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Formula Sheet for All subjects combined in ECE/TCE/IN/EEE departments... Very Useful for all Electronics Engineers

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Communication Systems

Amplitude Modulation : DSB-SC : u (t) = m(t) cos 2 t Power P = Conventioanal AM : u (t) = [1 + m(t)] Cos 2 t . as long as |m(t)| 1 demodulation is simple . Practically m(t) = a m (t) . () () Modulation index a = ( ) , m (t) = | ( )| Power = +

()

Square law modulator = 2a / a amplitude Sensitivity Envelope Detector R C (i/p) < < 1 / Frequency & Phase Modulation : Angle Modulation :u (t) = (t) Cos (2 t + (t) ) ( ) 2 m(t) . dt phase & frequency deviation constant R C (o/P) >> 1/ R C << 1/

max phase deviation = max | m(t) | max requency deviation = max |m(t) | Bandwidth : Effective Bandwidth = 2 ( + 1) 98% power

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(SNR) (SNR) =

= =

/

/

= =

= = =

= =

= (SNR) .

/

/

= (SNR) =

PCM : Min. no of samples required for reconstruction = 2 = Total bits required = v Bandwidth = R /2 = v SNR = 1.76 + 6.02 v bps . v bits / sample /2=v.

As Number of bits increased SNR increased by 6 dB/bit . Band width also increases. Delta Modulation : By increasing step size slope over load distortion eliminated [ Signal raised sharply ] By Reducing step size Grannualar distortion eliminated . [ Signal varies slowly ]

Matched filter o/p will be max at multiples of T . So, sampling @ multiples of T will give max SNR (2nd point ) matched filter is always causal a(t) = 0 for t < 0 Spectrum of o/p signal of matched filter with the matched signal as i/p ie, except for a delay factor ; proportional to energy spectral density of i/p. ()= (f) (f) = (f) *(f) e

( ) = |( )| e

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o/p signal of matched filter is proportional to shifted version of auto correlation fine of i/p signal (t) = R (t T) (T) = R (0) which proves 2nd point

At t = T

Cauchy-Schwartz in equality :|g (t) g (t) dt| |g (t)| dt g (t) dt If g (t) = c g (t) then equality holds otherwise < holds Raised Cosine pulses : P(t) =

( ) ( )

|| P(f) = cos || || ||

Bit rate

=Q 1

=Q

erfc

= erfc

All signals have same energy (Const energy modulation ) Energy & min distance both can be kept constant while increasing no. of points . But Bandwidth Compramised. PPM is called as Dual of FSK . For DPSK = e /

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as anti podal signals

Orthogonal signals are 3 dB poorer than antipodal signals. The 3dB difference is due to distance b/w 2 points. For non coherent FSK = e / FPSK & 4 QAM both have comparable performance . 32 QAM has 7 dB advantage over 32 PSK. Bandwidth of Mary PSK = = ; S=

Bandwidth of Mary FSK = Bandwidth efficiency S = Symbol time Band rate = = log .

;S=

| [ ]| |x(t)| dt = lim

|x[n]|

Shifting & Time scaling wont effect power . Frequency content doesnt effect power. if power = neither energy nor power signal Power = 0 Energy signal Power = K power signal Energy of power signal = ; Power of energy signal = 0 Generally Periodic & random signals Power signals Aperiodic & deterministic Energy signals Precedence rule for scaling & Shifting : x(at + b) (1) shift x(t) by b x(t + b) (2) Scale x(t + b) by a x(at + b) x( a ( t + b/a)) (1) scale x(t) by a x(at) (2) shift x(at) by b/a x (a (t+b/a)). x(at +b) = y(t) x(t) = y Step response s(t) = h(t) * u(t) = S[n] = [ ] e h(t)dt S (t) = h(t) h[n] = s[n] s[n-1]

