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HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE FORMULA

P = 20 x k x s x t / D

(bar)

P = internal unites pressure (bar)


S = minimum yield strength (MPa)
D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
t = wall thickness of pipe (mm)
k = the percentage of yield strength included in the calculation
k values acc. to API 5L
For Grade A and B
k=0,60
For Grade X42-X80
Outside diameter <5 9/16 inch
k=0,60
Outside diameter 6 5/8 -8 5/8 inchk=0,75
Outside diameter 10 3/4 -18 inchk=0,85
Outside diameter >20 inch
k=0,90
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESIGN PRESSURE AND WALL THICKNESS
Pdesign = 2 x S x t x F x L x J x T / D (CSA Z662-03)
Pdesign = 2 x S x t x F x J x T / D (ASME B31.8)
Pdesign = 2 x S x t x F x J / D (ASME B31.4)
Pdesign = pipeline design pressure (psi)
S = minimum yield strength (psi)
D = pipeline outside diameter of pipe (inches)
t = wall thickness of pipe (inches)
F = design factor
L = location factor
J = longitudinal joint factor
T = temperature derating factor
CSA = The Canadian Standards Association
ASME = American National Standard Institute

The design factor (F) Gas


Application
General
Roads
Railways,
Station

Class1
0,80
0,60
0,50
0,50

CSA Z662-03
FxL
Class2 Class3
0,72
0,56
0,50
0,50
0,50
0,50
0,50
0,50

Class4
0,44
0,40
0,40
0,40

ASME B31.8-B31.4
F
Class1 Class2 Class3 Class4
0,80
0,60
0,50
0,40
0,60
0,50
0,50
0,40
0,60
0,50
0,50
0,40
0,50
0,50
0,50
0,40

The location factor (L)

Class
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4

Area
Terkedilmi
dizayn faktr
ehir
ehir (youn nfuslu)

General
L=1,00
L=0,90
L=0,70
L=0,55

ASME
L=0,72
L=0,60
L=0,50
L=0,40

The longitudinal joint factor (J)

Pipe Type

CSA Z662-03

Seamless
Electric Welded
Submerged arc Welded
Spiral Welded
Butt Welded

CSA
L=0,80
L=0,72
L=0,56
L=0,44

1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,60

ASME B31.8
ASME B31.4
1,00
1,00
1,00
0,80
0,60

Temperature derating factor (T)

Temperature
(C)
>120
150
180
200
130
>30
<120

CSA Z662-03
ASME B31.8
1,00
0,97
0,93
0,91
0,87

ASME B31.4

1,00
1,00

WEIGHT CALCULATION OF PIPE


W = 0,02466 x (D-t) x t

(kg/m)

W = unit weight of pipe kg/m


D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
t = wall thickness of pipe (mm)

UNIT SURFACE AREA OF PIPE


A = D x x 10-3

(m2/m)

A = unit surface area of pipe m/m


D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
HELIX ANGLE OF PIPE PRODUCTION
Cos = B / D x

(degree)

B = width of coil kg/m


D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
PRODUCTION TIME FOR 1 M. PIPE
T = 1 / Cos x V
T : production time (min)
: helix angle of production
V: Welding speed (m/min) (m/dak)
API 5L PSL 2 CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT AND PRODUCT ANALYSES BY PERCENTAGE OF WEIGHT,

Carbon

Manganese

Phosphorus

Sulfur

Titanium

Maximuma
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.22

Maximuma
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.40
1.45
1.65
1.85

Maximum
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025

Maximum
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015

Maximum
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.06

Grade
B
X42
X46,X52,X56
X60f
X65f
X70f
X80f
a

d,e
c,d
c,d
c,d
c,d
c,d
c,d

For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.05% above the specified max-imum manganese content is permissible, up to a maximum
of 1.50% for Grades X42 through X52, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades higher than X52 but less than X70, and up to 2.00% for Grades X70 and higher.

c
d
e

Other

Columbium [niobium], vanadium, titanium, or combinations thereof may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer.
The sum of the columbium [niobium], vanadium, and titanium contents shall not exceed 0.15%.
The sum of the columbium [niobium], vanadium and titanium contents shall not exceed 0.06% except that, by agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer, an alternative
maximum may be established.
Other chemical compositions may be furnished by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer, providing that the limits of Footnote d, and the tabular limits for phosphorus and
sulfur are met.

