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CHAPTER 1

Objective:

Introduction

Upon completion of this lesson, you will have an overview of architecture, application capabilities and features of the EWSD. You will be able to: Describe the common structure of EWSD software, Hardware and Physical unit. Distinguish between different types of EWSD switching system. List the basics features of the EWSD Switch.

Telecommunication
1.1 A. B. C. 1.2 1.3 It is the branch of Science which deals the transmission of Voice, Data and Graphics at the distance in the form of Electrical signals. Major Branch of Telecommunication PTCL deals with the three technical branches in the field of Telecommunication as follows LAN (Local Area Network) Switching Transmission Regarding objective, this book deals only switching and specially EWSD. Analog System It is a system which works according to the continuous physical change e.g. volt meter, Mechanical equipment etc. Digital System It is a system which works according to the principle of sudden change. In other words it works on basis of digits and the system used in it is known as binary system 1 or 0 are the digits of this system 1 represents the ON and 0 represents the OFF position of the system. Digital Switching Systems Incorporated in Pakistan Name of Country Firm/Company Name of Exchanges
GERMANY SWEDEN FRANCE CHINA CHINA JAPAN PAKISTAN SIEMENS ERICSSON ALKATEL ZTE HAUWAEI NEC DIGITAL COMMUNICATION EWSD AXE-10 E-10B ZXJ 10 HAUWAEI NEAX-61 DCX-1000

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First Digital Exchange, ND-10 by France was installed in 1975 at Edgerton Road Lahore (Pakistan). 1.5 Milestone In The Development to Digital Switching By Siemens 1833 GAUSSS and WEBERs Telegraph 1861 BEISs Telegraph 1878 First public exchange in New Haven (Connecticut.) 1881 First German exchange in Berlin

1908 1923
1981

Future:
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First automatic exchange in Europe First automatic long distance dialing in Germany First digital exchange in Hamburg Germany Integration of existing networks into a universal digital broadband network with digital public switching system.

EWSD (Electronic Switching System Digital)

E lektronicsches (Electronic) W ahl (Switching) S ystem (System) D igital (Digital)


1.7 (1) How is EWSD applied ? EWSD system supports a large variety of Exchanges and switching application. Local Exchange: (i) Analog subscribers with rotary dialing or pushbutton dialing, with private metering (including all these connected via PABX s) and ISDN terminals can be connected directly or via concentrator. The local exchange switches incoming and outgoing subscriber line traffic. (ii) The local exchange can serve up to 250,000 subscriber lines. Transit Exchange (Tandem): (i) Transit Exchanges are used at network nodes to connect the trunks to and from other central offices. (ii) Digital or analog trunks via SC (signaling converter) / MUX s various signaling protocols can be connected. (iii) Tandem Exchanges can serve up to 60,000 trunks. International Gateway Exchange: (i) The EWSD supports all function of an international gateway. For example;. (i) (ii) (iii) (ii) (4) International signaling system. Echo compensation for intercontinental connections. Satellite connections. If required, these function can also be provided by national tandem exchange. Combined Exchange (i) These exchanges switch the subscriber lines and trunk lines. (ii) Allows the switching of any traffic combination within the limit of 25.200 Erlanger. Rural Exchange (Container) (i) It is used for remote areas with a low population density. (ii) It has the same hardware and software parts as the local office. (iii) It can support up to 7,500 subscriber lines.

(2)

(3)

(5)

(iv) (6)

It is a compete system with power supply &air conditioning & can be installed in a container to serve up to a 6,000 subscribers. Mobile Exchange: (i) The EWSD system meets the high performance requirement for transmission and signaling in mobile exchange. (ii) A mobile subscriber can reached at all time and at different location under the same directory number.

1.8

Other Application 1.10.1Operator Service System (OSS) The digital operator service system (OSS) is available for application in which

(i) The involvement of an operator is required to establish a connection. (ii) The subscriber requests special operator services. 1.10.2Values Added Service (VAS) These are communication services with storage and processing functions at a central location within the public network (access to data bases). VAS are required e.g. to integrate ISDN telex user in the common telex network. 1.10.3Central Operation & Maintenance (OMC) EWSD Exchanges allow operation and maintenance tasks to be performed locally or central location. 1.10.4Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) The EWSD is designed to meet all requirements for the implementation of ISDN features. These features include e.g. transmission of voice, text, or data information through an integrated network , call waiting etc. 1.10.5Signaling system No.7 (CCS7) The common channel signaling system No.7 as specified signaling information via a common signaling channel. This system is used world wide for digital networks with service control points (SCP s) 1.10.4Advantages of EWSD System Over Analog System 1. Space of SPC exchange is 10 times less than EMD (Electro Mechanical Exchange) 2. Easy installation 3. Easy maintenance 4. Easy expansion 5. Less staff requirement 6. Extra facilities (A) Abbreviated dialing (B) Fixed distinction call (Hot Line) (C) Service restriction (Code Bar Facilities) (D) Absent subscriber service (E) Call transfer (F) Diversion (G) Dont disturb (H) Call waiting (I) Conference call (J) Subscriber individual detail billing (K) Alarm call facilities (L) Call charge meter subscriber station etc.

Chapter 2 System Design Architecture


The digital electronic switching system EWSD (Electronic Switching System Digital) is a powerful and versatile switching for public communication network.

Attributes of the EWSD


The EWSD switching a employs a fully digital design concept. It provides a wide range of current and future features and services and extensive safeguarding concept, and a high data transmission quality.

Common Structure

Modular in every respect (a) Software Consisting of Operating system User software Physical Units Plug-in approach utilizing standardized circuit boards and connectors (b) Hardware Consisting of independent subsystems Benefits of the modular design The modular design provides many benefits such as Effective safeguarding. Flexible adaptation to the network environment Cost efficient adaptation to further innovations. Simplification of installation and maintenance A variable range if features.

Chapter 3 Hardware Structure:


Objective
Upon completion of this lesson, you will have an overview of the major hardware subsystems of EWSD exchange. You will be able to: List the hardware subsystem of EWSD exchange. Explain the function of each hardware subsystem. Describe the physical structure of the hardware subsystems

General information:

The hardware of EWSD system is organized in subsystems .These are linked through uniform interfaces.

EWSD subsystems:
1. DLU (Digital Line Unit) The Digital line unit (DLU) provides access for analog and digital subscriber lines. The DLU is connected to the Line/Trunk Group (LTG). 2. LTG (Line / Trunk Group) The Line / Trunk Group not only terminate Digital Line Units. It is also linked to: (I) Other Exchanges. (II) Digital Switch Board. 3. SN (Switching Network) The switching network provides the inter-connections between two subscriber lines, and other control connections. 4. CCNC (Common Channel Signaling network Control) It provides the Signaling System No.7 (CCS 7) capability for inter-exchange communication recommended by CCITT. 5. CP (Coordination Processor) The processing workload is distributed over several microprocessors within EWSD. A common processor for coordination tasks is extremely useful. These functions are handled by the Coordination processor (CP). The CP area consists of the following.

