazul
mbujorat de ruinea nfrngerii spre a spune: nfrngerea mea a fost fcut cu voia puterilor de sus n folosul
neamului meu.
N.Iorga


, . ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
Summary
The problem of interoperability and interchange of contacting ethnic traditions concerns all areas of culture,

280

including language. Dialogue, being an organic part of the developed and complex common cultural environment,
represents special interest.
It speaks that dialogue provides the means of disclosing deep essence, the separate person, and mentality of
whole world, a way of development of riches of universal culture.
Actual i pasionant, complex i n continu dezvoltare, tema contactului dintre culturi se impune cercetrii
tiinifice ca un cmp de ample i profunde reflexii teoretice, ipoteze i paradigme despre realiti trite sau prezente,
dar i ca o viziune cu nebnuite i insuficient sondate implicaii practice, politice i culturale pentru viaa unui popor, a
unui grup sau a unor indivizi. Ideea contactului dintre culturi s-a constituit ca o tem de studiu ca rezultat al unor
frmntri i cutri tiinifice personale, al nevoii de a da rspuns problemelor ridicate de cercetarea nemijlocit a
comunitilor i grupurilor umane cu populaie etnic mixt.
Care este locul contactului dintre culturi n formarea unei contiine umane mai responsabile? Prin contactul
dintre culturi devin oamenii mai contieni c mprtesc numai o mic planet n univers, c de ei depinde nflorirea
sau degradarea naturii, curmnd astfel nu numai viaa speciei umane, dar i viaa planetei?
Vom ncerca s tratm cultura ca acel mediu n care oamenii triesc i nva s devin oameni, nsuindu-i
regulile i simbolurile sociale; cultura ca mod de via distinctiv exprimat n trsturi de comportament nvate,
mprtite i transmise din generaie n generaie sub form de motenire social, obiceiuri i tradiii. ntr-o accepie
dintre cele mai largi, cultura este definit ca sistem de valori materiale i spirituale prin care oamenii au rspuns la
problemele existenei, de la obinerea hranei pn la creaiile artistice, tiinifice, filosofice. Corespunztor acestor
semnificaii ale culturii, contactul dintre culturi poate fi definit ca acel complex de fenomene i procese ce au loc cnd
oameni de diferite culturi, cu moduri de via, de gndire i de aciune distinctive, intr n relaii directe, frecvente i de
lung durat, cu consecine mai mult sau mai puin profunde asupra personalitii individului sau a colectivitii.
Conceptul de contact dintre culturi sau aculturaie are o multitudine de semnificaii n literatura antropologic
i sociologic i anume: aspect al dinamicii culturale; moment al universalizrii civilizaiilor; contact ntre grupuri mari
de oameni sau ntre indivizi cu modele de via diferite; interaciune cu o multitudine de consecine pe plan social i
individual care pot merge pn la schimbarea fizionomiei unei culturi sau a unui individ; proces de negare, dar i de
afirmare, de creaie. La limit, din perspectiv sociologic, se poate afirma c schimbul cultural poate avea loc i ntre
doi indivizi ale cror modele fundamentale de via difer, pentru c n interschimbul personal au loc procese de
preluare selectiv, respingere, re-interpretare, re-integrare n sistemul cultural individual. Cercetarea corelaiei date a
devenit o problem de neamnat n ultimii ani. Orice cuvnt, fiind n general o creaie colectivm iniial a fost rodul
efortului unei voine subiective [L. Blaga, Trilogia culturii, p. 112]. Spunem aceasta pentru a actualize un adevr
axiomatic: n toate cazurile, apariia unor cuvinte, sensuri, forme acceptate sau nu de cultur este legat de un purttor
de limb concret. De aceea ntr-un stat plurilingv care cuprinde aspect multiculturale: lingvistice, etnolingvistice,
socioculturale, reflect diversitatea vieii i relaiilor interetnice. Din accepiile conferite contactului dintre culturi rezult
c baza lui social sau purttorii lui pot fi popoarele, naiunile, grupurile etnice, comunitile rurale sau urbane,
indivizii. Trsturile lor social-istorice i culturale definesc tipurile de contact, situaiile de contact, volumul i
dimensiunile lui. Ne- am dorit s artm, n cele ce urmeaz, n ce msur cele dou noiuni limb cultur sunt
solidare i se regsec ntr-o sintez nou i cu o semnificaie superioar n dimensiunea cultural a miltilingvismului.
Dimensiunea sociologic a contactului dintre culturi pune n lumin esena, prin excelen, social a
contactului dintre oameni, contact din care rezult o schimbare parial, n cazul contactelor ndelungate i libere dintre
ei, a modelelor culturale originare sau o schimbare total a acestora, n cazul situaiilor de asimilare forat prin
violen, presiuni sau dezrdcinare complet de cultura-mam.
Din perspectiva antropologiei culturale i sociologiei, contactul dintre culturi semnific o interaciune ntre
grupuri purttoare de trsturi culturale, experiene i valori diferite, reprezentante a dou arii socio-culturale distincte.
Problema creia vrem s-i dm rspuns este urmtoarea: Ce se ntmpl cnd dou arii socio-culturale reprezentate de
ansambluri mari de indivizi, de grupuri sau de indivizi separai intr n contact? Care valori intr mai nti n contact?
Exist vreo regularitate? De ce unele valori sunt asimilate mai rapid, se multiplic, n timp ce altele nu se deplaseaz
dect la o lung perioad de timp dup crearea lor?
Unul dintre sectoarele importante ale patrimoniului cultural l reprezint comunicarea interuman, favorizat
de caracterul interactive al limbajului su.
Contactul dintre culturi are o dinamic complex, culturile fiind entiti
distincte, nu neaprat contrarii, pentru c fiecare, n felul ei, are o funcie instrumental-existenial, n sensul c asigur
producerea i reproducerea vieii indivizilor. Pornind de la aceast trstur a culturii n general, contactul dintre culturi
poate fi considerat o confruntare ntre culturi, mai ales, prin mecanismul i procesele specifice lui. Culturile aflate n
contact coexist i convieuiesc, chiar dac substana lor fundamental se realizeaz n forme diferite. Astzi avem o
deschidere fenomenal ctre dialogul multicultural.
Diferenele n modelele de comportament, n stilul de via rmn baza unor preluri selective, urmate de
respingeri i rezistene la schimbare. Fr aceste procese opuse: preluare-respingere, schimbare-rezisten la schimbare
nu ar mai fi posibil pstrarea personalitii proprii a fiecrei culturi aflate n zona de contact. Deosebirile dintre
culturile aflate n contact i unitatea lor, totodat, se instituie ca temei al dezvoltrii fiecreia, al mbogirii i
perfecionrii lor. Cnd inovaia presupune transfer de elemente din comportamentul obinuit, de la un context
situaional la altul, sau combinaiile lor ntr-o nou sintez, aceasta se numete invenie. n cazul inveniei domin
cuantumul de noutate. Trecerea de la o cultur la alta a unui grup uman, ca i a unui individ, presupune schimbarea
normelor de conduit, ncrcarea lor cu alte semnificaii, schimbarea simbolurilor, umplerea lor cu noi coninuturi. Or,
pentru structura uman, acest lucru nu este uor i nici de neluat n seam. Implic mutaii multiple n gndire,
comportament, atitudine. Solicit mai mult individul tocmai prin noutatea lor. De aceea, important devine nu numai ce

281

se schimb, ci i ct de mult se schimb modul de via i de aciune al grupului sau al individului.


