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""

I.

. ..

2011

53(076.5)

"". I. . / .
.. : - , 2011. 104 .
ISBN 9875767918515



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"".

,

.
.34. . 59. .: 3 .

-

.6: .., ..
: - . , . ..
..
- , 2011
ISBN 9875767918515

.
.1.
................................................................................................
...4
.2. ...............................................10
.3.

...............................................................................15
.3.
.....................................................................................20
.3.
.................................................................................26
.4. .....................30
.5.
...............................................................................................
...34
.6.

..........................................40
.6.
...................................................................46
.7. ......54
.8. ................61
.9.

.....................................................66
.10. ......71
.13.
...................................................................................79
.14.

........................................88
.15.
C...........................................................................94
4

.16.

.........................................100

1

:
;
.

.
,
,

.1
r
V0 , ,
r
U 0 (. .1). ,
.1, O
r
r
. V0 U.
0
1
X , Vox = Uox,
,

X ( ).

kc.


kc = U n Vn , Vn Un
.
.1
U0 y
kc =
(1)
V0 y
6

V0y U0y - y

.
O
r
U 0 ,
r r
a = g ( )
.
O
x
at
x = x0 + U 0 x t + x .
2

x, .1, x0 = 0 , U 0 x = V0 x = V0 sin
, ax = g sin , x
g sin t 2
(2)
x = V0 sin t +
2
t
y
yt 2
y = y0 + U 0 y t +
2
y = 0, y0 = 0 , (1) U 0 y = kc V0 y = kcV0 cos ,

y = g cos .
0 = 0 + kcV0 cos t

g cos t 2
2

2kcV0
(3)
g
V0
( )

t=

mV02
(4)
2
mgh A,
(
);
mV02

2
.
(4)
V0 = 2 gh
(5)
(3) (5) (2),
x = 4kc h sin + 4kc2 h sin
x
2
= 0 . ,
kc + kc
4h sin

1
x
kc = 1 +
1
(6)
2
h sin
0 < kc < 1.
mgh =


,
,
:
K + U + U = const
U -
.
; U
-
,
; K


.

, ,
,
, .

,

.

.

() .
,
( ).
.

, .
,
.

.2
9

1.
(.2)
( 10-15).
H1 H2, l L1
H H2
L2 (.. 2) sin : sin = 1
.
l
.
l , H1 H2.
2. B
h (17 20 c) C .
,

.
3.
L1,
.
.
4. C
(
). ,
. ,
.
5. 1.
L1
,
; ,
.
1'.
6. 9 ,
1', 2', ..., 3'.
7. , xi
1-1', 1-2', 1-3', ..., 1-9' .1.
x + x + ... + x9
8. < x >= 1 2
.
9
9. xi = xi < x >
10

,
1
2
S =
( xi ) . x

n 1
S
: x =
(n- ).
n
10. < k > (6), x = < x >.
r << h.
11. kc E
x
kc
100% .
: kc =
; E=
4(2kc + 1)h sin
kc
12. .1 2.
1
xi,

(xi) 2, 2

xi,

2
l,
h,
H1, H2, sin

S,

x, < kc
>

kc

E,
%

13. : kc =< k c > k c .



1. ,
?
2.

. x t
?
3.
. ?
11


1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .III,
19, 24, 25, 27

12

2

:
,
, .
.
m1
= 1 0 , 1 0
.
h (. .1).


:
.1

(1)
h = l ( 1 cos ) = l 2sin 2

2


r
v1 ,
m1v12
,
2


v1 = 2 gh = 2 gl 2sin 2
= 2sin

gl
2
2

: m1 gh =

(2)

r
r
u1 u2 (. .2).
.2

, ,
13

,
:
m1v1 = m1u1 + m2u 2
(3)

-
( ),

,
:
m1u12 m2u22
+
2
2
2 = m1u1 + m2u2
K = 2
(4)
m1v12
m1v12
2

: K < 1 .
,
.
(.
.3)

,
,

-
,

.3

.
2 h1 ,
2 h2

14

m1u12
m u2
m1 gh2 = 2 2
2
2
(1) (2),
:
m1 gh1 =


2
u1 = 2 gh1 = 2 gl 2sin 2 2 = 2sin
gl
2
2

(5)
2
2
u2 = 2 gh2 = 2 gl 2sin
= 2sin
gl
2
2
(2) (5) (4),
:
m 4sin 2 ( 2 2 ) gl + m2 4sin 2 ( 2 2 ) gl
K = 1
=
m1 4sin 2 ( 2 ) gl
(6)
m1 sin 2 ( 2 2 ) + m2 sin 2 ( 2 2 )
=
m1 sin 2 ( 2 )
2

(2) (5) (3),


:

2
2
m1 sin
(7)
= m1 sin
+ m2 sin

2
2
2

1.

0,



, .

