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..

, 2007


(CFD)
50- .
1958 1967: Los Alamos Scientific Lab. (Group T-3)
, Particle-in-Cell, Marker-and-Cell .
1960-70- : D.B.Spalding .: k-- , SIMPLE,
(Eddy-Break-Up)
1980- : CFD PHOENICS,
FLUENT, FIDAP, STAR-CD, CFX
1990- : CFD
( :
1.5-2 ). CFD -.
( ) (CFDcodes). ANSYS CFX (
Fluent Inc.), CD adapco Group ( StarCD, StarCCM+), .
CFD
,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
: CAD, SolidWorks

CFD

, :
1) : -,
( ,
.) ( )
2

2) :
,

3) :

.
CFD :
1)

2)

3)

4)
:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)

CFD-
:

(Solver)

,
,


,

,

, , ,

(ui )
+
=0
t
xi

ui
t

+uj

ui
x j

ij p
= f i +

x
xi
j

u u j 2 u k
+ ij u k
ij
ij = i +
x

xk
j xi 3 xk
G G
G
ij = L ij [u ( x , t ); x , t ] , t < t

T
u
T T
+ ij i + T

=
+ ui
x j
xi xi xi
t

):

C
C
C
+C
D
+ ui
=
t
xi xi xi

,
U ( x )
u

2 u u v
2T
u
T
u
T
+
= 0, u
= U (x )U ( x ) + 2 ,
= +a 2
+v
+v
x y
y
y
x
x
y
y

G
1. u i ( x , t ) = f i ( x , t ) .
G
: u = 0 ,


G
G
ui ( x , t )
= gi ( x , t ) .
2.
n
:

G
T
= qw ( x , t )
n

G
G
G
ui ( x , t )
+ ui ( x , t ) = gi ( x , t ) .
3.
n
T
= hw (T Ta ) + (T 4 Ta4 )
n

U
y

=
y = y1

v (U1 , y1 , )
y1

(),
( ).
.
,
u ( x, y ) 0 x Lx , 0 y Ly

,
{xi }

{y },
j

i = 1,..., N x , j = 1,..., N y

, N x , N y
x- y-.

i,j+1

xi

yj

:
uij = u (xi , y j )

xi

i-1,j

h
i-1/2,j
x
i

y
j

i,j

i+1,j
x
i+1

i,j-1

{tn } ,

y
j+1

yj


uijn = u (xi , y j , tn )

.
: hix = xi xi 1

, (),

x + xi

ui 1 2 , j = u i 1
, yj
2

.
:

Lu ( x ) ,

Lhui -

xi. h
Lu( xi ) Lhui = i = O (h ) , > 0

i (),
.
O . f ( x ) = O (g ( x )) x S
, K, x, x S
f (x ) K g (x ) .

+ui =

):

ui +1 ui u
=
+ i+
hi +1
x i

( ): ui =

ui ui 1 u
=
+ i
hi
x i

i .

i+ =

hi +1 2u
hi2+1 3u
hi 2u
hi2 3u
3

(
)
,
+
+
O
h

+
+ O (hi3 )
i +1
i
2
3
2
3
2! x i
3! x i
2! x i 3! x i

.. i = O (h )
.

, hi , hi +1 ,
,

hi +ui + hi +1 ui u
hi hi +1 3u
ui =
=
+
+ O (hi3 )
3
3! x i
hi + hi +1
x i

hi = h ui =

ui +1 ui 1
2h


2ui =

ui +1 2 ui 1 2

=i

1
=i

ui +1 ui ui ui 1
h + hi +1

, = i = i

2
hi
hi +1

, ,
2ui =

2u
hi +1 hi 3u
hi2+1 hi hi +1 + hi2 4u
+
+
+ O (hi3 )
4
3
2
3
12
x i
x i
x i

.. 2ui .
, , hi +1 hi = O (h 2 ) , 2ui ,
.
2ui :
2ui =

ui +1 2ui + ui 1 2u
= 2 + O ( h2 )
h2
x i

-
1
d
du
u u
u u
( x ) = i +1 2 i +1 i i 1 2 i i 1 + i

dx
dx i = i
hi +1
hi

i =

hi +1 hi
u + 3(u) + O (h 2 )

i
12

2ui =

( )

2u
h 2 4u
+
+ O h4
2
4
x i 12 x i

q =

2u

x 2

( )

( )

h2 2q
h2 2
4
ui = qi +
+ O h = qi + qi + O h 4 ,
2
12 x i
12
2

( )

ui +1 2ui + ui 1 qi +1 + 10qi + qi 1
=
+ O h4
2
h
12

, .

: h u ( x )

Lu ( x ) = f ( x ) -
LhU i = Ph f i ui = u ( xi )
Lhui Ph f i = i = O (h ), > 0

i () ,
.
-

-:
u( x )

d
d
d
(
)
x
=

k ( x ) +
dx dx
dx

ui + i + (1 ) i =

1
=i

i
i 1
ki i + i , 0 1
i +1 2 i +1
i 1 2 i
hi +1
hi

(*)

ui [hi +1 (1 )hi ] 2
+ O (h 2 )
2
x i
2

- (*)

ai i +1 + d i i + bi i 1 = ci
ai =

(**)

i +1 2
ui
u i 1 2

, bi = (1 ) i
, d i = ki ai bi , ci = i
hi +1 = i hi +1
hi = i hi

d i
9

ai , bi
: (**)

(): ci 0(ci 0) i, d i > 0 , ai , bi < 0 ,


:
d i ai bi , ( ),
d i ai 1 bi +1 , d1 b2 , d N a N 1 ( )

i 0( i 0 )
. ,

ci 0 i . k
.
ak k +1 + d k k + bk k 1 = ak ( k +1 k ) + (d k + ak + bk ) k + bk ( k 1 k ) = ck

, .
, , .

.
.
k
1) ki 0

2)

ui = i

i +1 2

(1 )

1 , ui > 0 ,

ui = i

i 1 2

1 , ui < 0

- = 1 2 ,
,

Pei =

ui = i
2
min i +1 2 , i 1 2

10

,
, :

= 0 , ui > 0
= 1 , ui < 0

u( x )

u + ui
u ui
d
= ui+ + i + ui i , ui+ = i
, ui = i
dx i
2
2

, .
.

i
=

(u h
=

+
i i +1

ui hi ) 2

ui = i + ui ( hi +1 hi ) 2 2
2
+
=
+ O ( h2 ) =
O
h
(
)
x 2 i
x 2 i
2

ui = i 2
+ O (h 2 ) ( )
2
2 x i

i 1 2 i 1 2

ui = i
2

i 1 2

, i 1 2

1+

ui = i
2i 1 2

(.., 1965).

: u x = a = ua , u x = b = ub
1) : x0 = a , xN = b
u0 = ua , uN = ub

2) : x0 a .
11

ua = u0 + u0 (a x0 ) + O (h 2 )

u0
,

u0 =

ua h1 u1 (a x0 )
( )
x1 a

u
= , x = a
n

x1 a
a x0
u u
u0 +
u1 1 0 =
h1
h1
h1

O(h),
, a = x1 2 , = O(h2)
.

[ (x1 a ) + ]u0 [ (a x0 )]u1 = h1


, < 0

. 0
, , [ ( x1 a ) + ][ (a x0 )] 0
,
( , ).
,

:
1)
:
x
(uC u A )
uP = u A +
x + x
uP = uB +

y
(uD uB )
y + y

y
y

P
x

B
-

12

2) - (
- ).

13


.

().
. , ..

