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Popular Struggles &

• Won democracy in 1990.
• Formal power was with the King.
• Real power with elected representatives.
• 2001 – Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra
took charge.
• 2005 – Dissolution of Parliament.
• 2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the
• 7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists
& other organisations joined.
• 21st April, King conceded to all demands leading
to :
9)Restoration of Parliament.
10)Seizure of power from the Ruler.
11)To make Koirala Prime Minister.
• Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a
Fight against Privatisation of Water
2)World Bank pressurised Government to
give up control of Municipal Water
3)Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of
4)Company raised the price of water 4
5)4 day general strike by Labour and
Human Rights and Community leaders.
6)Government agreed to negotiate.
7)Power of the people forced MNC to flee
& made Government to concede to all
Two way roles of these
organisations are …

• Direct participation in
competitive politics
• Creation of parties contesting
elections and forming
Formation of
• Those organisations that
undertake activities to promote
their interest are called INTEREST
• Influence Government policies
• Do not aim at directly controlling
or sharing political power.
• Formed when people with common
occupation, interests, aspirations
or opinions come together to
achieve a common objective.
Pressure Groups…
Movements : Narmada Bachao
Andolan Women’s Movement
• Influence politics rather than directly
take part in electoral competition
• They are loose organisations
• Make informal decisions and are
• They depend on spontaneous mass
• Are united organisations
• Do not care much for mass
• Promote the interest of a particular
section or group of society
• Example : Trade Unions, Business
Associations & Professional Bodies
• Groups…
Represent a section of society
• Example : Workers, Employees,
Business Groups, Industrialists,
Followers of Religion & Caste Groups
• Aims : Betterment of their members &
not society in general
FEDECOR (Feracion Departamental
Cochabambina de Regantes)
• Represents some common or general
interest that needs to be defended.
• Members may not benefit from the cause
that the organisation represents.

Promotional Groups
• Promote collective good
• Aim to help groups rather than their own
• Group fighting against bonded labour is
an example
• They are also called public interest groups
BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities
Community Employees Federation)
• Made of Govt. employees that
campaigns against caste discrimination
• It addresses problems of its members
who suffer discrimination
• Its concern is with social justice and
social equality for the entire society

Movement Groups
• Issue specific movements and seek to
achieve a single objective within a
limited time frame
Single Issue
Nepalese Movement
• Specific objective of reviving the king’s
orders that led to suspension of

Narmada Bachao Andolan

• Specific issue of people displaced by
creation of Sardar Sarovar Dam
• To stop the dam
• Questioned all such big dams and
requirement of such dams
• Has a clear leadership and organisation
• Active life is short
Long Term & More Than
One Issue Movements…
• No single organisation controls
/guides such movements.
• All these have a separate
organisation, independent
leadership and different views
on policy.
Example :
• Environmental movement
• Women’s movement
National Alliance for
• Movement groups struggling on
specific issues are constituents
of this loose organisation which
co ordinates the activities of a
large number of people`s
How do Pressure
Groups & Movements
exert influence on
• Politics
They ? support and sympathy
gain public
for their goals by carrying out information
campaigns, meetings and petitions.
• They influence media by giving attention
to these issues
• Protest activities like strikes are done to
force the Government to take note of their
• Business groups employ professional
lobbyists or sponsor expensive
• They participate in official bodies and
committees that offer advice to the
• Interest groups and movements do not directly
engage in politics but seek to influence on
political parties
• Movement groups take a political stance
without being a party
• They have political ideologies and position on
major issues

Is their influence healthy?

• Pressure groups have deepened democracy.
• Governments can often come under undue
pressure from a small group of rich and
powerful people
• Public interest groups and movements perform
a useful role of countering this influence and
reminding the Government of the needs and
concerns of ordinary citizens
• Sectional groups prevents the domination of
one group over the rest
• They bring about a rough balance of power and