.5

15

"" m1, ""


m2.
2. 1 10 15
.
2 2 (
, :
,
).
10 ,

(2 2). <2> <2>.
3. 1. ( 20
25, 30 35). 1.
4. (7).
v1 , u1 u2 (2) (5),
, = 1 0 , 2 = 2 0 , 2 = 2 0 .
c (7)
1 = m1 sin ( 2 )
(7)
2 = m1 sin ( 2 2 ) + m2 sin ( 2 2 )
2.
(7) :
1 2
100%
1
5.
(6).
1.
1,
2,
<2>,
2,
<2>,

16

0 , =
0 , =
2.
2
1, 2, 2, 1

17


1. ?
2. .
3. ?
?
4. .
.
5.
?
?
6.

?
7.
.

1. .. . .1. : , 1970.. II, 23, .75-77, . III, 27-30, .89-106

18

3,


:
.


.
,
.
,
(), ,
.

.
m1,
r
V
.
m2
r
U 2 .

r
r
m1V = (m1 + m2 )U
,
,
m1V = (m1 + m2 )U
(1)
"-
(m1 + m2 )U 2
"
,
2

(m1 + m2 ) gh .
,

19

1
(m1 + m2 )U 2 = (m1 + m2 ) gh
(2)
2
h
"-".
(l h)
cos =
,
,
l

; l
.
h = l (1 cos ) ,

h (2),

U = 2 gl ( 1 cos ) = 2 gl 2sin 2 = 2 gl sin ( 2 )


(3)
2
(3) (1),
m + m2
V= 1
2 gl sin ( 2 )
(4)
m1

,
,
:
K + U + U = const
U
.
; U

,
; K

.

20


, ,
,
, .

,
(
).
, ..
,
, ,
:
r
r
p = pi (t ) = const
r
p ,
px x,
.

1. .1 m1,
m2, l (m1 m2
).
1.
m1,
m1,
m2,
m2,
l,
l,

2. .
3. ,
.
21

4. .2.

22

2
io
io
( io )2
= ...

5. 9 ;
,
i ,
1
2
( i ) ,
n 1
n (n=9);
= S / n .
6. (4)
, .
7.

S=

m + m2 m1 l
E= 1
+
+ +
,
m
+
m
m
2
l
<

>

1
2
1
V = E V
.3.
V , /

3
V , /

23

E, %


1. ?
2. "-" ?
3. "-"
? ?
4. .
5. ?
"-"
?
6. .

1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .III,


24, .27-29, 226-228;

24

3,

:

.
.


m (
),

mc l
(.1).



.

-
.1
r

r.
, m
r
V . ( )
r
.

h (.2).
"-" .
,

,
z
( M z = 0).
:
Lz
.2
z (

25

r
Lz = const). L1 (.1)
:
r
r r
r r
L1= [ r p ] = m r V ,
r
r
p = mV (
).
r
L1
(. ), ( Z)
Lz 1= m V r sin 90o = m V r .

r
, L 2
( )
r
r
L2 = J .
r
L 2
r
L1 , ( Z)
L2 = J .

Z (. .1), J "" .

z
mV r = J
(1)
J

z, ..
J = J + J c + J + J ,
J (
Jc, J J );

26

mc l 2
;
3
J = m r 2 (..
r,
, );
J = m r 2 .
,
1
J = mc l 2 + m r 2 + m r 2 ,
(2)
3
(1)
J
V=
.
(3)
m r

,

J 2
(4)
= mgh ,
2
J 2


2
;
mgh

.

m = m + mc + m + m ,
(5)
m "-"; m
.
.2 ,

h = rc rc cos = 2rc sin 2 ,


(6)
2
Jc =

27

(4) (6) (3),


V :
2sin ( 2 )
V=
Jmgrc .
(7)
m r
( )

r
r mi ri
rc =
,
(8)
mi
r
ri - ;
mi .
(8) .1 ,
l
mc + m r + m r
2
.
(9)
rc =
m + mc + m + m

C
.

r r
r
r
r
A B , A B C ,

C = A B sin ,
B
A
r
r
A B .
r
C
r
r
, A B ,

r
r
A B , (. .)

28


1. .


,
(.3).
,

,
.3

. (
).
2.
O

.

10' ( ).
3.
(

),
1
(.4)
4. 1
= 1 .

5 (

).
.4
<>.
5. "-" m
(5). ,
.
6. J
(2).
7. "" (9).
8. <V>
(7), = <>.
29

1 2.
m,

mc,

l,

1.
m, r, m,

m,

J,
rc,

2

= o

1
=1

2.
<>o

<V>,
/


1. "-" ?
2. ?
3. "-"
? ?
4. .
5. ?
"-"
?
6.

?
7. .

1. .. . .1. : , 1986.- .
III, 24, .27-29,

30

2. .. : . . 3-
., . . .: , 1985. .3, 3.4, .4,
4.5, .5, 5.1, 5.2.

31

3,

.
:
.

.1 .
1 (),
(.1).
, 2
.
3 4,
( )
- 5.
, -
7.
6 .
,
(),
32

.
:
(1)
mVl = ( J + ml 2 ) ,
m , l , ..
, V , J

, .

