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1

1.1.
1.2. -
1.2.1. ,

1.3. -
1.3.1.
1.3.2. -

2 -
2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.4.1.
2.4.2.

2.4.3.
2.5.
2.5.1.
2.5.2.
2.5.3. -

2.6.

2.7.
3 ,

3.1.
3.2.
3.2.1. , (
)
3.2.2. ( )
3.2.3.
3.2.4. -
3.2.5. -
3.2.6. -
3.2.7. - ()
3.2.8. ()
3.2.9. - ( )
3.2.10.
3.3. (
1TU-TG.671, 3.2)
3.3.1. (IL)
3.3.2. (RL)
3.3.3.
3.3.4. ,

3.3.5.
3.3.6. , (PDL)
3.3.7.
3.3.8. ( )


3.3.9.
3.3.10.
3.3.11.
3.3.12.

WDM-
3.3.13. -
WDM-
3.3.14.
- WDM-
3.3.15. -
3.3.16. -

3.3.17.

3.3.18. -

3.3.19.
3.3.20.
3.3.21. -

3.4. ()

3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.5. - ,

3.5.1.
3.5.2. /
3.5.3. /

3.5.4. /
3.5.5. /

3.6.
3.6.1.
3.7.
3.8. -
3.9. ,

4
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.3.1. () ,

4.3.2. (SLM)
4.3.3.
(DFB)
4.3.4. DFB-
4.3.5.
(VCSEL)
4.4. - ()
4.4.1.
4.4.2.
4.4.3. ,

4.5.
4.6.

4.6.1. ()
4.6.2. ()
4.6.3.

4.6.4.


4.7.
4.7.1. DFB-
4.7.2. (DBR)
4.7.3. DBR- (SG-DBR)
4.7.4. VCSEL-
4.7.5.
4.8.
5
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4. PIN-
5.4.1.
5.4.2. InGaAs
5.4.3. (APD)
5.4.4. APD
5.5.
5.5.1. ,
5.5.2.
5.5.3. BER
5.6.

6
6.1.
6.2.
6.2.1.
6.2.2. ( )
6.2.3.
6.2.4. ()
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4. (PMD)
6.3.5.
6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.3.
6.4.4.
6.4.5.
6.4.6.
6.4.7.
6.4.8. -
6.5.
6.5.1. (PMD)
6.5.2. ,
6.5.3.
6.6.
6.6.1. ,
6.6.2.
6.7.


6.7.1. ,
ITU-T G.652
6.7.2.
, ITU-T G.653
6.7.3.
, ITU-T G.654
6.7.4.
, ITU-T
G.655
7 -
7.1.
7.2.
7.2.1. SONET
7.3. -
7.3.1. -
7.3.1.1.
7.4. EDFA
7.4.1.
7.4.2. (ASE)
7.5.
8
8.1.
8.2. WDM-
8.3.
8.4.
8.5. - (FBG)
8.5.1. FBG

8.6.
8.6.1.
8.7.
8.8.
8.9. ITU-T () ,
WDM
8.9.1.
WDM
8.10. WDM
9 SONET
SDH
9.1.
9.2. (SONET)
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3. SONET
9.2.4. / SPE
9.2.5. - (ADM)
9.2.6. (APS)
9.2.7. SONET
9.3. SDH
9.3.1.
9.3.2. SDH
9.3.3.
9.3.4. SDH
9.3.5. 51,84 /
9.3.6. SDH
9.3.7.
9.4.

10
10.1.
10.2.
10.2.1.
10.2.2. ITU-T ()
10.3. :
10.3.1.
10.3.2. 1
10.3.3. 2
10.3.4. 3
10.3.5. 4
10.4. , ,

10.4.1.
10.5.
10.5.1.
10.5.2.
11
11.1.
11.2.
11.2.1.
11.2.2.
11.2.3.
11.2.4.
11.2.5.
11.2.6.
11.2.7.
11.2.8.
11.2.9.

11.2.10.
11.2.11.
11.3.
11.3.1. -
11.3.2.
11.3.3.
11.4.