CALCULATION OF CARBON EQUIVALENT,

For PSL 2 pipe, carbon equivalent (CE) calculations shall be based on the product analyses and shall be calculated as follows. All carbon equivalent
results shall be reported:
a. When the carbon content is less than or equal to 0.12%, the carbon equivalent shall be calculated using the following formula for CE(Pcm):

If the heat analysis indicates a boron content less than0.001%, then the product analysis need not include boron, and the boron content can be
considered as zero for the CE(Pcm) calculation.
b. When the carbon content is greater than 0.12%, the carbon equivalent shall be calculated using the following formula for CE(IIW)

MAXIMUM CARBON EQUIVALENT,

The carbon equivalent shall not exceed the following:


a. For Grade X80 pipe, for all grades of seamless pipe having a specified wall thickness greater than 0.800 in. (20.3 mm) and for pipe designated by
the purchaser as high carbon equivalent pipe, the value agreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
b. For pipe not covered in Item a above, a CE(Pcm) of 0.25%or a CE(IIW) of 0.43%, whichever is applicable.
Note 1: The CE(Pcm) formula for low carbon steel is commonlyc alled the Ito-Bessyo formula. CE (Pcm) is in fact the chemical portion of the full formula. Reference: Y.
Ito & K. Bessyo, Weldability Formula of High Strength Steels Related to Heat Affected Zone Cracking, Journal of Japanese Welding Society, 1968, 37, (9), 938.
Note 2: The CE(IIW) formula is commonly called the IIW [International Institute of Welding] formula. Reference: Technical Report,1967, IIW doc. IX-535-67.
TENSILE REQUIREMENTS FOR API 5L PSL 2
Yield Strength
Grade

Ultimate Tensile Strength

minimum
psi
Mpa
35,000
(241)

maksimum
psi
Mpa
65,000d
(448)

minimum
psi
Mpa
60,000
(414)

maksimum
psi
Mpa
110,000
(758)

X42

42,000

(290)

72,000

(496)

60,000

(414)

110,000

(758)

X46

46,000

(317)

76,000

(524)

63,000

(434)

110,000

(758)

X52

52,000

(359)

77,000

(531)

66,000

(455)

110,000

(758)

X56

56,000

(386)

79,000

(544)

71,000

(490)

110,000

(758)

X60

60,000

(414)

82,000

(565)

75,000

(517)

110,000

(758)

X65

65,000

(448)

87,000

(600)

77,000

(531)

110,000

(758)

X70

70,000

(483)

90,000

(621)

82,000

(565)

110,000

(758)

X80

80,000

(552)

100,000

(690)

90,000

(621)

120,000

(827)

TOLERANCES FOR DIAMETER OF PIPE BODY FOR API 5L

Size

Tolerancea (with respect to specified outside diameter)

< 2 3/8

+ 0.016 in. - 0.031 in. (+ 0.41mm, - 0.79 mm)

2 3/8 and, ve 4 , continuous welded

%1.00

> 2 3/8 and <20

% 0.75

> 20, seamless

% 1.00

> 20 ve < 36, welded

+ %0.75, - % 0.25

> 36, welded

+ in. - 1/8 in. (+ 6.35 mm, - 3.20 mm)

In the case of pipe hydrostatically tested to pressures in excess of standard test pressures, other tolerances may be agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser

TOLERANCE FOR DIAMETER AT PIPE ENDS FOR API 5L

Size

Minus Tolerance

Plus Tolerance

End-to-End
Tolerance

Diameter, Axis Tolerance (Percent


of Specified OD)a

Out-of-Roundness
Maximum Differential Between Minimum and Maximum
Diameters (Applies Only to Pipe With D/t 75)

<10

1/64(0.40 mm)

1/16 (1.59 mm)

>10 ve <20

1/32 (0.79 mm)

3/32 (2.38 mm)

>20 ve <42

1/32 (0.79 mm)

3/32 (2.38 mm)

1%

< 0.500 in. (12.7 mm)

> 42

1/32 (0.79 mm)

3/32 (2.38 mm)

1%

< 0.625 in. (15.9 mm)

a
b

Out-of-roundness tolerances apply to maximum and minimum diameters as measured with a bar gage, caliper, or device measuring actual maximum and minimum diameters.
The average diameter (as measured with a diameter tape) of one end of pipe shall not differ by more than 3/32 in. (2.38 mm) from that of the other end.

TOLERANCES FOR WALL THICKNESS FOR API 5L

Tolerancea (Percent of Specified Wall Thickness)

Size

Type of Pipe

Grade B or Lower

Grade X42 or Higher

< 2 7/8

All

+ 20.0, - 12.5

+ 15.0, - 12.5

> 2 7/8 ve <20

All

+ 15.0, - 12.5

+ 15.0, - 12.5

>20

Welded

+ 17.5, - 12.5

+ 19.5, - 8.0

> 20

Seamless

+ 15.0, - 12.5

+ 17.5, - 10.0

Where negative tolerances smaller than those listed are specified by the purchaser, the positive tolerance shall be increased to the applicable total
tolerance range in percent less the wall thickness negative tolerance.