Din perioada cnd s-a constituit cultura i civilizaia ca a doua natur a omului, orice individ, grup sau
generaie a aprut ntr-o anumit cultur, civilizaie caracterizate prin elemente constante, tradiionale care au influenat
existena lor ulterioar. n general, cultura determin modelele de gndire, gradul de sensibilitate, modul de a aciona,
bogia limbii vorbite, tipul de vestimentaie, tipurile de nevoi i aspiraii formulate. Din acest punct de vedere, se poate
spune c, pe de o parte, fiecare individ i face propria sa cultur, iar pe de alt parte, ea este motenit de la strmoi i
transmis prin mediul social de via. Ruth Benedict spune n legtur cu obiceiul c de la natere acesta modeleaz
experiena i comportamentul omului. tim c socializarea i enculturaia sunt procese prin care individul i apropie
realitatea n forma ei material i spiritual, o interiorizeaz, o topete, devenindu-i parte component pentru a o
exterioriza, ulterior, n comportamente, limbaj, atitudini, opinii - procese prin care dobndete cultura la care este expus
i se formeaz ca personalitate. Prin ele noi intrm n mecanismul intim al proceselor ce au loc la nivelul personalitii
umane, care, sub influena contactului, sufer schimbri n toate compartimentele sale: psihice, cognitive, atitudinale,
comportamentale, valorice. Prin re-socializare i re-enculturaie are loc re-adaptarea indivizilor la noua cultur i
societate.
Moldovenii i gguzii populaii din regiunea autonom gguz cu limbi diferite, culturi deosebite i religie
cretin ortodox se constituie ntr-un grup n care integrarea prin difereniere i caracterizeaz cel mai adecvat.
Integrarea lor social i cultural semnific o permanent ajustare mutual a comportamentului individual i colectiv la
valorile sociale general acceptate n statul plurilingv - Moldova. Aceasta nu nseamn tergerea sau eliminarea
trsturilor specifice grupului, ci dimpotriv, pstrarea, afirmarea i dezvoltarea lor, ntr-o deplin complementaritate
cu trsturile altor grupuri etnice i cu cele ale moldovenilor ca populaie majoritar.
Modelul de integrare social i cultural este prin difereniere i nu prin asimilarea minoritilor naionale. n
practica istoric a relaiilor interetnice, romnii au neles c diferenele dintre oameni sunt inerente i, n acelai timp,
c ele trebuie s fie respectate. n concepia noastr, cultura ca motenire cultural, creaie permanent i adaos prin
mprumuturi fertile de la alte culturi este tezaurul cel mai de pre al oricrui popor sau grup etnic la care nimeni nu
trebuie s atenteze n virtutea unor aa-zise drepturi istorice, false primordialiti temporale sau rstlmciri de
documente internaionale.
Gguzii, moldovenii, aflate n contact direct i continuu de secole recunosc c sunt unite prin valorile comune
pe care le promoveaz: omenia, munca, cinstea i corectitudinea. Ambii au mprumutat trsturi culturale i chiar
obiceiuri de la romni, cum sunt colindele, sorcova, pluguorul, obiceiurile de la nuni, de Pate, de Crciun pentru
frumuseea i bogia lor, dar i romnii de la ei cuvinte, expresii, obiecte de uz casnic, muzic etc. Comunitatea noastr
regional relev o deosebit coezivitate n aciunile la nivelul localitii, dar i la evenimentele fundamentale ale vieii:
nuni, nmormntri, srbtori. Aceasta face ca multe evenimente de familie, srbtori laice sau religioase s fie
petrecute de moldoveni mpreun cu gguzii, n calitate de vecini, nai sau buni prieteni. S-a ajuns, astfel, ca gguzii
i moldovenii s srbtoreasc de dou ori srbtorile religioase, ale lor i ale romnilor. Trind dup principiul c
fiecare i vede de linitea sa i de Dumnezeul su, religia nu i-a desprit niciodat. Dimpotriv, i-a unit prin credin.
n comunitile mixte n care sunt majoritari, se poate observa acea constant naional, despre care vorbea Iorga,
exprimat n instaurarea unui climat interetnic ntre egali, deschis, sincer, de ncredere i preuire reciproc, climat de
munc, joc i voie bun cu toi oaspeii lng care le-a fost hrzit s triasc, oaspei crora le-au cerut mai puin
pentru a le da mai mult, parafrazndu-l, pe acelai inegalabil Nicolae Iorga.
Valenele umane ale contactului dintre culturi pune n lumin faptul c cei ce ies n ctig n urma contactului
dintre culturi sunt oamenii, grupurile umane, popoarele i naiunile care, n acest fel, se cunosc mai bine, se apreciaz
corect, se bucur de valorile materiale i spirituale create de ele, construind, n acest fel, un climat de via bazat pe
nelegere, armonie i bun convieuire, necesar tuturor locuitorilor de pe mica planet albastr.
Raportul general-particular poate fi evideniat n ntreaga istorie a contactelor dintre comunitile umane n care
dialogul a fost fertil tocmai n virtutea faptului c n modul concret n care fiecare a rspuns la mediul nconjurtor,
natural i social, a creat att ceva propriu, particular, ct i ceva general, universal ce ine de om ca fiin generic,
dincolo de timpul i spaiul limitat n care i duce existena. Cu epoca modern a apariiei naiunilor, raportul
particular-general n cultur a luat forma raportului naional-universal. Naionalul i universalul n cultur sunt dou
aspecte de ordinul esenei care se coreleaz i se completeaz reciproc. Ca noiuni de maxim generalitate care se aplic
fenomenului de cultur, ele devin instrumente prin care se poate exprima geneza, dinamica continu a vieii n general,
a culturii n special. Dar dac orice valoare universal este implicit i naional, tiut fiind c doar marii creatori
naionali au n operele lor o mare doz de universalitate, nu orice este naional se nscrie n universalitate. Legtura
organic, fireasc dintre naional i universal reiese din aceea c naionalul nu se poate valorifica, nu-i poate evalua n
ntregime valenele dect prin raportare la universal, la generalul uman, iar universalul nu este dect o sintez, o
chintesen a valorilor superioare decantate, selectate din manifestrile naionale. Ca realitate existenial obiectiv,
specificul naional este rezultatul unui ndelungat proces istoric, se construiete treptat prin aportul fiecrei generaii. Nu
este un dat apriori. Se schimb cu modificrile survenite n viaa oamenilor, dar pstrndu-i, n linii generale,
trsturile fundamentale care i dau identitatea. Specificul naional este acel aer de familie [Ovidiu Papadima] ce i
caracterizeaz de la prima vedere pe creatorii ei de mari dimensiuni, acea origine comun dat de nsi cultura
poporului din care fac parte marile personaliti artistice i culturale. Poporul nostru se distinge n structura sa intim de
alte popoare, n special, prin aceea c are o istorie frmntat datorit aezrii lui la ncruciarea de mari drumuri
europene, aezare care i-a dat ansa de a intra n contact cu restul lumii, dar i neansa de a-i fi clcat pmntul de muli
dumani, oprindu-i progresul i determinndu-l s se retrag din istorie sau s boicoteze istoria, cum spunea Lucian
Blaga, pentru a-i conserva existena, fiina. n constituirea specificului naional, un loc de seam l ocup contiina
obriilor, a originii etnice comune pe care o are, n primul rnd, poporul nsui. n istoriografia noastr, cei dinti au

282

exprimat-o cronicarii, ncepnd cu Nicolaus Olahus i continund cu Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Constantin
Cantacuzino, Dimitrie Cantemir care afirm romanitatea poporului romn i latinitatea limbii romne. Reprezentanii
colii Ardelene - Gheorghe incai, Petru Maior i Samuel Micu ntresc aceste idei cu argumente arheologice,
istorice, filologice, etnografice. Dup George Clinescu, garania originalitii noastre fundamentale st n factorul
etnic, subliniind n acest fel nucleul original care st la baza culturii noastre.
n formarea i meninerea specificului naional, un rol hotrtor l are limba, iar poporul nostru a avut adnc
nrdcinat ideea comunitii de limb. Umanistul italian Antonio Bonfini fcea constatarea c romnii s-au btut mai
mult pentru pstrarea limbii dect pentru via. Din acest cult al limbii s-a nscut i s-a dezvoltat nentrerupt limba
literar romn aflat n strns legtur cu tradiiile folclorice. Ca s plac strinilor, spune Titu Maiorescu, crile
noastre trebuie s se impun n afar prin msura lor estetic, prin originalitatea lor naional pentru ca acetia s
observe c scriitorii notri s-au inspirat din viaa proprie a poporului lor i ne-au nfiat ceea ce este, ceea ce gndete
romnul n partea cea mai aleas a firii sale etnice. A sosit timpul ca i noi s putem rspunde cu ceva i s artm c
tnra literatur romn a fost n stare s dea btrnei Europe prilejul unei emoii estetice din chiar izvorul cel curat al
vieii sale populare [Literatura romn i strintatea, 1992].
Lucian Blaga arta c numai valorile autentice ale culturii noastre, numai acelea care conin n ele un mesaj
universal pot aspira s intre n patrimoniul culturii universale. n acelai spirit, Octavian Goga, n Fragmente
autobiografice sublinia: Eu am crezut de la nceput n specificul naional, adic am crezut c nu se intr n
universalitate dect pe poarta ta proprie. Am crezut n dreptul de a tri al valorilor autohtone ca o completare a
principiului de universalitate. O hart cultural a planetei ar fi ct se poate de sugestiv n ceea ce privete nevoia de
schimb a oamenilor, universalitatea istoric a culturii i civilizaiei, exprimat n multitudinea de arii i zone culturale ce
au fost dezvluite de spturile arheologice i ar infirma, totodat, teza despre popoare istorice i neistorice, artnd c
toate popoarele au o istorie cultural, se nscriu ntr-o arie cultural [Tnase, Al.1988, p. 257].
n termeni teoretici continund demersul nostru, din contactul dintre culturi sau dintre oameni de diferite
culturi rezult o multiplicitate de microprocese de invenie, imitaie, ucenicie i adaptare a indivizilor i grupurilor aflate
n interaciune, toate avnd la baz procese economice i sociale.
Deci, cultura va modela astfel indivizii dup chipul i asemnarea ei, comportamentul fiecrei persoane fiind
parte a culturii sale. Coninutul culturii este dat de specificul fiecrei societi, de epoca istoric pe care o parcurge, de
forele umane care guverneaz acea societate i de nivelul lor de dezvoltare cultural, moral, a sensibilitii. n cultur
se cristalizeaz acel general uman care se transmite din generaie n generaie care permite, totui, nnoirea, schimbarea
i progresul. ntre cultur i personalitate, cu fiecare generaie i cu fiecare individ va exist urmtoarea traiectorie:
cultur-personalitate-cultur.
Bibliografie
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Barboric E.,Onu L.,Teodorescu M.,Introducere n filosofia romn, Bucureti,1978


Blaga L., Trilogia culturii, Bucureti, 1993
Bulgr G.,Cultur i limbaj,Bucureti,1986
Evseev I.,Cuvnt-simbol-mit,Timioara,1983
Noica C.; Rostirea filosofic romneasc, Bucureti, 1970

CZU 821.135.09193Rebreanu
Mititelu Oxana
LIVIU REBREANU I ROMANUL BASARABEAN N ANII 30

, - , ." ( )
30- .
.
, , , . : ,
, , , , , .
SUMMARY
The literature, the earth and blood - a Trinity which represents the people in the world.(Liviu Rebreanu) In the
novel from Bessarabia 30th years alternate the traditional formula and modern structure. For these reasons for many
moldavian writers style of rebreanu is a model for a novel writing. Therefore Dominte Timonu, Mihail Kurikeru,
Sabine Velikan, Nikolai Spetaru, etc. borrow in their novels the models: themes, motives, situations, conflicts, symbols,
characters, characteristic Liviu Rebreanu.
Existena unui roman basarabean nu arareori este contestat. i atunci, ce similitudini sau contingene putem
stabili ntre Liviu Rebreanu i un fenomen inexistent? A-l raporta pe Rebreanu la romancierii basarabeni pare, la prima
vedere, o ntreprindere mai puin inspirat i n mare parte inutil sau deplasat. Sugestiile lui George Clinescu ar fi
ntr-un sens instructive. Judecnd romanul lui Constantin Stere n preajma revoluiei alturi de Rscoala lui Liviu
Rebreanu, reputatul critic nota: n Uraganul sunt totui documente despre revoluia ruseasc din 1905-1906 i despre