.
-


u( x )

d
d
d
( x ) k ( x ) +
=

dx dx
dx

, q = d dx
u( x )

d
dq
=
k ( x ) +
dx
dx

xi 1 2 ; xi +1 2

xi +1 2

xi +1 2

d
u(x )
dx = qi +1 2 + qi 1 2 + [ k ]dx

dx
xi 1 2
xi 1 2

(*)

, d dx = q

[xi 1; xi ]
i i 1

i
q(x )
dx
=
dx = qi 1 2
+ O (h 3 )
(
)
(
)

x
x
xi 1
xi 1

xi

i 1 2

1
=
hi

dx
(x )
xi 1

xi


qi 1 2 = i 1 2

i i 1
hi

+ O (h 2 )


14

xi +1 2

[ k ]dx = = [
i

ki i ] + O (h 3 )

xi 1 2

, ,

( i 1 ) + O (h 3 )
d
u(x )
dx = ud = ui i +1 2 i 1 2 + O (h 3 ) = ui i +1

dx
2
xi 1 2
i 1 2
i +1 2

xi +1 2

(*),
ui i =

1
=i

i +1 i
i 1
2
i 1 2 i
i +1 2
kii + i + O ( h )
hi +1
hi


.

:

( i 1 ) + O (h 3 )
d
1) u ( x )
dx = ud = ui i +1 2 i 1 2 + O (h 3 ) = ui i +1
dx
2
xi 1 2
i 1 2
i +1 2

xi +1 2


xi +1 2

2)

1
d
u(x ) dx dx = 2 [u (
i +1 2

i +1

i ) + ui 1 2 ( i i 1 ) + O (h 3 )

xi 1 2

xi +1 2

3)

d
u(x ) dx dx = u (
+
i

i 1 ) + ui ( i +1 i ) + O (h 2 )

xi 1 2

1)
2)

15

,
?
,

, ,
, ,
,
.
: -

.
+ .
, - .

: -

2
+u
=D 2
t
x
x

in in 1
n in1
n 2in + in1
+ ui i +1
= D i +1
h2

2h

in1 = in h

h 2 2
h 3 3
h 4 4
+

+
+ O (h 5 )
2
3
4
x i 2! x i 3! x i 4! x i

in 1 = in

2 2
+
+ O ( 3 )
t i 2! t 2 i

2 2
h 2 3
h 2 4

+u
D 2
+
u

D 4 = O ( 2 )
2
3
x
x i 2 t i 6 x i 12 x i
t

16

2 2

= D 2 u
2
t
x
x



uh 2 6 D

2 u 2 2

+u
D 2
+
1 + 2
h
2 x 2 i
6
x
x i
t

3
h 2 6 D

3 D 1 + 2
h
x i 12


2
3
4 = O ( , h )

i
4

<<

D h2
,
<< 1 , L ( x, t )
u 2 L2

- .

-
.
, .
:

1)
Lu = f

Lhu ( ) = f (
h

h)

(1)

(1) , h0 > 0 , > 0 ,


h < h0 (
Lh z ( ) = f ( ) + (
h

h)

<

h)

z ( ) ,
h

z( ) u(
h

h)

c (

h)

(2)

c h.
2) (1) , f ( ) (1)
h

,
u(

h)

c f(

h)

(): Lhu ( ) = f (
h

h)

Lu = f

h k . u ( ) [u ]h ,
h

17

[u ]h u ( h)

= O ( hk )

: f (

h)

[u ]h - (1)
Lh [u ]h = f ( ) + f (
h

h)

f (h) = O ( hk )
( ) = f ( ) , z ( ) = [u ]h . (2)
h

[u ]h u ( h)

c f(

h)

= O ( hk )



.
1

Ti n +1 Ti n

=a

Ti n+1 2Ti n + Ti n1
h2

(*)


~
: Ti n = Ti n + in . ,
(*)
a
in +1 in
n 2 in + in1
= a i +1
, in +1 = s in+1 + (1 2 s ) in + s in1 , s = 2 (**)
2
h

h
( x ) 1

g ( x ) 0 x L
g ( x ) = g m eikm x , k m =
m

L
2m ,
1
g m = g ( x )e ikm x dx
L
L0

- ,
h N
1
2h
g ( x )e ikm x dx g j exp i
mj

L0
L j =0
L

gm =

18

( x, t ) = m ( t ) eik x , km =
m

2m
1
, m = ( x )e ikm x dx
L
L0
L

.
(**) in = G n eikx ; (**),
G = seikh + 1 2 s + se ikh = 1 4 s sin 2

kh
2

G (amplification factor).
, G 1 , s

a 1
1
, 2
h
2
2

2

()
u
u
+c
=0
t
x

uin +1 uin

+c

uin+1 uin1
=0
2h

uin = G n eikx , G = 1 i

c
sin kh = 1 iC sin kh ,
h

C =

c
h

.
.
( )
uin +1 uin

+c

uin uin1
=0
h

ImG

G = 1 C (1 e ikx ) = 1 C + Ce ikx
G (.

1-C

),

ReG

-
0 < C <1


.
,
.

19

( Au )i = aiui1 + biui ciui+1 =

i = 1,..., N ,

fi ,

a1 = cN = 0

(*)

b1u1 c1u 2 = f1

a2 u1 + b2 u 2 c2 u3 = f 2

a N u N 1 + bN u N = f N
, ,
- :
: b1 = 1, c1 = 0, f1 = u a
: b1 = 1, c1 = 1, f1 = h2

u
x

x1 2

(Thomas Algorithm, TDMA)

(*)

ui = i ui +1 + z i ,

i = N ,...,1

ui 1 = i 1ui + z i 1 (*)
ui =

ci
f + ai z i 1
ui +1 + i
bi ai i 1
bi ai i 1

i =

ci
f + ai z i 1
, zi = i
,
bi ai i 1
bi ai i 1

i = 1,..., N

(*) :

ai 0 , ci 0 i = 2,..., N 1 ,

bi ai + ci ,

, .

: i=1, i 1
i>1, bi ai i 1 bi ai i 1 bi ai ci i 1

20

.
bi = 2 , ai = ci = 1 i = 1,..., N 1 , a N = bN = 1 .

i =

1 i 1
1
, 1 i =
, i = 1 i = i 1 0
1 + i 1
2 i 1
1 + (1 i 1 )

N, N 1 1,
z N .

i =

ai

bi ci i +1

, zi =

f i + ci zi +1
, i = N ,...,1
b c
i

i +1

ui = i ui 1 + zi , i = 1,..., N

.
i0, 1< i0<N,
1 i i01

i =

ci
f + ai z i 1
, zi = i
,
bi ai i 1
bi ai i 1

i0+1 i N

i =

ai

bi ci i +1

, zi =

f i + ci zi +1
,
b c
i

ui 0 ai0 ui0 1 + bi0 ui0 ci0 ui0 +1 = f i0

i +1

ui0 = i0 ui0 +1 + z i0 ,

ui0 = i0 ui0 1 + zi0 .


ui0 =

f i0 + ai0 z i0 1 + ci0 zi0 +1


b a c
i0

i0

i0 1

i0

i0 +1

ui
ui = i ui +1 + z i , 1 i < i0
ui = i ui 1 + zi , i0 < i N


( ) .
:

21

1) i = 2,..., N

bi bi

2) i = N ,...,1

ci

a i ci
a f
, f i f i + i i 1
bi 1
bi 1

ci ci +1 + f i
bi

= 9N

: , 1-
, .

Du1 u 2 = f1

ui 1 + Dui ui +1 = f i ,

i = 2,..., N 1

(*)

u N 1 + Du N = f N

ui , f i M, .. ui = {ui , j }
i- , j = 1,..., M , D MM.
D q z q , q = 1,..., M , ..
Dz q = q z q

Z, q z q ,
D
Z T DZ = = diag{q }

(*) Z T ui = Z T ui ,

z
M

.. u q ,i =

q, j

ui , j ui . (*) M

j =1

q u q ,1 = fq ,1
u q ,i 1 + q u q ,i u q ,i +1 = fq ,i ,

(i = 2,..., N 1)

u q , N 1 + q u q , N = fq , N ,

q = 1,..., M

M 9N
( 9NM).
22

z
M

ui , j =

q, j

u q ,i , i = 1,..., N

q =1

2M2
.
,

ui 1, j + 2uij ui +1, j
2
x

uij 1 + 2uij uij +1


hy2

= f ij , i = 1,..., N , j = 1,..., M

u 0 j = g 0 j , u Nj = g Nj , ui 0 = g i 0 , uiM = g iM
2 1
1 2

hy2
D = 2 E + 2 T , T = 0 0
hx

... ...

