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P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI - 642 002 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL

P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI - 642 002

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI - 642 002 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME 2029 COMPOSITE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME 2029

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

TWO MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013

Prepared By Prof. T. Varun Kumar M.E., (Phd).

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION

1. What is a composite?

A composite is structural materials that consist of two or more combined constituents that are combined at a macroscopic level and are not soluble in each other. One constituent is called the reinforcing phase and the one in which it is embedded is called the matrix. The reinforcing phase material may be in the form of fibres, particles, or flakes. The matrix phase materials are generally continuous. Examples of composite systems include concrete reinforced with steel and epoxy reinforced with graphite fibres, etc.

2. What are advanced composites?

Advanced composite materials are manmade composite materials. They include as resin, metal or ceramic matrix composite systems reinforced with high strength, high modulus continuous or discontinuous forms (such as continuous fibres, chopped fibres, whiskers or particles). The resultant material exhibits entirely distinct, but superior properties which are not exhibited by the constituting elements. Advanced composites are composite materials that are traditionally used in the aerospace industries. Theses composites have high performance reinforcements of a thin diameter in a matrix material such as epoxy and aluminum.

3. What are natural composites? Give examples.

The composite material that exists in nature is regarded as natural composites. Examples of such composites include, wood (composed of cellulose and lignin), human or animal body (composed of bones and tissues) or even rocks and materials. Bones themselves are composites made of two components, the organic and inorganic. The organic component consists largely of carbohydrates, fats and proteins imparting pliability to the bones. The organic component is calcium phosphate which provides rigidity and strength to the bones. Sea shells and elephant tusk are also natural layered composites.

4. What are the common types of composites?

The most typical types of composites consist of an addictive or reinforcement such as fibres or particles embedded in a supporting material called matrix. Usually these are structural materials but they can also be special materials such as electrical conductors. Some composites have no matrix and are composed of one or more constituent forms consisting of two or more different materials. Laminates, for example, are composed entirely of layers which taken together, give the composite its form. Plywood with multiple plies with different orientation of fibres is a typical laminate composite. Sandwiches which are composed of a thick and light core material bonded on either side by a thin strong facing are also regards as composites. Many felts and fabrics have no body matrix but consist entirely of fibres of several compositions with or without bonding force.

5. What is a reinforced composite?

A reinforced composite is one in which the primary purpose of the insert is to improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The insert is called reinforcement. The composite is formed is called reinforced composite.

6. What is Filled composite? Give some examples of fillers commonly used in composites.

A filled composite consists of an insert whose main function is to alter the physical property other than the mechanical properties. Such an insert is called filler. Addition of filler also reduces the cost of composite. Commonly used fillers include carbon black, calcium carbonate, mica, talc, barium carbonate, calcium sulphate, china clay and glass beads (also called spheres of glass).

7. What are the general requirements of all composite materials?

All the composite materials must meet the following requirement

The reinforcing phase must be distributed uniformly throughout the matrix and the reinforced particles and fibres must not be in direct contact with one another.the composite materials must meet the following requirement The reinforcing phase must not react with the

The reinforcing phase must not react with the matrix at the service temperature as this will affect the interfacial bond with the matrix.and fibres must not be in direct contact with one another. The reinforcing phase must not

The reinforcing phase must not lose its strength and should be well bonded to the matrix.as this will affect the interfacial bond with the matrix. the Matrix must have lower modulus

the

Matrixits strength and should be well bonded to the matrix. the must have lower modulus of

must

have

lower

modulus of

elasticity as

compared

to

reinforcing phase.

8. List the various functions that a matrix phase performs in a composite material.

A matrix phase performs the following main functions:

It binds the reinforcement in place in the structure and protects it from mechanical and chemical damage that might occur by abrasion of their surface or by chemical attack or some extraneous source.A matrix phase performs the following main functions: It separates the individual fibres and particles and

It separates the individual fibres and particles and deflects brittle crack that otherwise can pass across the entire cross section of the composite.surface or by chemical attack or some extraneous source. The matrix takes the load and transfers

The matrix takes the load and transfers it to the reinforcement in case of fibre reinforced or particle reinforced composites.can pass across the entire cross section of the composite. The matrix also gives shape to

The matrix also gives shape to the composite.case of fibre reinforced or particle reinforced composites. In some instances the matrix controls the electrical

In some instances the matrix controls the electrical and chemical properties of the composite.composites. The matrix also gives shape to the composite. 9. What is the role of a

9. What is the role of a coupling agent present in the interface between reinforcement and matrix?

A matrix-reinforcement interface plays an important role in a composite as the load is transferred from matrix to the fibres through this interface. The eventual properties of a composite are greatly dependent on the nature of the interface. The desired characteristics of the interface are controlled by a third material called the coupling agent or compatilizer. The coupling agent can overcome the weak interaction between the matrix and the reinforcement. The matrix and the reinforcement differ in their chemical nature and surface characteristics but the addition of coupling agent results in their association, leading to improve strength of the resultant composite.

10. Differentiate composites.

Dispersion strengthened composites contain particles upto about 15% by volume having size in the range 0.01µm to 0.1µm whereas the matrix of particle reinforced composites contains particles in amounts from 15% to 40% by volume with size greater than 1.0µm. in special cases, particle content may be as high as 94%. In particulate composites both the matrix and particles share the load equally whereas the matrix carries the major load in dispersion strengthened composites.

11. What is the basic principle used in the fibre reinforced composites?

The basic principle used in fibre reinforced composites is that the materials are generally stronger in fibre form than in bulk form. This is due to the alignment of molecules along the fibre axis. This preferred alignment makes the strength and modulus of both natural and synthetic fibres superior to those of the same material in the randomly oriented bulk form. That is why major part of the load is carried by the fibres and not by the bulk matrix. As fibres are to carry the major portion of the applied load they should be much stronger and stiffer than the matrix. This property is also desirable for preventing the fibres from buckling under compressive stresses.

12. What are ‘whiskers’? Name some whiskers that are currently available.

Whiskers are very fine single crystal materials with diameters of the order of submicron. Their length may range from a fraction of a millimeter to several centimeters. The aspect ratio (i.e. the length to diameter ratio) of whiskers generally ranges from 50 to 10000. Due to verifying diameter they contain very few or no dislocations and their strength approaches that of an ideal or perfect crystal (i.e. the theoretically achievable limit). Their resistance against temperature and strain to failure are very much higher than high performance fibres. The elastic strain to fracture may be as high as 5%. However, they suffer from the problem of brittleness and are difficult process. Metals, oxides, carbides, halides and organic compounds have been grown in whisker form. SiC, Si 3 N 4 , carbon, α- alumina and K 2 O.6TiO 2 whiskers are currently available. Among these, SiC whiskers seem to be the best suited for metal-matrix composite reinforcement.

13. Define Flake Composites.

Flakes are often used in place of fibers as can be densely packed. Metal flakes that are in close contact with each other in polymer matrices can conduct electricity or heat, while mica flakes and glass can resist both. Flakes are not expensive to produce and usually cost less than fibers. Flake composites have a higher theoretical modulus of elasticity than fiber reinforced composites. They are relatively cheaper to produce and be handled in small quantities.

14. Name the various grades of glass fibres used as reinforcement in glass fibre reinforcement plastic (GRP).

There are three grades of glass fibres available for reinforcement in glass fibres reinforced plastics. They are,

strengthened

between

dispersion

strengthened

and

particle

E-glass (or electrical glass),glass fibres reinforced plastics. They are, strengthened between dispersion strengthened and particle C-glass and S-glass.

C-glass andplastics. They are, strengthened between dispersion strengthened and particle E-glass (or electrical glass), S-glass.

S-glass.plastics. They are, strengthened between dispersion strengthened and particle E-glass (or electrical glass), C-glass and

15. List the types of fibres used as reinforcements in composites.

Organic fibres such as nylon and aramid; inorganic fibres of glass, graphite and ceramics; and stainless steel fibres and wires of tungsten are some typical fibre materials used as reinforcement in composites.