283

micrile rneti din Romnia, n 1907. nvlmelile brutale, psihologia gregar sunt mai la ndemn scriitorului.
Dar documentele nu construiesc o carte, ca apoi s afirme categoric: Comparaia cu Rscoala lui Liviu Rebreanu
nu poate fi conceput din nici un punct de vedere [1, p. 762]. Firete, mijlocul cel mai sigur de a demonstra punctele de
tangen ntre aceste dou romane ar fi realitile artistice de cert valoare, dar aceasta nu nseamn c romanele, fie i
inegale ntre ele, ar fi lipsite de orice relaie organic sau sporadic. Fr ndoial, transfigurarea artistic a atmosferei
rurale, a vieii boiereti i rneti, a mentalitii i psihologiei ranului, pasajele cu volupti i violene primare,
precum i alte elemente ale realitii romaneti pot face dovada unor similitudini indiscutabile.
Pentru unii, un aspect al comparaiei l-ar constitui trecerea biograficului n imaginar, raportul dintre subiectul
creator i subiectul empiric, cu att mai mult cu ct protagonitii romanelor, Titu Herdelea i Vania Rutu, sunt expresii
artistice reprezentnd dou figuri celebre. Pentru alii un obiectiv al analizei comparatiste ar putea fi contiina
nstrinrii, ce se face att de pronunat nu numai la ardeleanul Liviu Rebreanu, ci i la basarabeanul Constantin Stere.
Basarabia i Ardealul sunt dou margini ale romnismului, unde contiina de neam s-a pstrat pn mai ieri cu cea mai
mare ardoare. Specificul naional, scrie L. Rebreanu, postulat al diferenierii pe care o rvnete fiece neam n mijlocul
unei lumi n plin efervescen i emulaie, este creaia literaturii n primul rnd i, n general, a artelor. Literatura e
filtrul magic care alege esena calitilor i defectelor unui neam pe un anume pmnt. Literatura, pmntul i sngele,
iat trinitatea care reprezint o naie n lume [2, p. 232].
Romanul basarabean din anii '30 alterneaz ntre formula tradiional i structura modern. Din aceste
considerente este concludent pentru mai muli basarabeni modelul rebrenian de construire a romanului. Dominte
Timonu, Mihail Curicheru, B. Jordan, Sabin Velican, Nicolae Gh. Sptaru .a. preiau n romanele lor modelele
constructive, teme, motive, situaii, conflicte, personaje sau caractere, toate acestea lunecnd nu arareori n pastie.
Mihail Curicheru, nscut n august 1910 n comuna Negreti din judeul Lpuna. Dup absolvirea colii
Normale (1929) lucreaz nvtor n satul Chiperceni din preajma Strenilor. A semnat articole la coala basarabean
i proz la Viaa Basarabiei. n 1938 public la Chiinu romanul n deal la cruce. n 1940 finiseaz romanul Fundul
negru, manuscrisul cruia s-a pierdut. Dup 28 iunie 1940 colaboreaz la almanahul Octombrie.
Romanul n deal la cruce e pierdut, iar autorul, supus represaliilor, s-a stins din via n gulagurile staliniste, n
1943 la, Taiet. Revista Viaa Basarabiei, recenznd romanul, recurge nu ntmpltor la fetiul temei, ca argument al
unei valori artistice: Dl Curicheru ncearc s ne descrie un fragment din viaa de la ar, dintr-un sat basarabean, pe
o tematic rebrenist: doi flci rude, prieteni, care jur la o cruce din deal frie de cruce, iar unul din ei i ia
angajamentul c o s pzeasc iubita celuilalt de altul, pn la ntoarcerea din armat; ntre timp Ion, cel rmas s
pzeasc pe Ileana, se ndrgostete de ea, ea de dnsul i o fur de la prini; Petre se mbolnvete de oftic, moare
Pe Ion l mustr contiina c i-a prdat prietenul i vrea s se sinucid la crucea din deal, dar Lenua l oprete,
spunndu-i c trebuie s nasc; vine vestea morii lui Petrea, a iertrii i dezlegrii de jurmnt.
Subiect popular, mediu, atmosfer din viaa de la ar, deci o carte popular.
Limba-i popular, sugestiv, mldioas, expresiv i popular face ca lectura romanului s fie uoar.
Ceea ce nu trebuie s-i ierte dl Curicheru este stilul puin ngrijit, unele expresii bombastice, moderne,
dialogul pretenios pe care l pune n gura ranilor, romantismul i platitudinea unor scene, lipsa de coloare, de
atmosfer basarabean a crii: prea multe comentarii, ideii directe, vdite ale autorului care puteau lipsi.
Ionic, Petrea, Lenua, Mriorica, Vasile Precu, Gheorghe, Vladimir, Anastasia sunt conturai, dar fr
adncire; cartea n-are aciune, nici un deznodmnt gradat, natural.
Dl Curicheru s-a grbit. Romanul, prin complexitatea de fenomene social-psihologice pe care vrea s le
cuprind, s le redea, cere munc, experien n via i n scris [3, p. 122].
Revista Poetul, exaltat de acelai roman psihologic, dimpotriv, l consider bine dezvoltat, miestrit brodat,
cu fragmente de un lirism rcoritor i remarc, ntre altele, transfigurarea reuit a sufletului rnesc, expresie a
forelor naturale spiritualizate, nvalnic, n lupt crncen cu pasiuni i atavisme, puin dezvluite n scrierile noastre.
Aici e meritul dlui Curicheru. Voina de a-l introduce pe ranul basarabean n literatur i a scrie n limba lui, bine
condus de un talent promitor [4, p. 10].
Tematica rebrenian consituie substana romanelor Pmnt viu de Sabin Velican, Pmntul ispitelor i Satele
de B. Jordan, Dar anii trec, n drumul nostru, napoi de Nicolae Gh. Sptaru, Al nimnui de Dominte Timonu .a.
Toate aceste romane dorice, dac e s folosim terminologia lui N. Manolescu, nfieaz o vrst a iluziilor.
Lumea lor este omogen i plin de sens, ele exprim mentalitatea burgheziei n ascensiune. Eroii sunt virili, plini de
un exces de energie, ntreprinztori. Valorile lor dominante sunt de ordin economic. Sexualitatea este o luare n
posesie, e acaparatoare, ofensiv, masculin. Tragediile nu modific sensul pozitiv al lumii. Viziunile artistice sunt
auctoriale. Viaa apare ca superioar i refleciei, i simirii. Naratorul este unul omniscient i omniprezent. Forma
romanului este nchis, teleologic. Edificator n acest sens este romanul Al nimnui de Dominte Timonu. Scriitorul
basarabean preia de la Rebreanu strategia debutului
Motivul drumului e reluat i spre sfritul romanului, ca i n romanul lui Liviu Rebreanu Ion. ntr-adevr,
cnd s-au urcat n cru, caii o pornir sprinteni, sltnd hamurile pe ei.
La marginea satului, drumul care duce spre ora, merge drept nainte, trece pe lng fntna lui Popa Ion din
Puhoi i rzbate n vrful dealului.
Dar pe marginea satului, din drumul mare, cotete un alt drum, lrgit i drept, cu pomi pe ambele pri, care
trece prin livezile i viile ranilor din Recea i duce pe lng conacul boieresc, pn dincolo de pdurea statului.
Pe drumul acesta Crior a observat, cnd cotitura se desface de drumul mare, un chip femeiesc, care avea o
asemnare izbitoare cu chipul drag al Lizici [5, p. 121-122].
n Pdurea spnzurailor, biografia lui Bologa apare ca un eveniment de contiin, provocat de o traum
grav. Este ns ea cu adevrat prezentat ntr-o alt manier, adic psihologizat? Decurge cam n felul celor din Ion