EN 10025:2004 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR FLAT AND LONG PRODUCTS


Designation,
EN 10027-1

EN
10027-2

and
ECISS 10

Old Standard
Deoxidation

Subgroup

Minimum Yield Strength ReH in N/mm

Tensile Strength Rm in N/mm

Nominal Thickness mm

Nominal Thickness mm

EN 10025
(1993)

DIN 17006

S235JRG2

St 37-2

BS

235

225

215

215

215

195

185

175

St 37-3

QS

235

225

215

215

215

195

185

QS

235

225

215

215

215

195

185

16 >16 >40 >63

>80

>100 >150 >200

<3

>100

>150

100

150

250

360-510

360-510

350-500

340-490

175

360-510

360-510

350-500

340-490

175

360-510

360-510

350-500

340-490

40 63 80 100 150 200 250

S235JR

1.0038

FN

S235JO

1.0114

FN

S235JO

S235J2

1.0117

FF

S235J2G3/G4

S275JR

1.0044

FN

S275JRG2

St 44-2

BS

275

265

255

245

235

225

215

205

430-580

410-580

400-540

380-540

S275JO

1.0143

FN

S275JO

St 44-3

QS

275

265

255

245

235

225

215

205

430-580

410-580

400-540

380-540

S275J2

1.0145

FF

S275J2 G3/G4

QS

275

265

255

245

235

225

215

205

430-580

410-580

400-540

380-540

S355JR

1.0045

FN

S355JR

BS

355

345

335

325

315

295

285

275

510-680

470-630

450-600

450-600

S355JO

1.0553

FN

S355JO

QS

355

345

335

325

315

295

285

275

510-680

470-630

450-600

450-600

S355J2

1.0577

FF

S355J2G3/G4

QS

355

345

335

325

315

295

285

275

510-680

470-630

450-600

450-600

S355K2

1.0596

FF

S355K2G3/G4

QS

355

345

335

325

315

295

285

275

510-680

470-630

450-600

450-600

S450JO

1.0590

QS

BS

295

285

275

265

255

255

245

225

490-660

550-720

450-600

450-600

Impact Energy,

St 52-3

QS
Test Temperature,

27J

40 J

60 J

JR

KR

LR

+ 20

JO

KO

LO

J2

K2

L2

- 20

EN 10025 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE PRODUCT ANALYSIS FOR FLAT AND LONG PRODUCTS,
Designation,
EN 10027-1
and

Deoxidation

EN 10027-2

Subgroup

C in % max. for nominal


thickness in mm
16

ECISS 10

>16

>40

Si %
max

Mn %
max

P%
max

S%
max

N%
max

Cu %
max

40

S235JR

1.0038

FN

BS

0.19

0.19

0.23

1.50

0.045

0.045

0.014

0.60

S235JO

1.0114

FN

QS

0.19

0.19

0.19

1.50

0.040

0.040

0.014

0.60

S235J2

1.0117

FF

QS

0.19

0.19

0.19

1.50

0.035

0.035

S275 JR

1.0044

FN

BS

0.24

0.24

0.25

1.60

0.045

0.045

0.014

0.60

S275 JO

1.0143

FN

QS

0.21

0.21

0.21

1.60

0.040

0.040

0.014

0.60

S275 J2

1.0145

FF

QS

0.21

0.21

0.21

1.60

0.035

0.035

0.60

S355JR

1.0045

FN

BS

0.27

0.27

0.27

0.60

1.70

0.045

0.045

0.014

0.60

S355JO

1.0553

FN

QS

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.60

1.70

0.040

0.040

0.014

0.60

S355J2

1.0577

FF

QS

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.60

1.70

0.035

0.035

0.60

S355K2

1.0596

FF

QS

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.60

1.70

0.035

0.035

S450JO

1.0590

FF

QS

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.60

1.60

0.040

0.040

0.027

0.60

EN 10217-1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR STEEL PIPES

Designation

Max. Yield Strength ReH in MPa

Tensile Strength Rm in MPa

Nominal Thickness,

Nominal Thickness,

EN
10027-2

16

>16

<3

40

Elongation

Impact Strength,

Amin %
Longitudinal
Transverse
boyuna
enine
27
25

KV J

P195TR1

1.0107

195

185

320-440

P195TR2

1.0108

195

185

320-440

27

25

P235TR1

1.0254

235

225

360-500

25

23

P235TR2

1.0255

235

225

360-500

25

23

P265TR1

1.0258

265

255

410-570

21

19

P265TR2

1.0259

265

255

410-570

21

19

-10

40

28

27

40

28

27

40

28

27

EN 10217-1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE PRODUCT ANALYSIS

Designation,

EN
10027-2

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

Ni

Al

Cu

Nb

Ti

Cr+Cu+Mo+Ni

Ksa
Gsterili
P195TR1

1.0107

0.13 0.35 0.70 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30

0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

P195TR2

1.0108

0.13 0.35 0.70 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30 0.02 0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