(2)
V = ( J + ml 2 ) /(ml )
,


, : = 2 .
, ,
,
:
2
= 2 ,
(3)
t
, t
.
V
J + ml 2
(4)
V=
2 .
ml

,
, :
K + U + U = const
U
.
; U

,
; K
33


.

, ,
,
, .

,
(
).
, ..
,
, ,
.


r
r
L = Li (t ) = const

r
L , z,
r
M
z .

1. , ,
.
2.
, (
).
3. .
t .
9 , i ti. <> <t>.
ti,
i,
34

4. , ,

.
5. . .
9 , i,
.
6.

1
J = m r2 + ml 2 ,
2
m , r , m , l
.
m,
m,
m,
r,
l,
J, 2
7. (3),
= <>, (4), = < >.
, /2
V, /
<>,
< >,

1. ?
2.
,
.
3.
? ?
4. .
5. ?

?
6. .

35

1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .III,


24, .27-29;

36

4

: ,

(.1).


r.
.

m1.
,
J .
m.

.1
z.
h t,
h,

ayt 2
.
y = y0 + V0 y t +
2
y, ,
y y0 = h , V0 y = 0 , a y = a ,
2h
a= 2
(1)
t
,
,

37

, .. a = a . a = r ,
2h
= 2
(1)
(2)
t r
r
: mg
r
F .
,
r
a , :
r
r r
ma = mg + F
y :
ma y = mg y Fy
y ,
a y = a , g y = g , Fy = F . ma = mg F
F = mg ma (1)
2h

F = m g 2
(3)
t

r
r r
M = [ r F1 ] ,
z M z = F1 r .
r
M .
F1 = F , (3)
2h

Mz = m g 2 r
(4)
t


m1
J .
m ,
, ,

h,
(2) (4)
Mz
. 2
38
. 2

.
( M z ) (.2).
z
J = M z
M .
.2, ,
,
M
J=
.

().


,
r r
r r
r
r
C
[ A, B ] , A B , A B
r
C ,
,
C = AB sin
r
r
A B .
r
B
C
A
r
r
, A B ,

r
r
A B , .

1. A,
B C m,
, h.
2. .
,
.

.
, .
t . 5 ,
h. < t > .
Mz (4)
39

(2), h, r = 2 B,
.
3. , (
).
4. .
m,
t,
< t >,
, -2
Mz,
.
.
.

5. (Mz).
6. (. .2):

M
= ......... 2;

)
M = ......... ,
.

1. .
2.
.
3.
?
?
4. .

, ,
?
5.


.
?
.
J=

40

1. .. . .1. :, 1986..III, 29, .V, 38, 39.

41

5

:
,
.

,

, Jc,

,

, JA.

Jc

.1

(.1,2).

JA
, (.3).

(
10-20 ),
,

(6-8)

.2
:
2
(1)
= o sin t
T
42

0 ; T .
,
.

1 2
: K = J , .
2


() U = mgh, h
.

1 2
J = mgh
(2)
2
(1) (2) J,
T.
1. Jc
.

(. .1).
, (1) :
d 2
2
2
=
0 cos t ; =
0
(3)
dt
T
T
T

0 (..2):
2
0
2 0
h = b(1 cos 0 ) = 2b sin
2b
,
2
2
b ; 0
,
0.
0 0 AA1,
AA1:

43

AA1

l
l
o b o , o =
o .
2
2b

h o:
2
2

1 l
l 22o
o

(4)
h = 2b
=
2
b

=
o

4 2b
8b
2
(3) (4) (2),
mgl 2 2
(5)
Jc =
Tc
162b
2. JA
,
.

(2)


(3)
h (.3). .3
h 0:
l
l

l
.3
h = (1 cos 0 ) = 2sin 2 0 02 (6)
2
2
2 4
(20) (3) (6)
mgl
J A = 2 TA2
(7)
8
,
Tc TA, , ,
Jc JA
,
.


.
44



:
J = r 2 dm
J = mi ri2

mi dm , r2 ri2
.

J
Jc ,
,
m
d :
J = J c + md 2

1. ,
.
2. ,
4.
,
CC' (..1).
3. tc n1 (n1
= 10,
).
t
Tci = ci . 9
n1
< Tc >.
4. l
; b - . (
).
45

5.
.
4.
6. 10 TAi.
9 < TA >.
7. (5) (7)
,
, (Jc)
(JA), TC TA .
8.
Tci = Tci < Tc > , TAi = TAi < TAi > ,
: Sc =

1
2
(Tci ) ,
n 1

1
2
(TAi ) .
n 1
Tc = Sc / n , TA = S A / n .
9.

SA =

m l b 2Tc ; J = E J .
Ec =
c
c
c

+2 +
+
m l b < Tc >
2

m l 2TA ; J = E J .
EA =
A
A
A

+ +
m l < TA >
2

l
10. J A J c m .
4
.
11. . 1-4.
n1

1
tci, Tci,

2
ti,
46

Ti,

.
.
.