284

sau Rscoala: Apostol s-a nscut tocmai n zilele cnd tatl su atepta la Cluj condamnarea. Pn s se ntoarc
Bologa din temni, copilul a deschis ochii asupra lumii, mbriat de o dragoste matern idolatr etc. Nu poate fi
vorba aici de psihologism, ct vreme personajul nsui i desfoar mintal propriul trecut, cum ne-am ateptat i cum
se va ntmpla n romanul ionic. n locul unei rememorri, din unghiul subiectiv al lui Bologa, avem o reconstituire
obiectiv. Ceea ce poate prea curios ns este c autorul regsete aceast perspectiv unic i nedifereniat tocmai
cnd zugrvete interioritatea personajului, dup ce a tiut s exploateze varietatea psihologic a unghiurilor de vedere,
zugrvind mprejurrile exterioare. n realitate n Pdurea spnzurailor este un amestec de procedee vechi i noi.
Retrospectiva se ncheie cu aceste fraze: Pe urm a fost la Curtea Marial care a judecat pe Svoboda Pe urm a
venit spnzurtoarea i ochii comandantului i doina ordonanei, sub fereastr, care nu mai nceteaz deloc, ca o
mustrare. Singurele elemente psihologice din aceste fraze sunt punctele de suspensie, care indic un anumit ritm,
special, al gndirii; la fel, poate, ca i prezentul ultimului verb, menit s actualizeze lunga retrospectiv, legnd-o de
clipa de fa a naraiunii. Ele sunt curmate de cuvintele ordonanei: Domlocotinent, e trziu, vremea cinei
Apostol Bologa deschide ochii, zpcit. Aici remarcm o inconsecven. Modul nlnuirii amintirilor, rezumativ i
nepsihologic, nu permite interpretarea lor ca un vis sau un comar. Naratorul nsui le-a relatat detaat, pe un ton de
informare [7, p. 184-185].
Unul dintre elementele eseniale ale analizei comparate este ranul, ca personaj principal al romanului
basarabean. ranul din proza basarabean este de un conservatorism revelator, manifestat n toate formele de via.
Instinctul de conservare a neamului nu a fost puternic accentuat la toate pturile sociale. Dac celelalte straturi sociale n
decursul veacului de robie s-au nstrinat, s-au mai rusificat n parte, rnimea, care fusese temelia neamului romnesc
n Basarabia, a rmas neatins. Nu ntmpltor, mai toi prozatorii basarabeni Constantin Stere, Gheorghe V. Madan,
Sergiu Victor Cujb, Paul Gore, Nicolae Gh. Sptaru, Ioan Sulacov, B. Jordan, Sabin Velican, Mihail Brc, Mihail
Curicheru, Nicolae Popovschi, Elena Vasiliu-Hasna, Teodor Vicol, Dominte Timonu .a. - fac apologia ranului
pstrtor de datini, obiceiuri i credine, cu o mentalitate strveche, uneori primitiv, ieit parc de sub timpul
civilizaiei moderne. Etnosul i etosul basarabean au un fond profund autohton. Romnismul basarabean, afirm M.
Cimpoi, este conservator, cultivator de vechime i de rusticitate, de valori i sacralitate. Oamenii de creaie basarabeni
sunt, ca i predecesorii lor, moldoveni din secolul al XIX-lea, pzitori fideli ai fondului etnofolcloric, pe care l opun
noului formal. Conservatismul basarabean are, astfel, raiuni polemice, el fiind ntreintor de fiin naional, de
continuitate spiritual romneasc [8, p. 7].
n anii dintre cele dou rzboaie conservatorismul basarabean, n literatur, se manifest cu precdere ntre
smntorism i un naturalism autohton, adic de o esen regionalist, cu att mai mult cu ct un determinism al
locului sau un regionalism latent se atest, desigur, n literatura tuturor timpurilor. Romanul basarabean se afl fa de
romanul romnesc n acelai raport ca partea fa de ntreg. Pentru evoluia romanului basarabean din perioada
interbelic asimilarea sau pastiarea modelului rebrenian a nsemnat o ncercare de sincronizare i adoptare a
modelelor consacrate n literaturile din Occident sau Orient. Basarabenii au analizat romanul lui L. Rebreanu n
contextul creaiei scriitorilor Emil Zola, Fiodor Dostoievski, Vladislav Reymont, Knut Hamsun, Ivan Bunin, Pearls
Buck, Gheorghi Grebencicov etc. Dup ce s-a scris despre influenele literare asupra lui L. Rebreanu, trebuie remarcat
c influenele lui Rebreanu asupra basarabenilor au fost copleitoare. Mai nti, n maniera scriitorilor basarabeni se
impune modul de tratare prin tehnica pailor mici , cultul naratorului omniscient i omniprezent. La acestea mai
adugm, desigur, caracterologia, tipicul, perspectiva obiectiv, culoarea local, existenele mrunte, determinate de
un naturalism pronunat.
Bibliografie
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Clinescu G. Istoria literaturii romne de la origini i pn n prezent. Bucureti, 1986.


Rebreanu L. Amalgam. Bucureti, 1943.
Spiridonic M. Mihail Curicheru. n deal la cruce // Viaa Basarabiei. 1938. Nr. 6-7.
n deal la cruce, Romanul domnului Mihail Curicheru // Poetul. 1938. Nr. 3.
Timonu D. Al nimnui. Chiinu, 1937.
Rebreanu L. Pdurea spnzurailor, prefa i note finale de Graziela tefan. Bucureti, 1976.
Manolescu N. Arca lui Noe. Eseu despre romanul romnesc, Ed. a II-a. Bucureti, 1991.
Cimpoi M. Fenomenul basarabean sub semnul psrii Phoenix // Caiete critice. 1994. Nr. 1-3.

811.512.165373.232
Srf V.., ,
(Kiinev)
TOMAY KYND YAAYAN GAGAUZLARIN ZAMANDA
SOY ADLARI HEM SOKAK LAAPLARI

285

Summary
This article examines the contemporary anthroponymics of the Gagauzians from the village of Tomai, the CiadrLunga district of the Republic of Moldova family names and street nicknames of individual families, individuals or a
whole kin (united by a surname) given in lexical groups.
As the research has shown, the Turkic layer both in surnames and nicknames predominates over the others the
Bulgarian, Russian, Moldavian and Greek ones.
On the whole, the number of street nicknames of the Gagauzians from Tomai considerably exceeds the number of
family names, because side by side with family nicknames there are individual nicknames having, as a rule, concrete,
situational origins.

-
,
( ), - .
, ,
, , .
, - ,
, , ,
, .
Bnk gnd Moldova Respublikasnda Tomay adnda k biliner: Tomay hem Yeni Tomay Leova
dolaynda; Tomay ky adr-Lunga dolaynda. Moldova eniklopediyasna gr, Tomay ky, angs Leova
dolaynda bulunr, 1694 ylda kuruldu [1, 624]. indiki zaman bu kd taa oyu moldovannar yarlar. XVIII-inci
asirin sonunda XIX-uncu asirin balantsnda burada bulgarlar hem gagauzlar da yaardlar. Nogaylarn gmesindn
sora 1809 ylda bu kyn yaayannar yeni bir k dzdlr, verip ona hep o ad (bnk Tomay ky adr-Lunga
dolaynda) [2, 625]. Lzm slem, ki bilim literaturasnda bulrz kyn dzmesini iin baka haberlr 1813 ylda
[3, 297], 1816 ylda [4, 344-345] hem taa baka.
Tomay toponimi, nic annadr aaratrc .V. Dron, sk baal Tomay antoponiminnn, angs bnk gnd
biliner nic soy ad moldovannarn arasnda, anglar Moldovann poyrazdak dolaylarnda yarlar [5, 45]. Ama biz
kaylz baka bir baklan, angs gsterer, ki Tomay kyn ad ekiler nogay dilin, neinki onun temelind durardlar
nogaylar [6].
Bizim aaratrmamz aklr adr-Lunga dolayann Tomay knd yaayan gagauzlarn antroponimiyasn: soy
adlarn, anglarn 1977 ylda yazl Pravda kolhozun ambar kiyadna, hem insannarn sokak laaplarn, anglarn
statyann avtoru kendisi zaametinnn toplad [7].
Gagauz antroponimiyas trl aaratrclar meraklandrard. Rus etnograf V.A. Mokov ilk toplad, aaratrd hem
tiparlad gagauz onomastikasn [8]. Bu temaya gr materiallar hazrlad filologiya bilgilerind doktor, gagauzolog
G.A. Gaydarji. Onun bilim aaratrmalarn -- eklentisinind bulrz [9]. Bu
aaratrmalar bk kolaylk vererlr XIX-uncu asirin sonundan bnk gndan gagauzlarn soy adlarn hem sokak
laaplarn ry dinamikasn grm deyni.
Gagauz antroponimiyasn aaratrdlar M.N. Guboglo [10], S.S. Kuroglo [11], P.A. ebotar[ 12], G. Karanfil
[13], V. Malev [14] anglar denedilr yapmaa gagauz adlarnn klasifikaiyasn, belli ettilr antroponimnerin
etimologiyasn, gsterdilr antroponimika aaratrmalarnn rolnu gagauz etnogenezinin renmesind.
Ayr lzm nannamaa bilim kiyadn, angsn
hazrladlar .V. Dron hem S. S. Kuroglo [15]. Avtorlarn toplanlm materiallar, arhiv hem dokumental materiallar
seft belli ederlr gagauz soy adlarnn hem sokak laaplarnn leksika hem morfologiya strukturasn. Bu kiyatta ok
antroponim verili, ama biz bulduk da meydana kardk l takm soy adlarn (deyelim,
Tolkaov) [16, 124, 171], anglar diil baal gagauz soy adlarnnan. Bizim bakmza gr, nemliydir taa genitn
aaratrmaa Tomay kynn soy adlarn hem sokak laaplarn.
Soy adlarnn oyunda trk temeli belli olr. Bu soy adlar kurulu z adlardan, anglarna -oglo / -oglu (< oolu)
payc (Dim
, Dobri
, Gan
h. b.), nannk afiksi -l / -li / -lu (Sakal, Kirli, Topuzlu h. b.) eki
lafdzc afiksi -c / -i / -u eklener, angs insann zanaatn gsterer (Mandac, Tauki, Topu h. b.).
En bk soy adlarn blklerdn biri insann zanaatn, zaametini belli eder: Berber, oban, Dlger, Kazanc,
Tauki / Tauku, Terzi, Topu h. b.
Lzm nannamaa soy adlarnn blmn, angs insannarn fiziologiya, kusurluk zelliklerini belli eder:
Balaban, Benni, olak, Yerebakan, Karabacak, Kele, Kvrck, Kk, Sakal, Topal h. b.
Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn var taa soy adlar, anglar gstererlr soy, millet maanas: Arnaut, Bolgar,
Bir bk blk dzerlr soy adlar, anglar kuruldu yada peydaland gagauzlarda slavn hem baka halklarn

Vatav.
Bnk gnd Tomay kynd gagauzlarn arasnda 113 soy ad kullanlr. Taa sk bl soy adlar kullanlr:
Geecez Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn sokak laaplarna, anglarn says taa ok, nekadar soy adlarn

286

says. Kmzd biz yazdk 289 sokak laaplar.