Siemens Switching Processor (SSP) System Panel (SYP) Message Buffer (MB) Central Clock Generator (CCG) External Memory (EM) Operation and Maintenance Terminal (OMT)

Load distribution:
In order to reduce the workload of the coordination (CP) and to achieve faster processing times some processing functions are distributed over autonomous control devices. Since the EWSD subsystems independently execute all necessary tasks within their respective areas, they require their own control devices, such as the following: * DLUC (DLU control) for DLU * GP (Group processor) for LTG * CCNP (CCNC processor) for CCNC * SYPC (System panel control) for SYP * MBC (Message Buffer Control) for MB

Interfaces:

The interfaces of EWSD switching system can be divided into external and internal interfaces. Now, lets take a closer look at the external interfaces for analog and digital subscribers. External interfaces:

Analog Subscriber Lines. Digital Subscriber Lines. ISDN Primary Access Lines for medium and large CENTRES System (PBX). Digital Trunks. Analog Trunks through (CB). Digital Switchboards (DSB). Data networks, e.g. packet data Additional services, e.g. VAS Operation and Maintenance Center. Note:A Channel Bank (CB): It concentrates 30 analog voice channels into a digital PCM signal format. The CB is required to connect analog trunks to a digital Line/ Trunk Group (LTG). Value Added Services (VAS): These are communication services that provide storage and processing functions at a central location on the public network (access to databases). VAS are required, for example, to integrate ISDN Telex subscribers into the common Telex network. Basic Access (BA): The basic access interface links ISDN subscribers and small PBX systems to the DLU. This interface provides a 2- wire link that carries two Bchannels and one D-channel (= 2*64Kbit/s + 1*16Kbit/s).The B-channels support e.g. voice information. The D-channel is mainly used for signaling. Primary Rate access (PRA): It is used to link a subscriber interface (for example an ISDN PBX system) to the central office. Primary Rate Access provides 30 (23) B-channels (for voice and data information) and one D-channel (for signaling). Network Termination device (NT): The NT is an interface between digital subscriber lines and the exchange. An NT contains a maximum of 16 plugs which may terminate up to 8 ISDN subscriber terminals. Internal interfaces:

PDC Links (2048Kbit/s, 30 voice / data channels, 1 signaling channel) connect the DLU s to the LTG s. SDC Links (8Mbit/s) connect the LTG s to the switching Network (SN). The CCNC is also connected to the Switching Network (SN) through a SDC link. A bit parallel interface connects the CCNC to the CP. The CP transmits data through a SDC link to the Switching Network (SN) and from there to each Line / Trunk Group. The call setup commands to the Switch Group Control (SGC) are also transmitted via a SDC link at 64Kbit/s.

Primary Digital Carriers (PDC s) carry several speech or data channels using only one link. The transmission of a PDC link is 2048kbit/s. One link can carry 32 channels at a rate of 64kbit/s per channel. In different countries. PDC links with 32 or 24 channels are used.

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Secondary Digital Carrier (SDC s) are also called Secondary Multiplex Link which has a transmission rate of 8Mbit/s (=8192kbit/s). The SDC carries up to 128 channels at a rate of 64kbit/s. This is four times the transmission capacity of a Primary Digital Carrier (PDC). Bit serial: The data transmission on speech and message channels is bit serial. Bit parallel: The data transmission to and from the CP is bit parallel

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Summary
The EWSD switch includes the following hardware subsystems and components Digital Line Unit (DLU) Line / Trunk Group (LTG) Switching Network (SN) Common Channel signaling Network Controller (CCNC) Coordination Processor (CP) External Memory (EM) Operation and Maintenance Terminal (OMT) System Panel (SYP) Message Buffer (MB) Central Clock Generator (CCG) The DLU, LTG, CCNC, SN, SYP, and MB have their own control devices. The EWSD system has External Interfaces (analog and digital access) and Internal Interfaces (PDC links, SDC links and bit parallel interfaces).

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CHAPTER 4 Digital Line Unit (DLU)


The Digital Line Unit (DLU) is responsible for terminating subscriber lines and concentrating subscriber line traffic.

Overview of DLU:
Subscriber Line Connections to a DLU

PBX= Private Branch Exchange SLM= Subscriber Line Module SLMA= Subscriber Line Module Analog terminates analog subscriber lines. SLMD= Subscriber Line Module Digital terminates digital subscriber lines. DLU connections to the Line / Trunk Group (LTG).

A DLU can be linked to the Line / Trunk Group(LTG s) via 2. 3 or 4 digital carriers (PDC s) The connections may be Direct, Cross-over or Random as shown blow. (a) Direct Connections.

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The disadvantage is obvious i.e. If the LTG fails, the entire DLU loses its connection to the exchange. (b) Cross-over Connections.

Here, it is possible to establish a connection via the second LTG even if one LTG or PDC fails. (c) Random Connections.

Here, it is a matter of coincidence, whether a redundant unit is available for call processing in case of an LTG or PDC failure.

Applications
As a part of exchange, the DLU can be installed Locally or Remotely, of subscriber groups.

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Other Functions of DLU Four primary functions of DLU: Connection of subscriber lines. The DLU concentrates subscribers lines, because the maximum number of 4 PDC links to the Line / Trunk Group (LTG s) provides only up to 120 speech channels. Yet it is possible to connect up to 944 analog subscriber to a DLU. This represents a Concentration ratio of approximately 8:1.

Conversion of analog lines into a digital format. A conversion of analog data into a digital code is required because all outgoing links from the DLU are PDC links, whereas the incoming lines are analog subscriber lines. The conversion of analog signals takes place within the DLU.

Flexibility to accommodate variable traffic load This Flexibility because of the DLU structure witch can be modularly expended for: 2 PDC links (60 speech channels) 3 PDC links (90 speech channels) 4 PDC links (120 speech channels)

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Facility of ISDN introduction The introduction of ISDN is facilitated, because the DLU can be used as a remote unit. In area with analog exchanges, the remote DLU provides the option of terminating digital subscribers and routing them to EWSD exchanges.

System Structure:
The main components of DLU and their Functions (I). Subscriber Line Modules (SLM) SLMA (Subscriber Line Module Analog) To establish the physical interface for up to 8 analog subscribers To feed the ringing current and to supply the meter voltage i.e. B O R S C H T function B ----- Battery O ----- Over voltage protection R ----- Ringing S ------ Signaling C ----- Coding H ----- Hybrid 2/4- wires T ----- Testing To isolate the subscriber loop for test purposes To control the ports by means of the SLMCP (e.g. requesting the loop status) To convert the subscriber signaling information SLMD (Subscriber Line Module Digital) To perform the same functions as the SLMA for up to 8 ISDN-subscribers

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(II). Ringing current and Meter voltage Generator (RGMG) To generate the ringing current and meter voltage. The RGMG handles the central generation of ringing and metering voltage that are required for analog subscriber line modules. (III). Two Digital Interface Units for the DLU (DIUD) To switch the speech information to 2 PCM 30 systems To insert the signaling information into channel 16 of PCM 30 frame To generate tones and to set up internal connections during emergency service

(IV). Two Digital Line Unit Controls (DLUC) To control the DLU activities, e.g. interrogate the SLMCP s To convert the signaling information into CCITT No.7 format To translate the directory number and assigns the tones during emergency service

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(V). Test unit (TU) To generate during test concerning functions and transmission quality of the SLMA/D respectively of the subscriber line test signals for - resistance measurements - capacitance measurements - AC/DC measurements - frequency weighting, - and to evaluates them (VI). Emergency service equipment for pushbutton subscriber (EMSP) To decode the signaling information of pushbutton subscribers during emergency service. Noting that under normal operating conditions, an LTG receive and evaluate the digits dialed on a pushbutton phone. The emergency Services Modules for pushbutton subscribers (EMSP) in the DLU are activated only if emergency operation is necessary. Emergency Service Even if all outgoing PDC links of a DLU fail, it is still possible to establish calls between subscribers served by the same DLU. This is called Emergency Service. The DLU emergency operation is made possible through a combination of EMSP emergency units and specialized software modules. Features of stand-alone emergency operation include A limitation of traffic to subscribers served by the same DLU No additional services No billing records A maximum of 60 calls (VII). External alarm set (ALEX) To form the physical interface for up to 16 external alarms for remote service (e.g. fire, door locking) (VIII). Networks Speech & Signaling data Network ----Two 4096Kbit/s networks for the transmission of voice and signaling data between the SLM s and the Digital Interface Units (DIUD s). The speech highway is used for the transmission of voice and data. This network is also duplicated. Both 4096kbit/s networks provide 64 channels at a bit rate of 64kbit/s for transmission in either direction. However, only 120 channels can be