16. Give some of the characteristics of C-fibers.

C-glass (or chemical glass), is similar to E-glass in composition and provides excellent resistance to chemical, especially acids. When combined with E-glass reinforcement, this glass is very useful for surfacing mats for many applications that require corrosion resistance.

17. What are the disadvantages of glass fibres?

The disadvantages of glass fibres are low modulus self abrasiveness which frequently decreases the potential strength, relatively low fatigue resistance and poor adhesion to matrix resins. This means that they do not impregnate the matrix well and uniformly. Therefore, these fibres are never used for high performance composites. Through this adhesively can be improved by sizing on the surface, this may provide a path for absorption of moisture and create undesirable internal stresses.

18. Define Solid Microspheres.

Solid Microspheres have relatively low density, and therefore, influence the commercial value and weight of the finished product. Studies have indicated that their inherent strength is carried over to the finished molded part of which they form a constituent. Solid glass Microspheres, manufactured from glass are most suitable for plastics. Solid glass Microspheres are coated with a binding agent which bonds itself as well as the sphere‟s surface to the resin. This increases the bonding strength and basically removes absorption of liquids into the separations around the spheres.

19. What are the disadvantages of carbon fibres?

In spite of highly desirable characteristics, carbon fibres have certain disadvantages. They have low impact toughness and high electrical conductivity. The later property may cause „shortening‟ in unprotected electrical machinery. Another disadvantage of carbon fibres is their high cost. Due to high cost they are sometimes used in hybrid composites, along with relatively cheaper fibres such as glass.

20. Define Microspheres.

Microspheres are considered to be some of the most useful fillers. Their specific gravity, stable particle size, strength and controlled density to modify products without compromising on profitability or physical properties are it‟s their most-sought after assets. They are of two types of microspheres they are solid microspheres and hollow microspheres.

21. What are Kevlar fibres? What are the applications for which these fibres were developed originally?

Kevlar is the trade name of aramid fibres developed at Du Pont Company. The two varieties of Kevlar that are most common include „Kevlar 49‟ and „Kevlar 29‟. These fibres were originally developed to replace steel wire used in radial tyres. Kevlar is about five times stronger than steel on weight to weight basis.

22. Define Filled Composites.

Filled composites result from addition of filler materials to plastic matrices to replace a portion of the matrix, enhance or change the properties of the composites. The

fillers also enhance strength and reduce weight. Fillers may be the main ingredient or an additional one in a composite. The filler particles may be irregular structures, or have precise geometrical shapes like polyhedrons, short fibers or spheres.

23. What is a carbon-carbon composites produced?

A carbon-carbon composite material consists of a carbonaceous matrix reinforced with carbon fibres in the form of continuous filament yarns, cloth, chopped fibres or three dimensional woven reinforcement.

24. What are aramid fibres?

Aramid is the generic term for fibres produced from „aromatic polyamides‟. Polyamides are long chain polymers containing aromatic rings or so called as benzene rings. These rings recur repeatedly in the structure of aramid fibres.

25. How is carbon fibres produced?

Carbon fibres are produced by pyrolysis of suitable carbonaceous products such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch and staple rayon fibres called precursors. The process involved three stages, namely, stabilization, carbonization and graphitization.

26. List some typical ceramic matrix composite systems.

Typical ceramic matrix composite systems include carbon-carbon composite, molybdenum disulphide, Sic matrix/ carbon fibre composite, lithium alumino silicate matrix/ Nicalon (SiC) fibre, and ceramic matrix/ glass fibre composite.

27. What are the advantages of thermo plastic matrices?

Superior toughness.27. What are the advantages of thermo plastic matrices? Short moulding cycle. Capability of fusion bonding.

Short moulding cycle.advantages of thermo plastic matrices? Superior toughness. Capability of fusion bonding. Infinite Prepreg shelf life.

Capability of fusion bonding.plastic matrices? Superior toughness. Short moulding cycle. Infinite Prepreg shelf life. Easy repairability. Reusability

Infinite Prepreg shelf life.Short moulding cycle. Capability of fusion bonding. Easy repairability. Reusability of scrap. 28. List the

Easy repairability.Capability of fusion bonding. Infinite Prepreg shelf life. Reusability of scrap. 28. List the disadvantages of

Reusability of scrap.bonding. Infinite Prepreg shelf life. Easy repairability. 28. List the disadvantages of thermoplastic matrices. Higher

28. List the disadvantages of thermoplastic matrices.

Higher temperature of processing.scrap. 28. List the disadvantages of thermoplastic matrices. Relatively low heat resistance. Sensitivity to solvents. 29.

Relatively low heat resistance.of thermoplastic matrices. Higher temperature of processing. Sensitivity to solvents. 29. What are the most common

Sensitivity to solvents.temperature of processing. Relatively low heat resistance. 29. What are the most common advanced composites? The

29. What are the most common advanced composites?

The most common advanced composites are polymer matrix composites (PMCs) consisting of a polymer (e.g., epoxy, polyester, urethane) reinforced by thin diameter fibres (e.g., graphite, aramid, boron). The reasons why they are the most common composites include their low cost, high strength, and simple manufacturing principles.

30. What are hollow microspheres?

Hollow microspheres are essentially silicate based, made at controlled specific gravity. They are larger than solid glass spheres used in polymers and commercially supplied in a wider range of particle sizes. Commercially, silicate-based hollow microspheres with different compositions using organic compounds are also available.

31. What are the drawbacks of polymer matrix composites?

The main drawbacks of PMCs include low operating temperatures, high thermal and moisture expansion, and low elastic properties in certain

coefficient of

directions.

32. What are the principal fibers used in commercial applications?

The principal fibers in commercial use are various types of glass and carbons as well as Kevlar 49.Other fibers, such as boron, silicon carbide, and aluminium oxide, are used in limited quantities.

33. What are the influences of fiber in a composite laminates?

Density.What are the influences of fiber in a composite laminates? Tensile strength and modulus. Compressive strength

Tensile strength and modulus.the influences of fiber in a composite laminates? Density. Compressive strength and modulus. Fatigue strength as

Compressive strength and modulus.composite laminates? Density. Tensile strength and modulus. Fatigue strength as well as fatigue failure mechanisms.

Fatigue strength as well as fatigue failure mechanisms.strength and modulus. Compressive strength and modulus. Electrical and thermal conductivities. 34. What are the

Electrical and thermal conductivities.Fatigue strength as well as fatigue failure mechanisms. 34. What are the principal advantages of glass

34. What are the principal advantages of glass fibers?

Low cost.34. What are the principal advantages of glass fibers? High tensile strength. High chemical resistance. Excellent

High tensile strength.What are the principal advantages of glass fibers? Low cost. High chemical resistance. Excellent insulating properties.

High chemical resistance.advantages of glass fibers? Low cost. High tensile strength. Excellent insulating properties. 35. Define the term

Excellent insulating properties.Low cost. High tensile strength. High chemical resistance. 35. Define the term ‘wettability’. The adhesion between

35. Define the term ‘wettability’.

The adhesion between the reinforcing fiber and the matrix in composite materials plays an important role in the final mechanical properties of the material. It is called as wettability.

36. Define Cermets/Ceramal.

The Cermets is an abbreviation for the "'ceramic" and "metal." A Cermets is a composite material composed of ceramic (Cer) and metallic (Met) materials. Cermets are ideally designed to have the optimal properties of both a ceramic, such as high temperature resistance and hardness, and those of a metal, such as the ability to undergo plastic deformation. The metal is used as a binder for an oxide, boride, carbide, or alumina. Generally, the metallic elements used are nickel, molybdenum, and cobalt. Depending on the physical structure of the material, cermets can also be metal matrix composites, but cermets are usually less than 20% metal by volume. It is used in the manufacture of resistors (especially potentiometers), capacitors, and other electronic components which may experience high temperatures.

37. What are fiber metal laminates?

Fiber-reinforced polymer laminas can also be combined with thin aluminium or other metallic sheets to form metal-composite hybrids, commonly known as fiber metal laminates (FML).

38. What are coupling and coating agents?

Coupling agents and coatings are applied on the fibers to improve their wetting with the matrix as well as to promote bonding across the fiber matrix interface. Both in turn promote a better load transfer between the fibers and the matrix.