...

0 ...

0 ... ...
... 0 0

0 2 1
0 1 2

T:

Tq = 4 sin 2

2(M + 1)

2
qj
sin
M +1
M +1

, zq, j =

D ,

q = 2 +

hy2
2
x

Tq

wp =

ui sin

i =1

pi
M +1

, p = 1,..., M

f (k ) , k = 0,..., N 1 .

f (k ) =

N 1

A(n )W

n =0

kn

, A(n ) = N

N 1

k =0

2i
f (k )W kn , W = exp
N

(*)


( ), f (k ) N2 .
N , , (*)
.

N = N1 N 2 . k n
k = k1 N 2 + k 2 , k1 = 0,..., N1 1 , k 2 = 0,..., N 2 1 ,

23

n = n1 + n2 N1 , n1 = 0,..., N1 1 , n2 = 0,..., N 2 1 ,

( )

W k1n2 N1N 2 = W N

k1n2

= 1 ,

W kn2 N1 = W k2n2 N1 , W kn = W kn1+k2n2 N1

f (k ) = f (k1 , k 2 ) =

N1 1

N 2 1

A(n1 , n2 )W k2n2 N1 W kn1

n2 =0

n1 =0


A1 (n1 , k 2 ) =

N 2 1

A(n1 , n2 )W

k2n2 N1

, f (k1 , k 2 ) =

n2 =0

N1 1

A1 (n1 , k2 )W kn1

n1 =0

, N 2 (N1 + N 2 )N .
N2 ,
A1 (n1 , k 2 ) .

N = N1 N 2 ...N m , N

N ( N1 + N 2 + ... + N m ) .

, N i = 2,3,4 . N = 256 ,
16 .
N = 2 m . k n
:
k = k m1k m2 ...k0 k m1 2 m1 + k m2 2 m2 + ... + k0 , n = nm1nm2 ...n0 nm1 2 m1 + nm2 2 m2 + ... + n0

f (k m1 ,.., k0 ) =

m 1
1
2
kn
kn
2
kn
m

1
0
1
...
W
A(nm1 ,.., n0 )W
...W

nm1=0

(
1

n0 =0

n1 =0


W knm1 2

m 1

W knm2 2

m 2

m 1

= W k0nm1 2 ,
= W k1k0nm2 2

m2

m
A1 (k0 , nm2 ,.., n0 ) =

A(nm1 ,.., n0 )W k0nm1 2

m 1

nm 1 =0

A2 (k0 , k1 , nm3 ,.., n0 ) =

A1 (k0 , nm2 ,.., n0 )W k1k0nm2 2

nm 2 =0

24

m2


f (k ) = Am (k m1 ,.., k0 ) =

A
1

m1

(km2 ,.., k0 , n0 )W k

m 1 ... k0n0

n0 =0

, -
,
. ,
,
N
.

.

f (x ) = 0

.., [a , b ] .
1. ,
. .
2. , .

,

:
1. f ( xk ) , k = 0,..., N , xk [a , b] . f ( xk ) f ( xk +1 )
, xk < x * < xk +1 .
x*

25

2. . f (a ) > 0 , f (b ) < 0 . x0 =

a +b
. f ( x0 ) < 0 ,
2

[a , x0 ] , f ( x0 ) > 0 , [x0 , b] .
[a , x0 ] , [x0 , b] , f ( x )
, > 0.
N = log2

ba

[a , b ] , ,
, .
g (x ) =

f (x )

(x x )

* m

, m .

3. . x = s( x )

xn +1 = s( xn ) ,

n = 0,1,...

s( x )

s ( x ) = x + ( x ) f ( x ) , ( x ) ,
.
, {xn } n .
,

s(x* ) < 1 ,

xk +1 xk = s( xk ) s( xk 1 ) = s( xk )( xk xk 1 ) + O (x 2 ).

1 + (f ) < 1

( x ) , .
: ( = const )
xn +1 xn

= f ( xn )

2 < f (x* ) < 0 .


f (x* ) > 0 , < 0
f (x * ) < 0 > 0
f (x * ) < 0 0 < m < f (x * ) < M , 0 < < 2 M .
?

26

zn = xn x *
z n +1 z n

= f (x * + zn ) = f (x * ) + zn f (x * + zn ) = zn f (x * + zn ) ( . )

zn +1 1 + f (x * + zn ) zn zn max 1 + f ( x + zn )
x

0 < m < f (x* ) < M ,


zn +1 max{1 M , 1 m }zn

q( ) = max{1 M , 1 m }
q ( ) ,

1 opt M = 1 opt m

opt =

2
M +m

q ( opt ) = 0 =

1
m
,=

1+
M

zn 0n z0

0 .
, : n( ) =

ln(1 )
ln(1 0 )

4. . f ( x ) xn :
f ( x ) = f ( xn ) + f ( xn )( x xn ) + O (x 2 )

f ( xn ) + f ( xn )( xn +1 xn ) = 0 , .. xn +1 = xn

f ( xn )
f ( xn )

, .. xn +1 = O (xn2 )
s( x ) = x
: .. s( x ) =

f (x )
f ( x )

f ( x ) f ( x )
, s(x* ) = 0
2
f (x )

, s( x ) < 1 .
zn = xn x*
27

z n + 1 = x n +1 x * =

f ( xn ) + f ( xn )(x* xn )
f (x* ) f ( xn ) zn2 2 + O (zn3 ) f ( xn ) 2
=
=
zn + O (zn3 )
f ( xn )
f ( xn )
2 f ( xn )

inf f ( x ) = m > 0 , sup f ( x ) = M , x = x0 x* , q =

Mx
< 1,
2m

,
zn q 2

z0

n( ) ~

ln ln(1 )

ln 2

.
,
n( ) ~

ln ln(1 )

ln 3

5. . xn +1 = xn

xn xn 1
f ( xn )
f ( x n ) f ( x n 1 )



Ax = f :
Bn +1

x n +1 x n

n +1

+ Axn = f

Bn +1 , ,
(preconditioner)

n +1

xn +1 = (E n +1 Bn+11 A)xn + n +1 Bn+11 f Rn +1 xn + Cn +1


, Bn +1 = E ,
. , Rn +1 = R C n+1 = C n+1.
:

28

: Rn+1 < 1

z
n( ) = min n : n
z0

, A = sup
x0

Ax
x

, Rn +1 < 1
:

, R
: max < 1
?

1) rn = f Axn = Azn
rn = f Axn = Azn zn A1 rn ( )
2)
x xn = xn +1 xn + xn + 2 xn +1 + ... xn +1 xn + xn + 2 xn +1 + ... xn +1 xn (1 + + 2 + ...) =
=

x n +1 x n
, ,
1

, .. 1 = o(1) .

A

i 1

aij

j =1

aii

xi =

xj

aij

j = i +1

xj +

ii

fi
aii

A A = L + U + D , D
, A, L , U A
.

x = D 1 Lx D 1Ux + D 1 f

29

i 1

xn+1 = D Lxn D Uxn + D f , xn+1,i =

a
N

aij

j =1

xn , j

ii

aij

j =i +1

xn , j +

ii

fi
aii

:
i 1

xn+1 = D Lxn+1 D Uxn + D f , xn+1,i =

a
j =1

aij

a x
N

xn+1, j

ii

j =i +1

aij

n, j

ii

fi
aii

,
: D( xn+1 xn ) + Axn = f
-: (D + L )( xn+1 xn ) + Axn = f
- ,

, , ,
, , .
-: A
, -
.

