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ch8

ch8

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Elements in the same row of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical properties. True False

2. The word halogen comes from the Greek, meaning salt-former. True False

3. J. J. Thomson discovered that cathode rays were really a stream of electrons. True False

4. Millikan found that all of the oil droplets in his apparatus carried a charge that was an integer multiple of one particular value. True False

5. The atomic number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. True False

6. Einstein proposed that electrons on the surface of a metal gradually absorb energy from photons until they have enough energy to leave the surface. True False

7. An electron moves from one orbital to another only when it absorbs or emits energy. True False

8. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that you cannot know the momentum or the position of an electron exactly. True False

9. Protons and neutrons have about the same mass. True False

10. Protons are so much more massive than electrons that you can neglect the mass of electrons when determining the mass of an atom. True False

11. John Dalton reasoned that atoms exist from the evidence that A. there are numerous, tiny empty spaces in matter. B. elements always combined in certain fixed ratios. C. elements could not be broken down into simpler substances. D. matter was homogeneous.

12. J. J. Thomson reasoned that cathode rays were really charged particles because A. a magnet deflected cathode rays. B. cathode rays formed only when the air was pumped out of a discharge tube. C. the properties of the cathode rays depended on the cathode material. D. the cathode rays were attracted to the anode.

13. When Rutherford found that some of the alpha particles fired at the gold foil were widely deflected, he concluded that A. gold was an element, not a compound as previously believed. B. atoms are solid, with spaces between them. C. atoms are electrically neutral. D. the positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus.

14. Robert Millikan discovered that A. the charge to mass ratio of electrons was constant. B. the electron carries the smallest unit of electrical charge. C. the oil droplets all carried the same amount of charge. D. the electrons contained most of the mass of an atom.

15. Rutherford concluded from his calculations that the volume of an atom A. is filled with protons, neutrons, and electrons. B. is mostly protons, with electrons revolving around the outside. C. is filled with electrons. D. is mostly empty space.

16. The atomic number of an element is the number of A. protons. B. protons and neutrons. C. protons and electrons. D. all the particles in the atom.

17. Neutral atoms of a given element all have the same A. number of protons. B. atomic number. C. number of electrons. D. All of the above.

18. Atoms in an incandescent gas A. emit all frequencies of light in a continuous spectrum. B. emit different frequencies of light depending on its temperature. C. emit characteristic frequencies of light. D. absorb, rather than emit light.

19. The fact that wavelengths of the four lines in the Balmer series fit a regular pattern was evidence supporting the idea that A. electrons could exist in only four energy states in a hydrogen atom. B. there must be four electrons in each hydrogen atom. C. electrons could only gain or lose specific amounts of energy in hydrogen atoms. D. electrons were continuously losing energy.

20. Niels Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom A. was controversial because it contradicted accepted principles of physics. B. held that electrons existed in allowed orbits and nowhere else. C. accounted for the observed spectrum in hydrogen. D. All of the above.

21. According to the quantum mechanical model, electrons exist in A. circular orbits. B. elliptical orbits. C. orbitals. D. wavy orbits.

22. The quantum mechanical model of the atom differs from the Bohr model in that it A. considers the electron as a particle. B. considers the electron as a wave. C. predicts the specific location of the electron in an atom. D. states that electrons can only exist at specific distances from the nucleus.

23. The proposal that matter, like light, exhibits wave-like behavior was A. verified in diffraction experiments with a beam of electrons. B. never tested since it was known to be impossible. C. shown to be theoretically possible, but never verified by experiment. D. verified by physical measurements of a moving baseball.

24. The maximum number of electrons that can have the principal quantum number 2 in a given atom is A. 2. B. 4. C. 8. D. ...it varies from atom to atom.

25. The energy of a photon of light emitted by an electron equals the A. energy of the level it currently occupies. B. energy of the level it just left. C. energy of the ground state of the atom. D. difference in energy between two levels.

26. Photons of which of the following colors of light possess the greatest amount of energy? A. blue B. green C. yellow D. red

27. In the Bohr model of the atom, the energy state of an electron could be described with one number. The quantum mechanical model of the atom requires how many numbers to do the same? A. 4 B. 2 C. 1 D. It varies from atom to atom.

28. In the notation "2p4", the 4 refers to the A. energy level of the electron. B. number of p orbitals in the 2nd energy level. C. number of electrons in the 2p sublevel. D. number of electrons in a single 2p orbital.

29. Isotopes of an element are atoms that have A. the same number of protons, but a different number of electron. B. the same number of neutrons, but a different number of protons. C. the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. D. equal numbers of protons and neutrons.

30. Identify the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of . A. 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons B. 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 10 electrons C. 9 protons, 19 neutrons, and 9 electrons D. 10 protons, 9 neutrons, and 10 electrons

ch8 Key

1. Elements in the same row of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical properties. FALSE

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.05 Tillery - Chapter 08 #1 Topic: Periodic Properties

2. The word halogen comes from the Greek, meaning salt-former. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.05 Tillery - Chapter 08 #2 Topic: Atomic Elements

3. J. J. Thomson discovered that cathode rays were really a stream of electrons. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #3 Topic: Atomic Structure

4. Millikan found that all of the oil droplets in his apparatus carried a charge that was an integer multiple of one particular value. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #4 Topic: Atomic Structure

5. The atomic number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. FALSE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #5 Topic: Atomic Structure

6. Einstein proposed that electrons on the surface of a metal gradually absorb energy from photons until they have enough energy to leave the surface. FALSE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #6 Topic: Atomic Structure

7. An electron moves from one orbital to another only when it absorbs or emits energy. TRUE

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #7 Topic: Atomic Structure

8. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that you cannot know the momentum or the position of an electron exactly. FALSE

