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1

1.

, , ,
.
,
. .
:
n

H ( X ) = p ( xi )log 2 p( xi ) = M [ log 2 p( x)] ,


i =1

x1, x2, xi,, xn X, p(x1), (x1), , p(xi),,


n

p(xn) ,

p( xi ) = 1 ,
i =1

p ( xi ) =

ni
, i = 1, 2, , n,
n

ni = n(xi) X xi
xi.
:
1. , ;
2. , -

, .. 1;
3. , -

, ..
;
4. 0 1 0,

0,
0.5.
1

, X Y:
X = (x1, , xi, , xn ), Y = (y1, , yj, , ym ).

P(X, Y) = [p(xi, yj)]n m=[pij]n m:
p11
p
P ( X , Y ) = 21
...

pn1

p12
p22
...
pn 2

p1m
p2m .

...

pnm

...
...
...
...

:
n

H ( X , Y ) = p( xi , y j )log 2 p ( xi , y j ) = M [ log 2 p( xi , y j ] .
i =1 j =1

X Y
:
H(X, Y) = H(X) + H(Y)
X Y
H(Y/xi) Y xi:
m

H (Y / xi ) = M [ log 2 p (Y / xi )] = p ( y j / xi ) log 2 p ( y j / xi ) ,
j =1

p(xi/yj) , :
p( y1 / x1 )
p( y / x )
2
1
P (Y / X ) =

...

p( y m / x1 )

p ( y1 / x2 )
p ( y 2 / x2 )
...
p ( y m / x2 )

...
...
...
...

p( y1 / xn )
p ( y 2 / xn )
.

...

p ( y m / xn )

H(X/yj)
X yj:
n

H ( X / y j ) = M [ log 2 p ( X / y j )] = p( xi / y j ) log 2 p( xi / y j ) ,
i =1

p(yj/xi) , :

p( x1 / y1 )
p( x / y )
2
1
P( X / Y ) =

...

p ( xn / y m )

p ( x1 / y 2 )
p ( x2 / y 2 )
...
p ( xn / y 2 )

...
...
...
...

p( x1 / y m )
p ( x2 / y m )
.

...

p ( xn / y m )

xi
p(xi),
Y X:
n

H (Y / X ) = p( xi ) H (Y / xi ) ,
i =1

n m

H (Y / X ) = p ( xi ) p( y j / xi ) log 2 p( y j / xi ) ,
i =1 j =1

n m

H (Y / X ) = p ( xi , y j ) log 2 p( y j / xi ) .
i =1 j =1

X
Y:
m

H ( X / Y ) = p( y j ) H ( X / y j ) ,
j =1

H ( X / Y ) = p( y j ) p( xi / y j ) log 2 p( xi / y j ) ,
j =1 i =1
m

H ( X / Y ) = p( xi , y j ) log 2 p ( xi / y j ) .
j =1 i =1

X Y
:
H(X, Y) = H(X) + H(Y/X) = H(Y) + H(X/Y).
.
:
H(X, Y) H(Y) + H(X).
-
:
,
3

. X
:
I(X) = H1(X) H2(X),
H1(X) , H2(X)
. , ..
H2(X) = 0,
:
I(X) = H1(X),
.. ,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
,

.
,

,

Q = k l ,

, k
.
,
.
Y, - . X
Y - , :
1) X;
2) X Y.
4

, X
Y, :
IYX = H(X) H(X/Y) = H(X) + H(Y) H(X, Y),
H(X) X ( ),
H(X/Y) () X (
) Y, H(Y) Y,
H(X, Y) X Y. IYX
X, Y. ,
,
:
H(X) H(X/Y) = H(Y) H(Y/X).
IYX = IXY = IYX. IYX

X Y.
. X Y:
X = bbcabaabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadadad,
Y = ccabacabbacbbaccabcabbaccbbddadadab,
A = {a, b, c, d}. :
1. X Y;
2. X Y;
3. X Y, ,

;
4. X Y;
5. X Y;
6. X Y;
7. X Y, ,
A .

.
1. X Y
(
, 1):

X
Y
X
Y

a
11
11
0.314
0.314

b
12
11
0.343
0.314

c
7
9
0.2
0.257

d
5
4
0.143
0.115

35
35
1
1

2. .:
n

i =1

j =1

H ( X ) = p( xi )log 2 p( xi ) = 1.919 , H (Y ) = p( y j )log 2 p( y j ) = 1.912 .