11.4.1.
11.4.2.
11.4.3.
11.5.
11.5.1.
12
12.1.
12.1.1.
12.1.2. -
12.1.3.
12.1.4. (Telcordia)
12.1.5.

12.1.6. (TSGR):

12.2.
12.3.
12.3.1.
12.4.
12.4.1. (APS)
12.4.2.

12.4.3.
12.4.4.
12.4.5.
12.4.6. (SHR) SONET
12.4.7.
12.5. (NOCC)
12.5.1.
NOCC
12.5.2. TLI
12.6.
SONET
12.6.1.
12.6.2.
12.6.3. ,
12.6.4.
12.6.5.
12.6.6. (DCC)
12.7.
13

13.1.
13.2.
13.3.
13.3.1.

13.3.2.
13.3.3. /
13.3.4.
13.4.

13.4.1.
13.4.2.

14

14.1.
14.2.
14.2.1.
14.3. -

14.3.1. AM -

14.3.2.

14.4. -

14.5.
14.5.1.

15

15.1.
15.2.
15.2.1. ()

15.3.
15.3.1.
15.4. -
15.4.1. ,

-
15.4.2.
15.5.
15.6.

15.6.1.
15.6.2.
16 ,
16.1.
16.2.
16.3. ,

16.3.1. ,

16.4.
(OTDR)
16.5. BER
16.5.1. BERT
16.6. (OSA)
16.7.
16.8.
17
17.1.
17.2.
17.3.
17.4.
17.4.1.
17.5.

17.5.1. MEMS
17.6. - (OADM)
17.6.1. OADM

17.7.
17.8. -
17.9.
17.10.
17.10.1.
17.11.
(MPLS)
17.11.1.
17.11.2. MPLS
17.11.3. MPLS-
17.12.

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( )]100
2.5.

/

: ,


(Neff)
(nd)
,
, ,
14

> 0,7 /2
(. )
72 2
1,469 1550
20
3,0
3,0

3 ,

3.1.
- ,
- .
- . (
):
1. ( )
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
(), , , (
) .
4. ( , MAN),
,
: ,
.
5. ,
.
, . ,
.
WDM/DWDM
. WDM (.
8).
-

( ) ().
:
-

(),

;
- ;
- - ;
- ;
- () ;
- () ;
- () .
, ,
. , .
. ,

( ). ,
, 0,1 ,
, 40 .

3.2.
3.2.1. , (
)


- ,
- .

3.2.2. ( )

. ,

.
3.2.3.
- ,
- ().
3.2.4. -
,
, ,
. ,

.
3.2.5. -
,
,
.
3.2.6. -
( ) ,
( )
.
3.2.7. - ()
() ,

, , .
3.2.8. ()
,
.
3.2.9. - ( )
,

/ .
3.2.10.

()

(, )
, (
) . :
- : ,
;
- : ,
( )
.

3.3.
( ITU-T G.671, 3.2)
3.3.1. (IL)
-
,

IL 10 log( P1 / P0 )

(3.1)

P0 , , P1
, .
1. -
ij ( i j)
(. 1.3.7 I 875-1).
2. WDM ij
( i j)
.

3.

() ij ( i j)
() (.
1.3.9 IEC 876-1).
4. -
.
,
,
, ,
. , , ,
.
.


, .
,
. IEEE (.
[3.10]) ,
, / ,
, .

3.3.2. (RL)
,
. ,
RL 10 log( Pr / Pi )

(3.2)

Pi , , Pr
, .
. ,
-
, . .
3.3.1.
3.3.3.
R
Pr Pi ,

,
, , :
R 10 log( Pr / Pi )

(3.3)

, ,

. , -
,
.
3.3.4. ,

- ,
, ,
. ,
, .

, ,
, . ,

.
, .
.
,
,
.
3.3.5.
i min i max ,
j ,
.
1. - ,

.
2. , , ,
, (
)
.
3.3.6. , (PDL)
,

.
3.3.7.