39. What are the roles of matrix in FRP?

To keep the fibers in place.and the matrix. 39. What are the roles of matrix in FRP? To transfer stress between

To transfer stress between the fibers.are the roles of matrix in FRP? To keep the fibers in place. To provide a

To provide a barrier against an adverse environment, such as chemicals and moisture.the fibers in place. To transfer stress between the fibers. To protect the surface of the

To protect the surface of the fibers from mechanical degradation.an adverse environment, such as chemicals and moisture. 40. What are the classifications of polymers? Thermoplastics

40. What are the classifications of polymers?

Thermoplasticsdegradation. 40. What are the classifications of polymers? Thermosets. 41. What will happen when load applied

Thermosets.40. What are the classifications of polymers? Thermoplastics 41. What will happen when load applied to

41. What will happen when load applied to FRP at glass transition temperature?

When an external load is applied, it exhibits an instantaneous elastic deformation followed by a slow viscous deformation followed by a slow viscous deformation. With increasing temperature, the polymer changes into a rubber like solid capable of undergoing large, elastic deformations under external loads.

42. What is Interface?

The bonding between the fiber and the resin is called interface. It is a region where coating and matrix diffused into each other‟s domain and form a flexible, three- dimensional polymer network.

43. Define the terms filament, strand, yarn.

Filament is defined as any fibre whose aspect ratio (length to diameter ratio) is for all practical purposes, infinity. Filament is thus a continuous fibre. The untwisted form of glass fibers is called as strand. A group of 200 or more fibers are called as strand. Strand is a primary bundle of continuous filaments combined in a single compact unit without twist. Yarn is a generic term used for strands of fiber or filaments in a form suitable for weaving.

44. What is roving?

A roving is a group of untwisted parallel strands wound on a cylindrical forming package. Roving‟s are used in continuous moulding operations, such as filament winding and pultrusion.

UNIT 2

REINFORCEMENT AND MATRICES

1. Define the term fibres.

Polymers which can be drawn into long filament like materials having length to dimension ratio (i.e. aspect ratio) of at least 100 are called fibres. Some of the examples of fibres are nylon, Terylene, cellulose, Kevlar, etc.

2. Define the term resin.

The polymeric molecules in the form of flakes, granules pallets or viscous liquid are termed as resins. Resins can be subsequently shaped into usable and product.

3. What are liquid resins?

If polymers are used as adhesives, potting compounds, sealants, etc. In liquid form, they are preferred to as „liquid resin‟, e.g. polyester resins, epoxy resins, phenolic resins, etc.

4. List various factors affecting polymer materials properties.

Additives.List various factors affecting polymer materials properties. Branching. Copolymerization. Cross-linking. Degree of

Branching.factors affecting polymer materials properties. Additives. Copolymerization. Cross-linking. Degree of crystallinity.

Copolymerization.polymer materials properties. Additives. Branching. Cross-linking. Degree of crystallinity. Glass transition

Cross-linking.properties. Additives. Branching. Copolymerization. Degree of crystallinity. Glass transition temperature.

Degree of crystallinity.Additives. Branching. Copolymerization. Cross-linking. Glass transition temperature. Molecular weight and molecular

Glass transition temperature.Copolymerization. Cross-linking. Degree of crystallinity. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution.

Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution.Degree of crystallinity. Glass transition temperature. Plasticizers. Polymer structure and shape. 5. List the kind

Plasticizers.Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Polymer structure and shape. 5. List the kind of structures

Polymer structure and shape.weight and molecular weight distribution. Plasticizers. 5. List the kind of structures commonly formed in polymers.

5. List the kind of structures commonly formed in polymers.

Three types of structures are commonly formed in polymers. They are,

Linear.of structures are commonly formed in polymers. They are, Branched. Network. 6. What do you mean

Branched.are commonly formed in polymers. They are, Linear. Network. 6. What do you mean by branching?

Network.are commonly formed in polymers. They are, Linear. Branched. 6. What do you mean by branching?

6. What do you mean by branching?

Branching is the process of bifurcation of long polymer chain into two branches at some point along its length. The formation and extent of side chains depends on the operating conditions of polymerization such as temperature, pressure and catalyst type.

7. Give examples of various filler materials used in plastics.

Wood flour, chopped fabrics, asbestos, carbon black, talc, mica, gypsum, and milled glass are examples of fillers.

8. What is cross-linking?

Cross-linking is the process of introducing a primary covalent type link between polymer chains or their segments using a chemical reagent (such as sulphur or oxygen in vulcanization process). Physical means such as irradiation can also be used to introduce cross-links.

9. What are plasticizers? What is the purpose of adding them in a polymer? Name some common plasticizers.

Plasticizers are low molecular weight monomeric liquids that possess low volatility. They are added to a polymer to impart plasticity and flexibility and thus improve processibility. Vegetable oils, low molecular weight polyesters and various phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers.

10. What are fillers and what function do they impart?

Fillers are materials used to provide bulk and modify certain properties such as strength, impact resistance, heat resistance and other similar properties. They are generally chemically inert and do not react with resin during processing.

11. What are additives?

Additives are substance added to a polymer to modify or control its properties and reduce the cost. Various additives includes stabilizers, colorants, catalysts, lubricants, flame retardants, etc. Sometimes fillers and plasticizers are also included in the category of additives.

12. Define the term polymer.

Polymers are high molecular weight organic materials made up of long chain molecules containing principally hydrogen and carbon and may also contain atoms of N, Cl, O and S. These are complex and giant molecules with molecular weight in the range of 10 4 - 10 7 and formed by many chemically bonded parts or units. Due to their high molecular weight, these polymers are also called high polymers.

13. What for catalysts added to a polymer?

Catalysts are added to control the rate and extent of polymerization process in the resin. Catalysts are not used up in the reaction of polymerization. A catalyst may serve the following reactions:

Promote the polymerization.A catalyst may serve the following reactions: Permit specific orientation reaction to occur. Give the

Permit specific orientation reaction to occur.serve the following reactions: Promote the polymerization. Give the added benefits of initiating the reactions.

Give the added benefits of initiating the reactions.Permit specific orientation reaction to occur. Catalysts also affect the shelf life of the polymer.

Catalysts also affect the shelf life of the polymer. Metallic as well as organic compounds are used as catalysts. A well known catalyst system is Ziegler-Natta catalyst.

14. Why are lubricants added to polymer?

Many plastics when heated during processing they become sticky. To overcome this problem lubricants are added to the plastics.

15. Define the term thermoplastics. Give some examples

Thermoplastics are the materials which can be reshaped or reformed into a new form even after moulding. In words, thermoplastics can be subjected to temperature and pressure again for forming a new design product. Some common examples are:

Nylon.for forming a new design product. Some common examples are: Polyethylene (PE). Polystyrene (PS). Polypropylene (PP).

Polyethylene (PE).a new design product. Some common examples are: Nylon. Polystyrene (PS). Polypropylene (PP). Polyvinyl chloride

Polystyrene (PS).product. Some common examples are: Nylon. Polyethylene (PE). Polypropylene (PP). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polymethyl

Polypropylene (PP).examples are: Nylon. Polyethylene (PE). Polystyrene (PS). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).Polyethylene (PE). Polystyrene (PS). Polypropylene (PP). Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Polyetherketone (PEK), etc.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).(PS). Polypropylene (PP). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polyetherketone (PEK), etc. 16. What are thermosetting

Polyetherketone (PEK), etc.Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). 16. What are thermosetting plastics? Give some examples. The

16. What are thermosetting plastics? Give some examples.

The plastics which are once moulded cannot be reformed or shaped into new form are called thermosetting plastics or simply thermosets. Once moulded cannot be reshaped even by subjected to heat and pressure due to the non-softening characteristic of plastic. An example includes phenolic resin (Bakelite), epoxy resins, etc.

17. Which polymers are called naturally occurring polymers?

Polymers which are derived from plants and animals are called naturally occurring polymers.

18. Name some of the naturally occurring and some synthetic polymers.

Cellulose.some of the naturally occurring and some synthetic polymers. Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins.