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made use of , whereas the remaining serve for tests and transmission of call processing tones in emergency operation. Control Network ---- Two 136Kbit/s control networks for the transmission of Control data between the SLM s and DLU controls. The duplicated control networks connect the two DLU Controls (DLUC s) with all SLMCP s and all other modules that contain their own microprocessors: Via control network 0 with DLUC0 Via control network 1 with DLUC1 These two networks are used to transmit control information in both directions: Commands from the DLUC to the SLMCP and Messages and signals form the SLMCP to the DLUC The effective bit rate of the control network in both direction is 136kbit/s. (IX).Bus Distributor (BD) The exchange of information in the DLU is handled by the duplicated bus system. The Bus Distributor regenerates signals, distributes signals to the periphery or concentrates signals coming form the periphery. (X).Bus Distributor Clock Generator (BDCG) The Clock Generator generates the system pulse required for the DLU and the associated frame synchronization signal. (XI).PDC Links Up to PDC links (cross-over ) connect the DLU to two LTG s. Each PDC links has 32 channels (time slots) for transmitting and receiving information. The channels are used as follows: Channel 1-15 and 17-31 for voice and data Channel 0 for framing bit Channel 16 for signaling

Subscriber Lines
These are 2-wire copper cables that carry both analog (SLMA line) and digital (SLMD line) information. In addition, these lines are used to provide battery supply and ringing.

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Summary
The DLU is used to connect Analog subscriber lines Analog access lines for PBX systems ISDN basic access DLU s can be installed locally, i.e. integrated into the EWSD exchange, or remotely, i.e. removed from the rest of the system. Each DLU is linked to two different LTG s to ensure redundancy The DLU test unit can test subscriber sets, subscriber lines, and subscriber circuits The DLU emergency service capability permits connections between subscribers served by the same DLU.

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CHAPTER 5 Line / Trunk Group:


The Line / Trunk Group( LTG s) are the interfaces between the digital Switching Network and the network environment of the exchange, which may be analog or digital.

LTG 5.1.1.Functions
I. Call processing functions of the LTG: Receive and evaluate information of trunks and subscriber lines Send signals and tones Receive and send message to and from the Coordination Processor (CP) and to the Group Processor (GP s) Adapt the transmission format to the 8 M bit/s highway of the Switching Network Safeguarding functions of the LTG: Detect LTG faults Detect fault on the internal exchange interfaces during call processing Report faults and routine message to the Coordination Processor (CP) Evaluate faults and initiate processes, such as blocking channels, blocking the LTG Operating functions of the LTG: Report traffic measurements to the Coordination Processor (CP) Establish test connections Display operating states of individual modules on LED indicators Call charge registration For reason of safety LTG is always connected to both Switching Network levels If the link between the LTG and switching network, or even one plane of the Switching Network fails, call processing will continue without interruption. The capacity to handle different transmission formats (PCM 30, PCM 24, digital access) and signaling system (MFC / R2, pulse code signaling, CCIT No.7) was optimized through the design of different LTG types: Line / Trunk Group A (LTGA) Line / Trunk Group B (LTGB) Line / Trunk Group C (LTGC) Line / Trunk Group G (LTGG) Line / Trunk Group D (LTGD)

II.

III.

Tasks of the functional units of the LTG


Main tasks of the Line/Trunk Unit (LTU) To adapt the subscriber or line trunk both physically and concerning signaling
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The type and number of the LTU s depend upon the LTG type Digital interface unit DIU 30 Digital interface unit DIU 24 Operator line module digital OLMD Automatic test equipment ATE trunks for PCM 30 systems for PCM 24 systems for Digital switchboard for testing inter office

Main Tasks of the signaling unit (SU) To generate audible, test and MFC tones To decode the MFC and DTMF tones To suppress echo signals The SU equipment depends on the type of LTG CRM CRP TOG DES DCR Multi frequency code receiver Code receiver for push button dialing Tone generator Digital echo suppressor Digital code receiver

Main Tasks of the link interface unit (LIU) To transmit speech information to both SN s To select speech information from one SN To perform the cross office check (COC), thereby testing the connection for the continuity and quality prior to each call To insert/extract signaling information from/to the GP via one SN (this standard MCH) distribution is used for SN supervision and for location Main Tasks of the time-space switch and Group Switch(SPMX and GS) To separate speech and signaling information by switching connections between LTU and LIU for speech information LTU and SU for signaling information and tones SU and GP for signaling information LTU and GP for test pattern To set up multi-point connections: Broadcast connections for tones Connections for conference calls To convert 2 M bit/s highways in to 8 M bit/s The type used depends on the LTG type SPMX for trunks GS for subscriber lines and conference calls Main Tasks of the Group Processor (GP) To control all activities of the LTG To process the signaling information

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Line / Trunk Group B (LTGB) The following units can be connected to the LTG B through a PDC (PCM30 / PCM 24) links: I. Digital Line Unit (DLU)

II.

Other exchanges (with PCM 24)

III.

Medium and large ISDN Private Automatic Branch Exchanges (PABX)

The LTG B can interface 60 Digital Switchboard (DSB s) via digital access lines.

In addition to the Group Processor (GP), which coordinates the LTG B functions, the following modules are the part of LTG B. Up to 8 Line / Trunk Units (LTU s) Signaling Unit (SU) Speech Multiplex (SPMX) or Group Switch (GS) Link interface Unit (LIU) between LTG B and Switching Network (SN).

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The Line /Trunk Units (LTU s) can be connected to: Digital Line Units (DLU s) Digital Switchboards (DSB s) Other exchanges.

Depending on the application, the LTU is equipped with different modules (DIU modules interface DLU s and other exchanges, OLMD interface DSB s). The Signaling Unit (SU) provides code receivers for the generation of: Tones Frequencies for MFC signaling The speech multiplex (SPMX) is a non-blocking time stage, similar to the time stages in the switching Network. The SPMX is used if the LTG B interfaces with trunk lines. The Group Switch (GS) is used if the LTG B interface with subscriber lines. The GS also permits the implementation of conference calls. The Link Interface Unit (LIU) is the interface between the LTG B and the Switching Network(SN). Duplicates the channels to both SN planes (SN0 and SN1). Routes data received from an SN plane. Forwards commands from the coordination Processor (CP) to the Group Processor (GP) and sends messages from the GP to the CP.

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On all multiplex lines from the LTG to the SN, the time channel 0 is used for the message Exchange. The Group Processor (GP) is an independent periphery controller. Its functions are: Controlling all functional units in the LTG B. Exchanging data with the Coordination Processor (CP) and other LTG s. Self-diagnosis and safeguarding.

Line /Trunk Group C (LTG C)


As opposed to the LTG B, the Line /Trunk Group C (LTG C) is used only as an interface to other exchanges (PCM 30)

In the LTG C, as opposed to the LTG B, the LTU is used exclusively to connect inter-office trunks. Since the LTG C must provide tones and multi-frequency (MFC) signals to other exchanges, the Signaling Unit (SU) is equipped with a tone generator. The SU also contains a code receiver for the evaluation of the MFC signals. A GS is not required because the LTG C does not handle conference calls. The LTG C contains only a Speech Multiplex (SPMX). The LIU performs the same functions as in the LTG B. It is the interface between the Switching Network (SN) and the LYG. The design of the Group Processor (GP) is also basically the same for all LTG s.
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Line /Trunk Group G (LTG G)


Beginning in 1992, the LTG G / LTG G:OSS can be used instead of the LTG B or LTG C.

It provides the LTG functions: Using less modules Used in a standard module frame. The LTG G / LTG G:OSS (APS Release 6.2W) can be connected to:

Up to 4 digital trunks (PDC) for remote DLU Up to 4 primary multiplex access (PA) trunks for medium and large ISDN Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX) DLU and PA can be connected to the same LTG.