A ,

A11
0

A12
A22

. A

, aii

aij , i = 1,..., N ,

j =1,
j i

i .
A, B
: B

xn+1 xn

+ Axn = f

A B ( Ax, x ) (Bx, x ), x

30

: 2 A B,

( 2 > 1 > 0) ,

1B A 2 B

opt =

1 min (B 1 A) ,

2 max (B 1 A) ,

2
1 + 2

1
,= 1 .
1+
2

2
, .
B A + max B 1 A

min (

(B = E) =

min ( A)
( ).
max ( A)

A , .. << 1 , =
ln 1

1
1 2
1+

ln
n( ) =
2
ln 1

( B A) =
1

min ( B 1 A)

max ( B 1 A)

- B ,
A.
:

min ( A) min ( B ) ( AB ) max ( A) max ( B ) ,


( B 1 A) ~

B 1 A :

( A)
( B)

- B A

( B 1 A)

A,

31

( Ax, x ) ( x, x ) ,

> 0 x.

A -
hx=
hy= h 11.

pq =

qh
h
8
8
4 2 ph
2 h
, max = 2 cos2
sin
+ sin 2
, min = 2 sin
2
h
h
h
2
2
2
2

= tg 2

h
2

2h2
4

, h << 1

,

n( ) ~

ln 1
h2

: n( )

2 ln 1

-: n( )

2 h2

ln 1

2h2

,
, : ~ h 2 . ,
-
, n( )

2 ln 1 h

2h2

(SOR)


1) x n +1 = D 1 Lx n +1 D 1Uxn + D 1 f
2) xn +1 = x n +1 + (1 )xn , 1 < < 2
=1 -.
opt =

2
1+ 1

2
,
1 + 1 s

E D 1 A , ,
. .-. : n( )
32

2 ln 1

(ADI)

A = A1 + A2 , Ai
:
1)
2)

xn +1 2 xn

+ A1 xn +1 2 + A2 xn = f , ( E + A1 ) xn +1 2 = ( E A2 ) xn + f

x n + 1 x n +1 2

+ A1 xn +1 2 + A2 xn +1 = f , ( E + A2 ) xn +1 = ( E A1 ) xn +1 2 + f

: B =
=

1
( E + A1 )( E + A2 )
2

ln 1
h
, n( )
4 , SOR.
2
2h

.
. , ,
, , -
, , .

( , ..).
1- (, ),
.

.
A ()
: A = LU
g1
a
2
L= 0

...
0

0 0
...
g2 0
...
a3 ... 0
... 0 g N 1
... 0 a N

0
1 1

0
...
1

0 , U = 0
0

0
... ...
0 ...

gN

33

0
2
...
0
0

...
...
N 1
1
0

0
...
1
0 , gi = ( bi ai i 1 )

N
1

L U,

Lz = f ,

gi zi ai zi 1 = fi

Ux = z ,

ui i ui +1 = zi

-
A
A = 1 RS P , R = E + L , S = E + U

(*)

L, U A, .

1 RSxn +1 = f + Pxn ,

Rzn +1 = f + Pxn
Sxn +1 = zn +1

(**)

R, S .
-
aij xi 1, j cij xi +1, j bij xij 1 d ij xij +1 + pij xij = fij

(**)

(***)

( )
zij = ij ( aij zi 1, j + bij zij 1 + fij ) + ( Px )ij
xij = ij ( cij xi +1, j + d ij xij +1 ) + zij
z x .
A
P,
(**) .
- ,
A (, (***) xi 1, j +1 xi +1, j 1 ).
( Px )ij 3

( Px )ij = ij xi 1, j +1 + ij xi +1, j 1 + ij ( ij + ij ) xij


ij = ij aij i 1, j di 1, j , ij = ij bij ij 1cij 1

... . ., , 1989. 344 .

34

ij 0 ij 1 .

ij = pij aij ( ci 1, j + ij d i 1, j ) i 1, j bij ( d ij 1 + ij cij 1 ) ij 1

1RS .
RS A,

. -,
A.

35

:
(u )
u
u
1 p
+
= 0,
+u
=
t
x
x
t
x

u
u
1 p
2 2 p
=
+ 0
=0,
2 = 2
t
0 x
t
x
t
x
,


p
p = = cs2
s

2
2
2
=
c
t 2
x 2

+ c c = 0
x t
x
t
: 1-
G u
G
ui
+ Aij ( x, t , u ) j = bi ( x, t , u )
t
x

(n )
li(n ) Aij
Aij l j = l j
,
G
( x, t , u ) .
k-
36

u
u
u
u
li(k ) i + Aij j = li(k ) i + (k ) i = li(k )bi
x
x
t
t

d
+ (k )
= ,
t
x dt k

G
dx
= (k ) ( x, t , u ) , .
dt

du
li(k ) i = li(k )bi
dt k


C, .

u
u
+c
=0
x
t
u ( x,0 ) = F ( x )
u ( x, t ) = F ( x ct )

uin +1 uin
un un
+ c i +1 i 1 = 0
t
2 x

O (t , x 2 )



uin +1 = uin

C n
(
ui +1 uin1 ) ,
2

C =

ct

x

ui ~ exp(t + ikx ) ,

et = 1 Ci sin k x !

37

n+1

.
.

n-1

uin +1 = u (xi , t n +1 )
a

i-1

i+1

(. .):
uin +1 = u (a , t n ), a = xi ct = xi Cx
- , u (a , t n )
.

:
u (a , t n ) = uin (uin uin1 )

a xi
,
xi xi 1

uin +1 uin
uin uin1
+c
=0
x
t

O (t , x )

, C = 1 , a = xi 1
(
). -
(xi , t n ) u ( x, t ) ,

1 n
t 2
t 3
c n n
x 2
x3
n
4
(
)
u
+

tu
+
u
+
u
+
O

u
+
u

xu
+
u

uxxx + O(x 4 ) = 0
i
i i
t
tt
ttt
i
x
xx
t
2
6
2
6
x

ut + cu x =

t
cx
t 2
x 2
utt +
u xx
uttt c
u xxx + ...
2
2
6
6

ut + cu x = O (t , x ) , uttt = c 3u xxx + O (t , x ) ,
cu xxt c 2

uttt c

+ u xxx + O (x ) =
utt = c u xx + t
+ uttx + O (t ) + x
2
2 2

38

= c 2u xx c 2 x (1 C )u xxx + O (t 2 , x 2 )
:
cx
cx 2
(1 C )u xx
(1 C )(1 2C )uxxx + O (x 3 )
ut + cu x =
2
6
, , ,
.
:

= ck

cx 2
(1 C )(1 2C )k 3 i cx (1 C )k 2
6
2

: c ph = c

cx 2
(1 C )(1 2C )k 2
6

0 < C < 0.5 , 0.5 < C < 1

i-1 i+1:
u (a , t n ) = uin1 + (uin+1 uin1 )

u (a , t n ) =

n+1

a xi 1
(. .)
xi +1 xi 1

1 C n
1+ C n
ui +1 +
ui 1 ,
2
2

n-1

uin +1 (uin+1 + uin1 ) 2


un un
+ c i +1 i 1 = 0
t
2x

i-1

:
et = cos kx iC sin kx C 1
:
c x 1
cx 2

(1 C )2 u xxx + O (x 3 )
ut + cu x =
C u xx +
2 C
3

x 2

O t ,
t

39

i+1


:
L2,i ( x ) =

(x x2 )(x x3 ) u (x x1 )(x x3 ) u + (x x1 )(x x2 ) u


(x2 x1 )(x3 x1 ) 1 (x2 x1 )(x3 x2 ) 2 (x3 x1 )(x3 x2 ) 3

(, Midpoint Leapfrog Method)

i-1, b i+1:

n+1

u (a , t n ) = Cuin1 + u (b, t n ) Cuin+1 (. .)

( )

u b, t n = uin 1
1 C n
1+ C n
u (a , t n ) =
ui +1 +
ui 1 ,
2
2

n-1

uin +1 uin 1
un un
+ c i +1 i 1 = 0
2t
2x

i-1

:
et = (1 C 2 cos kx ) iC sin kx C 1
12

:
ut + cu x =

cx 2
cx 4
(
(
1 C 2 )u xxx
9C 2 10C + 1)u xxxxx O (x 6 )
6
120

O (t 2 , x 2 )
:
1) 2-
2) uin+1 uin
3) .