< Tc > =

.
.
.

Tc=

< T > =

47

T=

3.
m,
m,

l,

l,

JA,
2

JA,
2

b,

b,

4.
Jc,
2

Jc,
2

J A Jc ,
2

l2
,
4
2
m


1.
, ?
2. ,
?
3. .
4.
.
5. ,
, ,
.
1. .. . .1. :, 1986..V, 39, 41, .VII, 54.

48

.1

6


:
,



R
, ,
.

.
C ,
, ,
z,
.1
C
(.1).

mVc2 J c 2
(1)
E=
+
+ mgh = const
2
2
2 2
m ; J = mr -
5
z; r .
z
Vc

49

d Vc
= .
(2)
dt
r
(2) Jc (1),
2
7
2 d
(3)
E = mr + mgh = const .
10
dt

O
. .1 ,
z
R'
=
(4)
r
R ' = R r . ,
,
h = R ' R 'cos .
(5)
(4) (5) (3),
:
2
7
2 d
(6)
E = m( R ')
+ mgR '(1 cos ) = const .
10
dt

.

(h=0)

r
.2
. Vc

r
(.2). a
r
r
r
a an . a
=

50

.

z
d 2
(7)
a = r 2 .
dt
r
an .
Vc2
.
(8)
R'

.
Vc
an , ar .
, , a = 0 , Vc an
.
.
(..

).


d 2x
(9)
+ 02 x = 0 .
2
dt

,
,

.

(6).
, mR '(d / dt )
, (9):
d 2 5 g
(10)
+ sin = 0 .
dt 2 7 R '
an =

51

,
,
sin . ..

.

= 0 sin(0t + ) ,
2
5g
.
(11)
=
T
7R '
(4), (7) (8),

. R
T,
(11), R ' = R r :
5 T2
(12)
R = g 2 +r .
7 4
,


.
.
0 =


,
, :
K + U + U = const
U
.
; U

,
; K
52


.

, ,
,
, .

1. 5
d r = d/2.
2. ,
(. .1) . t (n=5)
. 9 .
Ti = ti / n . .1.
3. < r >
< Ti > .
4. Ti = Ti < Ti >

1
2
S=
( Ti ) . T
n 1
: T = S / n .
5. < r > < T > (12),
R.
6. R E
R
2 < R > T
R
R =
+ r ,
E=
.
<T >
<R>
. 1-3.
1.
d,

< d >,
53

< r >,

54

2.
ti,
n

Ti,

3.
S, T, R,

R, E, %

r,


1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. , :
) ; )
;
) , ; )
, ;
.
5. ?
6. ,
.
7. ( )
?
1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .I,
4, .III, 24, .V, 41-43, 53

55


.

.
.

.1.


.
m1 R,
l (..1).
r.

,
,
, .
.

56


1. R r,
l. 1.
2. A .

, -
.
3. t 1 n
=20 . .
t1
T1 = t1 n .
1.
1.
m1, R, r, l, t1,
t1 , <T1>,

4. ,
. m1
m2 .
5. t2 n=20

. .
t2
T2 = t2 n .
2.
6. ,
I
gRr
I =
( m1 + m2 ) T2 2 m1 T1 2 .
2
4 l

57

7. 3

I , .
8. I I
.
I
100%
I I E =
I
9. 3 8
.
2.

R=

m
2,

t2
,

t2
,

<T2
>,

I,

I,

I
I,
2

I
I

100%

a=

b=

a=

3. ,
.

1
= mR 2
2

1
= m a2 + b2
12

58

I =

1
ma 2
12


, .. = 1 ,
T :
2t
= 0 sin
(1)

T

h = h1 h2 .
:
E = mgh


I 2
,
Ek =
2
I ,
.

, ,
,
:
I 2max
.
(2)
mgh =
2
,
d
2
2t
=
= 0
cos
(1):

dt
T
T
20
max =

.
(3)
T
h , ,
0 , h1 + h2 2l .

h 2 h22 h12 h22 Rr 02


h = h1 h2 = 1

=
,
(4)
h1 + h2
2l
2l
59

, (. .1)
2
2
2
2
2
h12 = l 2 ( R r ) , h2 = l R + r 2 Rr cos 0 ,


1 cos 0 = 2sin 2 0 , , 0 ,
2
.
(4) (3) (2),
m :
T 2 mgRr
(5)
I=
4 2l
(5)
,
. , ,
() :
gRr
I =
( m1 + m2 ) T2 2 m1 T1 2
(6)
2

4 l
m1 m2
, T1 T2
.

. ,
,
, , ,
, .
: I = mR 2 , m
, R .
, ..

, ,
I = dI = R 2 dm (*)
I = mi Ri2
..

60


,
, .
,
, ,

:

I 0
,
I C ,
( = d) , ..
I = I + m d2.
,
I , (*)

1.
,
.