) trapezoid ( ,

/

dx = 2 ;

x e

dx =

2 > 0

Laplace Transform :-

(s) e ds ds

Initial & Final value Theorems : x(t) = 0 for t < 0 ; x(t) doesnt contain any impulses /higher order singularities @ t =0 then x( ) = lim

( ) ( )

x() = lim

Properties of ROC :1. X(s) ROC has strips parallel to j axis 2. For rational laplace transform ROC has no poles 3. x(t) finite duration & absolutely integrable then ROC entire s-plane 4. x(t) Right sided then ROC right side of right most pole excluding pole s = 5. x(t) left sided 6. x(t) two sided 7. if x(t) causal 8. if x(t) stable Z-transform :x[n] = X(z) = x( ) x[n] ( ) dz ROC left side of left most pole excluding s= - ROC is a strip ROC is right side of right most pole including s = ROC includes j-axis

Initial Value theorem : If x[n] = 0 for n < 0 then x[0] = lim Final Value theorem :lim [ ] = lim ( Properties of ROC :1) X(z)

1.ROC is a ring or disc centered @ origin 2. DTFT of x[n] converter if and only if ROC includes unit circle 3. ROC cannot contain any poles

4. if x[n] is of finite duration then ROC is enter Z-plane except possibly 0 or 5. if x[n] right sided then ROC outside of outermost pole excluding z = 0 6. if x[n] left sided then ROC inside of innermost pole including z =0 7. if x[n] & sided then ROC is ring 8. ROC must be connected region 9.For causal LTI system ROC is outside of outer most pole including 10.For Anti Causal system ROC is inside of inner most pole including 0 11. System said to be stable if ROC includes unit circle . 12. Stable & Causal if all poles inside unit circle 13. Stable & Anti causal if all poles outside unit circle. Phase Delay & Group Delay :When a modulated signal is fixed through a communication channel , there are two different delays to be considered. (i) Phase delay: Signal fixed @ o/p lags the fixed signal by ( ) phase ( ) =where ( ) = K H(j) Frequency response of channel ) for narrow Band signal

Group delay

( ( ) )

Two events A & B said to be mutually exclusive /Disjoint if P(A B) =0 Two events A & B said to be independent if P (A/B) = P(A) P(A B) = P(A) P(B) P(Ai / B) =

( ( ) )

) ( )

(x) = P { X x }

PDF :Pdf =

(x) =

(x)

= x } (x = x )

(x) dx

P{x <Xx }=

Uniform Random Variables : Random variable X ~ u(a, b) if its pdf of form as shown below (x) = 1 (x) = < < <

Mean = Variance = ( a) / 12 E{ x } =

( ) /

) /

dx =

( ) /

Variance =

x e

dx =

Laplacian Distribution :(x) = e | | Multiple Random Variables : (x , y) = P { X x , Y y } (x , ) = P { X x } = (x) ; ( , y) = P { Y < y } = (-, y) = (x, - ) = (-, -) = 0 (x y) dy ; (x) = (y) = (x, y) dx

/

(y)

x = (y/x) =

( ( ) )

( ) ( )

Independence : X & Y are said to be independent if (x , y) = (x) (y) (x, y) = (x) . (y) P { X x, Y y} = P { X x} . P{Y y} Correlation: Corr{ XY} = E {XY} = (x, y). xy. dx dy If E { XY} = 0 then X & Y are orthogonal . Uncorrelated :Covariance = Cov {XY} = E { (X - ) (Y- } = E {xy} E {x} E{y}. If covariance = 0 E{xy} = E{x} E{y} Independence uncorrelated but converse is not true.