40

i+1

i-1, i i+1:
u (a , t n ) =

n+1

C (1 + C ) n
C (1 C ) n
ui 1 + (1 C 2 )uin
ui +1
2
2

(. .)
uin +1 = uin

uin +1 uin
uin+1 uin1 c 2 t uin+1 2uin + uin1
+c
=
t
x 2
2 x
2
O (t , x
2

n-1
i-1

C n
C n
(
(
ui +1 uin1 ) +
ui +1 2uin + uin1 )
2
2
2

i+1

:
et = 1 C 2 (1 cos kx ) iC sin kx C 1

:
ut + cu x =

cx 2
cx 3
(
1 C 2 )u xxx
C (1 C 2 )u xxxx O (x 4 )
6
8

1
< C <1
2

1)

2)

uin++1122 (uin+1 + uin ) 2


t 2

+c

uin+1 uin
=0
x

uin++1122 uin+1122
uin +1 uin
+c
=0
t
x

- ( )

-
uin +1 = uin

C n
C2 n
(
(
ui +1 uin1 ) +
ui +1 2uin + uin1 )
2
2

,
uin+1 uin1 C (uin+1 2uin + uin1 ) = uin C (uin+1 uin ) uin1 + C (uin uin1 ) + uin+1 uin =
41

(*)

= uin +1 uin+11 + uin+1 uin


uin +1 = uin C (uin+1 uin ) ,

uin +1 uin
un un
+ c i +1 i = 0
t
x

(*),
uin +1 =

1 n
1
1
ui C (uin+1 uin ) + uin C (uin +1 uin+11 ) = uin +1 + uin C (uin +1 uin+11 ) = uin +1 + u~in +1
2
2
2

-
1)

uin +1 uin
un un
+ c i +1 i = 0 ()
t
x

2)

u~in +1 uin
u n +1 uin+11
+c i
=0
t
x

3) uin =

u~in +1 + uin +1
()
2

(.., ..)

n+1

i-1, i b:

( )
u (b, t ) = u

( )

u a , t n = (1 2C )uin1 + (1 2C )uin + u b, t n
n

n 1
i 1

n-1

i-1

uin +1 = (1 2C )uin (1 2C )uin1 + uin11

i+1

1 uin +1 uin uin1 uin11


u n uin1
+ c i

=0
+
2 t
x
t

:
C = 1 , uin +1 = uin1 uin + uin11 uin +1 = uin1
C = 0.5 , uin +1 = uin11

.

42

: uin++1122 = (uin + uin++11 ) 2


:
uin+1122 uin1122
t

+c

uin uin1
=0
x

(*)

,
uin+1122 uin1122
t

n +1 2
n
n
n 1 2
1 ui 1 2 ui 1 2 ui 1 2 ui 1 2
=
+

t 2
t 2
2

:
1)

uin+1122 uin1 2
t 2

+c

uin uin1
=0
x

2) uin +1 = 2uin+1122 uin1


3)

uin+112 uin+1122
t 2

+c

uin +1 uin+11
=0
x

(1) (3) , (*)

(Crank-Nicolson Method)

xi , t n +1 2

u (xi , t n +1 2 ) uin +1 uin


u (xi , t n +1 2 ) 1 u (xi , t n ) u (xi , t n +1 )
+ O (x 2 )
=
+ O (t 2 ) ,
=
+
t
t
2 x
x
x

1 uin++11 uin+11 uin+1 uin1


uin +1 uin
=0
+ c
+
2 2 x
2x
t

O (t 2 , x 2 )
:
e t =

1 (iC 2 )sin kx

1 + (iC 2 )sin kx

:
ut + cu x =

c x 2 C 2
cx 4
3C 4
u xxxxx O (x 4 )
1 + 5C 2 +
u xxx
1 +
6
2
120
2

.
43


-
u
u
+u
=0
t
x
: u ( x,0) = u0 (x )
( ) : u ( x, t ) = u 0 ( x ut )
:

u0 ( x ut )
u ( x, t )
1
=
, , t b =
x
1 + tu 0 ( x ut )
min u0 (x )

( ).
t t b ,
, ,
u
u
2u
+u
= 2
t
x
x
u = 2

ln
x

2
= 2
t
x

1
( x, t ) =
4t

( x y )2
( y,0)exp
dy
4t

u ( x, t ) =

x y
( x, y , t )
exp
dy
2
t

( x, y , t )
exp
dy
2

, ( x, y , t ) = u0 ( x )
x0

( x y)
dx +

2t

( 0 )
y = ,
u 0 ( )

x
1
= 0 , u 0 ( ) + > 0
t
t

44

t < t b =
u ( x, t ) =

1
, , .
min u 0 ( x )

x
= u 0 ( ) = u 0 ( x ut ) ,
t

.
t > t b , .
:

~ max u
0 ,
, .
, ,
:
xs + 0

xs + 0

xs + 0

xs 0

xs 0

xs 0

dx =
t
t

dx
1
udx (u + u ) s =
2
dt

u 2 u 2
u 2
dx + O( ) = +
+ O( )
2
x

dx s u + + u
=
dt
2

u
u f (u )
+
= 0,
t
x

(*)

f (u ) - u, .

xi +1 2

1
ui =
u( x, t )dx
x xi1 2

ui -

45

u i = Cij u j
, ,
Cij = ij

(*)
u i hi +1 2 hi 1 2
+
= 0 , hi +1 2 - .. (numerical flux functions)
t
x

. ,

hi +1 2 = h u i m +1 ,..., u i + m

(**)

(**)
h(u,..., u ) = f (u )
h
f (u )
=
= c (u ) , u
u
j = m +1 u j
m

, 1)

) ( )

f u i m +1 ... f u i + m , 2) u* , 3)
.
, m=1 (**) ,

1) hi(+f1) 2 =

f (ui ) + f (ui +1 )
2

2) hi(+u1) 2 = f (u* ) , u * = I (ui , ui +1 ) - ui , ui +1 , I


3) hi +1 2 = H hi(+f1) 2 , hi(+u1) 2

)
46


-- ()

uin +1 uin hi +1 2 hi 1 2
+
=0,
t
x
n

hi +1 2 =

f (ui ) + f (ui +1 ) 1
d i +1 2 ,
2
2

(*)

d i +1 2 - ..
d i +1 2 = ci +1 2 (ui +1 ui ) ,
ci +1 2 =

ci +1 2

f

u i +1 2

f i +1 f i
u u ,
i +1 i
= or
f

, u* [ui , ui +1 ]
u u *

hi +1 2

( min ) f (u ), ui < ui +1
,
= ui ,ui+1
f (u ), ui > ui +1
(max
u i , u i +1 )

hi +1 2 =

1
sgn(ui +1 ui )
min f (u ) + max f (u )
max f (u ) min f (u )
(ui ,ui +1 )

(ui , ui +1 )
(ui , ui +1 )
2 (ui ,ui +1 )
2

f (u ) - [ui , ui +1 ] ,
-- (*)
47

f
d i +1 2 = sgn ( f i +1 f i )
u

-
n
n
uin +1 uin hi +1 2 hi 1 2
+
=0,
t
x

d i +1 2 =

hi +1 2 =

f (ui ) + f (ui +1 ) 1
d i +1 2 ,
2
2

t 2
ci +1 2 (ui +1 ui ) ,
x

- -.
, A
u~in +1 uin f i +n1 f i n
+
=0
t
x
~
~
uin +1 uin f i n +1 f i n1+1
+
=0
t
x
u

n +1
i

u~in+1 + uin+1
=
2

- . ,
.
:


( ) .

hi +1 2 = hil+1 2 + hih+1 2 hil+1 2 = hil+1 2 + hia+1 2

hia+1 2 - , ..