Casein.naturally occurring and some synthetic polymers. Cellulose. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Wood. Tar.

Silk.occurring and some synthetic polymers. Cellulose. Casein. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Wood. Tar. Shellac

Natural rubber.and some synthetic polymers. Cellulose. Casein. Silk. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Wood. Tar. Shellac are some

Cotton.synthetic polymers. Cellulose. Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Leather. Resins. Wood. Tar. Shellac are some naturally

Leather.polymers. Cellulose. Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Resins. Wood. Tar. Shellac are some naturally occurring

Resins.Cellulose. Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Wood. Tar. Shellac are some naturally occurring polymers.

Wood.Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Tar. Shellac are some naturally occurring polymers. While

Tar.Casein. Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Wood. Shellac are some naturally occurring polymers. While

Shellac are some naturally occurring polymers.Silk. Natural rubber. Cotton. Leather. Resins. Wood. Tar. While plastics and elastomers (except natural rubber) are

While plastics and elastomers (except natural rubber) are examples of synthetic or man-made polymers.

19. Define the term plastics.

There is no standard definition for the term plastics since there is no general agreement to any definition. In the simplest form plastics may be defined as a polymer which can be shaped into hard and tough usable articles through the application of heat and pressure. Examples of plastics are PVC, PE, PS, etc.

20. List the various advantages of plastics.

Articles of intricate shape can be fabricated with ease and can be produced in large quantity at low cost.20. List the various advantages of plastics. They are lighter (low density) than metals. They have

They are lighter (low density) than metals.with ease and can be produced in large quantity at low cost. They have good electric

They have good electric and thermal insulating properties.at low cost. They are lighter (low density) than metals. Due to poor thermal conductivity they

Due to poor thermal conductivity they are very suitable for making handles of cooking utensils, electric iron box, steering wheel, etc.They have good electric and thermal insulating properties. They are resistant to corrosion and for rust.

They are resistant to corrosion and for rust.of cooking utensils, electric iron box, steering wheel, etc. They can be obtained in variety of

They can be obtained in variety of colours and shades.wheel, etc. They are resistant to corrosion and for rust. They show good dampering properties. 21.

They show good dampering properties.rust. They can be obtained in variety of colours and shades. 21. List the disadvantages of

21. List the disadvantages of plastics.

They are dimensionally unstable and tend to warp or creep.properties. 21. List the disadvantages of plastics. They are also thermally unstable Some plastics give

They are also thermally unstableThey are dimensionally unstable and tend to warp or creep. Some plastics give unpleasant odour. Most

Some plastics give unpleasant odour.and tend to warp or creep. They are also thermally unstable Most of the plastics deteriorate

Most of the plastics deteriorate when exposed to air and sunlight.also thermally unstable Some plastics give unpleasant odour. Most of the plastics can be easily scratched.

Most of the plastics can be easily scratched.the plastics deteriorate when exposed to air and sunlight. Good plastic parts are expensive, particularly in

Good plastic parts are expensive, particularly in small lots.and sunlight. Most of the plastics can be easily scratched. Non-biodegradable. 22. Name various categories of

Non-biodegradable.plastic parts are expensive, particularly in small lots. 22. Name various categories of thermoplastics. Commodity

22. Name various categories of thermoplastics.

Commodity thermoplastics22. Name various categories of thermoplastics. Transition thermoplastics Engineering thermoplastics High

Transition thermoplasticscategories of thermoplastics. Commodity thermoplastics Engineering thermoplastics High performance thermoplastics

Engineering thermoplasticsCommodity thermoplastics Transition thermoplastics High performance thermoplastics Thermoplastic elastomers.

High performance thermoplasticsTransition thermoplastics Engineering thermoplastics Thermoplastic elastomers. 23. What is polypropylene and what

Thermoplastic elastomers.Engineering thermoplastics High performance thermoplastics 23. What is polypropylene and what is its repeated

23. What is polypropylene and what is its repeated structural unit.

If on every second carbon atom on the main chain of polyethylene (PP) a hydrogen atom is replaced by a methyl group then the resulting polymer is called polypropylene. The repeat structural unit is:

atom is replaced by a methyl group then the resulting polymer is called polypropylene. The repeat

24. What is ‘PEEK’?

Polyether ether ketone (PEEK). It is a semi crystalline polymer with a maximum achievable crystallinity of 48% when it is cooled slowly from its melt.

25. What is the advantage of cynate ester resin?

Cynate ester resin has a high glass transition temperature (Tg 265 C), lower moisture absorption than epoxies, good chemical resistance, and good dimensional stability. Its mechanical properties are similar to those of epoxies.

26. What is APC?

Continuous carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK composites are known in the industry as aromatic polymer composite or APC.

27. What is the function of fiber surface treatment?

The primary function of a fiber surface treatment is to improve the fiber surface wettability with the matrix and to create a strong bond at the fiber-matrix interface.

28. Why the coupling agents are used with glass fiber?

Chemical coupling agents are used with glass fibers to (1) improve the fiber- matrix interfacial strength through physical and chemical bonds and (2) protect the fiber surface from moisture and reactive fluids.

29. Why silane is preferred as coupling agent with glass fibers?

The interfacial bond created by silanes allows a better load stress transfer between fibers and matrix, which in turn improves the tensile strength as well as the interlaminar shear strength of the composite.

30. Why the fillers are added to the polymeric materials?

Fillers are added to a polymer matrix for one or more of the following reasons:

Reduce cost.a polymer matrix for one or more of the following reasons: Increase modulus. Stiffness. Reduce mold

Increase modulus.for one or more of the following reasons: Reduce cost. Stiffness. Reduce mold shrinkage. Control viscosity.

Stiffness.of the following reasons: Reduce cost. Increase modulus. Reduce mold shrinkage. Control viscosity. Produce smoother

Reduce mold shrinkage.following reasons: Reduce cost. Increase modulus. Stiffness. Control viscosity. Produce smoother surface. 31. Write down

Control viscosity.cost. Increase modulus. Stiffness. Reduce mold shrinkage. Produce smoother surface. 31. Write down some filler

Produce smoother surface.Stiffness. Reduce mold shrinkage. Control viscosity. 31. Write down some filler materials? The most filler for

31. Write down some filler materials?

The most filler for polyester and vinyl ester resins is calcium carbonate (CaCo 3 ), which is used to reduce cost as well as mold shrinkage. Examples of other fillers are clay, mica, and glass micro spheres.

32. What is fiber architecture?

Fiber architecture is defined as the arrangement of fibers in a composite, which not only influences the properties of the composite, but also its processing.

33. List various ceramic matrices.

Aluminium oxide (Al2O 3 ). 3 ).

Carbon, silicon carbide (SiC).various ceramic matrices. Aluminium oxide (Al2O 3 ). Silicon nitride (Si3N 4 ). 34. Why coupling

Silicon nitride (Si3N 4 ). 4 ).

34. Why coupling agents are added with composites?

Coupling agents are added to improve the wetting of fiber and promote

bonding.

35. What are acrylics?

Most acrylics are based on polymers of methyl methacrylate, that is, they are Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) which may be modified by copolymerization or blending with other monomers. Acrylics monomers MMA is a clear liquid made from acetone and sodium cyanide. On polymerization, they normally become clear. They can also be obtained by opaque varieties including fluorescent shades.

36. What are nylons and where does the name comes from?

The popular groups of Polyamides (PA) resins are known as nylons. They are produced by the condensation reaction of diamine with dibasic acids or their derivatives. Depending on the number of carbon atoms on the amines or the acid components, various nylon designations are available. Examples are nylon 6, nylon 6/6, nylon6/10, etc.

37. Write the applications of nylons.

Nylons are used great variety of household and industrial goods. Unbreakable cups and saucers, bowls and tumblers are made in ivory luster nylons. Combs will not become toothless age, zip fasteners that is unaffected by dry cleaning and doctors syringe are made of nylons. The typical industrial applications include unlubricated gears, cams, sleeve bearing, driving belts, valves, automobile speedometer, textile machinery, etc.