Random Process:Take 2 random process X(t) & Y(t) and sampled @ t , t X(t ) , X(t ) , Y(t ) , Y (t ) random variables Auto correlation R (t , t ) = E {X(t ) X(t ) }

(t ) } = R (t , t ) (t ) } = R (t , t ) (t ) (t ) (t ) (t )

Auto covariance C (t , t ) = E { X(t ) - (t )) (X(t ) cross correlation R (t , t ) = E { X(t ) Y(t ) } cross covariance C (t , t ) = E{ X(t ) - (t )) (Y(t ) -

C (t , t ) = 0 R (t , t ) = (t ) (t ) Un correlated R (t , t ) = 0 Orthogonal cross correlation = 0 (x, y ! t , t ) = (x! t ) (y ! t ) independent Properties of Auto correlation : R (0) = E { x } R ( ) = R (- ) even | R ( ) | R (0)

Power spectral Density : P.S.D S (j) = R ( )= S (j) = S (j) | ( )| ( ) d Power = R (0) = R ( ) = k ( ) white process R ( )e ( )e d d

10

Control Systems Time Response of 2nd order system :Step i/P : C(t) = 1e(t) = e = lim

1 tan

t tan

tan

Damping ratio ; Damping actor < 1(Under damped ) :C(t) = 1- = Sin tan

11

/ Max over shoot % =e 100 Settling time t = 3T 5% tolerance = 4T 2% tolerance . Delay time t =

= tan

Damping actor

( (

) )

/

= ; = 2 + 1 2 + 2)

/

< <

( ) = lim = lim

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) s ( ) ( )

Parabolic i/p (t /2) : e Type < i/p e = Type = i/p e finite Type > i/p e = 0

= lim

Sensitivity S =

/ /

sensitivity of A w.r.to K.

12

S =1 S=

( ) ( )

Minimum S value preferable Sensitivity of over all T/F w.r.t feedback T/F H(s) : S =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Stability RH Criterion : Take characteristic equation 1+ G(s) H(s) = 0 All coefficients should have same sign There should not be missing s term . Term missed means presence of at least one +ve real part root If char. Equation contains either only odd/even terms indicates roots have no real part & posses only imag parts there fore sustained oscillations in response. Row of all zeroes occur if (a) Equation has at least one pair of real roots with equal image but opposite sign (b) has one or more pair of imaginary roots (c) has pair of complex conjugate roots forming symmetry about origin. Electromagnetic Fields

Vector Calculus: A. (B C) = C. (A B) = B. (C A) A(BC) = B(A.C) C(A.B) Bac Cab rule ( . ) Scalar component of A along B is = A Cos =A.a = | | Vector component of A along B is = A Cos .a =

( . ) | |

Laplacian of scalars :( . ) . ds = Divergence theorem ( ) . = Stokes theorem A = ( . ) . = solenoidal / Divergence loss . source = irrotational / conservative/potential. = 0 Harmonic . Electrostatics : Force on charge Q located @ r F = E @ point r due to charge located @ E due to line charge @ distance E = E due to surface charge is E = =

( | | )

. < sink

;

( |

=

)

.R

. a (depends on distance)

13

E=

a -

) a . D independent of medium

Gauss Law : Total flux coming out of any closed surface is equal to total charge enclosed by surface . = D . ds = = . dv = .D Electric potential = = = . d (independent of path) (for point charge )

a . dr a =

Potential @ any point (distance = r), where Q is located same where , whose position is vector @ r V= | | + C . [ if C taken as ref potential ] .

V(r) =

V ; V Electric lines of force/ flux /direction of E always normal to equipotential lines . Energy Density = = D. dv = dv Continuity Equation = e

/

.J = -

where

Boundary Conditions := Tangential component of E are continuous across dielectric-dielectric Boundary . Tangential Components of D are dis continues across Boundary . = ; = / . Normal components are of D are continues , where as E are dis continues. D - D = ; = ; = = = = = = t

. ds ds E=-

14

= =

E H in UPW = ( + ) = + j.

= = E(z, t) = = || =

1+ 1+ e

1 +1 cos(t z) ; | | < = /.

/

/

tan 2

= / . | N | = 20 log = 8.686 dB

= + j attenuation constant Neper /m . For loss less medium = 0; = 0. phase shift/length ; = / ; = 2/ . = = / = tan loss tanjent =2

If tan is very small ( < < ) good (lossless) dielectric If tan is very large ( >> ) good conductor Complex permittivity = 1 = -j . Tan = = .