P235TR1

1.0254

0.16 0.35 1.20 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30

0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

P235TR2

1.0255

0.16 0.35 1.20 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30 0.02 0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

P265TR1

1.0258

1.20 0.40 1.40 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30

0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

P265TR2

1.0259

0.20 0.40 1.40 0.025 0.020

0.30

0.08

0.30 0.02 0.30 0.010 0.04

0.02

0.70

TOLERANCE OF DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS FOR EN 10217-1


Size

Wall thickness, Et kalnl *

Outside Diameter

T5
% 1 or, veya 0.5
Which one greater,
% 10 or, veya 0.3
hangisi bykse
Which one greater,
% 0.75 or, veya 6
hangisi bykse
Which one smaller,
hangisi kkse
* Not included weld area for plus tolerance.

D219.1

D>219.1

WELDING WIRES, Kaynak telleri


Asfil
EN 756 (TS 5387)
S1
S1 (S 38 2 AB S1 flux 860)
S2
S2 (S 35 2 AB S2 flux 860)
S2 Si
S2 Si (S 46 2 MS S2Si flux 761)
S2 Mo
S2 Mo (S 46 4 AB S2Mo flux 223)

EN 756

46

AB

S2Mo

5<T40
% 8 or, veya 2
Which one smaller,
hangisi kkse

AWS A5.17
EL 12
EM 12
EM 12K
--

(S2Mo)
Chemical analysis of wire electrode

Flux Typei (Aluminate Basic)

AWS A5.23
---EA 2

Flux,
Toz
Manganese-Silica
Calcium- Silica
Zircon-Silica
Rutile -Silica
Aluminate-Rutile
Aluminate-Basic
Aluminate-Silica
Aluminate-FluorideBasic
Fluoride-Basic
Other-Types, Dier
Tipler

Sembol,
Symbol
MS
CS
ZS
RS
AR
AB
AS
AF
FB
Z

Charpy Impact Energy,-40C, 47J

Tensile strength
SAW wire-flux combination

Standard name and number,

WELDING FLUX, Kaynak tozu


EN 760

AB

67

AC H5

(P223)
Hydrogen for 100 gr welding metal

Current type (alternating current)

Metallurgical values (Si-6, Mn-7)


Class

Flux type (Aluminate-Basic)

Flux production type (F,A,M)

Standard name and number

Surface Preparation Standards


There are several National and International Standards which define the visual assessment of surface cleanliness of steel before application of paint
and related products.
The equivalence of the Standards is summarized in the following table:
9

White Metal
Near White Metal
Commercial Blast
Brush-Off Blast

ISO 8501-1 (1988)


BS 7079:A1 (1988)

Swedish Standard
SIS055900 (1967)

SSPC
(1982)

NACE

Sa 3

Sa 3

SP5

Sa 2.5

Sa 2.5

SP10

Sa 2

Sa 2

SP6

Sa 1

Sa 1

SP7

SURFACE PROFILE AND ABRASIVE SELECTION


Reference Comparator G and S to ISO 8503-1 are available for the visual assessment of grit&shot blasted surfaces.
Grit blasted Surfaces
Comparator G
Segment
Surface
Tolerance

Profile
1
25
3
2
60
10
3
100
15
4
150
20

Shot blasted Surfaces


Comparator S
Segment
Surface
Tolerance

Profile
1
25
3
2
40
5
3
70
10
4
150
15

RANGES OF PROFILE GRADINGS


Comparator G
Fine(G)
Medium (G)
Coarse (G)

Comparator S
Fine (S)
Medium (S)
Coarse (S)

Remarks
1 Segment > 2
2 Segment > 3
3 Segment > 4

Further detailed information relating to surface preparation may be obtained from the relevant specifications listed as follows:
1. International Standard ISO 8501-1:1988 Specification for rust grades of uncoated steel substrates and of steel substrates after overall
removal of previous coating (BS 7079:Part A1:1994).
2. International Standard ISO 8503-2:1988 Method for the grading of surface profile of abrasive blast-cleaned steel. Comparator Procedure
(BS 7079:Part C2:1989).
10

3. Swedish Standard SIS O5 59 00 (1967) - Pictorial Surface Preparation Standards for Painting Steel Surfaces
4. Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) Volume 2 Systems & Specifications.