3.
:
p ( xi / y j ) =

n( xi / y j )
n( y j )

, p ( y j / xi ) =

n( y j / xi )
n( xi )

, i = 1, 2, , n, j = 1, 2, , m,

n(xi/yj) xi X, , Y
yj, n(yj) yj Y,
n(yj/xi) yj Y, , X
xi, n(xi) xi X.

n(x1=a/yj)
n(x2=b/yj)
n(x3=c/yj)
n(x4=d/yj)
n(yj)

y1 = a
6
2
3
0
11

y2 = b
3
7
0
1
11

y3 = c
2
3
4
0
9

y4 = d
0
0
0
4
4

n(xi)
11
12
7
5

n(y1=a/xi)
n(y2=b/xi)
n(y3=c/xi)

x1 = a
6
3
2

x2 = b
2
7
3

x3 = c
3
0
4

x4 = d
0
1
0

n(yj)
11
11
9
6

n(y4=d/xi)
n(xi)

0
11

0
12

0
7

4
5

y1 = a
0.545
0.182
0.273
0

y2 = b
0.273
0.636
0
0.091

y3 = c
0.223
0.333
0.444
0

y4 = d
0
0
0
1

p ( xi / y j )

p(y1=a/xi)
p(y2=b/xi)
p(y3=c/xi)
p(y4=d/xi)

y1 = a
0.545
0.273
0.182
0

y2 = b
0.167
0.583
0.25
0

y3 = c
0.429
0
0.571
0

y4 = d
0
0.2
0
0.8

p(x1=a/yj)
p(x2=b/yj)
p(x3=c/yj)
p(x4=d/yj)
n

i =1

p( y j / xi )
j =1

H ( X / Y ) = p( y j ) p( xi / y j ) log 2 p( xi / y j ) ,
j =1 i =1
n m

H (Y / X ) = p ( xi ) p( y j / xi ) log 2 p( y j / xi )
i =1 j =1

H(X/Y) = 1.234, H(Y/X) = 1.226.


4. :
H(X, Y) = H(X) + H(Y) = 3.831.
5. :
H(X, Y) = H(X) + H(Y/X) = H(Y) + H(X/Y) = 3.15.
6. :
IYX = H(X) H(X/Y) = H(Y) H(Y/X) = 0.69.
7. :
Q(X) = 35 2 = 70 , Q(Y) = 35 2 = 70 .
7

2.
1.

.
2. .
3.

.
4.
.
5. .
6. .
3.
1. ?
2. ?
3. () ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
6. ?
7.
?
8. ?
9.
?
10.
?
4.

1. H(p) = plog2p.
0 1 0.05.
2. .
3.
( ) .
4. 1 X Y ,
A = {a, b, c, d}, :
4.1. X Y;
4.2. X Y;
4.3. X Y, ,

;
4.4. X Y;
4.5. X Y;
4.6. X Y;
4.7. X Y, ,
A .

1
X Y

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

abcaaaabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadadaa
bcabbcdabacbbacbbddcbbaccbbdbdadaac
aaabacabbacbbaccabcabbaccbbddadadaa
abcaaaaabbacbaacccabaccbbaccbbddadd
aaddaddabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadada
cccaddabbbaccaabcaaaabacabbacbbacbb
dbdaadabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadadac
bbbbbaabacabbacbbaccbbacdbbddadadac

acabacabbacbbaccabcabbaccbbddadadaa
cacaddabbbaccaabcaaaabacabbacbbacbb
aaddabbabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadada
bcabbcdbabbbacbbddcbbaccbbdbdadaacd
dbbcadabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadadac
bcccbbaabacabbacbbaccbbacdbbddadada
abcaaaaabbacbaacccabadddbaccbbddadd
dddaadabbbabbacbbaccbbadcaaddad-

9 aacabaaaacdbbacbddccbbaccbbddadadbb
dddaadabbbabbacbbaccbbaccbbddad10

ddaa
bcccccbacabbacbbadaaaaaaaabddadadcc
bbbbbbbbabbacddacdbbaccbbadadad-

ddaa
abcccccbacabbacbbaddbdaccbbddadadcc
abcbbbbbacabbacddacdbbaccbbadadaddd

ddaa
abcaaaabacabbacbbaccbbaccbbddadadaa
aacabaaaacdbbacbddccbbaccbbddadadbb

11
12

10

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