Plane wave in loss less dielectric :- ( 0) =0;= = = 2/ E & H are in phase in lossless dielectric = , = )

Free space :- ( = 0,

15

= / < = 12

, = 2/

.

| |

[ v cos a

] dv

dv

= S

(s) ds

Direction of propagation :- ( a a =a

a a =a Both E & H are normal to direction of propagation Means they form EM wave that has no E or H component along direction of propagation . Reflection of plane wave :(a) Normal incidence Reflection coefficient = = coefficient = =

Medium-I Dielectric , Medium-2 Conductor :> : there is a standing wave in medium Max values of | | occurs = - n/ = n = 1 2. =

( )

wave in medium 2.

16

( )

=

( )

<

:-

occurs @ = n

= =

Since || < 1 1

Transmission Lines : Supports only TEM mode LC = ; G/C = / . -r =0; -r =0 cos (t + z) = (R + )( + C) = + j V(z, t) = e cos (t- z) + e = = = =

= 1/

C , u = 1/

C = ;u = 1/C , u / = 1/L

C; u=

| |

= ) ( < )

( | | | | = = =S = /S

>

Shorted line :- = -1 , S =

=j

tan l

17

= -1 , S =

=j

tan l.

may be inductive or capacitive based on length 0 If l < / 4 inductive ( +ve) < l < /2 capacitive ( -ve)

Behaviour of Transmission Line for Different lengths :l = /4 l = /2 : = impedance inverter @ l = /4 impedance reflector @ l = /2

ye + where k =

m no. of half cycle variation in X-direction n no. of half cycle variation in Y- direction . Cut off frequency = k < k > = k + u = phase velocity = + + + = 0; = 0 =

18

=u/ =

( )

( )

= / W

1 = 0) cos

TE Modes :- ( = cos

= >

= / 1

Dominant mode

sin

/ /

. .

. .

. .

- KT ln

+ KT ln (KT in ev)

/

)/ No. of electrons n = N e ( )/ No. of holes p = N e ( Mass action law n = n = N N e Drift velocity = E (for si 1

cm/sec)

19

.

charge density = qN = ne = N .n .

Hall voltage

. Hall coefficient R = 1/ . = N .n

= qA x N = qA x N EDC

J =-qD

Drift current Densities = q(p + n )E , decrease with increasing doping concentration . = = KT/q 25 mv @ 300 K Carrier concentration in N-type silicon n = N ; p = n / N Carrier concentration in P-type silicon p = N ; n = n / N Junction built in voltage Width of Depletion region * = 12.9 = Charge stored in depletion region q = Depletion capacitance C = C =C / 1+ C = 2C (for forward Bias) + ; = Aq n = Aq n

/ / .

ln = x +x = + ( + )

.A.

/

; C =

Forward current I =

1 1

Saturation Current

= Aq n

Minority carrier life time = Minority carrier charge storage Q= + = I Diffusion capacitance C =

carrier life time , g = conductance = I / )/ = 2( Junction Barrier Voltage = = (open condition) = - V (forward Bias) = + V (Reverse Bias) Probability of filled states above E f(E) = ( )/

20

1 =

cm/sec =E=

Transistor : = + = = +

= Collector current when base open Collector current when = 0 > or - 2.5 mv / C ; Large signal Current gain = D.C current gain ( =h = =h >

C R

) when

= h =

h C

h = - (1+ h ) ;

=h

; h =

-h

;h =

; h

.

= =

=

.

Choice of Transistor Configuration : For intermediate stages CC cant be used as <1 CE can be used as intermediate stage CC can be used as o/p stage as it has low o/p impedance CC/CB can be used as i/p stage because of i/p considerations.

21

S = +S

S =

= S.