Antroponimiya aaratrcs V.A. Nikonov yazd, ani soy adlarn renmesi primitiv uurunda bulunr. Taa sk
onnarn leksika klasifikaiyas yaplr. Belli diil soy adlarn yeri btnn zamanda antroponimiya sistemasnda, onnarn
funkiyalar, baalantlar baka antroponimnrnn [17, 248]. Bu laflar V.A. Nikonov 36 yl geeri yazd. Bnk gnd
antroponim aaratrmas hep bu uurda bulunr, pek az yenilik var.
Dnn halklarnn antroponim sistemasnda aaratrlr sokak laaplarn (cognomen) maanas hem funkiyas.
Sokak laaplarn kurulma proesi usuz-kenarsz, ama kt sokak laaplar, anglarn kabletmi filan kiilr, baka
kiiler verilmeer, storiyada biliner sade bir Vizantiya padiaa Konstantin V-inci peyorativ sokak laabnnan Kopronim
(Fkc). Bl kt, pis ad vermilr ona cellatlk beterin politika dumannar.
Rusiyada biliner sade bir padiaa, angs
adn tayarm. Bu ad verildi ona o zer, ani devlet
zaametileri, boyarlar pek korkarmlar (yada korksunnar) ondan.
Bnnn-bn sokak laaplar aaratrclara meraklydr. Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn sokak laaplar soy
Topu,
gerdi yaamaa kzn evin, onnarn uaklarna gerdi anasnn sokak ad.
En bk sokak laaplarnn bl sk baal klis ayoz ad

Bu rnekler yakn sokak laaplar, anglar musulman dinin baal: Hac, Hac liya, Hac Mina, Hac Nikulay.
Gagauzlarn sokak laaplarnda nemli bir yer kaplr trk pay. O belli olr sokak laaplarnda, anglar insann
duuma
Pelin, Trup) osa kullanlan predmetleri (Cibr, Dingil, Kalbur, Kepekli, Kosor, Paa) gsterer.
Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn arasnda kullanlr trl milletlerdn alnma sokak laaplar. Deyelim,

Var sokak laaplar, anglarn Tomayda yaay


Ayl adlarn etimologiyas kimi ker diil belli. Sokak laaplarn var konkret kuruluu, baalants yaamaktan
nesoysa olulan, angs belli bir kiiy kaslr. Deyelim, Tomayda yaayan bir karnn dedesi pay ald Birinci Dnn
cengind. Cenktn sora o kendi duuma kyn dnd. indiki vaktta bu kar sokak laabn
tayer.
Blelikln, Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn zamanda kullanlan antroponimiyas (soy adlar hem sokak
laaplar) gsterer, ani, en ilkin, insan arasnda trl blkt sokak laaplar kullanlr, anglarn says taa ok, nekadar
soy adlarn says; ikinci, trk payndan alnma soy adlar hem sokak laaplar taa genitn kullanlr, nekadar baka
milletlerdn (bulgar, moldovan, rus h. b.) alnma antroponimneri.
Lzm taa slem, ani biz sade tantrdk okuyucumuzu Tomay kynd kullanlan soy adlarnnan hem sokak
laaplarnnan, anglar derindn taa aaratrlmad. Bundan baka, lzm derindn aaratrmaa Tomay kynd yaayan
gagauzlarn yakn 200 yllk istoriyasn hem onnarn ruh kulturasn folkloru, adetleri, dili.
Literatura
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2. Hep orada.
3. . . . II.
.. . . . , 1957.
4. Nicu V. Localitile Moldovei n documente i cri vechi. Vol. 2. Chiinu, 1991.
5. .. (
).

, 1992.
6. Baknz: .. . , 1970. . 177; ..
//
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223.
7. Haberci van Srf, duumas 1941 y., gagauz, Tomay kyndn, orta spe. renmesi, adresi: Tomay ky,
kolnaya sokaa, 32.
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//

. ., 1901. 2. . 2728.
9. Baknz: .. // -- . 11 500 . .:
.. , .. ,
.. , .. . ., 1973. . 603-611.
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// . .,
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11. Baknz: .. // . ., 1977. . 180-188.
12. .. . , 1990.
Baknz taa: ebotar P. Gagauz

287

laaplarnn etimologiya szl // Ana sz. 2002. 1. (lerlemesi var).


13. Baknz: . //
Trkbilim dergisi. Ankara, 2008. 16.
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811.111373:316.34
Starodub D.A., MA
Free International University of Moldova
NEW LEXICON OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ASPECT OF SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Abstract
Dezvoltarea perpetu a societii, a tiinei i tehnicii, impune apariia n vocabularul oricrei limbi a numeroi
termeni care s exprime noiunile i direciile acestei dezvoltri. Indiferent din care compartiment al vocabularului fac
parte, toate cuvintele particip la formarea tezaurului lexical al limbii. In rile vorbitoare de limb englez, tendina de
stratificare social i difereniere a limbii se amplific. Este important de menionat faptul c exist termeni noi ce
caracterizeaz fiecare nivel al societii.

,
, .
.
. ,
.
To define the restrictions on the use of the language units, it is necessary to consider factors of two orders:
substantial and functional. Obviously, the choice and the use are dictated, on the one hand, by specificity of value of
language units, on the other hand, specificity of social interaction of communicants in various situations of dialogue
[4,p.189].
By development of typology of the factors limiting the use of lexical units in various situations of dialogue, it
is necessary to consider a regular model of a social differentiation of language i.e. its stratificational and situational
use [4,p. 23]. Such parameters take place in the social status of the speaker, his position or role in the dialogue and the
receiver of the speech.
Under the situational differentiation the situational variability of the relations of the participants are taken into
account: forms of their local position, their attitude to each other, their position in space and time, sphere of
communicative gravity, the generalized social situation, scientific, educational, religious and political activity [2, p.45].
In aspect of situational variability it is also necessary to consider intention of speaking (to humiliate, offend, to admire,
etc.), that is a component of the purpose of the communicative act.
Depending on the roles of participants of the communication all situations of dialogue can be shared as
symmetric and asymmetric. The situations are symmetric, when the participants have an equal social status, the same
age, the same gender [2, p.45].
In asymmetric situations the speech of the communicants is more asymmetric, the explicit degree depends on
the relations between interlocutors: they are more official. The higher the degree of expliciticy the closer are the
relations between the interlocutors. Between two kinds of variability there is a close interrelation. As a rule, parameters
of two kinds of variability work in a complex.
In a modern English-speaking society the tendency to social stratification and, accordingly, to language
differentiation amplifies. First of all it is necessary to note occurrence of a plenty of the new terms nominating
representatives of various strata of a society. So, in the 80th there was a term belonger the representative of the big
social group of middle class, the adherent of conservative views interested in material comfort and stability. The given
group cannot be considered in one row with gumpie and groups similar to them (compare, for example: rumpie, blupie,
grumpy) as belonger covers various age groups, and unlike yumpies, representatives of the given social layer are
deprived adventurism. Language of representatives of this layer is deliberately conservative [1, p. 67].
Though dictionaries do not give indications on the primary use of words in various social classes and groups,
tests with native speakers prove presence of social restrictions on the use of new words in the English language.
N. Mitford shows the difference of a lexicon of representatives of the higher class and lexicon of
representatives of the middle class and different social layers in England by the traditional examples: England vs
Britain: vegetables vs greens; sick vs ill; spectacles vs glasses; scent vs perfume.
The new words which appear from time to time in the higher class of the society show the development of the
society: sharon (a lower-class girl of a rather tartly appearance), dial-a-meal (meal ordered through telephone).
In the frameworks of the middle class the use of the words beginning with , isolated of McDonalds (the
American firm trading hamburgers) have the meaning inexpensive, convenient, standardized: McNews, McCinema,
McLife, McTelecast, etc.