38. What are polyesters? In what way they can be compared and contrasted with Polyamides?

Polyesters are the products obtained by the condensation of adipic acid and bifunctional alcohols with removal of water. It is similar to polyamides in both condensation products and has the common monomers „acid molecules‟. However the other monomer is alcohol instead of amines. Like nylon, polyester can be made in the form of unbranched thread like molecules (thermoplastics).

39. In what form is PET thermoplastic available?

PET thermoplastic is available as film, fibre and blow moulded products. The processing to these forms leads to orientation or crystallization of molecular chain resulting in high strength properties.

40. Give some uses of PET thermoplastics.

PET thermoplastic is widely used to make the popular polyester thread also known as Terylene or Dacron used for sewing. Biaxially oriented film, also known as myler is used as photo film, magnetic tapes, capacitors, cooking bags, food container packing and coatings.

41. Write some applications of PEEK.

PEEK is used as a coating and insulating material for high performance wiring, particularly required for aviation and computer industries. PEEK filaments may be used for making cloths for hot filtration purposes.

42. What are ladder polymers?

Ladder polymers are double stranded polymer in which aromatic rings are fused together or interconnected by links around which rotation cannot occurs except by bond breaking. If the structure of ladder polymers is perfect, the chain could be broken only if at least two bond on the same rings were broken. Thus, ladder polymers exhibits great thermal stability.

43. List the three classes of commercial polyesters.

Saturated or thermoplastic polyesters43. List the three classes of commercial polyesters. Unsaturated or thermosetting polyester resins The liquid

Unsaturated or thermosetting polyester resinscommercial polyesters. Saturated or thermoplastic polyesters The liquid polyester resins called simply polyesters. 44.

The liquid polyester resins called simply polyesters.polyesters Unsaturated or thermosetting polyester resins 44. What are unsaturated polyesters? Unsaturated polyesters

44. What are unsaturated polyesters?

Unsaturated polyesters are thermosets composed of linear polyester polymer cross-linked with other monomers such as styrene. These are usually produced as solid moulding compounds and are called alkyds.

45. What are liquid polyester resins?

Liquid polyester resins are converted into solid plastics by simply adding an organic peroxide catalyst for polymerization or curing takes place. During the curing and before hardening, fillers and reinforcements are added.

46. In what way epoxy are similar to unsaturated polyesters?

Epoxy resins are similar unsaturated polyesters in that they are mixed with a cross linking agent which makes them set by forming a molecular network structure.

47. In what forms epoxy are available?

Epoxies are available in both liquid and solid forms. To produce solid forms, the epoxy resins cured by using cross linking agents and catalyst or with hardeners containing active hydrogen to develop the desired properties.

48. What properties make epoxies suitable for coatings?

Toughness.48. What properties make epoxies suitable for coatings? Flexibility. Adhesion. Chemical resistance. 49. What are

Flexibility.properties make epoxies suitable for coatings? Toughness. Adhesion. Chemical resistance. 49. What are coatings? The

Adhesion.make epoxies suitable for coatings? Toughness. Flexibility. Chemical resistance. 49. What are coatings? The coatings are

Chemical resistance.suitable for coatings? Toughness. Flexibility. Adhesion. 49. What are coatings? The coatings are provided to the

49. What are coatings?

The coatings are provided to the fiber surface to protect the fibers from mechanical damage and environmental damage and also to enhance bonding of fiber to matrix.

50. Give some applications of epoxies as coatings. Process equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire coatings

equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire
equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire
equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire
equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire
equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire
equipments, tank and drum linings, can coatings, pipe linings, protective coatings for the food industry wire

UNIT 3

MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

1. Draw the flowchart for composite laminate part fabrication?

Draw the flowchart for composite laminate part fabrication? 2. Define release film? These films are used

2. Define release film?

These films are used to prevent the composite parts from adhering to tool surface. It is also placed between the bleeder and breather plies as a separator film. It is used to prevent the resin flow into the breather piles, to which the vacuum system vents.

3. What is Bleeder plies?

Bleeder plies (used for bleed bagging system) often fiberglass cloth fabric, are normally required to absorb excess resin and permit the escape of volatiles. Various solvents and other volatile chemicals in the Prepreg that take part in chemical reactions during layups must be vented, or an unacceptably porous structure will result.

4. What is RTM process?

RTM: Resin Transfer Molding Process. In RTM, several layers of dry continuous strand mat, woven roving, or cloth are placed in the bottom half of a two -part mold, the mold is closed, and a catalyzed liquid resin is injected into the mo ld via a centrally located sprue. The resin injection point is usually at the lowest point of the mold cavity. The injection pressure is in the range of 6 9690 kPa (10100 psi).

5. Define Breather plies.

Breather plies are usually fiberglass or synthetic fabric which is placed on top of the release film to allow dispersion of vacuum pressure over the layup and removal of entrapped air or volatiles during cure/consolidation. Coarse, open weave fabrics are used, otherwise bridging and bag failure may occur.

6. Define Shrinkage.

Shrinkage is the reduction in volume or linear dimension s caused by curing as well as thermal contraction. Curing shrinkage occurs because of the rearrangement of polymer molecules into a more comp act mass as the cu ring reaction proceeds. The thermal shrinkage occurs during the cooling period that follows the curing react ion and may take place both inside and outside the mold.

7. What is resin flow?

The flow of resin through the fiber network is called resin flow. Proper flow of resin through a dry fiber network (in liquid composite molding [LCM]) or a Prepreg layup (in bag molding) is critical in producing void-free parts and good fiber wet-out.

8. Define Voids.

The most common cause for void formation is the inability of the resin to displace air from the fiber surface during the time fibers are coated with the liquid resin. Void s may also be caused by air bubbles and volatiles en trapped in the liquid resin.

9. What is the purpose of vacuum bag?

The vacuum bag provides the means of removing vapors, and encouraging the required resin flow, so its design and implementation are important.

The vacuum is used to assist removal of trapped air or other volatiles.resin flow, so its design and implementation are important. The vacuum and pressure-temperature cycles are adjusted

The vacuum and pressure-temperature cycles are adjusted to permit maximum removal of air with maximum resin flow.is used to assist removal of trapped air or other volatiles. 10. What are the factors

10. What are the factors influencing the cure cycle?

It should be noted that the cure cycle depends on a number of factors, including resin chemistry, catalyst reactivity, cure temperature, and the presence of inhibitors or accelerators.

11. What is called Gel time?

The viscosity increases with increasing cure time and temperature. The rate of viscosity increases is low at the early stage of curing. After a threshold degree of curve is achieved, the resin viscosity increases at a very rapid rate. The time at which this occurs is called the gel time.

12. What is the significance of finding Gel time?

The gel time is an important molding parameter, since the flow of resin in the mold becomes increasingly difficult at the end of this time period.

13. What are the types of open mould process?

Spray lay uptime period. 13. What are the types of open mould process? Hand lay up Filament winding

Hand lay up13. What are the types of open mould process? Spray lay up Filament winding Sheet moulding

Filament windingthe types of open mould process? Spray lay up Hand lay up Sheet moulding compound 14.

Sheet moulding compoundmould process? Spray lay up Hand lay up Filament winding 14. What are the types of

14. What are the types of closed mould process?

Vacuum bag mouldingcompound 14. What are the types of closed mould process? Pressure bag moulding Compression moulding Autoclave

Pressure bag moulding14. What are the types of closed mould process? Vacuum bag moulding Compression moulding Autoclave Injection

Compression moulding14. What are the types of closed mould process? Vacuum bag moulding Pressure bag moulding Autoclave

Autoclaveare the types of closed mould process? Vacuum bag moulding Pressure bag moulding Compression moulding Injection

Injection moulding.14. What are the types of closed mould process? Vacuum bag moulding Pressure bag moulding Compression

15. List out the preparation of moulding compound ingredients.

ResinsList out the preparation of moulding compound ingredients. Plasticizers Fillers Lubricants Catalysts Stabilizers

Plasticizersout the preparation of moulding compound ingredients. Resins Fillers Lubricants Catalysts Stabilizers Coloring materials.

Fillersof moulding compound ingredients. Resins Plasticizers Lubricants Catalysts Stabilizers Coloring materials. 16.