Self bias S = R = ; R =

1+

R > 10 R

- 2 (R + R )] [ 0.07

. S] < 1/

<

r = h /g r =h -r r =r /h g = h - (1+ h ) g For CE : = =h

= =

C = C + C (1 + g R )

( )

For CB: =

= (1 + h )

= (1 + )

22

>

>

/ /

) )

.

=

. .

= + + +

+t + +

= 1.1

Differential Amplifier : = h + (1 + h ) 2R = 2 h R 2R g =

| |

= g of BJT/4 ; R ,

DC value of C RR

CMRR =

Darlington Pair : = (1 + ) (1 + ) ; =

( )

R =(

g = (1 + ) g

Tuned Amplifiers : (Parallel Resonant ckts used ) : = Q Q factor of resonant ckt which is very high

23

B.W = = = +

/Q

used .

MOSFET (Enhancement) [ Channel will be induced by applying voltage] NMOSFET formed in p-substrate If channel will be induced & i (Drain source ) +ve for NMOS i ( - ) for small channel width @ drain reduces . = For every i = [( > channel width 0 pinch off further increase no effect there will be ) ] triode region ( = i = r = [ ] saturation Drain to source resistance in triode region C < )

PMOS : Device operates in similar manner except , , i enters @ source terminal & leaves through Drain . i = induced channel [( ) ] = C

are ve

Continuous channel

Pinched off channel . NMOS Devices can be made smaller & thus operate faster . Require low power supply . Saturation region Amplifier For switching operation Cutoff & triode regions are used NMOS PMOS

24

> -

< -

Depletion Type MOSFET :- [ channel is physically implanted . i flows with For n-channel i +ve enhances channel . -ve depletes channel is ve for n-channel =0 .

MOSFET as Amplifier : For saturation > To reduce non linear distortion i = =-g R Unity gain frequency = ( )

< < 2(

g =

) ( )

JFET :

i = 0 Cut off 0, i = 2 1

| | | |

Triode

0 ,

Saturation

25

Load regulation = - (r || R ) Line Regulation = For finding min R take . & , (knee values (min)) calculate according to that .

Operational Amplifier:- (VCVS) Fabricated with VLSI by using epitaxial method High i/p impedance , Low o/p impedance , High gain , Bandwidth , slew rate . FET is having high i/p impedance compared to op-amp . Gain Bandwidth product is constant . Closed loop voltage gain = feed back factor

dt ; = .

= dt ; = A. =

(HPF) =-

Differentiator

In voltage follower Voltage series feedback In non inverting mode voltage series feedback In inverting mode voltage shunt feed back = - == - ln 100 % ln

26

Power Amplifiers : Fundamental power delivered to load Total Harmonic power delivered to load = = = R + 1+ = + R .. + +

= [ 1+ D ] Where D = +D + . . +D D =

D = total harmonic Distortion . Class A operation : o/p flows for entire Q point located @ centre of DC load line i.e., = / 2 ; = 25 % Min Distortion , min noise interference , eliminates thermal run way Lowest power conversion efficiency & introduce power drain = -i if i = 0, it will consume more power is dissipated in single transistors only (single ended) Class B: flows for 18 ; Q located @ cutoff ; = 78.5% ; eliminates power drain Higher Distortion , more noise interference , introduce cross over distortion Double ended . i.e ., 2 transistors . = 0 [ transistors are connected in that way ] =i = 0.4 power dissipated by 2 transistors .