48


,
.
,
, : u ( x,0 ) w( x,0 ) ,
: u ( x, t ) w( x, t ) .
-
uin +1 = H (uin m ,..., uin ,..., uin+ m )

H
0 , j [ m, m]
uin+ j

uin +1 = aij u nj
j

aij .
.. (1959)
.

.

,
(Total Variation Diminishing property), TVD-.
,

TV ( u ( x, t2 ) ) TV ( u ( x, t1 ) ) , t2 t1
,

49

TV (u ( x, t )) =

u ( x , t )
dx
x

TVD-

2u
u
u
= 2 ,
+u
x
x
t
.
- TVD-

TV (u n +1 ) TV (u n ) ,

TV (u ) = ui +1 ui = Vi
i

TVD-

(Flux limiter method) (Harten, 1984):

hi +1 2 = hil+1 2 + i +1 2 hih+1 2 hil+1 2

(*)

- i +1 2 , 0
1,
. ,

i +1 2 = (ri ) , ri =

ui ui 1
ui +1 ui

ri :
1) ri 0 -
2) 0 ri < 1 - ,
3) ri ~ 1 ri > 1 -
50

(r ) = O (r ) , r < 1
(r ) = 0 , r < 0
(r ) = O (1) , r 1
(r ) TVD. , hil+1 2
- hih+1 2 TVD-
(Davis, 1984; Roe, 1984; Sweby, 1984)
0 (r ) 2 min (r ,1)

ci +1 2 t x < 1 .
:
Minmod

(r ) = max[0, min (r ,1)]

Superbee

(r ) = max[0, min (2r ,1), min (r ,2)]

VanLeer

(r ) = (r + r ) (1 + r )

VanAlbada

(r ) = (r 2 + r ) (1 + r 2 )

uin +1 uin f i n+1 f i n1


uin+1 2uin + uin1
=
+
x 2
2 x
t

uin+1 uin
un un
u n 2uin + uin1
+ c i +1 i 1 = i +1
2x
t
x 2

51

G = 1 2r (1 cos ) + iC sin

:
1) : r

1
2

2)
1
=

C2
2x
2
,
x
=
Re
G

,
y

1
y 2
2r

1 C2
,
1 C 1 :
2 2r

C2
1
r ,
2
2

C
C

. uin+1 = r uin+1 + (1 2r )uin + r + uin1


2
2

uin+1
C
cx
r , Re =
2
0 .
2

uin+1

C
1
r
2
2

uin+1 uin
un un
u n+1 2uin+1 + uin+11
+ c i +1 i 1 = i +1
2x
t
x 2

C2
r
2

u~in +1 uin Fi n+1 Fi n


uin+1 2uin + uin1
=
+
x 2
x
t
~
~
uin +1 uin Fi n +1 Fi n1+1
u~in++11 2u~in +1 + u~in+11
=
+
x 2
x
t
52

uin+1 =
t

u~in+1 + uin+1
2

x 2
u max x + 2
-

uin+1 uin 1

+ x Fi n + x Fi n+1 = 2x uin + 2x uin+1


2
2
t

: Fi
F = u 2
2

(u ) + (u )
n +1 2
i

n 2
i

n +1

F
Fi + i
ui
n

n+1
ui uin

uin u in+1

uin+1 uin u in+1uin++11 uin1uin+11 uin+1 2uin + u in1 uin++11 2u in+1 + uin+11

+
=
+
4 x
2
t
x 2
x 2

2T
T
=a 2
x
t
(n ):
1) : T (0, t ) = b(t )
2) :

T (0, t )
= c (t )
n

3) :

T (0, t )
= hw [T (0, t ) Ta ] , n
n

2
> 0 , hw > 0 , a 2
x
,
( ).

53

Ti n+1 Ti n
T n 2Ti n + Ti n1
= a i +1
t
x 2
Ti n+1 = (1 2r )Ti n + rTi n1 + rTi +n1 ,

: O t , x 2

r=

at

x 2

: T ~ exp(t + ikx )

e t = 1 2r + 2r cos kx = 1 4r sin 2

kx
1
0 r
2
2

:
T
2T ax 2
4T a 3t 2 a 2 tx 2 ax 4 6T
(
)
a 2 =
+

+
1 6r
+ ...
t
x
x 4 3
12
12
360 x 6

r =

1
O t 2 , x 4
6

, ..

G
,

T ~ exp ak 2 t + ikx

Gexact =

T (t + t )
2
= exp r (kx )
T (t )

, r =

1

6

0 kx
.
:

54

n+1
n
n-1
i-1

i+1

,
.

Ti n+1+1 2Ti n +1 + Ti n 1+1


Ti n +1 Ti n
=a
x 2
t
rTi n1+1 + (1 + 2r )Ti n +1 rTi n+1+1 = Ti n ,

: O t , x 2

: e

kx

= 1 + 4r sin 2

:
4
2
2
4
3 2
6
T
2T ax 2
(1 + 6r ) T4 + a t + a tx + ax T6 + ...
a 2 =
t
x
x
12
12
360 x
3

55

Ti n +1 Ti n a Ti n+1+1 2Ti n +1 + Ti n1+1 Ti n+1 2Ti n + Ti n1

=
+
2
t
x 2
x 2

r
r
r
r
Ti n1+1 + (1 + r )Ti n +1 Ti n+1+1 = Ti n1 + (1 r )Ti n + Ti n+1 ,
2
2
2
2
: O (t 2 , x 2 )

: e t

kx
2
=
2 kx
1 + 2r sin
2
1 2r sin 2

:
T
2T ax 2 4T a 3t 2 ax 4 6T
a 2 =
+
+
+ ...
t
x
12 x 4 12
360 x 6


T n +1 2Ti n +1 + Ti n1+1
Ti n+1 2Ti n + Ti n1
Ti n +1 Ti n
(
)
1

= a i +1
+

t
x 2
x 2

= 0 , = 1 , = 1 2 -
: O (t , x 2 )
1) = 1 2 O (t 2 , x 2 )
2) = 1 2 1 (12r ) O (t 2 , x 4 )
3) = 1 2 1 (12r ) , r = 1

20 = 0.224 O (t 2 , x 6 )

: 1 2 1
0 1 2 0 r 1 (2 4 )
:

56

T
2T ax 2
1 4T 2
1 3 2
1 a 2 tx 2 ax 4 6T

+
a 2 =
+
r

+
a
t
1
12

+ ...

t
x
12
2 x 4
3
2
6
360 x 6

Ti n+1 Ti n +1 Ti n 1 + Ti n1
Ti n +1 Ti n 1

=a
x 2
t

: et =

2r cos kx 1 4r 2 sin 2 kx
!
1 + 2r

:
2
4
a x 2
T
2T ax 2
4T
3 t T
a 2 =
+
=

a
1 12r 2
...
+ ...
12
x 2 x 4
t
x
x 4
12

x 0 , t 0 ,

t
, ..
x

2
2T
T
2 T

a 2 =0
+ a
x
t 2
t

2T 2T
T
= a 2 + 2
t
y
x

:
T (0, y, t ) = a ( y, t )

57

T (1, y, t ) = b( y, t )
T ( x,0, t ) = c( x, t )
T ( x,1, t ) = d ( x, t )

Tijn+1 Tijn

=a

Ti +n1, j 2Tijn + Ti n1, j

x 2

+a

Tijn+1 2Tijn + Tijn1

y 2

Tijn+1 = (1 2rx 2ry )Tijn + rxTi +n1, j + rxTi n1, j + ryTijn+1 + ryTijn1

: G = 1 4rx sin 2

k y y
k x x
4ry sin 2
2
2

, rx + ry
x = y , rx = ry = r

rx =

at
at
, ry = 2
2
y
x

1
2

1
,
4

(ADI)

1)

2)