Lubricantsmoulding compound ingredients. Resins Plasticizers Fillers Catalysts Stabilizers Coloring materials. 16. Define

Catalystscompound ingredients. Resins Plasticizers Fillers Lubricants Stabilizers Coloring materials. 16. Define Viscosity of

StabilizersResins Plasticizers Fillers Lubricants Catalysts Coloring materials. 16. Define Viscosity of Fluid. Viscosity

Coloring materials.Resins Plasticizers Fillers Lubricants Catalysts Stabilizers 16. Define Viscosity of Fluid. Viscosity of a fluid is

16. Define Viscosity of Fluid.

Viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to flow under shear stresses. Low-molecular-weight fluids, such as water and motor oil, have low viscosities and flow readily. High- molecular- weight fluid s, such as polymer melts, has high viscosities and flow only under high stresses. The two most important fact ors determining the viscosity of a fluid are the temperature and shear rate.

17. Write short notes on filament winding?

In a filament-winding process, a band of continuous resin-impregnated roving‟s or monofilaments is wrapped around a rotating mandrel and cured to produce axisymmetric hollow parts.

18. What is compression moulding?

Compression molding is used for transforming sheet-molding compounds (SMC) into finished products in matched molds. The principal advantage of compression molding is its ability to produce parts of complex geometry in short periods of time. Non uniform thickness, ribs, bosses, flanges, holes, and shoulders, for example, can be incorporated during the compression-molding process.

19. Give names of various polymers used in advanced polymer composites.

Epoxyof various polymers used in advanced polymer composites. Phenolics Acrylic Amino acids Urethane Polyamide. 20. What

Phenolicsvarious polymers used in advanced polymer composites. Epoxy Acrylic Amino acids Urethane Polyamide. 20. What are

Acrylicused in advanced polymer composites. Epoxy Phenolics Amino acids Urethane Polyamide. 20. What are the types

Amino acidsused in advanced polymer composites. Epoxy Phenolics Acrylic Urethane Polyamide. 20. What are the types of

Urethanepolymer composites. Epoxy Phenolics Acrylic Amino acids Polyamide. 20. What are the types of filament winding

Polyamide.composites. Epoxy Phenolics Acrylic Amino acids Urethane 20. What are the types of filament winding patterns?

20. What are the types of filament winding patterns?

There are three types of patterns, they are

Hoop or circumferential windingWhat are the types of filament winding patterns? There are three types of patterns, they are

Helical windingof filament winding patterns? There are three types of patterns, they are Hoop or circumferential winding

Polar windingof filament winding patterns? There are three types of patterns, they are Hoop or circumferential winding

21. Define epoxy.

Epoxy resins are the most commonly used resins. They are low molecular weight organic liquids containing epoxide groups. Epoxide has three members in its ring:

one oxygen and two carbon atoms.

22. What are prepregs?

Prepregs are a ready-made tape composed of fibers in a polymer matrix. They are available in standard widths from 3 to 50 in. (76 to 1270 mm). Depending on whether the polymer matrix is thermosets or thermoplastic, the tape is stored in a refrigerator or at room temperature, respectively. One can lay these tapes manually or mechanically at various orientations to make a composite structure.

23. Name the materials used in hand layup process.

Materials: - Resins: Epoxy, Polyester, Vinyl ester, Phenolic etc.

Fibers: Glass, Carbon, Aramid or natural fibers.

24. What is the application of Bag molding process?

The Bag- molding process is used predominantly in the aerospace industry where high production rate is not an important consideration.

25. How is the maximum temperature inside the layup determined?

The maximum temperature inside the layup depends on (a) the maximum cure temperature, (b) the heating rate, and(c) the initial layup thickness.

26. Define blisters.

Blisters are interlaminar cracks formed at the end of molding due to excessive gas pressure in the interior region of the molded part.

27. What are the advantages of compression molding process?

The principal advantage of compression molding process is its ability to produce parts of complex geometry in short periods of time.

28. What are the various defects present in the compression molded SMC part?

The various defects present in the compression moulded SMC parts are,

Blisterdefects present in the compression moulded SMC parts are, Surface pin holes Voids knit line Fiber

Surface pin holespresent in the compression moulded SMC parts are, Blister Voids knit line Fiber buckling Insert Sink

Voidscompression moulded SMC parts are, Blister Surface pin holes knit line Fiber buckling Insert Sink mark

knit linemoulded SMC parts are, Blister Surface pin holes Voids Fiber buckling Insert Sink mark etc., 29.

Fiber bucklingSMC parts are, Blister Surface pin holes Voids knit line Insert Sink mark etc., 29. What

InsertBlister Surface pin holes Voids knit line Fiber buckling Sink mark etc., 29. What is warpage?

Sink mark etc.,Surface pin holes Voids knit line Fiber buckling Insert 29. What is warpage? Warpage is critical

29. What is warpage?

Warpage is critical in thin- section moldings and is caused by variations in cooling rate between sections of different thickness or different fiber orientations.

30. Give some examples for pultruded parts?

The common pultruded products are solid rods, hollow tubes, flat sheets, and beams of a variety of cross sections, including angles, channels, hat sections, and wide- flanged sections.

31. What are the factors affecting the quality of composites?

The factors affecting the quality of composites are the

Cure timeThe factors affecting the quality of composites are the Temperature 32. What is meant by pressure

Temperatureaffecting the quality of composites are the Cure time 32. What is meant by pressure vessel

32. What is meant by pressure vessel forming?

Pressure-vessel forming is a method in which a pressure vessel is combined with integrally-heated tooling. Pressure vessel forming has the following advantages:

Since a pressure vessel is a less expensive piece of equipment, its size is not limited by cost and the production of large parts is easily feasible.Pressure vessel forming has the following advantages: Dry or Prepreg material forms. Matched die metal tools

Dry or Prepreg material forms.cost and the production of large parts is easily feasible. Matched die metal tools can be

Matched die metal tools can be used (to control both part surfaces).parts is easily feasible. Dry or Prepreg material forms. 33. What is meant by match die

33. What is meant by match die forming?

Matched-die forming is a most widely used forming system for thermoplastics because it is available and vary from small simply operated hand processes to large computer controlled presses. (The dies used are generally made of metal which can be internally heated and/or cooled. The dies are designed to fixed gap of close tolerance.

34. What are the factors considered in match die forming?

High forming pressure required for good solidation.34. What are the factors considered in match die forming? High fabrication costs. Friction at die

High fabrication costs.forming? High forming pressure required for good solidation. Friction at die interface. Long heating and cooling

Friction at die interface.required for good solidation. High fabrication costs. Long heating and cooling times. Non-uniform

Long heating and cooling times.High fabrication costs. Friction at die interface. Non-uniform deformation/pressure, if thickness mismatch

Non-uniform deformation/pressure, if thickness mismatch exists.Friction at die interface. Long heating and cooling times. 35. What are the types of graphite

35. What are the types of graphite crystals arrangement in carbon fibers?

Arrangement of graphite crystals in a direction to the fiber axis:

Circumferential.of graphite crystals in a direction to the fiber axis: Radial. Random. Radial-circumferential.

Radial.crystals in a direction to the fiber axis: Circumferential. Random. Radial-circumferential. Random-circumferential. 36.

Random.in a direction to the fiber axis: Circumferential. Radial. Radial-circumferential. Random-circumferential. 36. What are

Radial-circumferential.to the fiber axis: Circumferential. Radial. Random. Random-circumferential. 36. What are the two types from

Random-circumferential.Circumferential. Radial. Random. Radial-circumferential. 36. What are the two types from which the carbon fibers are

36. What are the two types from which the carbon fibers are manufactured?

Carbon fibers are manufactured from two types of precursors (starting materials), namely, textile precursors and pitch precursors.

37. Write short notes on autoclave molding.

Autoclave composite molding is a similar to pressure- bag and vacuum- bag molding but uses a high- pressure chamber instead. The advanced composite process produces denser, void free moldings because higher heat and pressure are used during curing.