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Up to 4 (PCM30)or 5(PCM24) trunks A combination of DLU and PA is possible.

Up to 2 digital trunks of 4 M bit/s each for local DLU access.

Connections for local and remote DLU can be combined in one LTG G.

The LTG G:OSS ca be connected to maximum 40 Digital Switchboards (DSB) The LTG G consists of the following functional units: LTU up to 5 units for trunk access GSL Group Switch and interface to the SN GP Group Processor SU Signaling Unit

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The units perform the same functions as in the LTG B or LTG C.

Line /Trunk Group D (LTG D)


As the LTG C, the Line / Trunk Group D (LTG D) is used to terminate interoffice trunks. The LTG D is capable of processing international signaling systems (i.e. CCITT No.5) It contains special echo filters that allow, for example, intercontinental connections via satellite or deep-sea cable.

The functional block diagram of the LTG D differs from the LTG C shown previously. The secondary Digital Multiplex (SDMA) is one of the new functional

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unit in the LTG D.

The SDMA converts the 4X2 M bit/s speech information from the LTG D to 1X8 M bit/s for the Switching Network (SN) and vice versa. In the LTG B and LTG C this function is performed by the Speech Multiplex. However, this is not possible in the LTG D, because here the digital code receiver and / or digital echo filter functions are provided on a per-channel basis (trunk line). The functional units handling this task are integrated in the code receiver and echo suppressor frame (F:CRES) The Speech Multiplex (SPMX) in the LTG B and LTG is replaced by a Speech Multiplex Type B (SPMXB) in the LTG D. All other functional units in the LTG D are the same as in the LTG B and LTG C: LTU, GP, LIU.

Summary
The LTG s provide the interface between the digital Switching Network (8 M bit/s) and the switch environment (PCM 30, PCM 24, digital trunks, Digital Line Unit DLU). Different LTG types are available for different interface types. The LTG sends, receives and evaluates: MFC signaling on trunk lines Pushbutton dialing information Message to/from the CP and to/from the LTG and CCNC.

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CHAPTER 6 Switching Network (SN)


The actual switching process that establishing a call connection between two subscribers takes place in the hardware subsystem called Switching Network (SN)

Switching Network Overview


For safeguarding reasons, the Switching Network (SN) is always duplicated. The external interfaces of the Switching Network are the same. These are Secondary Digital Carriers (SDC s).

SN interfaces
The SN interfaces are as follows: SDC: LTG (Secondary Digital Carrier between Line /Trunk Group and Switching Network). The transmission rate is 8 M bit/s (128 channels). Time slot 0 is used only for the internal data exchange (e.g. between GP and the CP). Time slot 1-127 are used to switch voice information between subscribers. SDC: CCNC (Secondary Digital Carrier between Common Channel signaling Network Controller and Switching Network). The transmission rate is 8 M bit/s. Only signaling messages associated with the Signaling System No.7 are transmitted. SDC: TSG (Secondary Digital Carrier between Message Buffer and Switching Network). The transmission rate is 8 M bit/s (128 channels).This interface to the CP is for data exchange with the LTG s. The following is transmitted: commands from CP to the LTG s. messages from the LTG s to the CP, and reports from one LTG to the other. SDC: SGC (Secondary Digital Carrier between Message Buffer and Switch Group Control). The transmission rate is 8 M bit/s (128 channels). This interface to the CP is for data exchange with the Switch Group Control. The links transmit setup commands from the CP to the SN.

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MBU (Message Buffer Unit). It is a subsystem of the Message Buffer (MB). One MBU (MBU:SGC) is associated with the Switch Group Control (SGC), and one MBU (MBU:LTG) is associated with the Line / Trunk Group (LTG s).

Tasks of the SN functional units


The main tasks of the Time Stage Module TSM are: To switch arbitrary 4x128 incoming timeslots to 4x128 outgoing timeslots at full accessibility. To form a time space switch for incoming / outgoing stage. The main tasks of the Time Stage Group TSG are: To group 16 TSM s To form one 4 M bit/s highway (Highway 0) for the communication of GP of the connected LTG (max.63) The main task of the Space Stage part is: To switch arbitrary highways of the incoming and outgoing stage by a space switch at full accessibility and without blocking. The size of the space stage part depends on the size of the SN i.e. the number of needed TSM. The main tasks of the Switch Group Control SGC are: To convert the setup information To setup the path on the functional units at the appropriate times The main tasks of the SSM 8/15 are: To switch arbitrary 8 input highways to 15 output highways in the input stage with a space-switch at full accessibility

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To switch arbitrary 15 input highways to 8 output highways in the output stage with a space-switch at full accessibility The main tasks of the SSM 16/16 are: To switch arbitrary 16 input highways to16 output highways with a spaceswitch at full accessibility.

Switching
Next we will take a closer look at the Switching Network in a configuration for up to 63 LTG s In the SN:63LTG, the MB (MBU:LTG) and 63LTG s each are connected to one time stage (TSM 0 through TSM 15) via 128 time channels (for each direction)

The time stage is divided into: A time stage incoming TSI. A time stage outgoing TSO. A time stage switches the 8-bit code words to a different time slot and to a different multiplex line. The EWSD Switching Network is a non-blocking network. Each Time Stage Module (TSM) can access each Space Stage Module (SSM) and vice versa. A space stage switches the 8-bit code words between different incoming and outgoing paths on the multiplex lines. The time slots, however, remain the same. From the space stage outgoing data is sent back to the time stage. Note:Time Stage: The 8-bit code words (for example coded voice information) coming in to the multiplex lines are stored in the information buffer in cycles. The 8-bit code words can be switched randomly to any multiplex line and any time slot. Space Stage: As opposite to the time stage, the space stage does not change the time slot. The space stage is responsible for switching each 8-bit code word from an incoming multiplex line to a randomly selected outgoing multiplex line.

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To illustrate the switching process, the incoming and Outgoing Time Stage (TSI and TSO) are shown separately. Yet, TSI and TSO are only one physical unit within the SN.

SN Switching Example
A subscriber linked to LTG 1 is connected with a subscriber linked to LTG 62. The connection will be established via the outgoing channel 2 of TSM 0, Thus, SSM 2 is permanently assigned to input 0. The following rule applies in this case: Output TSM= Input SSM= SSM-No. TSM-No. (i.e. 2) (i.e. 0)

Thus, the output 15 is assigned to SSM 2 and the input 2 to TSM 15. The following rule applies in this case.
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Output SSM = TSM-No. (i.e.15) Input TSM = SSM-No. (i.e. 2) All connections provide receive and transmit paths (4-wire lines). In the Switching Network of the EWSD system, the same paths is used in both directions, i.e. for the opposite direction the output 2 of TSM 15 and the input 15 of SSM 2 is used. Here, the same rule as indicated above applies: Output TSM= SSM-No. (i.e. 2) Input SSM= TSM-No. (i.e.15) According to the rules described above, the following is valid for the last part of the connection: Output SSM = 0 Input TSM = 2

SN Capacity Versions
The Switching Networks are in the uniform design and expansion modules permit there application in a wide range of exchange types and sizes as follows: SN: 15 LTG SN: 63 LTG SN: 126 LTG SN: 252 LTG SN: 504 LTG Smallest Switching Network for 7500 subscribers. for 30 000 subscribers. for 60 000 subscribers. for 125 000 subscribers. for 250 000 subscribers.

