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# Essentials of Enthalpy and Hesss Law

Enthalpy (H)
Is the heat content of a substance at constant pressure Is a state function Is controlled by stoichiometric ratios! Usually has units of J/mol or kJ/mol Is better represented as H, or change in enthalpy
Calculated as (Final H Initial H) In a chemical reaction, its usually represented as the difference between the potential energies of the products and the reactants.

## Energy Level Diagrams

Signs of H
Negative enthalpy change (- H) means energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings, like exothermic
THESE TYPES OF REACTIONS ARE MOST COMMON BECAUSE IT REPRESENTS A LOWER ENERGY STATE AND, REMEMBER, NATURE IS LAZY!

Positive enthalpy change (+ H) means energy is transferred from the surroundings to the system, like endothermic

Examples
Upon adding solid potassium hydroxide pellets to water, the following reaction occurs: KOH (s) KOH (aq) + 43 kJ/mol Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? Does the beaker of water get warmer or colder? What is the enthalpy change for the dissolution of 14 g of KOH?

Examples
When one mole of methane is burned at constant pressure, 890 kJ/mol of energy is released as heat. Calculate H for a process in which 5.80 grams of methane is burned.

Hesss Law
States that if a reaction is the sum of two or more reactions, H for the overall process is the sum of the H values of those reactions. Hrxn = Hf(products) - Hf(reactants)

Hesss Law
Often requires us to use a table of standard molar enthalpies. Theres one in your book on page 266. This table gives us values of Hf, or standard molar enthalpies of formation. They refer to the enthalpy change for the formation of 1 mole of a compound directly from its component elements in their standard states. Usually reflected at 1 bar of pressure (approximately 1 atm), 25 C, and 1 M for solutions.

Hesss Law
The Hf of an element in its standard state is zero. Most Hf values are negative.

Examples
How much heat is required to decompose one mole of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide under standard conditions?

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