=i

Class AB operation : flows for more than 18 & less than Q located in active region but near to cutoff ; = 60% Distortion & Noise interference less compared to class B but more in compared to class A Eliminates cross over Distortion

Class C operation : flows for < 180 ; Q located just below cutoff ; = 87.5% Very rich in Distortion ; noise interference is high . Oscillators : For RC-phase shift oscillator f = f=

h 4k + 23 + > 29

where k = R /R

27

| 29 R 29 R

( )

|h | | | |A|

|A|

28

MatheMatics Matrix : If |A| = 0 Singular matrix ; |A| 0 Non singular matrix Scalar Matrix is a Diagonal matrix with all diagonal elements are equal Unitary Matrix is a scalar matrix with Diagonal element as 1 ( = ( ) = ) If the product of 2 matrices are zero matrix then at least one of the matrix has det zero Orthogonal Matrix if A = .A = I = A= Symmetric A= Skew symmetric Properties :- (if A & B are symmetrical ) A + B symmetric KA is symmetric AB + BA symmetric AB is symmetric iff AB = BA For any A A + symmetric ; A skew symmetric. Diagonal elements of skew symmetric matrix are zero If A skew symmetric symmetric matrix ; skew symmetric If A is null matrix then Rank of A = 0. Consistency of Equations : r(A, B) r(A) is consistent r(A, B) = r(A) consistent & if r(A) = no. of unknowns then unique solution r(A) < no. of unknowns then solutions . Hermition , Skew Hermition , Unitary & Orthogonal Matrices :-

29

= then Hermition = then Hermition Diagonal elements of Skew Hermition Matrix must be purely imaginary or zero Diagonal elements of Hermition matrix always real . A real Hermition matrix is a symmetric matrix. |KA| = |A|

Eigen Values & Vectors : Char. Equation |A I| = 0. Roots of characteristic equation are called eigen values . Each eigen value corresponds to non zero solution X such that (A I)X = 0 . X is called Eigen vector . Sum of Eigen values is sum of Diagonal elements (trace) Product of Eigen values equal to Determinent of Matrix . Eigen values of & A are same | | is igen value o then 1/ & is Eigen value of adj A. , are Eigen values of A then , K ..

, .. . A + KI + k , + k , .. + k ( ) ( k) , ( k) Eigen values of orthogonal matrix have absolute value of 1 . Eigen values of symmetric matrix also purely real . Eigen values of skew symmetric matrix are purely imaginary or zero . , , distinct eigen values of A then corresponding eigen vectors linearly independent set . adj (adj A) = | | ; | adj (adj A) | = | |( )

, ..

for

Complex Algebra : Cauchy Rieman equations Neccessary & Sufficient Conditions for f(z) to be analytic

( )/(

a)

dz =

( )

[ +

( ) ( )

+ + ( ) + . Taylor Series ( ) if = 0 then it is called Mclauren Series f(z) = a ( ) ; when a = If f(z) analytic in closed curve C except @ finite no. of poles then

f(z) = f( ) + ( )

30

( (a)

)

( )

= (a) / = lim Calculus :Rolles theorem :If f(x) is (a) Continuous in [a, b]

(

((

a) f(z) )

(b) Differentiable in (a, b) (c) f(a) = f(b) then there exists at least one value C (a, b) such that (c) = 0 .

Langranges Mean Value Theorem :If f(x) is continuous in [a, b] and differentiable in (a, b) then there exists atleast one value C in (a, b) such that (c) =

( ) ( )

Cauchys Mean value theorem :If f(x) & g(x) are two function such that (a) f(x) & g(x) continuous in [a, b] (b) f(x) & g(x) differentiable in (a, b) (c) g (x) 0 x in (a, b) Then there exist atleast one value C in (a, b) such that (c) / g (c) =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

31

(x). dx = 2 = 0

(x)dx

/

(x)dx

(x)dx (a + (x). dx

/

( ( )( )( )( ) ).

sin x =

cos x =

if n odd

( (

)( )(

) ).

if n even

sin x . cos x . dx =

)( (

).( )(

)( )(

) (

)( )

).(

).

Where K = / 2 when both m & n are even otherwise k = 1 Maxima & Minima :A function f(x) has maximum @ x = a if A function f(x) has minimum @ x = a if Constrained Maximum or Minimum :To find maximum or minimum of u = f(x, y, z) where x, y, z are connected by (x, y, z) = 0 Working Rule :(i) Write F(x, y, z) = f(x, y, z) + (x, y, z) (ii) Obtain = 0, =0 , =0 (a) = 0 and (a) = 0 and (a) < 0 (a) > 0

32

L { t f(t) } = ( 1)

()

(s) ds

(u) du f(s) / s .