288

Last years the extremely active factor is the professional parameter. The increased professional differentiation
of language is reflected in occurrence new suffixal element speak with the meaning language, characteristic for the
certain professional group, slang (compare with already known lingo). For example: artspeak, government-speak,
sportspeak, med-speak (medical jargon), education-speak.
During the last decades there were new spheres limiting the use of colloquial lexicon in a professional
parameter. It is, first of all, the computer techniques, dp-speak a slang of users computers (.: machinespeak computer
language); video equipment: video-speak a slang of users the videoequipment: cablespeak a slang of workers of a cable
television.
Frameworks of television slang limit words docudrama a combination of a drama with a documentary film;
Kidvid time for children's teleprograms; prime-time the period of peak of teleprograms from 7 till 11 evenings (the most
expensive time for advertising).
One of the factors, restrictions on the use of a word on a line of stratification variability, the belonging to the
ethnic society is defining. So, in language of the last decades the whole synonymic row of the nominations naming the
white person and limited in the use by frameworks of the Negro population was formed: blue-eyed devil, whitie, paddy,
Mr. Charley, honky. All the listed synonyms are marked by a negative estimation on the side of the Black population of
America. Among the white population offensive nominations for Negros are in turn used: houtie, Af, terr (derogatory
terms for black Africans). Frameworks of the Negro population limit also a new synonymic row: dozen, signifying,
woofing (a contest of exchanging insults directed against relatives, particularly against the mothers). Usually these
words are used by Negro-teenagers.
Frequently some parameters work simultaneously, for example: task (an essay to write); brunch (late morning
meal combining breakfast and lunch). In all these examples concerning the slang of private exclusive schools for boys,
such parameters of stratification variability, as social, territorial, age and sexual are coded [3,p. 45].
Frameworks of teenage age limit the use of such words, as to bliss-out (to experience intense bliss), to funk (to
swing pleasurably to agreeable music), head (a drug-addict), to horse around (to break out laughing). Frameworks of
people of middle age limit the use of a word teeny-bopper (a young person in his pre-teens).
As a rule, the gradation on age parameter is influenced with a social factor. So, expression Bee-Bop generation
is used by representatives of the senior generation with irony in relation to the people who have born after war and
whose life is easier [3,45]. Frequently the same subjects of the real world receive various names depending on age of
communicants. So, the representative of the senior generation uses a word as refrigerator, wireless in value radio while
the teenager uses accordingly fridge and boombox. For example: He'll pig out on whatever in the fridge, while listening
to Ms boombox. (The Times, 2007).
Frequently the negative tonality of a situation in which words of similar type are used, is amplified due to
inherent estimation of derogative suffix (in this case due to a suffix-ie which last years has developed new negative
values). Compare with suffical element gate scandal which orders the use of the words containing it in situations of a
negative tonality, for example, contragate (the scandal connected with confidential delivery of the weapon Nicaraguan
counterexpert). Thus, words of this group are limited in the use on a line of situational variability.
Identifying words convenience-food, junk-food, fast-food which designate quickly prepared food, demand
knowledge of the English validity of last decades. Fast-food designates hamburgers and other quickly prepared dishes in
cafe of American firms McDonalds. Convenience-food, junk-food have identical denotative correlation - the tinned
products (concentrates) which are not demanding long preparation at home; however junk-food associates with food
substitutes, and therefore in the communicative act this word is used with neglect in relation to the person who uses the
tinned food (as a rule, he/she is the person standing on lower, in comparison with the speaker steps of a social ladder).
The inadequate use of the words similar junk-food, can cause the negative reaction
For the correct use of predicate words with semi-suffix-athon, isolated from marathon it is important to know
that its meaning is competition of any kind. Television personalities awaiting the start in Hyde Park yesterday of the
Bikethon, a 20-mile cycle ride in aid of handicapped and underprivileged children [The Times, 2007]. Compare also:
readathon- competition on endurance in reading, swimathon competitions on endurance on navigation. Words of this
group are limited in the use on social, sexual, age, and ethnic parameters.
Functional variability occurs in two dialectically interconnected directions: differentiation of language and its
integration. When we speak about differentiation, we speak about a process of terminolization of common lexicon. At a
semantic level terminolization correlates with the narrowing of value. So, such widely used common words charm,
colour, truth, beauty have got terminological values in the nuclear physics. The most widely used suffix for formation of
neologisms is the suffix nik. A new word Wuppnik appeared in the 60th. But it became widely used only in the 80th,
(meaning a journalist employed by News International who has refused to cross the print union's picket line to work at
the company's new plant in Wapping). The word is limited in the use by territorial parameter (British isles). The
Wuppniks are treated with respect and sympathy by other journalists. (The Times, 2007).
By virtue of rich semantic potential the same words (sentence, word) are used in computer techniques for a
designation of units of the information. Thus, the tendency to a terminological homonymy is observed. Chemists use a
word analogue (synthetic chemical substance similar in function to a natural chemical); in psychology the word
flooding where it was fixed in new values a method of treating a phobia by controlled exposure of the patient to the
cause migrated. From a rocket terminology the word burnout (total and incapacitating exhaustion) entered different
spheres. For example: High rate of teacher burnout. (The Times, 2007). Many reports lawyers burnout after two or
three years in practice. (The Times, 2007). A snipe posted on a wood fence near my Washington office warns of
burnout. (The Times, 2007).
Sometimes the process of determinolization takes place. Thus, the word clinical, carrying associations of

289

empathy, partnership of the doctor at bed of the patient, has got into the wide use in value cold, prudent. For example:
Trade statistics are studied clinically, crimes are solved clinically, football sides are even said to be destroyed
clinically. (The Times, 2007).
Thus, determinolization confirms the tendency of integration of language units from various layers of lexicon
on the basis of the common-literary standard. It is often used in the publicistic style. Among them there can be found
the following neologisms: (citizen band) (a band of frequency for local communication) and CB-er (an owner or
operator of CB radio); apple U.S. sl (a citizen band radio operator); ears sl (a radio set); hammer sl (an accelerator);
boots sl (an illegal linear amplifier connected to a citizen band radio to boost transmission); barefoot (within legal limits
of CB radio transmission power). From the sphere of music such new terms appeared: to badmouth (to disparage), nittygritty (practical details), cool (self-control), to get down to nitty-gritties, to lose one's cool, to blow one's cool. One of
the vivid examples of the given type is the Apple or the Big Apple (a nickname for New York City), which came into
the common speech through the social dialect of Negros-jazzmen which they used, since the 30th when they speak
about a big city, esp. in the North.
Many words are perceived as new by virtue of that they are unfamiliar to general public though they can exist
for a long time in a language of the certain group. When the dominating culture after the certain period of time any
more does not find a word useful, it can return to a language layer-source or pass in other peripheral layer with the same
or new value. The example is the situation where a central computer - a host in the current jargon - wishes to
communicate with a variety of different types of terminal.
Thus, it is possible to speak about a complex dialectic interaction of pragmatics and semantics in aspect of
stratification variability. The word, being used in some sociodialect or slang gets new value. In its semantic structure
there appear new meanings pragmatically fixed in a concrete sociodialect(slang). Then after a while by virtue of the
further pragmatical variation this word can enter a common layer of lexicon, having changed its pragmatical peculiarity.
As a result of interaction of pragmatical and semantic variability the new lexical units appear, i.e. units having
connotations of novelty.
Bibliography
1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.1986.
2. Galperin I.R. Stylistics M: Higher School Publishing House.1985.
3. Hall E. Building English sentences. Bucureti: Teora, 1996.
4. Leech G. Grammar, pragmatics and politeness. Tokyo: The Rising Generation, 1985.
5. The Times, 2007.
81` 242 (478 - 22) Kpak
UZUN D.F.
kafedrann redicisi

DU, gagauz filologiya


KIPAK KYNDN NSANNARIN LAFETMES

Rezume
In this artikle the phonetic, morphological, lexical peculiarities of the dialects of the village Kupchak of Comrat
and Chadyr dialect are studied. Paying attention to the researches of the famous turcologists: A.N. Kononov, E.R.
Tenyshev and the own researches it`s possible to consider the parallelism between the dialects of the village Kupchak
and the dialects of the Turkish language.
This article is made for the teachers, students, researches and also for those who is interested in the dialectology
of Gagauzian language.
Dialekt dili klerd (kasabalarda) yaayan insannarn lafetmesi. Literatura dili s devlet uurunda, politikada,
bilim uurunda, inczanaatta kullanlr. Literatura dilinin var aazdan hem yazmak formalar. Dialekt dilinin var sade
aazdan formalar. Literatura dilinin var kendi normalar, kurallar, anglarn orfografiya kurallarnda, szlklerd
bulrz. Dialekt dilinin yok maasuz normalar. Dialekt dili serbest, onun tradiiyalar, lafetmk maneras, zellikleri
ihtiarlardan genler geer.
Komrat adr dialektin girn klerin arasnda Kpak kyn ayr bir eri var. Bu kk aaratrma ii Kpak
kyn lafetmesini belli eder. Kpak kyndn insannarn lafetmesind trl zellikleri bulrz.
Fonetika zellikleri
1.ki aa vokallarn arasnda y konsonun dmesi:
) vokallan bitn adlklarn doorudak halnda: Moskvaa, kolaa, almaa, maazaa, sovraa, taftaa, slujbaa ;
b) iliin inkrlik formasnda: yapmaasn, koymaasn, almaasn, bakmaasn.
2. Uzun aa vokaln dnmesi uzun vokala: uaan un, kalpaan kalpn, kabaatl kabtl, aaada
ada.
3. Uzun vokaln dnmesi uzun vokala lafta nnda niinda.
4. A vokal Y konsonun nnd dnmeer: taligaylan, paraylan, maazay, almay (bu yaz normas).
5. vokaln dnmesi vokala: bn bn, rkt rkt.
6. M konsonun ardnda L konson iidiler: damla, adamlar, tavamlar, kilimlr, zmlr, giimli, dilimlem,
admlamaa. Komrat adr dialektin girn kalan klerind M konsonun ardnda N konson iidiler: damna, adamnar,
tavamnar, kilimnr, zmnr, giimni, dilimnem, admnamaa (bu yaz normas).