Switching Network capacity version SN: 15 LTG The smallest switching network, SN: 15 LTG incorporates the following modules: Time Stage Module (TSM) Space Stage Module (SSM), with16 incoming and 16 outgoing channels Switch Group Control (SGCI) with interface to the MB (MBU: SGC). Link interface Module (LIL) between SN and LTG respectively between SN and Message Buffer Unit (MBU) Switching Network capacity version SN: 63 LTG The Switching Network SN: 63 LTG incorporates the following modules: Time Stage Module (TSM) Space Stage Module (SSM), with16 incoming and 16 outgoing channels Switch Group Control (SGC), As opposed to the SGCI in SN: 15 LTG, the SGC does not have a direct interface to the MB. Link interface Module (LIL) between SN and LTG respectively between SN and Message Buffer Unit (MBU) Link Interface Module (LIM) between SN and MB for the transmission of setup commands from the CP. Switching Network capacity versions SN: 126 LTG, SN: 252 LTG, SN: 504 LTG In Switching Network with size ranging from SN: 126 LTG and larger, the time stages and the space stages are installed in different frames. Therefore, they require separate interfaces and controls. The Time Stage Modules are combined in a Time

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Stage Group (TSG), and the Space Stage Modules are combined in a Space Stage Group (SSG) Further modules are: LIS = Internal Switching Network link, Link Interface Module between TSG and SSG (Two modules, one for TSG and one for SSG) SSM 8/15 = Space Stage Group with 8 incoming /15 outgoing or15 incoming / 8 outgoing highways.

Semi permanent connections


Semi permanent switched connections are established in the Switching Network at the initial system startup or at the startup following a system expansion. These connections are grouped in the following three categories: Category 1 Information exchange CP-LTG and LTG CP (message channel).

A semi permanent connection category 1 can not be altered. It is established with the initial load of the Application program system (APS). On all multiplex lines between LTG and SN, Channel time slot 0 is used for the message exchange (Message Channel) between LTG and CP. The 63 channels 0 coming from the LTG s occupy only every other channel of the 128 channels in the SDC: TSG. Category 2
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Common Channel signaling A semi permanent connection category 2 can be established at an operating terminal through MML (Man Machine Language) commands. Example: Inter office CCS7 Signaling

Common channel signaling for all speech channels is handled by a common signaling channel. For the signaling channel, the Switching Network provides a semi permanent connection between the LTG and the CCNC. Category 3 Services The Switching Network also provides semi permanent connections for various services (such as dedicated lines).

Standby Connections For example Switching Network capacity version SN: 126 LTG, SN: 252 LTG, SN: 504 LTG

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All connections are simultaneously setup in Both SN planes. The LTG receives information only from the active SN (for example SN0).

If a fault occurs in the active SN, the LTG addresses the standby SN. Standby connections do not interrupt the existing connections.

Summary
The Switching Network establishes a connection between two subscribers that are served by different LTG s All types and sizes of exchanges can be implemented with a uniform, modularly expandable Switching Network. The switching process is handled by time stages and space stages ensuring a minimum of internal blocking. The Switching Network provides different categories of semi permanent connections: For message channels For common channel signaling For specific services All connections are duplicated. This allows an immediate switchover to standby connections in case of failure.
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CHAPTER 7 CCNC Overview


The main function of common channel signaling is the exchange of data packets between central offices (according to CCS7specification). The mail man (Message Channel) carries the message packets to the post office (CCNC) At the post office the packages are distributed to the postal delivery cars (common signaling channels). Upon arrival at the destination post office (BCCNC), the message package is delivered to the addresses (B-LTG).

Tasks of the CCNC


These are the tasks of the CCNC: a) Receiving, sending, and storing SS7 messages b) Immediately forwarding SS7 messages that are intended for other exchanges. c) Converting EWSD-internal messages into SS7 messages and vice versa. This ensures a uniform message format within EWSD. d) Recognizing SS7 messages that are intended for the CCNC s won exchange (this is necessary in order to realize b)

CCNC Structure
Central Office as a Signaling END Point: The common signaling channel is switched semi-permanently form the LTGC through the Switching Network to the CCNC. If the exchange is a signaling destination (signaling END point), the message is forwarded to the CP and directed to the LTG which is linked to the corresponding speech channel.

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Central Office as a Signaling TRANSFER Point The CCNC recognizes if it is accessed as a Signaling TRANSFER Point. The CCNC uses the common signaling channel to forward the message to the desired signaling and point. This message transfer involves neither the CP nor the GP.

Functional units
The functional units of the CCNC are divided in three blocks: Two Master Multiplexes (MUX s) for each switching network plane up to 32 Signaling Link Terminal Groups (SILTG) (each SILTG supports a signaling channels) two Common Channel Signaling Network Processors (CCNP s)
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The common signaling channels are carried via PDC links. From the Line/Trunk Group (LTG), the signaling channels are routed through the Switching Network (SN) to the Master Multiplexes (MUXM s) The Master Multiplexers direct the signal flow to the individual SILTG s and vice versa. A maximum of 254 common signaling channels can be accommodated by the CCNC. The main functions of the Signaling Link Terminal Groups (SILTG s) are to ensure accurate signaling using the HDLC protocol, and to receive and send messages in Signaling System No. 7 format. Furthermore, the SILTG are used to: Set up the signaling link Detect the status of the signaling link Communicate with the CCNP Detect transmission errors The Common Channel Signaling Network Processors (CCNP s) are the brain of the CCNC. The CCNP perform the following functions: Converting messages into EWSD- internal format. Distinguishing whether messages are intended for this particular signaling point, or for another signaling point. Routing Messages. Managing the signaling network (e.g. recognizing blocked channels)

Summary
The CCNC is required to implement common channel signaling in compliance with the CCITT Signaling System No. 7
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CCS7 accommodates the introduction of new services, for example: Calling number identification Automatic recall of busy lines The Common Channel Signaling (CSC) provides the signaling functions for a group of speech channels in a trunk line. End-to-end connections allow a direct information exchange between the originating exchange and the terminating exchange, ever without speech channel connection. If an exchange is used a signaling TRANSFER point, the original message is forwarded to another CSC link (without involvement of the CP and GP) In the quasi-associated mode, the signaling links and the speech channels are routed separately.

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CHAPTER 8 Message Buffer (MB)


The message buffer (MB) serves as an interface adapter and transmission adapter for the internal information exchange between: The Coordination Processor (CP) The Switching Network (SN) The Line/Trunk Group (LTG s) The High-level Data Link control (HDLC) protocol is used to safeguard the data transfer. The Message Buffer (MB) is connected to the LTG s via semi-permanent paths with SDC lines. The connection to the Coordination Processor (CP) is implemented via bus system. The following types of information are sent through the MB:

Messages
Transfer messages are sent from the LTG. DLU and SN subsystems to the Coordination Processor (CP). The MB checks the HDLC message format, stores the messages and transfers them to the CP on request.

Report
Reports are sent from one LTG to another LTG. The reports are routed through the CP, but they are not processed in the CP.

Orders
Orders are sent from the CCNC to an LTG to the CCNC. Orders are routed through the CP, but they are not processed in the CP.

Commands
Commands are sent from the CP to the LTG and to the SN. The MB converts the information for transmission via SDC links and sends it to he LTG and to the SGC. The transmission channel between the LTGs and the MB is called the Message Channel . The switching Network (SN) provides a semi- permanent path for this channel.

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Note:- HDLC: The High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol ensure an accurate digital data transfer. Data is transferred in blocks. The user data is embedded in framing bits which are used to limit the user data blocks and to detect transmission errors. Acknowledgments confirm the receipt of each data block. If errors occur, the transmission is repeated.

Features
The Message buffer (MB) has the following features 1-4 Message Buffer Groups depending on the system size. Duplicated MBG units. Broadcasting connections (one source, many sinks)

Version
Two different version of the Message Buffer are currently available. The MB version is used up to and including EWSD Release 4.2.
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Each Message Buffer Group ( MBG ) includes:

A message buffer unit for line trunk group ( MBU: LTG) A message buffer unit for switch group control ( MBU : SGC) A group clock generator (GCG) A CP interface adapter

The message buffer unit (MBU LTG)

Forward messages from the CP to the LTG Receives message from the LTGs and forwards them to the CP Handles broadcasting and bus commands The message buffer unit (MBU : SGC)

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Buffers commands from the CP and forwards them to the switch group control (SGC) Buffers messages from the switching network and forwards them to the CP. The group clock generator (SCG):

Generates clock pulses and sends them to the switching network and to the functional units of the MBG Is synchronized to the master clock pulses of the central clock generator (CCG) The interface adapter converts the internal message buffer unit signals to the signal format used in the CP bus system.