(
dm,
a dx
)
:
1
dI = dm a 2 + dm x 2
12

dm m = dx b , dm = ( m b ) dx ,
1 m 2
m
dI =
a dx + x 2 dx
12 b
b
:

61

b2

b2

1 m 2
m 2
1
I=
a dx +
x dx = m a 2 + b 2
12 b
b
12
b 2
b 2

62

2.
,
.

dm 2x
dy,
.
l

,

1
2
I C = ml ,
12

,
, , :
1
2
dI = dm ( 2 x ) + dm y 2 ,
12
dm
dm dS
=
,
m
S
1
3 2
dS = 2 xdy , S = a h =
a
2
4
.
m
8mxdy
: dm = dS = 2
,
S
a 3
8mxdy x 2
2
dI = 2
:
+ y
a 3 3

,
80 my 3
x = y tg 30 = y 3 , : dI =
dy
27 a 2
63

80 m
I 0 =
27 a 2

a 3 2

y 3dy =

5
ma 2 .
12

I 0 = I C + m OC 2 , , ,
OC =

2
3 , I :
a
C
3 2
1
I C = I 0 m OC 2 = ma 2
12


1. ?
2. ?
3. .
4. ,
()?
5.
,
, .
6.

,
.
7. ,
, ,

64

7

:



,

(.1,).

:
r
r
G = mg , m
.1
,

r
N . ()
, .
.
.
, : ) ,

(.1,); )
; )

, -
,

"" .
,
r
N ,
,
,
1, .

65

Mk = N
(1)
Mk ,
,
r
N .
,
<< R (R
).



.


1
.2
(.2)
R. , ,

. .
,

CA = l
(.3).
M G = mgl sin

sin )

.
.3

= 0
66

. 3

( ,
).
-
. .

,
S
3.

(1).
V .
:
V = R (d / dt ) ,
d
= kV = kR
,
(2)
dt
d
(1) M k = N = G = mgkR
.
dt

d 2
d
(3)
J 2 = mgl sin mgkR
dt
dt
J
S; (3) ,
.
( sin )
:
d 2
d
(4)
+
2

+ o2 = 0 ,
2
dt
dt
mgkR
=

,
(5)
2J
mgl
o2 =
.
(6)
J
67



= o e t cos t ,
(7)

= o2 2

(8)

; 0
.
.
n t = nT (T
), n (n < 0).
a
, (7) ,
1
a
ln o .
n / o = an / ao = e nT =
nT an
1 a
= ln o

(9)
n an
,

(10)
T
(6) (10) (8) ,
= 2 / T ,
J S:
mglT 2
(11)
J= 2
4 + 2
(5), (10) (11) k:
2lT
k=
(12)
R (42 + 2 )

.

68

(2) (7).

d
:
dt

d
= o (e t cos t e t sin t )
dt
A
.
, cos t = 0 ( sin t = 1 ).
e t 1 (
).
d
o

dt
, ,


ao 2
d
= kV = kR
kRo kR arcsin
(13)
AD + R T
dt


,
(-)
.
.
,
, .

, ,
,
, .
.

.

69

1.
,
, .
2. () a0 = 40 .
t n (n=10),
an n- T=t/n.
5 . a0
. .1
an T .
3.
.1.
4. an T (9),
(11), (12) (13),

J,

k
(-). m, l R
.
5.
J, < J >.
.2.
1.
m = , R = , l = , |AD| = , a0 = .

1.
2.
3.
t,
n T,
t,
n T,
t,
n T,
an ,
an ,
an ,
c

T =
an =
2.
1.

T =

an =

2.

T =
3.

70

an =

1,

J,
2

k1,
c

J,
2

2,

k2,
c

3,

< J >=............ 2

71

J,
2

k3,
c


1.
?
2. ?
?
3. ,
?
4.
?
5. ?
6.
?
7.
J (11) (12).
.
1. .. . .1. :, 1986..III, 21, 24, .VII, 53, 54

72

8

:
,
.

.

()

,
,
.
, ;
.
. .
:

, ..
*
F
= * N ;
(1)
* ; *
.

-
(1):
F = N
(2)
.

,
(.1).
,

.1
.

, .
73

.
.
,

.

,
.
.
(A < 0).

.2

.
,
(.2).

.
"-".
( ) ,
..
m1Vx = (m1 + m2 )U x
(3)
m1 m2 ; Vx Ux

.
74

"-"
. ,
,
:
1
(m1 + m2
)U 2 = F l ,
(4)
2
Fl
l.
"--":
kx 2 (m1 + m3 )V 2
(5)

= F' x ,
2
2
k ; ; m3
( ); F'

( ).
(3), (4) (5)
kx 2 m12
1
F =
.
(6)
2( m1 + m2 )(m1 + m3 ) l
. k, m1, m2 ;
m3 0, (6)
kx 2 m1
1
F =

(7)
2( m1 + m2 ) l

,
, :
K + U + U = const
U
.
; U

,
75

; K

.

, ,
,
, .
.

.