UNIT 4

MECHANICS OF LAMINATED COMPOSITES

1. What are two basic approaches to the micromechanics of composite materials?

The two basic approaches to the micromechanics of composite materials are

Mechanics of materialsapproaches to the micromechanics of composite materials are Elasticity. 2. What are the approaches performed in

Elasticity.of composite materials are Mechanics of materials 2. What are the approaches performed in elasticity? The

2. What are the approaches performed in elasticity?

The elasticity approach actually is at least three approaches

Bounding principles.elasticity approach actually is at least three approaches Exact solutions. Approximate solutions. 3. Define lamina.

Exact solutions.actually is at least three approaches Bounding principles. Approximate solutions. 3. Define lamina. Initially stress

Approximate solutions.least three approaches Bounding principles. Exact solutions. 3. Define lamina. Initially stress free. Linearly elastic.

3. Define lamina.

Initially stress free.Exact solutions. Approximate solutions. 3. Define lamina. Linearly elastic. Macroscopically homogeneous.

Linearly elastic.solutions. 3. Define lamina. Initially stress free. Macroscopically homogeneous. Macroscopically orthotropic. 4.

Macroscopically homogeneous.3. Define lamina. Initially stress free. Linearly elastic. Macroscopically orthotropic. 4. Define stress. Stress is a

Macroscopically orthotropic.stress free. Linearly elastic. Macroscopically homogeneous. 4. Define stress. Stress is a measure of the internal

4. Define stress.

Stress is a measure of the internal forces acting within a deformable body. Quantitatively, it is a measure of the average force per unit area of a surface within the body on which internal forces act

5. What are the basic assumptions made in lamination theory?

Fibers are uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.5. What are the basic assumptions made in lamination theory? Perfect bonding exists between the fibers

Perfect bonding exists between the fibers and the matrix.Fibers are uniformly distributed throughout the matrix. The matrix is free of voids. Both fibers and

The matrix is free of voids.Perfect bonding exists between the fibers and the matrix. Both fibers and matrix behave as linearly

Both fibers and matrix behave as linearly elastic materials.the fibers and the matrix. The matrix is free of voids. 6. Describe the maximum principal

6. Describe the maximum principal stress theory?

Maximum Principal Stress Theory - Yield occurs when the largest principal stress exceeds the uniaxial tensile yield strength. Although this criterion allows for a quick and easy comparison with experimental data it is rarely suitable for design purposes.

experimental data it is rarely suitable for design purposes. According to the maximum stress in the

According to the maximum stress in the principal material directions is equal to or greater than the corresponding ultimate strength.

7. What are the uses of lamination theory?

Use of lamination theory: lamination theory is useful in calculating stresses and strains in each lamina of a thin laminated structure.

8. Describe the maximum principal strain theory?

Maximum Principal Strain Theory - Yield occurs when the maximum principal strain reaches the strain corresponding to the yield point during a simple tensile test. In terms of the principal stresses this is determined by the equation:

the principal stresses this is determined by the equation: 9. What are isotropic materials? An isotropic

9. What are isotropic materials?

An isotropic material is one which looks the same in every direction. We cannot define any special direction using the material properties. In other words, none of the properties depend the orientation; it is perfectly rotationally symmetric. Note that in order to be isotropic the material must be homogenous on the length scale of interest, (i.e.,) the same at every point in the material. For instance, rubber is a very isotropic material. Take a rubber ball, and it will feel the same and bounce the same however you rotate it. On the other hand, wood is an anisotropic material: hit it with an axe and it will take more force to break of you are cutting across the grain than along it.

10. What are anisotropic materials?

An anisotropic material is a material which does not behave the same way in all directions. Take wood for example. Wood is very strong along the grain. Against the grain, however, it will easily break. An anisotropic material, properties are different in all directions so that the material property symmetry.

11. What are orthotropic materials?

By definition, an orthotropic material has at least 2 orthogonal planes of symmetry, where material properties are independent of direction within each plane. Such materials require 9 independent variables (i.e. elastic constants) in their constitutive matrices. In contrast, a material without any planes of symmetry is fully anisotropic and requires 21 elastic constants, whereas a material with an infinite number of symmetry planes (i.e. every plane is a plane of symmetry) is isotropic, and requires only 2 elastic constants.

12. What are principal material directions?

For material directions 1, 2, and 3, you observe or specify any of these values, depending on the model type and material orientation:

The axes of the referenced coordinate systemdepending on the model type and material orientation: One of the solid directions For 3D material

One of the solid directions For 3D material orientations, you select one of the following six combinations of the current coordinate system directions for the three principal material directions:any of these values, depending on the model type and material orientation: The axes of the

of the following six combinations of the current coordinate system directions for the three principal material

13. What is called fiber pullout?

Fiber pull-out is one of the failure mechanisms in fiber-reinforced composite materials. Other forms of failure include delamination, interlaminar matrix cracking, longitudinal matrix splitting, fiber/matrix debonding, and fiber fracture. The cause of fiber pull- out and delamination is weak bonding. Fiber pullout is the opening of the matrix crack may cause broken fibers to pull out from the surrounding matrix. This is resisted by the friction at the fiber-matrix interface.

14. Name any two FEA software’s used in composite?

FEA software: MSC-NASTRAN, ANSYS, ABAQUS, LS-DYNA.

15. What are the failure modes observed during longitudinal tensile loading?

Failure modes:

a) Fiber breakage.

b) Fiber pullout.

c) Matrix bridging.

16. What is important function of matrix in FRP?

An important function of the matrix in a fiber-reinforced composite material is to provide lateral support and stability for fibers under longitudinal compressive loading.

17. What are the two failure modes present in compression?

Two different localized bucking modes are

Elastic micro bucklingin compression? Two different localized bucking modes are Fibre kinking. 18. What are the assumptions made

Fibre kinking.different localized bucking modes are Elastic micro buckling 18. What are the assumptions made for macro

18. What are the assumptions made for macro mechanics of laminated composites?

The matrix is homogeneous, isotropic, and linear elastic.made for macro mechanics of laminated composites? The fiber is homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic,

The fiber is homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic, continuous, regularly spaced, and perfectly aligned.The matrix is homogeneous, isotropic, and linear elastic. The lamina (single layer) is macroscopically homogeneous,

The lamina (single layer) is macroscopically homogeneous, macroscopically orthotropic, linear elastic, initially stress-free, void-free, and perfectly bonded.continuous, regularly spaced, and perfectly aligned. The laminate is composed of two or more perfectly bonded

The laminate is composed of two or more perfectly bonded laminae to act as an integrated structural element.initially stress-free, void-free, and perfectly bonded. 19. List few special types of laminates? Unidirectional

19. List few special types of laminates?

Unidirectional laminatestructural element. 19. List few special types of laminates? Angle-ply laminate Cross-ply laminate Symmetric laminate.

Angle-ply laminateelement. 19. List few special types of laminates? Unidirectional laminate Cross-ply laminate Symmetric laminate.

Cross-ply laminateelement. 19. List few special types of laminates? Unidirectional laminate Angle-ply laminate Symmetric laminate.

Symmetric laminate.structural element. 19. List few special types of laminates? Unidirectional laminate Angle-ply laminate Cross-ply laminate

20. What is the failure modes observed during longitudinal compressive loading?

Extensional modemodes observed during longitudinal compressive loading? Shear mode. 21. What are quasi-isotropic laminate?

Shear mode.during longitudinal compressive loading? Extensional mode 21. What are quasi-isotropic laminate? Quasi-isotropic

21. What are quasi-isotropic laminate?

Quasi-isotropic laminate: these laminates are made of three or more laminas of identical thickness and material with equal angles between each adjacent lamina.

22. Why the mechanics of FRP is more complicated?

Fiber-reinforced composites are microscopically in homogeneous and non- isotropic. As a result, the mechanical of fiber-reinforced composites are far more complex than that of conventional materials.

23. What are assumptions made in FRP during analysis?

Both fibers and matrix are linearly elastic isotropic materials.23. What are assumptions made in FRP during analysis? Fibers are uniformly distributed in the matrix.