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The message buffer MB(B) (for CP113, Release 4.5 and later).
The message buffer MB(B) is designed to match the processing capacity of the coordination processor CP-113 which is used in EWSD Release 4.5 and later. The MB((B) provides a very high transmission capacity, especially in the message buffer for the line trunk group (MBU : LTG).

The message buffer MB(B) accommodates a new functional unit as compared to the MB, i.e. the combined group clock generator with multiplexer (CG/MUX). The CG/MUX provides not only clock pulses, it also exchanges messages with the LTGs. The functions performed by interface adapter and the message buffer for the switching group control (MBU:SGC) are the same as in the message buffer (MB). The message buffer unit connected to the line trunk groups and to the switching network are: The MB 0 accesses only the SN 0 The MB 1 access only the SN 1

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The CP receives and transmits messages to the MB 0 and to the MB 1 an MBG can serve 2*63 LTGs. The switching network (SN) including the SGC, can also be expanded. One MBU : SGC serves those units in the switching network that are required to support up to 2*63 LTGs. In a maximum configuration (504 LTGs), 4 MBGs are required.

Central Clock Generator (CCG)


For the transfer of digital information in a network, synchronized functional sequences in all participating units are an absolute requirement. Accurate clock pulses must be provided for all exchanges within the digital network. This task is handled by the central clock generator (CCG). It synchronizes the clock generators in the functional units.

What would happen if All clock generators in an exchange failed ? If all clock generators failed, nothing would work. It wouldnt be possible to operate the exchange from the O&M center, to route speech channels, to record billing data, or to display the time at the system panel. Tones wouldnt be generated, and above all, the evaluation of dialed information wouldnt take place. The CCG is duplicated. One CCG operates as the master, the other CCG as slave. The slave is phase-locked with the master, thus ensuring a continuous clock pulse in case of failure of the master.
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Clock distribution hierarchy: The CCG is synchronized to external reference frequencies. It distributes its reference frequency: CP MB SN ClocknDistribution External (CDEX) CCNC LTG DLU PBX System The CCG consists of the following three units: CCGxxA: transfers or generates the reference frequency CCGB: amplifies the source pulse and transfers them to the MB, CP, external Clock Distribution (CDEX ) and slave CCG. CCGD: amplifies the clock pulse and transfers it to the MB.. Operation modes of the CCG: Synchronous: (accuracy 10-8 to 10-11) continuous external reference Frequencies e.g. in the national network.. Plesiochronous: (accuracy, 10 ) without continuous reference frequency Plesiochronous:(accuracy ) without external reference Frequency (the CCGxxA modules are not used). Layout of the Module Frame F: MB/CCG(B)

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System Panel (SYP)


Rapid, both way The system panel (SYP) provides a continuos overview of the operational status of an EWSD system. The SYP indicates faults visibly and audibly. It also display: The processing load of the CP The time of day, and the date The display processor load is a gauge for the traffic load handled by the EWSD system. The following alarms are displayed at the SYP: Critical alarm flashing up of two light emission diodes (LED) , accompanied by a continuous audible alarm signal. Critical alarm accepted Slow, both way flashing up of two LED without audible alarm signal. Major alarm confirmed Slow, flashing up of one LED without alarm signal.. Indication. Permanent flashing up of one LED with continuous sleeping sound. Major alarm together with indication Flashing up of a LED pair, with the right LED continuously flashing, the left one flashing rapidly, accompanied by an interrupted audible alarm signal. Major alarm together with indication confirmed Flashing up of a LED pair, with the right LED continuously flashing, the left one flashing slowly, no audible alarm signal. To turn off the audible alarm, simply depress the ACCEPT key. Up to eight System Panel Displays (SYPD) can be connected to an EWSD exchange. The SYP consists of the following functional units: System Panel Display (SYPD) System Panel Control (SYPC)

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CHAPTER 9 Coordination Processor


Individual units of the EWSD system are provided with separate controls. Due to this load sharing capacity, the EWSD is a flexible and powerful system. Which unit controls all common system procedures and coordinates the operating, safeguarding, and switching processes? It is the Coordination Processor (CP). The coordination processor performs the following tasks. Call processing tasks (such as digit translation for route selection and zoning) operation and maintenance tasks (such as creating and canceling subscriber lines) safeguarding tasks (such as fault detection, fault localization, and fault clearance). Since the introduction of the EWSD system, the following 3 types of coordination processors have been used: Type CP 103 CP 112 CP 113 FIRST APPLICATION 1981 1983 1988 CAPACITY 220 000 BHCA 60 000BHCA > 1000 000 BHCA MULTIPROCES SOR NO NO YES

In this program, you will learn about the Coordination Processor CP 113. The CP113 can be operated as a mono-or multi-processor. It consists of the following functional units:
Up to 16 processors A duplicated bus system (B:CMY) A duplicated common memory (CMY)

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The bus system (B:CMY) allows the processors to: Access the Common Memory (CMY And communicate directly with each other. Both bus system transfer the same information simultaneously to both memory banks. The Common Memory (CMY) contains: The common database for all processors and Space for non resident program codes, which can be reloaded from the magnetic disk, if necessary. The content of both memory banks is bit-identical.

In addition to the Common Memory (CMY) which is accessed by all processors, each processor has its own Local Memory (LMY). Justification: The access to the local memory banks is extremely fast, because the path via the common bus connection is avoided.

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The local banks contain: Processor-specific data And the resident program code of the processor. Caution! A processor CANNOT access data in the local memory of another processor. The 16 processors have an identical architecture, but they perform different task:
The Call Processors (CAP) handle only call processing tasks The Base Processors (BAP) handle all tasks (operation and maintenance,

safeguarding) including call processing tasks when the CAP are occupied. The input/output Controls (IOC) handle the data exchange between the CMY and the peripheral operating and call processing devices.

Each input/output Control (IOC) has its own Bus System (B:IOC) Each Bus System (B:IOC) links up to 16 input/output Processors (IOP) for call processing and peripheral operating devices. Caution! The IOC and the IOP are not responsible for evaluating and processing input messages and generating output message. The input/output Processors (IOP) are used to connect the following devices and subsystem to the CP 113;

Common Channel Signaling Network Control (CCNC) Message Buffer (MB) Central Clock Generator (CCG) System Panel (SYP) Magnetic Disk Drive (MDD)
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Magnetic Tape Drive (MTD) Operation and Maintenance systems (OMC) and (OMT)

Alarm indicators and clocks

The CP113 software and hardware configuration can be adapted to meet the requirements of an exchange. In the min, configuration, the CP113 operates with two Base Processors (BAP) The min, configuration software supports two operating modes of the CP113. Mono processor Version: In this version, one master base processor (BAPM) handles all tasks. The second Base processor (BAPS) runs a spare in a supervisory loop.

Multiprocessor Version: In this version, the BAPM and the BAPS share the tasks:; BAPM: all tasks including call processing tasks
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BAPS: only processing tasks In the maximum configuration, the CP 113 may include up to processors: Up to 10 CAP (in an EWSD system with max. configuration, the actual traffic load is handled by only 6 CAP) 2 BAP 4 IOC

In a maximum configuration, call processing tasks are performed by the CAP in configuration with the BAPS. The BAPM is mainly responsible for operating tasks. Safeguarding All important functional units are duplicated. Furthermore, access to the Common Memory (CMY) and to the local memory banks is supervised. The data is checked for consistency During read and write processes, transferred data is checked for errors Write access is monitored for address authorization All processors contain two identical microprocessors, which work in parallel. If the results of both microprocessors differ, the entire processor is completely separated form the buy system. The tasks are now handled by one of the processors designated for this purpose. If the error is just a sporadic error, the failed processor is restarted.