290

7. F konson V konsona dner: vasl, varkulia, kavadar, lavetm, kava, trova, sarvo, sovra, kuvn. Esap alrz, ani
lafetmekt V konson der, nnd duran vokal uzanr, lafn iki formas da kullanlr: sovra soora, kuvn kuun,
kovrik koorik.
8. Lafn balantsnda H konsonun dmesi: asta, aber, arman, ayat, ayvan, aylak, aylaz, avez, aliz, oroz, oru, endek, i.
9. H konson F konsona dner laflarda ftr, fzl. Lafta tufla protetik F kullanlr. Komrat adr dialektin girn
klerind bu lafn bl formalar kullanlr: tula, tuula, tufla.
10. Protetik H (diil kkl) kullanlr sade lafta holoy. Bl laflarda, nic : alma, armut, arpa, adet, ayna, alatlamaa,
aydannk, odun protetik H kullanlmr.
11. Merakl ihalln sora formas sonra. Aaratrarkan trk dilinnn, esap alrz, ani burada metateza olr. Trk dilind
sonra, Kpakta sorna. Bu olay ( metatezay) baka rneklerd d bulrz: gagauz dilind glmek, trk dilind
gmlek.
Morfologiya zellikleri
1. Bnk gnd en dolu iliin indiki zaman dialekt formas Kpak kynd kullanlr. Bu forma, bizim bakmza
gr, en dolu, en gzl (kalyrm, sanyrsn, toplany(r), inanyrz, geliyrsiniz).
Bn kalyrm
geliyrim
Sn kalyrsn
geliyrim
O kaly(r)
geliy(r)
Biz kalyrz
geliyriz
Siz kalyrsnz
geliyrsiniz
Onnar kaly(r)la(r)
geliy(r)l(r)
Bu eski indiki zaman formas gsterer, ani indiki ksa formalar, anglar Komrat-adr dialektind kullanlr,
Kpak kyn formalarndan ekiler. Lzm slem, ani Kpak kyndn insannarn lafetmesind Y konsonun
nnd I () vokallar, urgusuz poziiyada bulunarak, der: kalyerm, yatyersn, inanyerim, verye(r).
2. liin mutlak gelecek zamannda dolu formalar kullanlr: gelecm, bakacan, alacek, yazacam (bu yaz normas).
3. Gagauz dilind say kategoriyas lar, - lr, - nar, - nr afikslerin yardmnnan dzler. Kpak kynd kullanlr
adln okluk says formalar, anglar gstererlr, nereyi (ang ayley, ev) neetleneriz gitm:
a) giderim malisinner, mamusunnara, lelsunnara;
b) giderim maligil, bulgil, lelgil.
Lzm slem, ani Komrat-adr dialektind bl forma kullanlr: giderim
mamulara, babulara,
lellara.
A.N.Kononov, aaratrarkan trk dilind say kategoriyasn, yazr, ani trk dilinin dialektlerind afiks gil
ayled kiilerin, evcimannarn birliini gsterer. rnek: komumuzgile gidiyoruz (komuumuzun aylesin gideriz).
A.N.Kononov esap alr, ani afiks gil taa zoologiyada ku blmnerini, botanikada bym soylarn belli eder.
rnek: balk-gil-ler (balta kular, anglar balklan beslenerlr); bakla-gil-ler ( fasl bmneri). [1, 399]
E.R.Tenev yazr, ani afiks gil trk dilinin dialertlerind Erzurumd, Ktahyada, Sinopta kullanlr. rnek:
amcamgile gittik (amucann evin, aylesin gittik). E.R.Tenev nannr, ani bu forma azerbacan dilind d var.
rnek: Rstamovlar = Rstamovgil (Rstamov hem evcimannar). [2, 110]
Leksika zellikleri
1.Kpak kynd kullanlr laflar, anglarnnan Valkane dialektind kar geleriz:
pita (Komrat-adr dialektind taler, tabla);
kayretli, kayretlenm (Valkane dialektind kaaretli, kaaretlenma);
kenef (Komrat-adr dialektind ayak yolu, (h)al);
slata ( Valkane dialektind urgu ikinci ksma der);
torlak (Komrat-adr dialektind plak).
2.Merakl rus dilindn alnm laflar: kartoli, morkule, kastrla, krivat, stol. Laf masa Kpak kynd kullanlmr.
3. Laflar dik (kaynanm yada kaurulmu yaan), kandak (kandakl yol), durcecik (uslu durr) sade bu kd
kullanlrlar.
4. Laflarda maza, ftr, ktlon, ymak urgu ilk ksma der, lafta ollk urgu ikinci ksma der.
5. Dialekt laflarnnan kar geleriz kpakl yazcnn N..Baboglunun annatmasnda
Allahn izinnn Burada bl leksika dialektizmalar bulrz: kayretli, kayretlenma. Lafn maanas saburlu, dayankl.
Allah ileri iin diil gnah biraz da zora kayretlenm(dayanmaa). Yada fayton kalgyer (atlyer, sarsyer
kandakl (oymakl) yolda). Uak mararsa, Kpakta deerlr: kalgma krivatta (atlama).
Literatura
1. .. // : . , 1996. C. 399.
2. .. . .
, 2002. C. 110.
947.8
ZANET Todur
Ana Sz
GAGAUZLUK STORYASINA, KKLERN HEM KULTURASINA
TRK DNNES EREVESNDN BR BAKI
Yaklak 200 yln iind gagauz halk, trk dnnesindn kopup, ayr bir geopolitika istoriyas altnda yaada.

291

O istoriya hem geopolitika lzgerleri daatlar hem yok ettilr gagauzlarn taa oyunu. kiz yln iind gagauzlarn
says 1 milion 200 bin insandan yaklak 200 bin dt. Cenklr hem geopolitika oyunnar milletimizi Balkannardan
Basarabiyaya, Basarabiyadan da Sibiriyey, Kazahstana, Kafkaza, Ukraynaya, Braziliyeya, Argentinaya hem taa baka
erler daattlar, aalklan hem asimiliya politikasnnan erittilr.
Ama bakmadaan buna, trk dnnsnn kulturasnn bir paras olarak, gagauzlar kendi folklorunda, etnika hem
etnografiya zelliklerind, bu kulturann sedeflerini korudular. Bu oldu bakmadaan ona, ani zlrc yl yabanc
ideologiya, din hem geopolitika interesleri gagauzlar bu kklerdn koparmaa savat, altt yaklatrmaa onnar
(hem ok erd yaklatrd da!) slavn, grek, romn halklarn kulturasna hem adetlerin. Ama ruhta bu olamad!
nk ruh ana sdnnn, genetik aklnnan insanda yaradlr.
Bundan kaar, trl yalanc teoriyalar ortaya atp, gagauzlarn ba bulgar, ba grek, ba romn olduklar konusunu
gnnk dartmalara kardlar. Ama haliz bilim adamnarn aaratrmalar bu konuda bk hem semiz bir nokta koydu.
lkin bunu yapt eh aaratrmacs hem istorii Konstantin REEK [1], angs urgulad, ani gagauzlar kumannardan
(rusa kumannara , deerlr) ekilerlr. Kendi yazlarnda K. REEK sleer, ani ilkin kim buldu gagauz
lafnda oguz yada uz lafna yaknn hem aklad onu var bulgar aydnnadcs Petko Raov SLAVEYKOV [2].
XIX-cu zyln sonunda gagauzlarn kkn hem etnografiya kulturasn aaratran rus bilim adam Valentin
MOKOV [3] kayl olup K. REEKn fikirlerinnn, yazd: Herliilm gagauzlarn halk adna dnrsk, ozaman, nic
sayr akademik Vasiliy RADLOV [4], onu var nic iki paydan olmasna bakmaa gag hem auz. Bitkincisi var nic olsun
ksaltma aguz yada oguz lafndan, angs istoriyada bilinn uz, guz hem torki adlarnnan bilinn trk soyuna ad
olarak kullanlr [5]. Ne der slem birinci gag element iin, o var nic olsun diiilmi gk, gk yada gok laf [6],
angs aklr oguz halknn soylarndan birisini [7] (burada hem t dooru gagauz dilin hepsi evirmelr
avtorun).
Eridir urgulamaa, ani indi artk btn trk hem dnn bilim kiyatlarnda gagauzlar taa ok Gk Oguzlar,
ani Gk Trklr ad altnda geerlr.
Valentin MOKOV taa bir fikir ortaya karr: Demeli ki, btn bu aklamalardan var nic karar almaa
ani, o halk, kimindi Orhon yazlar, rus letopislerinin torki yada uz halk hem gagauzlar hep o halktr. Onun
ad Oguzlar trk yada torki adl bk bir halkn sad bir soyunun ad[8]. Esaba alarak onu, ani bnk gndn hi
bir bilim adam, Valentin MOKOVun bu yazlarn p altna koymad hem da Orhon yazlar [9] Gk Trk
yazlar olarak tannrlar, dooru olacek saymaa, ani Orhon yazlarnn alfaviti gagauzlarn ilk alfavitidir.
Bunun yannda urgulrz, ani Gagauz kendi saylar [10] (fralar) da varm. Onnar da diriltm lzm.
Gagauzlarn kkleri iin konusunu kapatarak, yok nic slmeyelim ne dnrmi bu i iin gagauz hem
romn
milletinin
aydnnadcs,
profesor
protoierey
Mihail
AKIR: Gagauzlar lafederlr pak trk, l, nic lafedrmi eski zamannarda cml insannar, anglar ekilmi
trk halkndan, trk soyundan. Gagauzlarn dili, laf taa asl trkedir, taa paktr Osmaniya trkenin dilindn, zer
Osmaniyalar ok laf, ok sz almlar farsizlerdn hem arablardan. [11]
Belli ki, gagauzluk bnk gndn korunmayaceyd, herliim istoriyada bizim kendi devletlerimiz olmayd. O
devletleri var nic iki paya blm: 1) milletlerin bk g etmesindn kurulan devletlr hun devleti [12] hem gk
trk
Kaganatlar
[13];
2) milletlerin bk g etmesindn sora kurulan devletlr ziyalet [14] (Karbunlu devleti [15], Dobruca devleti
[16]); Komrat Respublikas [17]; Gagauz Avtonom Sovet Soialist Respublikas [18]; Gagauz Respublikas [19];
Gagauziya (Gagauz Yeri) [20] avtonomiyas. Belliki bu srada durrlar gagauz devletlerin devletlik simvollar da: Milli
Gimn, Bayrak hem Gerb [21].
Gagauzlarn
devletleri
iin
yazarkana,
esaba
alarak
gagauzlarn
kklerini
(ani
KUMANNAR hem OGUZLAR hep o millet) eridir urgulamaa onu, ne bitki vaktlarda Dobruca devleti iin arheologiya
bilimind z kt hem ne yazr bu konuda bulgar aaratrmacs Prof. Dr. Georgi ATANASOV: lk srada, bir
pesiz kalr o fakt, ani halizdn kumannarn evlatboylar Sraimir, Balk hem Terter (Yoan = vanko?) hem da
sek saabi olpan, ani vanko padiahl zamannda diplomatm, kurmular Dobruca devletini. Belli i, ani Terter
da, Balk da ekilerlr anlm Terteroba kuman soyundan, angs taman 1240-c yln dolaynda Bulgariyey geer
hem erleer orada. Diil lzm atlmaa ondan da, ani kuman beylerin rezideniyasnn ad, l deniln Karabuna Tuna
blm, uyr Dobruca devletinin padiahlarnn rezideniyasnn Korvuna adnnan. [22]
Bnk gnd gagauzluk kulturasnn aaratrmasn iki dalgaya ayrmaa lzm: 1) eski zamannar hem
baamsz baklar (XIX-cu zylnda hem XX-ci asirin banda tiparlanan gagauzlarlan ilgili aratrmalar, hem da
Sovetlr Birliin zamannda baamsz hem tarafsz bilimcilerin aaratrmalar); 2) sovetlr hem soializma vakd.
Haliz bilim almalarn p altna almadaan, isteeriz urgulamaa, ani ikinci dalgada gagauz kulturasn
inceleyn bilim adamnarn arasnda vard onnar da, ani gagauzlara sovet [23], soializma [24], slavn, urum yada
romn
kaluplarn
uydurmaa
savaardlar hem indi da savarlar. Onun iin gagauzluk kulturasnn ok erleri aaratrlmadk brakld yada
aaratrld salt o kertdn, neredn sora kurulu olan bilim dogmalar vard nic baaaa devirilsin. stmeeriz dem,
ani gagauz kulturasna slavn yada baka bir yabanc milletin baknnan bakmaa halizdn yann bir i, ama vakt geldi
konularn oyunu kendi i baklarmzlan hem trk dnns bilimin baknnan incelem. Bu verecek kolayn
aktarmaa o teoriyalar, ani biz diiliz biz hem bizim kendimizin bieyimiz yok.
Belliki, gagauzlarn Basarabiyada kurulan folklorunda yada etnografiya kulturasnda kimi laflar hem
yaamakta kullanlan terminnr alnm komu halklardan (moldovannardan, bulgarlardan, ukraynallardan,
ruslardan) hem kuvet sistemasndan, ama onnarn pay halizdn pek aaz. Bundan kaar, iin kapal olan klerd, nic
Ukraynadak Balboka [25] (1948-dn beeri eni ad Kotlovina) ky, ani kurulmu 1754-c (kimi kaynaklarda 1752-ci)
ylda, folklor kalm l, nic o varm batan. Bu kyn folkloru, bir adada gibi, komu milletlerin basksndan