ISO 11124-3 SIZE GRADING FOR STEEL GRIT


Product
Size (mm)
G12
1.7 -2.4
G14
1.4 -2.0
G16
1.2 -1.7
G18
1.0 -1.4
G25

% : min & max cumulative percentages allowed on corresponding sieves


80%
min

0%

90%
min
80%
min

0%

90%
min
75%
min

0%

85%
min
75%
min

0%
0%

85%
min
70%

80%

11

0.71 -1.2

min

G40

min
70%
min

0%

0.42 -1.0
G50

80%
min
65%
min

0%

0.3 -0.71
G80

0%

1.00

35

40

45

50

80

120
0.125

1.18

30

0.18

1.40

25

0.30

1.70

20

0.355

18

0.425

16

75%
min

0.50

14

65%
min

0.60

12

0.71

10

0.85

2.00

Aperture

7
2.80

SAE Sieve
No

2.36

0.18 -0.42

75%
min

ISO 11124-3 SIZE GRADING FOR STEEL SHOT


Product
Size (mm)
S780
2.0 -2.8
S660
1.7 -2.4

% : min & max cumulative percentages allowed on corresponding sieves


0%

85%
min
0%

85%
min

S550
1.4 -2.0

0%

S460
1.2 -1.7

0%

S390
1.0 -1.4

97%mi
n
97%
min
85%
min
5%
max
0%

97%
min
85%
min

5%
max

96%
min
85%
min

96%
min

12

S330
0.85 -1.2

0%

S280
0.71 -1.0

5%
max
0%

S230
0.6 0 0.85

85%
min
5%
max
0%

S170
0.42 -0.71

96%
min
85%
min

10%
max
0%

96%
min
85%
min

97%
min

10%
max

S110
0.3 -0.5

85%
min
0%

97%
min

10%
max

SAE Sieve
No

10

12

14

16

18

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

80

120

Aperture

1.40

1.18

1.00

0.85

0.71

0.60

0.50

0.425

0.355

0.30

0.18

0.125

90%
min

1.70

80%
min

2.00

10%
max

2.36

0%

90%
min

2.80

S70
0.18 -0.35

80%
min

SURFACE ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS


Parameters Defined in ASME B46.1
Ra
Arithmetic Average Deviation of the Assessed Profile
Rq
Root Mean Square Deviation of the Assessed Profile
Rp
Maximum Profile Peak Height
Rz
Average Maximum Height of the Profile
Rmax Maximum Roughness Depth

Corresponding Parameters in ISO 4287,


Ra
Rq
Rp
Ry
---

13

LENGTH EQUIVALENTS
Convert,
Meters
Inches
Feet
Millimeters
Miles
Kilometers

Meters

Inches

Feet

Millimeters

Miles

1
39,37
3,208
1.000
0,0006214
0,0254
1
0,0833
25,4
0,00001578
0,3048
12
1
304,8
0,0001894
0,001
0,03937
0,0032808
1
0,0000006214
1.609,35
63,360
5,280
1.609.350
1
1.000
39,370
3280,83
1.000.000
0,62137
1 Meter = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 0,001 km = 1.000.000 micrometers

Square
Kilometers
0,001
0,0000254
0,0003048
0,000001
1,60935
1

14

AREA EQUIVALENTS
Convert,
evrim
Square Meters
Square Inches
Square Feet
Square Miles
Square Kilometers

Square
Square
Square
Square Feet
Square Miles
Meters
Inches
Kilometers
1
1549.99
10.7639
3.861 x 10-7
1 x 10-6
-3
-6
0,0006452
1
6.944 x 10
2.491 x
6,452 x 10-10
-6
0,0929
144
1
3.587 x
9,29 x 10-8
2 589 999
27.878,400
1
2,59
1 000 000
10.763,867
0.3861
1
1 Square Meters = 10 000 Square Centimeters
1 Square Millimeter = 0,01 Square Centimeter=0.00155 Square Inches

CONVERSION FACTORS FOR WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


U.S. METRIC
Pounds (Avoirdupois)
Tons (2000 pounds)
Tons (2240 pounds)
Inches
Inches
Feet
Square Inches
Square Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Feet
Pounds per Foot
Ounces per Square Foot
Ounces per Square Foot
Pounds per Square Inch
Pounds per Square Inch
Pounds per Square Foot
Pounds per Cubic Foot

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Kilograms
Metric Tons
Metric Tons
Centimeters
Millimeters
Meters
Square Centimeters

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

0.45359 = Kilograms
0.90718 = Metric Tons
1.01605 = Metric Tons
2.54001 = Centimeters
25.4001 = Millimeters
0.304801 = Meters
6.45163 = Square Centimeters
0.0929 = Square Meters
16.38716 = Cubic Centimeters
0.02832 = Cubic Meters
1.48816 = Kilos per Meter
0.030515 = Grams per Square Centimeter
305.15 = Grams per Square Meter
0.07031 = Kilograms per Square Centimeter
0.0007031 = Kilograms per Square Millimeter
4.88241 = Kilograms per Square Meter
16.01837 = Kilograms per Cubic Meter
METRIC U.S.
2.20462 = Pounds (Avoirdupois)
1.10231 = Tons (2000 pounds)
0.98421 = Tons (2240 pounds)
0.3937 = Inches
0.03937 = Inches
3.280833 = Feet
0.155 = Square Inches