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CHAPTER 10 SOFTWARE
Software Architecture
To provide flexible EWSD programs that meet the real time requirements of the switching process, the software architecture is designed in a modular structure.

Software Shell Model


The Hardware is subject rapid technological changes; Therefore, the EWSD uses an Operating System with limited hardware- dependent portions and User Software, which is hardware-independent. The Operating System is responsible for: Organizational tasks e.g. memory administration Safeguarding tasks e.g. alarm treatment User Software contains: Call processing programs e.g. for digit translation Administration programs e.g. to creates new subscribers Maintenance programs e.g. for test control (diagnosis) In addition to the load able software, almost, all EWSD processors are provided with firmware. The only difference between firmware and software is that firmware stores the program code and all required data permanently in EPROMs.

Software Distribution
Two EWSD subsystems are provided with firmware only. The Message Buffer (MB) The Message Buffer does not evaluate any messages. It only distributes them. Therefore, the Message Buffer control logic can be stored as firmware.
The Switch Group Control (SGC)

The Switch Group Control can operate with firmware only, because the CP is responsible for the path selection through the Switching Network. Each Subsystem, except for the IOP:MB, is provided with its own firmware portion. The more intelligent the subsystem, the lower the firmware portion in the total software requirements. In addition to the firmware, the CP, IOP::MB, CCNC and LTG subsystems contain user-independent software. These are safeguarding and executive control programs. For complex tasks like administration of subscriber and system data, call processing and system maintenance, additional programs are required. These programs constitute the user programs in the CP, IOP:MB, GP and CCNP.
Application Program System (APS)

The combination of all load able software, operating system, user software, and databases (e.g. subscriber data) is called the Application Program System (APS)

Structure of the APS


The structure of the APS software is as follows: Firmware and Application Program System (APS) are two different things. The firmware is burnt into EPROMs. The APS, however is loaded from a tape.
Software Principles

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Using the Coordination Processor as an example, we will now describe the basic EWSD software principles.. The Operating system is mounted directly on the top of the HW. Complex and, if possible, variable operations are NOT performed by the operating system, but by the user software. The next layer above the operating system is the user software. The relationship between user software and operating system is comparable to the relationship between forebrain and small brains. The EWSD is a real time system. Since the EWSD software is interrupt. Controlled, it is able to process each request according to its urgency immediately after it has accrued . this means that tasks with higher urgency will interrupt tasks with lower urgency. Operating System

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CHAPTER 11 APS and Billing data Administration


Routine Tape Saving:
Load big tape on MTD (1) INITMT:VSN=LOGTAP, MTD=0, CD=EBC, DENS=6250; [enter] (This command is used only for first routine tape) (2) STAT LOG; [enter] (This command is used for to check that which log is ON ) (3) RESET CFOPT; [enter] (4) EXECCMD FILE: FILE=CG.SA.R11AP; [enter] (It takes may be30 Min) The above procedure is repeated for up to 5 Routine tapes.

Quarterly Tape Saving:


(1) STAT LOG ; [enter] (LOG 6 must be ON) (2) RESET CFOPT ; [enter] (3) EXECCMD FILE : FILE=CG.SA.Q11AP ; [enter] (on existing tape at MTD) (4) EXECCMD FILE : FILE=CG.SA.M11AP ; [enter] (Remove the tape and Reserve with a marking at) (Clean MTD) (load new big tape for Quartely saving) (5) RESET CFOPT ; [enter] (6) EXECCMD FILE: FILE=CG.SA.Q12AP ; [enter] (It may takes 30 Min) when the message MESSAGE on VDUappears Like this COPY GEN: OUTPUT=TAPMOD, VSN=SA1TAP, TYPE=GOLDEN, VERIFY=YES ; [enter] Then remove the tape SA1TAP and LOAD next big tape on MTD and give command (7) INITMT: VSN=SA2TAP, MTD=0,CD=EBC,DENS=6250 ; [enter] (8) MOUNT TAPE: DEV=MTD-0 ; [enter] when the message MESSAGE-A appears, then remove SA2TAP and LOAD next big tape on MTD (9) INITMT: VSN=SA2TAP, MTD=0, CD=EBC, DESN=6250 ; [enter] (10) MOUNT TAPE:DEV=MTD-0; [enter] FINISHED WITHOUT FAULTS > Remove SA3.TAP and Load The SA1TAP on MTD to transfer the data from tapes to MDD. (11) DISPGEN:VSN=SA1TAP; [enter] ( Note the figures under generation )

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(12) TRANSSYFILE:GEN=NOTED GENERATION ENTER , VSN=SA1TAP, REASON=REINST,VERIFY=Y; [enter] When the message (MESSAGE B) TRANSSYFILE:GEN=NOTED GENERATION, VSN=SA1TAP, EASON=REINST,VERIFY=Y; [enter] Please mount continuation tape to VSN=SA1TAP. Then Remove SA1TAP and Load SA2TAP on MTD. (13) MOUNTTAPE:DEV=MTD-0; [enter] When the (MESSAGE B) appears, Then remove SA2TAP and load SA3TAP. (14) MOUNTTAPE:DEV=MTD-0; [enter] PART.EXECD ATEND

Splitting Procedure of SSP.


1. 2. 3. 4. DISPGEN; [enter] STATSSP; [enter] ( BAP-0 must be SPR ) SPLITSSP:TEST=NO; [enter] (From OMT-1) Message will come on OMT- 0, Give commands from OMT- 0. FOR; [enter] . . . . ; [enter] . . MAN; [enter] . . . . IOC-0; [enter] . . . . FIGURES OF NOTED . . . . NO; [enter] . . . .
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5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

ESULT: POST PROCESSING SUCCESSFUL (MESSAGE) OPEN THE SESSION FROM OMT-O.
FROM OMT-1

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

STATSSP; [enter] DISPGEN; [enter] ( Note the blocked generation ) MODGEN:GEN=FIG.OF BLOCKED GENERATION,VALIDITY=VALID; [enter] DISPGEN; [enter] ( Now the blocked generation will be valid ) CANGEN:GEN=FIG.OF OLD GOLDEN; [enter] DISPGEN; [enter] ( Now old golden will not available ) STATSSP; [enter] MERGESSP:DIAG=NO; [enter]

Synchronization from MDD-1 to MDD-0: Running

Synchronization from MDD-1 to MDD-0: Finished

End job.

AMA Tape Saving


1. DISPFILE:FILE=1A.ICAMA,ALL=Y; [enter] ( For checking of filling capacity ) 2. TRANS BUFFER:TAPE=AMA; [enter] ( At 0000HRS ) 3. INITMT:VSN=AMA009,CD=ISO,MTD=0,DENS=6250; [enter] 4. TRANSFILE:FILE=AMA.SEP/1A.ICAMA,VSNR=AMA009; [enter]

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For confirmation 1. DISPMT: MTD=0; [enter] 2. DISPFILE:VSN=AMA009; [enter] 3. DISPCHAREC:DN=990000,DEV=MTD,VSN=AMA009,FILE=AMA.SEP; [enter] 4. REWINDMT:MTD=0; [enter] Unload Tape. For duplicate AMA Tape Load 2nd tape on MTD. 1. INITMT:VSN=AMA009,CD=ISO,MTD=0,DENS=6250; [enter] 2. TRANSFILE:FILE=AMA.SEP/1A.ICAMA,VSNR=AMA009; [enter] For confirmation confirmation process is same e.g. 1. DISPMT: MTD=0; [enter] 2. DISPFILE:VSN=AMA009; [enter] 3. DISPCHAREC:DN=990000,DEV=MTD,VSN=AMA009,FILE=AMA.SEP; [enter] 4. REWINDMT:MTD=0; [enter] Unload Tape. After billing process, Releasing of AMA file. 1. RELCYC FILE:FILE=1A.ICAMA; [enter] 2.DISP FILE:FILE=1A.ICAMA,ALL=Y; [enter]

LAMA Tape saving


1. SAVEMET; [enter] 2. EDITMET:FILE=CA.SU.CHA.09,TYPE=METSUB,FUNC=ACCOUNT,ACCMO= 09,ACC=71; [enter] 3. DISPFILE:FILE=CA.SU.CHA.09; [enter] Load tape on MTD. 4. INITMT:VSN=MET009,CD=ISO,MTD=0,DENS=6250; [enter] 5. TRANSFILE:FILE=CA.SU.CHA.09,VSNR=MET009; [enter] For confirmation 1. DISPMT:MTD=0; [enter] 2. DISPFILE:VSN=MET009; [enter] 3. DISPCHAREC:DN=990000,DEV=MTD,VSN=MET009,FILE=AMA.SEP; [enter] 4. REWINDMT:MTD=0; [enter] Unload Tape.