Inverse Transforms :

( )

= = =

()

(1) Take two values of x & x such that f(x ) is +ve & f(x ) is ve then x = +ve then root lies between x & x otherwise it lies between x & x . Regular falsi method :Same as bisection except x = x Newton Raphson Method :x =x

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

f(x )

Pi cards Method :-

33

=y +

(x y )

= f(x, y)

( )

y = y + (x- x ) (y ) +

(y) + .

(y)

= f(x, y

( )

y : :

( )

)]

( )

34

y =y +K.

approximation vale

[ ( y + y ) + 2 (y + y + . y

)]

Differential Equations :Variable & Seperable :General form is Sol: f(y) dy = (x) dx (y) dy = (x) dx + C .

( ( ) )

Sol : Put

35

( ( ) )

becomes homogenous then solve by Y = VX

(ii)

= = = =

( )

Sol : Let

Put ax + by = t

/b

Then by variable & seperable solve the equation . Libnetz Linear equation :General form I.F = e

.

Sol : y(I.F) =

. ( . ) dx + C .

y

N x

then

Sol :

. dx

( )

e e e if f (a) = 0 if (a) = 0

= x = x

( )

( )

36

sin (ax + b) =

= x =x x = [ (D)] x e f(x) = e

( )

( )

f(x)

x y

dx dy

This theorem converts a line integral around a closed curve into Double integral which is special case of Stokes theorem . Series expansion :Taylor Series :f(x) = f(a) + f(x) = f(0) +

( )

(x-a) + x +

( ( )

( )

(x

a) + +

( )

( )

(x

a)

( )

x + + x + | nx| < 1

+ .. - .. - .. Digital Electronics

37

when o/p high . TTL , ECL & CMOS are used for MSI or SSI Logic swing : RTL , DTL , TTL saturated logic ECL Un saturated logic Advantages of Active pullup ; increased speed of operation , less power consumption . For TTL floating i/p considered as logic 1 & for ECL it is logic 0 . MOS mainly used for LSI & VLSI . fan out is too high ECL is fastest gate & consumes more power . CMOS is slowest gate & less power consumption NMOS is faster than CMOS . Gates with open collector o/p can be used for wired AND operation (TTL) Gates with open emitter o/p can be used for wired OR operation (ECL) ROM is nothing but combination of encoder & decoder . This is non volatile memory . SRAM : stores binary information interms of voltage uses FF. DRAM : infor stored in terms of charge on capacitor . Used Transistors & Capacitors . SRAM consumes more power & faster than DRAM . CCD , RAM are volatile memories . 1024 8 memory can be obtained by using 1024 2 memories No. of memory ICs of capacity 1k 4 required to construct memory of capacity 8k 8 are 16 DAC FSV = 1 Resolution = =

/

Programmable fixed

Fastest ADC : Successive approximation ADC : n clk pulses Counter type ADC : 2 - 1 clk pulses

38

clock pulses .

Excitation tables :S 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 x R x 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 J 0 0 1 1 0 x 1 x K x x 1 0 0 0 1 1 D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 T 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

For ring counter total no.of states = n For twisted Ring counter = 2n (Johnson counter / switch tail Ring counter ) . To eliminate race around condition t <<t . In Master slave master is level triggered & slave is edge triggered

I0 C I1 I

2

I3

(2, 5, 6, 7)

2 i/ps ; 1 o/p & n select lines. It can be used to implement Boolean function by selecting select lines as Boolean variables For implementing n variable Boolean function 2 1 MUX is enough . For implementing n + 1 variable Boolean 2 1 MUX + NOT gate is required . For implementing n + 2 variable Boolean function 2 1 MUX + Combinational Ckt is required If you want to design 2 1 MUX using 2 1 MUX . You need 2 2 1 MUXes

39

Decoder : n i/p & 2 o/ps used to implement the Boolean function . It will generate required min terms @ o/p & those terms should be OR ed to get the result . Suppose it consists of more min terms then connect the max terms to NOR gate then it will give the same o/p with less no. of gates . If you want to Design m 2 Decoder using n 2 Decoder . Then no. of n 2 Decoder required = . . In Parallel (n bit ) total time delay = 2 t For carry look ahead adder delay = 2 t .