15

Square Meters
Cubic Centimeters
Cubic Meters
Kilograms Per Meter
Grams per Square Centimeter
Grams per Sq Meter
Kilograms per Square Centimeter
Kilograms per Square Millimeter
Kilos per Sq Meter
Kilos per Cubic Meter

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

10.76387 = Square Feet


0.06102 = Cubic Inches
35.31445 = Cubic Feet
0.67197 = Pounds per Foot
32.771 = Ounces per Square Ft
0.0032771 = Ounces per Square Ft
14.2234 = Pounds per Sq Inch
1422.34 = Pounds per Sq Inch
0.20482 = Pounds per Sq Inch
0.06243 = Pounds per Cubic Foot

CONVERSION CONSTANTS
To Convert From

To

Multiply By

Gallons
Pounds of water
Ounces
Pounds
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury
Ounces per square inch
Ounces per square inch
Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch
Feet of water
Feet of water
Feet of Water
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Long tons
Short tons
Short tons

Pounds of water
Gallons
Pounds
Ounces
Pounds per square inch
Inches of mercury
Ounces per square inch
Pounds per square foot
Inches of water
Feet of water
Pounds per square inch
Inches of mercury
Inches of water
Inches of water
Feet of water
Inches of mercury
Atmospheres
Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square foot
Inches of mercury
Pounds per square inch
Inches of mercury
Feet of water
Pounds
Pounds
Long tons

8.33
0.12004
0.0625
16
0.0361
0.0735
0.578
5.2
13.6
1.1333
0.4914
0.127
1.733
27.72
2.310
2.04
0.0681
0.434
62.5
0.8824
14.696
29.92
34
2240
2000
0.89285

16

FRACTIONAL INCHES TO MILLIMETERS


INCH
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0
0,0
25,4
50,8
76,2
101,6
127,0
152,4
177,8
203,2
228,6
254,0

Sample : 2 1/2

1/16

1/8

3/16

1/4

5/16

3/8

7/16

1/2
9/16 5/8
mm
1,6
3,2
4,8
6,4
7,9
9,5
11,1
12,7
14,3
15,9
27,0
28,6
30,2
31,8
33,3
34,9
36,5
38,1
39,7
41,3
52,4
54,0
55,6
57,2
58,7
60,3
61,9
63,5
65,1
66,7
77,8
79,4
81,0
82,6
84,1
85,7
87,3
88,9
90,5
92,1
103,2 104,8 106,4 108,0 109,5 111,1 112,7 114,3 115,9 117,5
128,6 130,2 131,8 133,4 134,9 136,5 138,1 139,7 141,3 142,9
154,0 155,6 157,2 158,8 160,3 161,9 163,5 165,1 166,7 168,3
179,4 181,0 182,6 184,2 185,7 187,3 188,9 190,5 192,1 193,7
204,8 206,4 208,0 209,6 211,1 212,7 214,3 215,9 217,5 219,1
230,2 231,8 233,4 235,0 236,5 238,1 239,7 241,3 242,9 244,5
255,6 257,2 258,8 260,4 261,9 263,5 265,1 266,7 268,3 269,9
1 inch = 25,4 millimeters
inches (2 from the left column plus 1/2 from the top row) = 63,5 millimeters

11/16

3/4

13/16

7/8

15/16

17,5
42,9
68,3
93,7
119,1
144,5
169,9
195,3
220,7
246,1
271,5

19,1
44,5
69,9
95,3
120,7
146,1
171,5
196,9
222,3
247,7
273,1

20,6
46,0
71,4
96,8
122,2
147,6
173,0
198,4
223,8
249,2
274,6

22,2
47,6
73,0
98,4
123,8
149,2
174,6
200,0
225,4
250,8
276,2

23,8
49,2
74,6
100,0
125,4
150,8
176,2
201,6
227,0
252,4
277,8

METRIC PREFIXES AND SYMBOLS


Multiplication Factor
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1018
1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1015
1 000 000 000 000 = 1012
1000000000=109
1000000=106
1000=103
100=102
10=101
0.1=10-1
0.01=10-2
0.001 = 10-3
0.000 001 = 10-6
0.000 000 001 = 10-9
0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12
0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18

Prefix
Exa
Peta
Tera
Giga
Mega
Kilo
Hecto
Deka
Deci
Centi
Mili
Micro
Nano
Pico
Femto
atto

Symbol
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
m
n
p
f
a

17

MINUTES CONVERTED TO DECIMALS OF A DEGREE


Min.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Deg.
0.0166
0.0333
0.0500
0.0666
0.0833
0.1000
0.1166
0.1333
0.1500
0.1666