Tijn+1 2 Tijn

t 2

Tijn+1 Tijn+1 2

t 2

=a
=a

Ti +n1+,1j 2 2Tijn+1 2 + Ti n1+,1j 2

x 2

Ti +n1+,1j 2 2Tijn+1 2 + Ti n1+,1j 2

x 2

+a
+a

Tijn+1 2Tijn + Tijn1

Tijn++11 2Tijn+1 + Tijn+11

(1 + rx )Tijn+1 2 rx Ti+n1+,1j 2 rx Tin1+,1j 2 = (1 ry )Tijn +


2

y 2
y 2
ry
2

Tijn+1 +

ry

Tijn1

2
(1 + ry )Tijn+1 ry Ti,nj++11 ry Tijn+11 = (1 rx )Tijn+1 2 + rx Ti+n1+,1j 2 + rx Tin1+,1j 2
2
2
2
2

, Tijn +1 2 ,
zijn = Tijn Te (xi , y j , t n ) , Te

z n+1 2 z n

t 2

aDxx z n+1 2 aD yy z n =

Ten+1 2 Ten
+ aDxxTen+1 2 + aD yyTen = 1
t 2

58

z n+1 z n+1 2

t 2

Ten +1 2 =

1 =

aDxx z n+1 2 aD yy z n+1 =

Ten+1 Ten+1 2
+ aDxxTen+1 2 + aD yyTen+1 = 2
t 2

Ten + Ten +1
, ,
2

T n + Ten +1
Ten +1 Ten 2
+
+ aDxx e
aDxx + aD yyTen
2
t
t

Ten +1 Ten
T n + Ten +1
T n +1 Ten
T n + Ten +1
T n Ten +1
+ aDxx e
+ aD yyTen = e
+ a (Dxx + D yy ) e
+ aD yy e
=
t
t
2
2
2

= O (t 2 ) + aD yy

Ten Ten +1
,
2

-,

1 =

2
a
aDxx D yy (Ten +1 Ten ) + O (t 2 )
2
t

t
4

aD yy T n+1 T n , 1 = O (t 2 ) . , 1 = 2 .

, ADI

T n+1 2 =

T n + T n+1 t
aD yy T n+1 T n
2
4

G = G1G2 =

1 2ry sin 2

k y y

1 2rx sin 2

2
k
x
1 + 2rx sin 2 x
1 + 2ry sin 2
2

k x x
2
k y y
2

rx , ry , k y y , k x x G 1 , G1 , G2 .
59

.
ADI

1)

2)

3)

Tijkn+1 3 Tijkn

= aDxxTijkn+1 3 + aD yyTijkn + aDzz Tijkn

t 3

Tijkn+ 2 3 Tijkn+1 3

t 3
Tijkn+1 Tijkn+ 2 3

t 3

= aDxxTijkn+1 3 + aD yyTijkn+ 2 3 + aDzz Tijkn+1 3


= aDxxTijkn+ 2 3 + aD yyTijkn+ 2 3 + aDzz Tijkn+1

ry n
r n
r n
2 n+1 2 rx n+1 2 rx n+1 2 4 n ry n
1 + rx Tijk Ti +1, jk Ti 1, jk = 1 ry Tijk + Tij +1,k + Tij 1,k + z Tijk +1 + z Tijk 1 ..
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

, ..
k y 4
k y
4
1 ry sin 2 y rz sin 2 y
3
2
3
2 ...
G = G1G2G3 =
4
2 k x x
1 + rx sin
3
2

1)

Tijn+1 2 Tijn

2)

=a

Tijn+1 Tijn+1 2

Ti +n1+,1j 2 2Tijn+1 2 + Ti n1+,1j 2

x 2

=a

Tijn++11 2Tijn+1 + Tijn+11

y 2

T = Ti +1 2Ti + Ti 1 ,

(E rx xx )T n+1 2 = T n , (E ry yy )T n+1 = T n+1 2


(E rx xx )(E ry yy )T n+1 = T n

(E r
x

xx

( ))

ry yy + ry rx yy xx )T n+1 = E rx xx ry yy + O t 2 T n+1 = T n ,

T n+1 T n
= a DxxT n+1 + D yyT n+1

t

60

2-

1)
2)

T n+1 2 T n
T n+1 2 + T n
= aDxx
t
2

T n +1 T n +1 2
T n + 1 2 + T n +1
= aD yy
2
t

n +1

ry
ry

r
r

= E yy E + yy E x xx E + x xx T n
2
2
2
2

T n+1 = E + ry yy + rx xx + rx2 2xx + 2rx xx ry yy + ry2 2yy ...T n


2

xx , yy

1
t 2 2

2
T n+1 = E + ry yy + rx xx + (ry yy + rx xx ) T n = 1 + t +
+ ... T n
2
2
2 t
t

T
+
t

A T = f

=1

t n1 t t n+1 :
T n+1 M 1 T n1
T n+1 M 1 + T n1
+ A1n
=0
t
2

T n + T n1 M
T n T n1 M
+ AMn
= fn
t
2
T n+1 M T n
T n + T n+1 M
+ AMn
= fn
t
2

T n+1 T n+( M 1) M
T n+1 + T n+( M 1) M
+ A1n
=0
t
2

~
~
A n = A t n , T n , T n = T n1 tA t n1 , T n1 T n1

61


- ():

u
u
3u
+u + 3 = 0
t
x
x
,
.

u 1 2 ( x u0 t 3 )
u = u0 cosh 2 0

12
(12 )

- :

1. O t 2 , x 2

uin +1 uin 1
un un
u n 2uin+1 + 2uin1 uin 2
+ uin i +1 i 1 + i + 2
=0
2t
2x
2 x 3

2.

O t 2 , x 2

3 3
t
u +
x
2x 2

uin++1122 =

1 n
t n +1
ui +1 + uin
ui
2
4x

uin +1 = uin

t n +1 2
ui +1 2
2x

) (u
2

) (u )
2

n +1 2 2
i 1 2

n 2
i

2 n

ui + 2 3uin+1 + 3uin uin1


2
x

2 n +1 2

ui +3 2 3uin++1122 + 3uin+1122 uin+31 22


2
x

t x 3 4 , , 1

3. O t 2 , x 4

n
n
n
n
uin +1 uin1
uin+3 + 8uin+ 2 13uin+1 + 13uin1 8uin 2 + uin3
n ui + 2 + 8ui +1 8ui 1 + ui 2
+ ui
+
=0
2t
12x
8x3

t 0.216 x 3

,

62

u ( x, t ) =

a ( t ) exp ( ikx )

k =

,

dak
ik
= ak n an + i k 3 ak
dt
2 n =
kmax,
kmax.
-
.



u
u
u
dU e 1 m
+v
Ue
= m
r ( + t )

y
dx r y
y
x


h
h 1 m t
+v = m
r +
y r y Pr Prt
x

1
1
+ 1 + t 1
y Pr
Prt

:
m

(
r u ) + (r m v ) = 0
x
y

= (T , p )
:
u = 0 , h = hw , T = Tw , y = 0

u = U e , h = he , T = Te , y
63

u
u
y

:
u( y ,0 ) = u0 ( y ) , h( y ,0 ) = h0 ( y )
v
u x .
,

v ( y, 0 ) =

y
dU e
u
1 m
u
u 2 U e
r ( + t ) r m dy
+ m

m
r 0
dx r y
y


,
.
-. ,
- ,
,
x ,

u

x

n +1

3uin +1 4uin + uin 1


2x

uin +1 ui , uin u~i , uin 1 ui .


u
u
dU e u
+v
= Ue
+

x
y
dx y y

,
~
Ue Ue
u u
u ui 1
ui u~i
ui +1 ui 1
1
ui
+ vi
= Ue
+
i +1 2 i +1 i i 1 2 i

2y
x
y
y
y
x

64

yi

vi =

u
dy
x

1) : ui = u~i + O (x )
~
u u~i ~ ui +1 ui 1 ~ U e U e
u u
u ui 1
1
u~i i
+ vi
= Ue
+
i +1 2 i +1 i i 1 2 i

2y
x
x
y
y
y
2) : x

~
k +1
k +1
k +1
u k +1 uik+11
1 k uik++11 uik +1
u~i
~ Ue Ue
k ui
k ui +1 ui 1

i +1 2
ui
+
ik1 2 i
+ vi
= Ue
2 y
x
x
y
y
y

: ui0 = u~i ,
3)

Fi

n +1

F
Fi + i
ui
n

n+1
ui uin

(u )

2uik uik +1 (uik )

u
v
y

k +1

k +1 2
i

u
v
y
k

k +1

+v

k +1

u
u
v k
y
y

- v k +1
(. , , , 1990, .2, .411)
4) :
u~
u~ ui
ui = u~i +
x + O (x 2 ) = u~i + i
x + O (x 2 ) = 2u~i ui + O (x 2 )
x i
x


, i +1 2 =

i + i +1
2

, i +1 2 =

65

2 i i +1
.
i + i +1

:
1) ,
.

x .
2)

3)

( x, y ) = u ( x, y )dy ,
0

dU e

u
= Ue
+
dx
x

x, y x, ,

=u,
= v
y
x

u
u

66

ui
=0
xi
:
ui (ui u j ) 1 p 1 ij
+
+
=
+ fi ,
t
xi
xi xi

ij = i + j
x j xi

:
T (uiT )
q
+
= i + ,

xi
xi
t

qi =

c p

T
xi

-
-

-.
.