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #8 Topic: Atomic Structure

9. Protons and neutrons have about the same mass. TRUE

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #9 Topic: Atomic Structure

10. Protons are so much more massive than electrons that you can neglect the mass of electrons when determining the mass of an atom. TRUE

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #10 Topic: Atomic Structure

11. John Dalton reasoned that atoms exist from the evidence that A. there are numerous, tiny empty spaces in matter. B. elements always combined in certain fixed ratios. C. elements could not be broken down into simpler substances. D. matter was homogeneous.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #11 Topic: Periodic Properties

12. J. J. Thomson reasoned that cathode rays were really charged particles because A. a magnet deflected cathode rays. B. cathode rays formed only when the air was pumped out of a discharge tube. C. the properties of the cathode rays depended on the cathode material. D. the cathode rays were attracted to the anode.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #12 Topic: Atomic Structure

13. When Rutherford found that some of the alpha particles fired at the gold foil were widely deflected, he concluded that A. gold was an element, not a compound as previously believed. B. atoms are solid, with spaces between them. C. atoms are electrically neutral. D. the positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #13 Topic: Atomic Structure

14. Robert Millikan discovered that A. the charge to mass ratio of electrons was constant. B. the electron carries the smallest unit of electrical charge. C. the oil droplets all carried the same amount of charge. D. the electrons contained most of the mass of an atom.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #14 Topic: Atomic Structure

15. Rutherford concluded from his calculations that the volume of an atom A. is filled with protons, neutrons, and electrons. B. is mostly protons, with electrons revolving around the outside. C. is filled with electrons. D. is mostly empty space.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #15 Topic: Atomic Structure

16. The atomic number of an element is the number of A. protons. B. protons and neutrons. C. protons and electrons. D. all the particles in the atom.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #16 Topic: Atomic Structure

17. Neutral atoms of a given element all have the same A. number of protons. B. atomic number. C. number of electrons. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #17 Topic: Atomic Structure

18. Atoms in an incandescent gas A. emit all frequencies of light in a continuous spectrum. B. emit different frequencies of light depending on its temperature. C. emit characteristic frequencies of light. D. absorb, rather than emit light.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #18 Topic: Atomic Elements

19. The fact that wavelengths of the four lines in the Balmer series fit a regular pattern was evidence supporting the idea that A. electrons could exist in only four energy states in a hydrogen atom. B. there must be four electrons in each hydrogen atom. C. electrons could only gain or lose specific amounts of energy in hydrogen atoms. D. electrons were continuously losing energy.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #19 Topic: Atomic Structure

20. Niels Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom A. was controversial because it contradicted accepted principles of physics. B. held that electrons existed in allowed orbits and nowhere else. C. accounted for the observed spectrum in hydrogen. D. All of the above.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #20 Topic: Atomic Structure

21. According to the quantum mechanical model, electrons exist in A. circular orbits. B. elliptical orbits. C. orbitals. D. wavy orbits.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #21 Topic: Quantum Theory

22. The quantum mechanical model of the atom differs from the Bohr model in that it A. considers the electron as a particle. B. considers the electron as a wave. C. predicts the specific location of the electron in an atom. D. states that electrons can only exist at specific distances from the nucleus.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #22 Topic: Quantum Theory

23. The proposal that matter, like light, exhibits wave-like behavior was A. verified in diffraction experiments with a beam of electrons. B. never tested since it was known to be impossible. C. shown to be theoretically possible, but never verified by experiment. D. verified by physical measurements of a moving baseball.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #23 Topic: Quantum Theory

24. The maximum number of electrons that can have the principal quantum number 2 in a given atom is A. 2. B. 4. C. 8. D. ...it varies from atom to atom.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.04 Tillery - Chapter 08 #24 Topic: Periodic Properties

25. The energy of a photon of light emitted by an electron equals the A. energy of the level it currently occupies. B. energy of the level it just left. C. energy of the ground state of the atom. D. difference in energy between two levels.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #25 Topic: Atomic Structure

26. Photons of which of the following colors of light possess the greatest amount of energy? A. blue B. green C. yellow D. red

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.02 Tillery - Chapter 08 #26 Topic: Atomic Structure

27. In the Bohr model of the atom, the energy state of an electron could be described with one number. The quantum mechanical model of the atom requires how many numbers to do the same? A. 4 B. 2 C. 1 D. It varies from atom to atom.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.03 Tillery - Chapter 08 #27 Topic: Quantum Theory

28. In the notation "2p4", the 4 refers to the A. energy level of the electron. B. number of p orbitals in the 2nd energy level. C. number of electrons in the 2p sublevel. D. number of electrons in a single 2p orbital.

Blooms Level: 2. Understand Section: 8.04 Tillery - Chapter 08 #28 Topic: Periodic Properties

29. Isotopes of an element are atoms that have A. the same number of protons, but a different number of electron. B. the same number of neutrons, but a different number of protons. C. the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. D. equal numbers of protons and neutrons.

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #29 Topic: Atomic Structure

30. Identify the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of . A. 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons B. 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 10 electrons C. 9 protons, 19 neutrons, and 9 electrons D. 10 protons, 9 neutrons, and 10 electrons

Blooms Level: 3. Apply Section: 8.01 Tillery - Chapter 08 #30 Topic: Atomic Structure

ch8 Summary
Category Blooms Level: 2. Understand Blooms Level: 3. Apply Blooms Level: 4. Analyze Section: 8.01 Section: 8.02 Section: 8.03 Section: 8.04 Section: 8.05 Tillery - Chapter 08 Topic: Atomic Elements Topic: Atomic Structure Topic: Periodic Properties Topic: Quantum Theory # of Questions 9 6 15 14 6 6 2 2 30 2 20 4 4

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