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For duplicate LAMA Tape Load tape on MTD. 1. INIT MT:VSN=MET009,CD=ISO,MTD=0,DENS=6250; [enter] 2. TRANS FILE:FILE=CA.SU.CHA.09,VSNR=MET009; [enter] For confirmation Confirmation process is same e.g. 1. DISPMT:MTD=0; [enter] 2. DISPFILE:VSN=MET009; [enter] 3. DISPCHAREC:DN=990000,DEV=MTD,VSN=MET009,FILE=AMA.SEP; [enter] 4. REWINDMT:MTD=0; [enter] Unload Tape.

TARIFF ADMINISTRATION
TASK:display all tariffs, zone points and tariff switch over time, which are stored in the exchange. COMMAND NEEDED: DISP TAPE [enter] DISP ZOPT [enter] DISP TARRSW [enter] COMMANDS WITH ACTUALL PARAMETER DISP TAR : ZONO = X ; [enter] DISP ZOPT : ZONO = X ; [enter] DISP TAR SW : ZONO = X ; [enter] Task:-The actual values of all subscribers charge meter should be saved on magnetic disk every day at 06:00,12:00,14:00,18:00and (00:00)oclock. There should be a minimum number of checks between these backup time. COMMANDS NEEDEDS DISP METSAV [enter] ENTR METSAV [enter] DISPMETSAVE [enter] COMMAND WITH ACTUAL PARAMETER DISPMETSAVE; [enter] ENTR METSAV:TIME=06:00&12:00&14:00&18:00&00:00,CHECK NO=9; [enter] DISPMETSAV; [enter] Task:- (a). Enter the following holidays if they are not yet stored in the exchange 13-03-2003

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(b). The first day of each year. COMMANDS NEEDEDS DISP HOLIDAY [enter] ENTR HOLIDAY [enter] CAN HOLIDAY [enter] COMMAND WITH ACTUAL PARAMETER DISP HOLIDAY ; [enter] ENTR HOLIDAY: DATE=03-03-13, WDCAT=HO; ENTR HOLIDAY: DATE=X-01-01, WDCAT=HO; holiday) ENTR HOLIDAY: DATE=X-01-01, WDCAT=HH; WEEKDAY CATEGORY (WDCAT) 1. WO= Working day 2. HO= Holiday 3. HH= Half Holiday 4. EH= Half Weekend Day 5. EF= Full Weekend Day 6. HN= Full National Holiday COMMANDS FOR CANCELATION CAN HOLIDAY: DATE=03-03-13, WDCAT=HO; CAN HOLIDAY: DATE=X-01-01, WDCAT=HO; CAN HOLIDAY: DATE=X-01-01, WDCAT=HH; [enter] [enter] [enter]

[enter] [enter] [enter]

(If full

ROUTING ADMINISTRATION
Task:- (a) Request a display showing all CODE POINT stored in the exchange. (b) Request a display of all TRUNKS, TRUNK GROUPS and ROUTE to destination are route created. COMMANDS NEEDED 1. DISP CPT [enter] 2. DISP TRUNK [enter] 3. DISP GRP [enter] 4. DISP ROUTE [enter] COMMANDS WITH ACTUAL PARAMETER 1. DISPCPT:DEST=X, CODE=X; [enter] 2. DISPTRUNK: TGNO=X, OPMODE=OG; [enter] 3. DISPTRUNK: TGNO=X,, OMPMODE=BW; [enter] 4. DISPTRUNK: TGNO=X, OPMODE=BW; [enter] 5. DISPROUTE:DEST=TSHR; [enter] Task:(a) Request a display of status of all trunks.

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(b)

Request a display of he status of all outgoing trunks of the exchange (DESTTGNO) while you perform a call to subscriber. COMMAND NEEDED:1. STAT TRUNKS; [enter] COMMAND WITH ACTUAL PARAMETER:1. STATTRUNKS: TGNO=ORTSL;[ enter] Task:(a) The trunk group ORTSL is suspected to have a so called KILLER TRUNK (b) Start the appropriate type of trunk group MONITORING for MAINTENANCE purpose. (c) Discuss the mean holding time threshold value. COMMAND NEEDED 1. DISPTMCNTL;[enter] 2. ENTRMENT; [enter] COMMAND WITH ACTUAL PARAMETER:1. DISPTMCNTL: TGNO=ORTSL;[enter] 2. ENTRTMCNT: TGNO=ORTSL, KILLTHR==0..240;[enter] Task:(a) Trunk group ORTSL block for maintenance (b) Blocking will be cancelled after GCOS, data for sequential back word searching for on idle trunk has been entered for this trunk group. (c) Perform a call and check whatever the search for on idle trunk has been done sequential back word (d) Restored the same. COMMANDS NEEDED:1. DISPTGRP; [enter] 2. ENTRTGDAT; [enter] 3. CANTGDAT; [enter] COMMANDS WITH ACTUAL PARAMETERS:1. DISPTGRP: TGNO=ORSTL; [enter] 2. ENTRTGDAT: TGNO=ORSTL, BLK=ADMIN; [enter] 3. ENTRTGDAT: TGNO=ORSTL, GCOS=SEQBKWD; [enter] 4. CANTGDAT: TGNO=ORSTL, BLK=ADMIN; [enter] 5. ENTRTGDAT: TGNO=ORSTL, BLK=ADMIN; [enter] 6. ENTRTGDAT: TGNO=ORSTL, GCOS=SEQSRCH; [enter] Task:(a) Cancel the code points which leads to the destinations RTTS. (b) Divert all calls to a pre-recorded announcement. (c) Re-create the CPT. COMMANDS NEEDED:72

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CRDEST; CRTGRP; CRROUTE; CRZOPT; CRTRUNK; CRCPT;

[enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter] [enter]

CANCELATION:.1. CANCPT; 2. CANROUTE; 3. CANZOPT; 4. ENTRTRDAT; 5. CANTRUNK; 6. CANTGRP; 7. CANDEST;

COMMANDS WITH ACTUAL PARAMETERS:1. CREDEST: DEST=RTTS; [enter] 2. CRTGRP: TGNO=ORTSL, OPMODE=OG, GCOS=PULSDIAL&NONSEQ; [enter] 3. CRROUTE: DEST=RTTS, TGNO=ORTSL, ROUTE=1; [enter] 4 CRZOPT: CODE=66, ZONO=101, BILLING=METERING, SUCHCNTR=CNTRI, SUCHCNTR=CNTR3; [enter] 5. CRTRUNK: TGNO=ORTSL, EQN=0-02-1-03, LNO=1, LCOS=DIGSIG1; [enter] 6. CRCPT: CODE=66,DEST=RTTS, INCEPT=UNOBDEO; [enter]

73