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02.

2.1. ( )
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.

2.5.
2.6.
2.7.

1.
(
-)

. (pixel - picture
element)
-
.
16 256 .

1.
(
-)
1.1 RGB (Red, Green, Blue)

RGB32(RGBA) -8 , -8 , -8 , 8
RGB24 -8 , -8 , -8
RGB16(565 555) -5 , -6 5 , -5

1.1 RGB (Red, Green, Blue)

1.1 RGB (Red, Green, Blue)


- , RGB
( additivus,
).
:
, , , , .
, RGB
, . ,
,
, , ,
.

.
.
.
, , ,
. ,
.
- .
, ,
. ,
,
?

1.
(
-)
1.2 HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness). HSV (Hue, Saturation,
Value)., , .

-
, .
- ,
.
.
.
.
, .
.
, .
. ,
- .

1.2 HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness). HSV


(Hue, Saturation, Value)

HSV



,
.

HSB

.


HSB
.
- , ,
. HSB .
, , .
.
,
, HSB.
HSB RGB,

, .

1.2 HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness). HSV


(Hue, Saturation, Value)
1.2 RGB HSV
: (R,G,B) 0 1

.
:

If MAX = MIN (i.e. S = 0), then H is undefined.


If MAX = 0 (i.e. if V = 0), then S is undefined.
: (,S,V) 0 (H mod 360) 360 , 0 S 1 , 0
V1

1.
(
-)
1.3 CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK ,
, , ).

1.3 CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK )


.
, .
? , . .
, , .
, , ,
, , .
,
,
.

1.3 CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK )


, ,
- , .

, ,
() - CMY.
CMY (
) CMYK. (Black)
,
(Blue).
. ,
,
0 ( ) 100
( ).
-,
. ,
. ,
CMYK.

1.3 CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK )


1.3 RGB CMYK

1.
(
-)
1.4 YIQ (Y luminance, I - intermodulation (In-phase), Q quadrature ).
Y luminance, luminosity, luma -
I -
Q -

Chrominance,Chroma -

1.4 YIQ (Y luminance, I - intermodulation


(In-phase), Q - quadrature ).

1.4 YIQ (Y luminance, I - intermodulation


(In-phase), Q - quadrature ).
YIQ NTSC.
- .
YIQ RGB
Y= 0.299*R + 0.587*G + 0.114*B
I = 0.596*R 0.275*G 0.321*B
Q= 0.212*R 0.523*G + 0.311*B
R = Y + 0.956*I + 0.621*Q
G = Y 0.272*I 0.647*Q
B = Y 1.107*I + 1.704*Q

1.
(
-)
1.5 YCrCb (Y luminance, Cr - Chroma-red, Cb
Chroma-Blue ).
Y luminance, luminosity, luma -
Cr
Cb

Chrominance,Chroma -

1.5 YCrCb (Y luminance, Cr - Chroma-red,


Cb Chroma-Blue ).

1.5 YCrCb (Y luminance, Cr - Chroma-red,


Cb Chroma-Blue ).
YCrCb PAL SECAM.

- -. YIQ
33 .

YCrCb RGB
Y = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B
Cr = k1(R - Y)
Cb = k2(B - Y)
k1 k2
Cr = 0.5*R + ...
Cb = 0.5*B + ...
Cr = 0.5R - 0.419G' - 0.081B
Cb = - 0.169R - 0.331G + 0.5B
: (Y,Cr,Cb)
0 Y 1 , -0.5 Cr 0.5 , -0.5 Cr 0.5

1.
(
-)
1.5 YUV
Y luminance, luminosity, luma -
V
U
YUV RGB
Y = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B
U = 0.492(B - Y)
V = 0.877 (R - Y)
U = 0.147R 0.289G + 0.436B
V = 0.615R 0.515G 0.100B

R = Y + 1.140V
G = Y 0.395U 0.581V
B = Y + 2.032U

Chrominance,Chroma -

1.5 YUV
YUV (chroma
subsampling )

4:4:4

Y0 U0 V0 Y1 U1 V1 Y2 U2 V2 Y3 U3 V3

[Y0 U0 V0] [Y1 U1 V1] [Y2 U2 V2] [Y3 U3 V3]

4:2:2

Y0 U0 Y1 V1 Y2 U2 Y3 V3

[Y0 U0 V1] [Y1 U0 V1] [Y2 U2 V3] [Y3 U2 V3]

4:1:1

Y0 U0 Y1 Y2 V2 Y3

[Y0 U0 V2] [Y1 U0 V2] [Y2 U0 V2] [Y3 U0 V2]

4:4:4

4:2:2

4:2:0

YUV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YU

YV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YUV

YU

YV

YU

YV

1.5 YUV

4:4:4 High-end
(postproduction)
4:2:2 high-end
( ). : Digital Betacam, CCIR 601 / Serial Digital Interface
4:1:1

lower-end
and
consumer
applications.
. : NTSC DV

..

4:2:0 . : PAL DV, DVD, MPEG 2

1.
(
-)
1.6 LAB (L*a*b).
L luminance, luminosity, luma -
b

1.5 Lab
1931
,
Lab (L*a*b).
, HSB, RGB
CMYK.
.
L (Lightness)
- .
- .
b - .
,
,
,
.
Photoshop
Lab.
: Lab
.

2.

1.
(4-16) , .
. :
, , ..
2. ,
. :
, .
3. . :
.
4.
. : .

3.

1.
. :
.
2.
(
). :
CD-ROM. .
3.
. :
WWW

4.


1. .
2. .
.
3. .
.
4. . ,
.
5. .
.
6. ( ),
.
7. .

.
8. .
9. .

10. .
.

5.


. : D
S. D,
,
.

5.1

.
(BMP, TGA, RAS...)
.

5.1

,
.
.

5.2
,
S ( )
D, D .
:
.
NxN,
N:


N=3. N=1,
.

5.3
,
, D , :
(D[i], D[i+1], D[i+f]),
.

3x3 .
1

12

13

11

14

10

15

28

27

22

21

16

29

26

23

20

17

30

25

24

19

18

5.4
N-ro
- . - ,
. , - ,
, (1) . , M=N=2,
:
1 13 2 14 3 15 4 16
25 37 26 38 27 39 28 40

17 6

18 7

19 8

20

29 41 30 42 31 43 32 44
9

21 10 22 11 23 12 24

33 45 34 46 35 47 36 48


MxN, ,
,
:
, , ,
, .

5.5
, - ,
:

36 - 1, 12 - 2.

5.5
,
1: 1 29 28 27 26 22 21 31
2

30

25 23 20 32

24 19 33

18 34

13 14 17 35

10 11 12 15 16 36

,
2.

5.6

,
, ,
, .
:

, ,
( 9, 10, 14...),
180 . ( 45...48)
, ()
.

5.7 (-)
,
. ,
:
1

15

16

14

17

24

13

18

23

25

10

12

19

22

26

29

11

20

21

27

28

30

JPEG
( 8x8 ).

5.8
.
, 2x2
:

1
2

4
3

1
4

2
3

( )
,
- , ( ),

- ;

,

;

5.8
( ) ,
- , ( ),
- ;
,
;

.

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