Min.
11
12
13
14
15
1
17
18
19
20

Deg.
0.1833
0.2000
0.2166
0.2333
0.2500
0.2666
0.2833
0.3000
0.3166
0.3333

Min.
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Deg.
0.3500
0.3666
0.3833
0.4000
0.4166
0.4333
0.4500
0.4666
0.4833
0.5000

Min.
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Deg.
0.5166
0.5333
0.5500
0.5666
0.5833
0.6000
0.6166
0.6333
0.6500
0.6666

Min.
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Deg.
0.6833
0.7000
0.7166
0.7333
0.7500
0.7666
0.7833
0.8000
0.8166
0.8333

Min.
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Deg.
0.8500
0.8666
0.8833
0.9000
0.9166
0.9333
0.9500
0.9666
0.9833
1.000

PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS
Kg per
square
cm

Pounds
per
square
Inch

Atmosphere

Bar

Inches
of
Mercury

Kilopascals

Inches
of
Water

Feet of
Water

14.22

0.9678

0,98067

28.96

98,067

394.05

32.84

0,07031

0.06804

0,06895

2.036

6,895

27.7

2.309

Atmosphere

1,0332

14.696

1,01325

29.92

101,325

407.14

33.93

Multiply,
arpm
Kg per square
cm
Pounds per
square Inch
Bar

1,01972

14.5038

0.98692

29.53

100

402.156

33.513

Inches of
Mercury

0,03453

0.4912

0.03342

0,033864

3,3864

13.61

1.134

Kilopascals

0,0101972

0.145038

0.0098696

0,01

0.2953

4.02156

0.33513

Inches of
Water

0,002538

0.0361

0.002456

0,00249

0.07349

0,249

0.0833

Feet of Water

0,3045

0.4332

0.02947

0,029839

0.8819

2,9839

12

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION FORMULAS


To Convert From
Degrees Celsius
Degrees Celsius
Degrees Fahrenheit
Degrees Fahrenheit

To
Degrees Fahrenheit
Kelvin
Degrees Celsius
Degrees Rankin

Substitute in Formula
(C x 9/5) + 32
(C + 273.16)
(F -32) x 5/9
(F + 459.69)

18

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION
Fahrenheit Centigrade
F

Zero

-17.8

25

-3.9

50

10.0

75

23.9

100

37.8

-17.2

26

-3.3

51

10.6

76

24.4

110

43.3

-16.7

27

-2.8

52

11.1

77

25.0

120

48.9

-16.1

28

-2.2

53

11.7

78

25.6

130

54.4

-15.6

29

-1.7

54

12.2

79

26.1

140

60.0

-15.0

30

-1.1

55

12.8

80

26.7

150

65.6

-14.4

31

-0.6

56

13.3

81

27.2

160

71.1

-13.9

32

Zero

57

13.9

82

27.8

170

76.7

-13.3

33

0.6

58

14.4

83

28.3

180

82.2

-12.8

34

1.1

59

15.0

84

28.9

190

87.8

10

-12.2

35

1.7

60

15.6

85

29.4

200

93.3

11

-11.7

36

2.2

61

16.1

96

30.0

210

98.9

12

-11.1

37

2.8

62

16.7

87

30.5

220

104.4

13

-10.6

38

3.3

63

17.2

88

31.1

230

110.0

14

-10.0

39

3.9

64

17.8

89

31.7

240

115.6

15

-9.4

40

4.4

65

18.3

90

32.2

250

121.1

16

-8.9

41

5.0

66

18.9

91

32.8

300

148.8

17

-8.3

42

5.6

67

19.4

92

33.3

350

176.6

18

-7.8

43

6.1

68

20.0

93

33.9

400

204.4

19

-7.2

44

6.7

69

20.6

94

34.4

450

232.2

20

-6.7

45

7.2

70

21.1

95

35.0

500

260.0

21

-6.1

46

7.8

71

21.7

96

35.6

750

398.8

22

-5.6

47

8.3

72

22.2

97

36.1

1000

537.7

23

-5.0

48

8.9

73

22.8

98

36.7

24

-4.4

49

9.4

74

23.3

99

37.2

19

Volume Equivalents
To Convert
From, ..den
evirim
Cubic
Decimeters
(Liters)
Cubic
Inches
Cubic Feet
U.S. Quart
U.S. Gallon

Cubic
Decimeters
(Liters)

Cubic
inches

Cubic
Feet

U.S.
Quart

U.S.
Gallon

Imperial
Gallon

U.S. Barrel
(Petroleum)