292

korunmu. Burada bulunr gagauz kulturasnn o kat, nered halizdn pak, temiz hem korunmu bir folklor kalm. Var
ok eski trklr hem maanilr, ani Basarabiyann kalan klerind yaayan gagauzlarn arasnda artk kalmam (o sa
yok edilmi mi?).
kinci dalga aartrmalarda bilim adamnar, bulamrlar gagauz klerind o trkleri, anglarnn kimilerini
V. MOKOV yann trklerdn alnma trklr blmn koymu. Yann sayrz o zer, ani herliim bu l olayd
ikiz elli yln iind bu trklr kayp olaceyd. O trklerin oyunu biz 2006-c ylda Balboka (Kotlovina) kynd
yazdk. Bu gsterer onu, ani o trklerd annadlan olaylar gagauz halk nezaman sa yaam hem kendi genetik
aklnda korumu.
Bu kd savatk bulmaa o trkleri da (oyu din trkleri hem trklk dumann trkleri), ani son 60-65
yln iind sokturulmu baka klerd yaayan gagauzlarn folkloruna, ama bulamadk. Balbokadan
respondentlarmzn hi birisi onnar bilmeerlr hem iitmemilr. Bu fakt esaba alarak, bir pesiz var nic urgulamaa,
ani Sovet sistemasnn ideologiy blmneri kendi bilim adamnarnn almalarnnan, bu folkloru gagauzlarn
fikirin sokmu. rnek olarak var nic getirelim o trkleri [26], ani ilk ker tiparlandlar 1959-cu ylda. Herliim bu
trklr gagauzlarn haliz folklorunda olayd, onnar mutlaka V. MOKOV, A. MANOV, W. ZAJACZKOWSKI gibi
bilim adamnar bulup, yazaceydlar. Ama bu olmam, zer yok olan ii yok nic bulmaa. Onu sad var nic yazp
kaybetm da sora gen bulmaa.
Sanrz, ani geldi vakt hepsi gagauzlar tansnnar o folklor rneklerinnn d, ani aklrlar gagauzlarn haliz
istoriyasn: kim Balkannarda onnara halizdn bask yapm, hem kim gagauz adamnarn kasabalardan
kardp, kendisi ory gemi: Bulgar bizden bn asker alacak, / Alacak da ipka balkanna yollayacak, /
Ardmzdan ok aneler aylayacak, / Bon varnallarn ba belal var. / orbaclar askersiniz dediler, / Varnamz
bulgara verdiler. / Varnallar askerlini yapmaz, / Bulgarlara hi ta teslim olmaz [27].
Var nic salt amaa nein bnk gndn gagauz istorikleri bunun iin yazmamlar, bunu aklamamlar.
Baka bir i ta yaplr: kimi bilimcilr savarlar koymaa kola hem literatura kiyatlarna bulgariya
gagauzlarndan A. MANOVun hem W. ZAJACZKOWSKIyin kiyadndan alnma sleyileri, yazarak, ani onnar
Basarabiya gagauzlarn sleyileriymi. Ama bu i tutulmr bir sebep gr: rencilerin hem okuycularn analarbobalar, ddular-babular onnar bilmeerlr hem bnk gnd onnarn tarafndan lafediln dild o sleyilr yok.
Yokmu onnar Basarabiya gagauzlarn folklorunda z yl geeri da [28].
Analiz yaparak hem inceleyerk bu gndn kimi avtorlarn aaratrmalrn biz greriz, ani onnarn otu gagauz
dilini bilmedn, gagauzluk iin azmaa savarlar. Taa da beter, plagiat yapp, biz aalemin yannlklarn bilim olarak
vererlr. Deyecez, Valentin MOKOV fesleni yan olarak [29] evirer. Bu yannl hi
dnmedn tekrarlrlar baka aaratrmaclar [30] da. Ama feslen halizdn rusaya olarak
eviriler, sa gagauza naan.
Hepsi bu yannlklar hem falsifikaiyalar savatk doorutmaa eni kan Todur ZANETin GAGAUZLUK:
Kultura, Ruh, Adetlr [31] kiyadnn sayfalarnda.
Bu ksa bak toparlarkana isteeriz slem, ani gagauzlarn dooru istoriyasn hem kklerini var nic heptn
aklamaa salt ozaman, aan bu aklamalarda n plana trk dnnesi erevesini faktoru koyulacek. Bunu yapmarsak
hep karannkta, yalanclkta hem krlkt yaayacez taa eriyincasna kadar.
LTERATURA
1. JREEK Constantin. Das Frstenthum Bulgarien // Wien. 1891.
2. SLAVEYKOV Petko Raov (1827-1895), bulgar aydnnadcs, poet, folklorcusu hem publiist.
3. MOKOV Valentin Aleksandrovi (1852 - lm yl bilinmeer), rus etnograf, aaratrmacs hem lingvist.
4. RADLOV Vasiliy Vasiliyevi (haliz ad Fridrih Wilhelm RADLOFF) (1837-1918), akademik, bk rus
trkologu, etnograf hem arheologu. Orhon yazlarn bulan bilim adam.
5. .. // ,
. . . ., 1904. s. XVIII.
6. Burada V. MOKOV l sslkay yapr: i .
. 1846 . 1. s. 11.
7. .. // ,
. . . ., 1904. s. XVIII.
8. MOKOV Valentin Aleksandrovi, Gagauz Benderskogo Uezda. (Etnografieskie oerki i material). //
Tipogr. Central, Kiinev, 2004. s. 18.
9. Orhon yazlar (Gktrk yazlar yada Kktrk yazlar) 1889-cu ylda Orhon hem Enisey derelerin
yannda talarda bulunan yazlar. Saylr Gk Trklerin ilk alfaviti.
10. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.
s.173.
11. CIACHIR Mihail. Besarabieal Gagauzlarn storias // Chiinu, 1934. s. 3.
12. . // , 1960.
13. . // , 2004.
14. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.
s.16.
15. CIACHIR Mihail, Besarabieal Gagauzlarn storias // Chiinu, 1934. s. 14.
16. . . , ,
XIV // , 2009.

293

17. FLMONOVA M. BK MAANALI OLAY. Komrat iftilr kalkntsnn 100-c yldnm


tamamnand // Ana Sz Nr. 1 (488), 31.01.2006. s. 1, 4.
18. ZANET Todur. HALKIN STED BELL // Ana Sz Nr. 24 (34), 19. 11. 1989. s. 1-2.
19. ZANET Todur. BZD DA RESPUBLKA VARDI // Ana Sz Nr. 8 (483), 31. 08. 2005. s. 2.
20. ( ). Nr.344-XIII 23.12.94 //
N 3-4 / 14.01.1995.
21. III //
, 90 (6010) 24.07.1990. s. 1.
22. . DESPOTSTVO. , ,
XIV // , 2009. s. 61.
23. ..
// , , 1979, 2.
24. .., ..
// , 1983.
25. ZANET Todur. Balbokaya uzun hem yakn yolculuk // Ana Sz Nr. 2 (489), 26. 02. 2006. s. 1-3.
26. . // . . , 1959. s.38-39.
27. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.
s.169.
28. .. // ,
. . . ., 1904. s. 273-282.
29. .. // ,
. . . ., 1904. s. XVIII. , s.104.
30. KUROGLU S.S. XIX . // , 1980. s.100.
31. ZANET Todur. GAGAUZLUK: Kultura, Ruh, Adetlr // Pontos, 2010.

294

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TANGEANCES ENTRE LA TRANSPOSITION DE L ADJECTIF DANS LA LANGUE ROUMAINE,
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ABOUT MULTIPLE GRAMMATICAL NEGATIVES IN OLD ENGLISH.277
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