Microprocessors

40

Clock frequency = crystal frequency Hardware interrupts TRAP (RST 4.5) RST 7.5 RST 6.5 RST 5.5 INTR

0024H both edge level Edge triggered 003CH 0034 H level triggered 002C Non vectored

Software interrupts

S1 0 0 1 1 S0 0 1 0 1 Halt

RST 0 RST 1 2 : : 7

Vectored

HOLD & HLDA used for Direct Memory Access . Which has highest priority over all interrupts .

Flag Registers :S Z X AC X P X CY

Sign flag :- After arthematic operation MSB is resolved for sign flag . S = 1 -ve result If Z = 1 Result = 0 AC : Carry from one stage to other stage is there then AC = 1 P : P =1 even no. of ones in result . CY : if arthematic operation Results in carry then CY = 1 For INX & DCX no flags effected In memory mapped I/O ; I/O Devices are treated as memory locations . You can connect max of 65536 devices in this technique . In I/O mapped I/O , I/O devices are identified by separate 8-bit address . same address can be used to identify i/p & o/p device . Max of 256 i/p & 256 o/p devices can be connected .

41

Programmable Interfacing Devices : 8155 programmable peripheral Interface with 256 bytes RAM & 16-bit counter 8255 Programmable Interface adaptor 8253 Programmable Interval timer 8251 programmable Communication interfacing Device (USART) 8257 Programmable DMA controller (4 channel) 8259 Programmable Interrupt controller 8272 Programmable floppy Disk controller CRT controller Key board & Display interfacing Device

RLC :- Each bit shifted to adjacent left position . D becomes D . CY flag modified according to D RAL :- Each bit shifted to adjacent left position . D becomes CY & CY becomes D . ROC :-CY flag modified according D RAR :- D becomes CY & CY becomes D CALL & RET Vs PUSH & POP :CALL & RET When CALL executes , p automatically stores 16 bit address of instruction next to CALL on the Stack CALL executed , SP decremented by 2 RET transfers contents of top 2 of SP to PC RET executes SP incremented by 2 PUSH & POP * Programmer use PUSH to save the contents rp on stack * PUSH executes SP decremented by 2 . * same here but to specific rp . * same here

Some Instruction Set information :CALL Instruction CALL 18T states SRRWW CC CM Call on carry Call on minus 9 18 states 9-18

42

CP

CPE

JPE Jump on even parity JPO Jump on odd parity . PCHL : Move HL to PC 6T PUSH : 12 T ; POP : 10 T SHLD : address : store HL directly to address 16 T SPHL : Move HL to SP 6T STAX : R store A in memory 7T STC : set carry 4T XCHG : exchange DE with HL 4T

XTHL :- Exchange stack with HL 16 T For AND operation AY flag will be set & CY Reset For CMP if A < Reg/mem : CY 1 & Z 0 (Nothing but A-B) A > Reg/mem : CY 0 & Z 0 A = Reg/mem : Z 1 & CY 0 . DAD Add HL + RP (10T) fetching , busidle , busidle DCX , INX wont effect any flags . (6T)

43

DCR, INR effects all flags except carry flag . Cy wont be modified LHLD load HL pair directly RST 12T states SPHL , RZ, RNZ ., PUSH, PCHL, INX , DCX, CALL fetching has 6T states PUSH 12 T ; POP 10T

44

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