,
(
).
, ..
,
, ,
:
r
r
p = pi (t ) = const
r
p ,
px ,
.
.

(
),
r
r
dp / dt = F

1. 3
( ).
.
.
76

2.
.
3. .
l .
4. 5 , < l >.
5. < F >, l =< l > (7).
.1 2.
1.
l,
2.
x , m1,

m2,

k, /

< l >,

< F >,


1. -.
2. .
3.
?
4.
.
5.
.
6. , ,
Uo
.
77


1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .II,
15, 20-22, 24, 27

78

9


:
.


, .
,

,
, .

.
(.1)
1 r r.
r
M = [d , mg ] , z
M z = mgd sin , m ; d
z . ,
Mz .
sin , M z = mgh .

d 2

Mz = J 2 ,
dt

:
2
2
d
d mgd

J 2 = mgd
+
= 0 .
J
dt
dt 2

d 2x
+ o2 x = 0
2
dt
o = mgd J
T=

2
J
l
= 2
= 2
,
o
mgd
g
79

(1)

l = J / md

(2)
(
,
).

,
(.2).
,
.

. .3.
Ti ,
, :
1 2. , 1,
2
.

d1 , 2,
d2 ,
: T1=T2=T. (1) (2)
, l1 1
l2 2.
(2),
J
J
l= 1 ,l= 2 .
(3)
md1
md 2

J1 = J C + md12 J 2 = J C + md 22
.3
(4)
J C ,

.

J A
J C ,
,
80

m
J 2 = J C + md 22
d :
(4) (3), Jc m,
l = d1 + d 2
(5)
, (..3)
,
(5) l. (1)
42l

(6)
g= 2
T
,
l (.. ,
) 2, 3.
.
3,
. 2 3
(. .2). 1
4.

81


1. ,
,
.4.
2. d
(
10 ).
3.

4 ( ).
4. ti n1 = 10

. 4
).
Ti = ti/n1.
5. ,
.
15 .
6.
T d.
.3.
7. Ti ,
,
: d1 d2. d1 + d 2 = l
.
8.
(6).
9. gi ,
Ti l.
10. < g >.
11.
gi = g i < g > ,

82

S =

1
2
(gi ) .

n 1

g = S / n .
12. .1-2.
1.
d,
t,
T ,
2.
Ti, d1,

d2,

gi, /2 (gi)2,
/2

< g > S, /2 g,
/2

13. : g = (< g > g ) , /2



1. .
2. .
3. ?
?
4. ?
5. .
6.
,
. ?

1. .. . .1. :, 1986..IV, 33, .V, 39, .VI, 46, .VII, 54


83

10

:
( ),
.

1. l0 ,
.
2.
l .
3.
(2)
k . .
.1.
1.
l0 ,

m ,

l,

k , /

k , /

4.
, 2-3 , .
t n = 10
(
). T n .
3
T .
5. .
.2.
n = ...
m ,

t,

T,

2.
2
k , /
T ,
T 2,

84

k ,
/

6. T 2 m .
(3),
k : ,
(2).
7. ,
.
, A0 =20 , , ,
. ,
n1 = 20 ,
n1 An . 3
T1 n1 -
An .
3.
m,
A0 , An ,

n1

t1 ,

T1 ,

T1 ,

An ,

,
1

r,
/2

8.
1 A

= ln 0 ; =

n An
T1
r = 2m1 .
.3.


m (..1).


.
.
:
.1
85

m
(1)
k
k - .
k
. l0 -
, l -
,
mg k ( l l0 ) ;
T = 2

mg = k ( l l0 ) ,
k = mg ( l l0 )
(2)
k ,
,
( ) .
(1)
(3)
k = 42 m T 2
(3) k

,
(2).
, .1,
.
, A0 n
An
,
r

86



(
).
,
r
- r
,

x,
,

.2

(.2),
.
r
r
A = r , ,

x = A cos = A cos ( t + 0 )
x , , T = 2 ,
T ,
; () ; 0
x . ,
2 :
= 2
,
x A .
.
( t + 0 )
, 0 - .
x
m . ,
.
x
87

v x = dx dt = A sin ( t + 0 ) ,

ax = dv x dt = A2 cos ( t + 0 ) = 2 x

Fx = ma x = m2 x = kx
k - .
,
,
x ,
x .
( - ).
, m ,
,
(.3). l0 - ,
l = l l0 .
mg
k l : mg = k l , k -
.
.3
0,
,
x Fx = kx
( ). ,
x = A ,
.
( )

d 2x
(4)
m 2 = kx
dt

x = A cos 0t
(5)

88

(5) - , A , ..
. (5) (4),
m02 A cos 0t = kA cos 0t

k
0 =
m
m
T = 2 0 , T = 2
k
,
.
.

,
.
r
r
F v ( r ):
r
r
F = rv
x :
Fx = rdx dt
r
r
, F v
.