Fibers are uniformly distributed in the matrix.fibers and matrix are linearly elastic isotropic materials. Fibers are perfectly aligned in the direction. There

Fibers are perfectly aligned in the direction.materials. Fibers are uniformly distributed in the matrix. There is perfect bonding between fiber and matrix.

There is perfect bonding between fiber and matrix.the matrix. Fibers are perfectly aligned in the direction. The composite lamina is free of voids.

The composite lamina is free of voids.There is perfect bonding between fiber and matrix. 24. What is the difference between homogeneous and

24. What is the difference between homogeneous and isotropic material?

For a homogeneous material, properties do not depend on the location, and for an isotropic material the properties depends on location.

25. What are the types of problems associated in interlaminar stresses?

Three types of interlaminar stress problems associated with three types of laminates:

1. (±q) Angle-ply laminates

2. 0/90 Cross-ply laminates

3. Combination of angle and cross ply laminates.

26. Where the interlaminar stresses will be high?

Interlaminar stresses can be significantly high over a region equal to the laminate thickness near the free edges of a laminate. The free edges may be at the boundaries of a laminated plate, around a cutout or hole, or at the ends of a laminated tube.

27. Define rule of mixture.

The Rule-of-Mixtures model is used to describe three-dimensional solids having an arbitrary number of material phases with arbitrary orientations and volume fractions. Orientations are defined for each phase using a triad of space-fixed rotation angles in a 3-2-1 sequence. These angles rotate the composite material frame to the phase frame. The orientation of each phase is defined by starting with the phase frame aligned with the composite frame and rotating the phase material frame degrees about the 3-axis of the composite material frame, then rotating the phase frame degrees about the 2-axis of the composite frame, and finally rotating the phase frame degrees about the 1- axis of the composite frame. Rule-of-Mixtures composites are, in general, fully anisotropic.

frame degrees about the 1- axis of the composite frame. Rule-of-Mixtures composites are, in general, fully
frame degrees about the 1- axis of the composite frame. Rule-of-Mixtures composites are, in general, fully

28. What are hygroscopic strains?

The strain caused due to the swelling and contraction of moisture is called hygroscopic strains

29. How a laminate is constructed?

A laminate is constructed by stacking a number of laminas in the thickness (z)

direction.

30. How the tensile load applied to the discontinuous fibers transferred to them?

Tensile load applied to a discontinuous fiber lamina is transferred to the fibers by a shearing mechanism between fiber and matrix.

31. Define iso-stress and iso-strain.

 

Iso-strain and Iso-stress of a composite material, in an isostrain each

component has a uniform deformation, while in isostress each material has a uniform stress. The stress and strain, for isostrain and isostress, respectively, are in general “additives” but

depend on the moduli and volume fraction of each component.

 
the moduli and volume fraction of each component.   32. Define Micromechanics. The study of composite

32. Define Micromechanics.

The study of composite material behaviour wherein the interaction of the constituent material is examined in detail as part of the definition of the behaviour of the heterogeneous composite materials.

33. What are the advantages of Tsai-Hill failure criterion?

The advantages of Tsai-Hill failure criterion are:

The variation of strength with angle of lamina orientation is smooth rather than having cusps that are not seen in experimental results.The advantages of Tsai-Hill failure criterion are: The strength continuously decreases θ grows from 0 0

The strength continuously decreases θ grows from 0 0 rather than the rise in uniaxial strength that is characteristic θ grows from 0 0 rather than the rise in uniaxial strength that is characteristic of both the maximum stress and the maximum strain criteria.

The maximum stress and strain criteria are incorrect by 100% at 30 0 . 0 .

Considerable interaction exists between the failure strengths X, Y, S in the Tsai- Hill criterion, but none exists in the previous criteria where axial, transverse, and shear failures are presumed to occur independently.maximum stress and the maximum strain criteria. The maximum stress and strain criteria are incorrect by

UNIT 5

COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

1. What are fatigue properties of composite material?

The fatigue properties of a material represent its response to cyclic loading, which is a common occurrence in many applications.

2. What are the variables influencing the cycle to failure?

The cycle to failure depends on a number of variables, such as Stress level, stress state, mode of cycling, process history, material Composition and environmental conditions.

3. What is S-N diagram?

Fatigue behavior of a material is usually characterized by an S-N diagram, which shows the relationship between the stress amplitude or maximum stress and number of cycles to failure on a semi logarithmic scale.

4. When will the number of cycles to failure increase?

The number of cycles to failure increases continually as the stress level is reduced.

5. What is the common practice of specifying the fatigue strength of the material?

It is common practice to specify the fatigue strength of the material at very high cycles, say, 10 0 or 10 7 cycles.

6. Write the ASTM code for tension-tension fatigue cycling test.

The tension-tension fatigue cycling test procedure is described in ASTM D3479.

7. Name the two types of fatigue test on composites.

Stress-controlled and strain-controlled tests.

8. Write the formula for finding the maximum fatigue stress.

The maximum fatigue stress can be estimated using the following relation,

S= mlog (N) + b

Where

S = Maximum fatigue stress N = Number of cycles to fail a,b = constants.

9. What will be the effect of lower fatigue strength in flexure?

The lower fatigue strength in flexure is attributed to the weakness of composites on the compression side.

10. What is the effect of notches on fatigue strength?

The fatigue strength of a fiber-reinforced polymer decreases with increasing notch depth as well as increasing notch tip sharpness. Stacking sequence also plays an important role in the notch effect in fiber-reinforced polymers.

11. What is the damage mechanism during fatigue failure?

(a) Fiber breakage at high stress levels and (b) Matrix micro cracks followed by debonding at low stress levels.

12. Why strain-controlled test is expected produce a higher fatigue life than stress controlled test?

Because of less damage development in a continuously reducing stress field, a strain-controlled test is expected to produce a higher fatigue life than a stress- controlled test.

13. What are the factors influencing strength of bonded joints?

Factors (bonded joints): the ratio of lap length to substrate thickness, modulus of adhesives.

14. Write any two advantages of bonded composites.

1. Distribute the load over a larger area than mechanical joints.

2. Require no holes.

3. Add very little weight to the structure.

15. Why failure theories are not applicable to composite materials?

Fiber-reinforced polymers are not isotropic, nor do they exhibit gross yielding. Thus, failure theories developed for metals or other isotropic materials are not applicable to composite materials.

16. Write down the maximum strain theory.

According to the maximum strain theory, failure occurs when any strain in the principal material directions is equal to or greater than the corresponding ultimate strain.

17.

What are the basic joints of composites?

For composite laminates, the basic joints are either mechanical or bonded.

18.

Write any two advantages of mechanical joints.

1. Permit quick and repeated disassembly for repairs or replacements without destroying the substrates.

2. Require little or no surface preparation.

3. Are easy to inspect for joint quality.

19.

Write any two disadvantages of mechanical joints.

1. Require machining of holes that interrupt the fiber continuity.

2. May reduce the strength of the substrate laminates.

20.

Write any two advantages of bonded joints.

1. Require no holes.

2. Add very little weight to the structure.

21.

Write any two disadvantages of bonded joints.

1. Are difficult to disassemble without either destroying or damaging substrates.

2. Are difficult to inspect for joint quality.

3. Need surface preparation (cleaning, pretreatment, etc

22.

What are the basic failure modes in bolted joints? Basic failure modes in bolted laminates: (a) shear-out, (b) net tension failure, (c) cleavage, (d) bearing failure. Compositions of these failure modes are possible.

22.

Name the most widely used bonded joint.

The simplest and most widely used bonded joint is a single-lap joint.

23.

What are the basic bonded joints used in composite laminates?

Basic bonded joint configurations: (a) single-lap joint, (b) double-lap joint, (c) single and double-strap joints, (d) stepped lap joint, and (e) scarf joint.

24.

Write two important design considerations of bonded joints.

1. Increasing the ratio of lap length to substrate thickness h improves the joint strength significantly at small L/h ratios, the improvement is marginal.

2. Tapering the substrate ends at the ends of the overlap reduces the high normal stresses at these locations.

PREPARED AND PUBLISHED BY:

Prof. T. Varun Kumar M.E., (Phd).

Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.A.College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi, Coimbatore - 642 002.