61.0234

0.03531

1.05668

0.264178

0,220083

0.00629

5.787 x
10-4

1.01732

0.004329

0,003606

0.000103

1728

29.9221

7.48055

6,22888

0.1781

57.75

0.03342

0.25

0,2082

0.00595

231

0.13368

0,833

0.02381

4.80128

1.20032

0.02877

168

42

34,973

0,01639
28,317
0,94636
3,78543

Imperial
4,54374
277.274 0.16054
Gallon
U.S. Barrel
158,98
9702
5.6146
(Petroleum
)
1 cubic meter = 1,000,000 cubic centimeters
1 liter = 1000 milliliters = 1000 cubic centimeters

20

Vickers Hardness Test


A : Surface area
d : Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals, d1 and d2 in mm
F : Load in kgf
HV : Vickers hardness

To convert HV to MPa multiply by 9.807


Vickers hardness numbers are reported as 440HV30 :
440 : the hardness number
HV : gives the hardness scale (Vickers)
30 : the load used in kgf

SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME FORMULAS

Geometric Shape

Prism (general)

Surface Area

SA=2B+Ph

SA=2lw + (2l + 2w)h


Prism

SA=6s

21

Regular Pyramid (general),

Pyramid

SA=B+n(0,5 bs)

SA=B + n(0,5 s) b
SA=b + 4(0,5)(4) s
SA=b + 8s

Cylinder

SA=2 r+ dh

Cone

SA= r+ rs
S=slant height

Sphere

SA=4 rh

22

DIN 30670 MINIMUM COATING THICKNESS


Pipe size,
mm

Min. Thickness of coating in mm,

Diameter, ap < DN 100


100 Diameter, ap < 250
250 Diameter, ap < 500
500 Diameter, ap < 800
Diameter, ap 800

1.8
2.0
2.2
2.5
3.0

Along any 1 m length of pipe, the coating thickness may be up to 10% less than the minimum required, provided the thinner area does not cover more than 5 cm

DIN 30670 TESTS


Surface Cleanliness Comparison = Sa 2 - DIN 55928 Part 3
Bond Strength = at a test temperature of (20 5) C, be at least 35 N per cm of test piece width
at a test temperature of (50 5) C, be at least 15 N per cm of test piece width for type N coatings, and 25 N per cm type S coatings
Continuity (holiday) = 25 kV
Impact Strength = 30 impact, darbe
Indentation hardness = 0.3 mm (23 2 C)
Percentage elongation at failure= 200 %
Coating Resistivity = 108 m
Heat and light ageing = the melt flow rate shall not deviate by more than 35 % of the original value

APPLICATION PROCESS FOR PE COATING OF JOINT AREA

23

Heat the steel surface to be insulated to 40-50C and clean to the


purification degree 2 as per GOST 9.402. Treat the polyethylene coating
with emery paper to provide sufficient surface roughness.

Heat the insulated surface and adjacent factory insulation coating to at


least 90C (in summer) or 110 (+10) C. Apply the preliminary prepared
epoxy primer onto the steel surface and the adjacent factory insulation
coating over the entire insulated portion.

Wrap the sleeve around the weld joint so that the overlap with
the factory coating is at least 75 mm at each side and the overlap
of the sleeve ends is at least 100 mm.

Heat the glue layer with a soft flame on the closure plate and install
the plate in the central position onto the sleeve end overlap by hitting it
with a hand or rolling with a silicon roller. The closure plate should be
located on the pipe circumference near the 2 or 10 oclock position.

24

Heat the sleeve with a soft flame from the center to the edges
beginning from the bottom part of the weld joint to remove
bubbles from the sleeve surface.

APPLICATION PROCESS FOR REPAIR OF PE COATING

Heat the repaired polyethylene coating portion to 100 (+10C)


and remove the damaged factory coating with a spatula or a knife.
Smooth the sharp edges of the coating and make the coating more
rough (with emery paper) over a 75 mm area around the removed
coating portion. Remove rust from the repaired pipe surface
portion with emery paper.

Heat the steel surface to 60C and polyethylene surface of the repaired
portion to 100 (+10) C (within a 100 mm area around the damaged
spot).
Apply the repair filler (preliminary cut to size) onto the steel and
polyethylene pipe surfaces. Heat the filler with a gas burner, fill in the
damaged portion with a spatula and uniformly distribute it with the spatula
over the polyethylene surface (over a 75 mm area around the damaged
spot).

Heat the adhesive layer (preliminary cut to ensure 40-45 mm


overlap with the factory coating). Heat until the adhesive layer
becomes lustrous.

25

Install the tape onto the repaired pipe area so the tape adhesive layer
extend from beneath the tape to at least 20 mm. Heat the tape with a gas
burner and roll down with a roller remove glue blobs and air bubbles.

5
Roll the tape down with a silicon roller to remove glue
blobs and bubbles.

26

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