:

-,

-,

-
, --

t x csound , (~103/).
:
.
,
.
.

67


:
(ui )

+
D
+
=
t
xi
xi
xi

(*)

(*),

+ ui
=
t
xi xi


D
+
xi

(,
) , (*)
.
(Computational molecule)

(i, j, k )

,
(. .)

i, j, k

l = (k 1)N j N i + (i 1)N i + j

i-1, j, k

l Nj

i, j-1, k

l 1

68

i, j+1, k

l +1

i+1, j, k

l + Nj

i, j, k-1

l Ni N j

i, j, k+1

l + Ni N j

- (
) :

AW W + ASS + APP + AN N + AEE = QP , 1 < l < N i N j N k


, ,

APP +

nb nb

= QP , (nb

nb

neighbors, )

,
,
(.)

dV + ui dSi =
t

dSi + dV
xi

fdS = fdS
i

Sk

e Fe =

fdS

Se

1) : Fe = f e Se 2- (
)
2) : Fe =
3) : Fe =

( f ne +

f se )

Se 2-

( f ne + 4 f e +

f se )

69

Se 4-

dV = V 2-
P

:
e
n
~

P
Vp P
Se + D
S n + pV p
+ (ue e uw w )Se + (vn n vs s )S n = D
x s
x w
t

: D

= De E
2-
x
x e

: e ?
P , ue > 0
(Upwind Differencing Scheme): e =
E , ue < 0

ue e =

ue + ue
u ue
P + e
E
2
2

P = e

x
+ ... ,
2 x e

ue e = ue P +

ue x
+ ...
2 x e

(Central Differencing Scheme): e =

E + P
2

2- , -

R = ue x 2
(QUICK):
3
1
6
8 P + 8 E 8 W , ue > 0
e =
6 E + 3 P 1 EE , ue < 0
8
8
8

ue e =

u + ue
u ue
9ue + 3 ue
9u 3 ue
P + e
E e
W e
EE
16
16
16
16

3- ,
R . -

70

(
), .
, 3-,
.
(Deferred
Correction). -

,
: Fe = Felow + (Fehigh Felow )

old

: c


= D

x x x

cx
( e w ) = E 2 P + W
D
UDS 1- :

R ( P W ) = E 2 P + W ,

E (2 + R ) P + (1 + R )W = 0

QUICK 1- :
7
3
1
3

R P W + E + WW = E 2 P + W ,
8
8
8
8

R
3
3

7
1 R E 2 + R P + 1 + R W WW = 0
8
8

8
8

5
1
1
3

E (2 + R ) P + (1 + R )W = R E P + W + WW
8
8
8
8


5
1
1
3

E (2 + R ) P + (1 + R )W = R E P + W + WW
8
8
8
8

old

, .

71

1. (Staggered Grid)


(), x- ( ) y ().
2. (Colocated Grid) .

.
. ,
,
, .

, -
,
.
, ,

u2
p
dV = ... ui
dV = ... +
t
2
xi

ui
dV ui pdSi = ... ui pdSi
xi

72

ui Gi pVi =

i =1

pun S

pD u V ,
i i

i =1

Sb

(u G p + pD u )V = surface terms
i

i i

(*)

i =1

Gi p

Di ui

, .

, .
(*)
N

[u ( p p
i

i 1

) + pi (ui +1 ui )] = uN +1 pN u1 p0

i =1

-
, ..
.
, ,
.

73

uin +1 (u j ui
+
t
x j
n

n +1

) + 1 p

n +1

xi

n +1
1 ij
=
xi

(1)

uin +1
=0
xi

(2)

uin , p n uin +1 , p n +1 ?
.
u~i

:
n
u~i (u j u~i ) 1 p n 1 ~ij
+
+
=
t
x j
xi xi

u~i .
,
: uin +1 = u~i + ui , p n +1 = p n + p .
(1) ,

n
ui (u j ui ) 1 p 1 ij
+
=
+
t
x j
xi xi

ui
u~
= i
xi
xi

,
1 p
ui

xi
t

(2)

t n , t n +1 , *
ui = t

1 p
xi

(3)

, ,

*

, t = t
n

, t = t ui .
n

74

2 p =

ui
t xi

, (3).
(3) , , ..
, . ,
,
,

( ), .
(2) .
(2) 4 (,
). -
, ..

p
~ (t t n +1 )
xi
xi
=

pdt .

, (2)
, .

SIMPLE

SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit
Method for Pressure-Linked Equation)

- , n+1
,
APui ui , P +

nb

p n +1
ui

Anb
ui , nb = Quni +1
xi P

, (
)
m-

A u~ +
ui m
P i,P

nb

A u~

ui m
nb i , nb

m 1
ui

=Q

p m 1

x
i P

(1)

., . .. . ., , 1973. .580-584

75

ui , , ..
ui
u~ m

= i
xi P
xi P

(2)

(1)
APui ui, P +

=
xi P

A u

ui
nb i , nb

nb

(3)

SIMPLE (Patankar, Spalding, 1972) ,



ui, P

1
APui

xi P

(4)

(2),

xi

1
ui
AP

p
u~ m

= i
xi P P xi P

(5)

,
,

p m = p m 1 + P p , uim, P u~im, P

P p

, P 1
APu xi P
i

(6)

P 0.8 (Patankar, 1980).



, ,
(1)
APui ~ m
ui , P +

nb

p m 1 1 u ui ~ m 1
ui ~ m
+
AP ui , P
Anb
ui , nb = Qumi 1
u
xi P

(7)

u ,
(Ferziger,Peric, 1996)

u = 1 P

(8)

, (7) (1)
,
=

u
(1 u )APu

76

(7) ,
.

SIMPLE

(5)
(3).

,
P, ui, nb 0 .
,
.
(4), (3) ui, nb ui, P . (4)
ui, P

A +
ui
P

A xi P

(8)

ui
nb

nb

(5)

xi

u~im
p
1

ui
ui x

x
A
A
+
i
i

P
P
nb

nb
P

(9)

SIMPLEC (SIMPLE Corrected) (Van Doormal, Raithby,


1984). .
(8),(9) (4)(6) SIMPLE , SIMPLEC
SIMPLE ,

ui
nb

P = 1 +

(10)

nb

APui

,
:
APui = APt

ui
nb

(11)

nb

77

APt . , ,
APt = t , SIMPLEC ,
(3) .62

xi

p
u~im


xi P P t xi P

APt = 0
(7).

ui
nb

APui =

nb

(10) (8),
, .

1. . . - .: , 1991.- .1,2.
2. ., ., .
. - .: , 1990.- .1,2.
3. .., .. . ., , 1989.
4. .. . ., , 1989.
5. ..
. , - - , 2000. - 345 .
6. Ferziger J.H., Peric M. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Berlin: Springer, 1996.
7. . ., .. . ., , 2004.
8. .., .., ..
. ., , 1989.

78