:
d 2x
dx
(6)
m 2 = kx r
dt
dt
(6) (
)
x = A0e t cos ( t + 0 )
(7)

89

A0 0 ,
. , A0 -
; - ; ( t + 0 ) -
,

r
k
k
r2
=

.
0 =

= 02 2 ,
2
2m
m
m 4m
,
.. .
,
> 0 .
,
.
.4 x t
.

.

:
A
= ln 0 .
A1
.4
A0 - An -
n ( n ),

1 A
= ln 0 .
n An

, , : = T
=


90

1.
?
2. ,
?
3.
, ?
4. ?
5. ,
?
?
6.
.
7. .

1. .. . .1. :, 1986.- .VII,


.50, 53, 58

91

13

:
.
: , , , .

, ,
,
.
, .
: , (),

(
)
Q = dU + A .

Q
C =
- ,
dT
, ,
1 .
, 1 .
,
.
.

( ).
CV .
,
dV A = pdV ,
, .. Q = dU
Q
dU
CV =
=
.
dT V =const dT
92

,
dU = CV dT ,
m
m dU = CV dT .


:
m
m
Q = CdT = CV dT + pdV .
(1)

, ,
,
.
.

RT = pV ,
(2)
R - . , p=const,
dV
R
= , (1)
,
dT P =const P
C dT + pdV
dV
CP = V
= CV + p
= CV + R . (3)
dT
dT

.
,
Q = 0 , (1)
:
pdV = CV dT .
(4)
(2)
, p, V, T.
pdV + Vdp
, dT =
.
R

(4),
,

(CV + R ) pdV = C P pdV = CVVdp .


93

CP
.
CV

dV
dp

=
:
.
V
p
ln V = ln p + const .


: pV = const .
(5)
(2)

1
:
TV 1 = const T p = const . (6)
. , ..
.

,

. 1

,
.. i = 3 .

, . 1.

.
, .
,
1 : kT 2 ,
=

94

k = R / N A - , R -
, N A - .
i
i < E >= kT , 1
2
N A ,
i
U = N A < E >= RT .
2
U = CV T ,
, i
i
i+2
R,
CV = R ; CP = CV + R =
2
2

i+2
=
.
(7)
i
=1,667, -
=1,40, - = 1,333.
- N2 ,
O2 ,, - 2, 2 ..
, ,

: 1, 4 .

,
.2.

,

. . 2
95

.
.
I,
, .
,

.

1 .
p1 = p0 + gh1 ,
(8)
p0 - , gh1
U - (. 2).
,
. ,
,
.
(3-6)
:
!
,
( p = p0 ,
),
II (. 2).

.
,
: 2 = 1 .

p2 = p0 + gh2 .
(9)
, , . 3.

96

m1 ,
V1, V .

97


(6)
:
1
T1 p1

. 3

1
= T p0

p0 p2 p2
=
=
,
T T2 T1

:
1

T p1
p .
= = 0
T1 p0
p2
(10),
ln( p1 / p0 )
p
1 p1
ln = ln 0 , =
.
ln( p1 / p2 )

p2
p0

(10)

(11)

(8) (9):
gh1
ln 1 +

p0
ln( p1 / p0 )

=
=
.
(12)
ln( p1 / p0 ) ln( p2 / p0 )
gh1
gh2
ln 1 +
ln 1 +

p0
p0

( = 1000 /3)
. 2 h 10 20 ,
gh 103
p0 105 .

gh
x=
102 << 1 , (12)
p0
,
x2 x3
: ln(1 + x ) = x + + ... x. (12)
2
3
98


:
h1
=
.
(13)
h1 h2

,
,

< meop 1, 4 . ,

, ,
-
. II
(.2) ,
.
h2 ,
. ,
, (13)
, .

1. , ,
, ( I
. 2).
2. .
10 15 ,

II, .

. .
3. ,

, h1 -
. ,
99

, h1
.
, h1 ,
.
4. ,
.
, .

, (h=0)
II, .


.
1 - 4,
.
5. , ,
.
,

.
h2
.
6. N = 9
h1 , 10 15 .
i (13),
< > .
1.
1
h1 ,
h2 ,

< >=
=
=

100

7.
.
8. (7)
, i =5,
< > .

1. I-
.
2. ?

?
3.
? ?
4. .
?

?
?
5.

?
?
,

,

.

?
6. (3-5)
. (3-6)
. ?
7. .3- 2
: )
? ) ? )
? ?
8. (3-11) (3-13)
. .

1. .., , 1973, . XI, 94 - 98.


101

2. .., .., ..,


, 1999, . I, 4 -9.

102

14


:
.
.

1,


3
2 ,
5 4

(.1).
.1

, ,
, , ,
,
.
, , .

. ,
r
. 2., F

,
.

F = ( l1 + l2 )
(1)
l1 l2
(),

. 2
.
l1 = D1 , l2 = D2 , D1 D2
, (1)
103

F
( D1 + D2 )

(2)

104

.
1. D1
D2 . 1.
2. .
3. n0
2 (F=0).
, .
.
4. (
), 2
n1 .
5. F (
,
), n
2. . 2.
6. .
7. 4 ,
. ,
, .
, ,
( )
n .
5
n . 1.
8.
.
9.
n ( F ) ,

n0 .
.3.
.3
10.
105

,
F
, .
11.
.
1
D1,
D2,
n
..

2
F
n
FH,H =

, / =

.

,

.4
,

,
,

, (.4).
,
106

-,
, (
b .4). , ,
(d .4), -
,
.
, ,
, ,
( .4).
,
( )
. , ,
, (
) ,
. ,
, ..
S: =
U= S
(3)
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
( U
, (3).
,
, ,

,
, .

107

()

,
l
(.5)
r
F .

.5

r
F .
() F = F . dx F
dA = Fdx ,
dU = l dx .
dA = dU , F = l
F = l
(4)

.6
(4) - ,
,
.
,

, (. 6).
108

.
1.
?
2.
?
3.
. .
4.
.
5.
?
6.
?
7.
,
?
.
1. .. . .1 - ., , 1989. 352 . .
92,93,94.

109

15

C
:
(
) .
.
1. d
() ().
2.

t
.

.
3. l
v = l t ( ).
4. .
5.
(2) .
6. .

d, r, l, t, v, ,
i (i)2
/ 2 2

1
...
5
= ...
1 = l,2 103 /3;
2 = 11,4 103 /3.
7. i = i
110


1
S=
( i ) 2 .

n 1
: = S n

8. : = ( ) .
.
,
.. ,
,
.

,
.
.1

.
, z ,
v ,
(.1).
. , 1
, ,
j p .
, j p
, ..
dv
j p = ,
(1)
dx
.
,
,
(.2). f - ,
, -
.
, f/n, n .
111

(.3)
f/n ,
f a

n 2

.2
),
, . (
).
f a
.4, U =
.
n 2

.3
.4.

1 2
,
,
U +U
U
U
U
U a U
a
a

kT
kT
kT
kT
= a 0e
e e kT
v = a ( 1 2 ) = a 0 e
e

( )

112

dv
S,
(2)
dt
S , F .
, ,
.

.

, .

(),

( )
, .
, ,
Ua (.3).

:
F =

= 0e

U
kT

(3)

0 .
,

.

U
U
U
2
U

a
a
= 1 e kT 1 U , v = 2a 0 U e kT = a f 0 e kT .
kT
kT
kT
nkT
F
dv v

, f = =
,
S
dx

f nkT kTa
= =
e .
v a 0
113

kT
, h .
h
a ,
:
, 0

Ua

(4)
= nhe kT
(4),
() . ,
.

.
, ,

. ,
, .
. ,
.

:
F = 6rv
(5)
; r
; v .

.
(.5): 1. ,

4
G = mg = 2Vg = r 32 g
3
2 , g .
2.

F1,

.5

114

.

3
: F1 = ( 4 3) r 1g , 1 .
3. F2 .
, .. .

F2 = 6rv
G F1 , F2
. v
, G, ,
F1 F2 , ;
,
.
, , .

4 3
4
r 2 g = r 31g + 6rv
3
3

2

= gr 2 2 1
(6)
9
v
.
1.
.
2. .
?
3. , ?
4. 1
?
5.
|.
6. ?

115

.
1. .. . .1 - ., , 1989. 352 . .
78,79

116

16


:
(

.
.
1. . ,
,

h1 .
2.
1 ,

.
3.
h2 .
.1
4. t
P.
5. (5).
6.
(6).
7. d
(7)
. :
h1, h2, , , ,
,
, d,
/
.

,
.
117

d,

. .2 ,

(..
), d.
.2
,

. , d
. = d 2
.
- .

n

1
=
.
(1)
2n
:
, (..
n)
(.. ).
n
. ,
:
1
: .
P
-
.
,
118

,
.

1
= v
:
(2)
3
v , .
, (2)
, , (1)
d.
,
,
.

.
.1 .
L,
.3
.

P = P P1 ,
.3

, .3.
V,
:
r 4
V=
P
(3)
8l
r , l .

, .
, .
P1
h ..
119

P1 + gh = P ,

P = P P1 = gh
h , ,
(3)
h +h
P = g h = g 1 2
(4)
2
, , ,
,

V = S ( h1 h2 ) .
, 4 : V, , h1 h2.
P (4) (3).
r 4 g ( h1 + h2 )
=
(5)
16lS ( h1 h2 )
, d.
(1) (2).
8 RT
P
, v =
=
, (2)

RT
=

3 RT
P
8

(6)

P
, (1) :
kT
kT
d=
(7)
2P
r , l , S
, =1000 /3
, R = 8,31 / ,
k = 1,38 1023 / , = 0,029 /
n =

120

, g = 9,8 /2
, T = (t+273)K
.
1.
.
2. ?
3.
?
4. ?
5.
?
6. ?
7. ?
.
1. .. . .1 - ., , 1989. 352 . .
62,78-80.

121