, ,
.
3.3.8. ( ) -

( ),
,
. ,
- .
:
BL 10 log Pob / Pib

(3.4)

Pob , ,
Pib . Pib , , , ,
, .
3.3.9.
- ,
aij
.
3.3.10.

,
. ij
( ) .
3.3.11.

( ),
.
3.3.12. -
WDM-
-
, n , ,
.
:
t11 t12
.
.
T
.
.

tn1 .

.
.
tij
.

t1n
.
.

tnn

tij - Pij , j,
i, i. ,
tij Pij / Pi

. tij .

3.3.13. -
WDM-
tij .

3.3.14.
- WDM-

a11
.
A
.

an1

a12
.
.
.

.
.
aij
.

a1n
.
.

ann

aij ( ),
j, , i, ,
aij 10 log tij

tij (. 1.3.6 IEC 875-1).

3.3.15. -
-
( ).
(
), 0
( ) (. 1.3.6 IEC 876-1).
t11 t12
.
.
T
.
.

tn1 .
t110 t120
0
t
.
T 21
.
.
0
tn1 .

3.3.16.

.
.
tij
.
.
.
tij0
.

t1n
.
.

tnn
t10n

t20n
.
0
tnn

tij tij0
. tij (
) , i j,
, , ij .
tij0 ( ) ,

i j, , ,
ij .

3.3.17. -

:
a11
.
A
.

an1

a12

.
.

.
aij

a1n
.
.

ann

ij ( ),
j, , i, ,
aij 10 log tij

tij .
, , aij0 10 log tij0 .

3.3.18. -

- ,
, i.
ELi 10 log tij
j

j, i
j . N
N ,
i (. 1.3.12 IEC 875-1).
3.3.19.
i
k
. :
CRik tik / tij
j

j (.

1.3.14 IEC 875-1).


3.3.20.
,
( ) .
3.3.21. -

S ,
sij ,
, ij
(. 1.3.21 IEC 876-1).
s11
.
S
.

sn1

s12

.
.

.
sij

s1n
.
.

snn

3.4. ()

()
(). ()
1-25 . ,
, (
),
. ,
.
( )
-

. :
- 0,04
, . , .
- ,
/, ,
.

(-

/).

, ,
. ,
, .
3.4.1.

. -
:
. ,
, .

, - . ().
, :
.
, . ,
, .

, .
3.4.2.1. .
:
1. - .
2. .
3. .
. 3.1.

. 3.1. (
Tyco Electronics, Harrisbuig, PA, [3.1]).
,
()
.
. (
). .
2,5 ,
-
1,25 .
, 0,1 ,
5.

, .
,
(OTDR).
.
OTDR. - ,
40 [3.2].

, .
, ,
.
-,
.

,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
(, ),
, (. . 3.2).

. 3.2. ( Corning Cable Systems, [3.2], .7.4, .7.4)


-, . -

(PC). ,
, . PC
. ,
. 3.3.

. 3.3. (PC) -
( Corning Cable Systems, [3.2],
.7.5, .7.5)

, , . ,
, , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
, .

, ,

). , ,
.
, , , ,
.
.
,
, ,

. ,
[3.3].
, ().
, .
,
, 40 . .
/,
. , , 200
600 .
3.4.1.2.
ST.
,
/.

,
. ST
SC.
ST 0,5 .
SC.
, . SC

.
.
SC
,
.
. SC (),
. ,
. SC ,
, .
(
,
). ,
. 0,4 .
FC.
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Company.

0,4 .
FC .
.
, ,
. FC ,
.
D4.
.
FC, 2,0 .
D4 0,4 .
568SC.

EIA/TIA-568,
.

SC. 568SC
, ,
SC. , ,
,
.
568SC 0,3 .
FDDI.
,
.
,
.
,
FDDI.
0,3
0,5 . FDDI
. , FDDI -
,
100 / (125 ) ANSI.
. ,
-,
, (, SC, FC, ST), ..
1,25 , 2,5 ,
. . 3.1 .

3.1
.
LC

MT-RJ

SC-DC

VF-45

6,25

0,75

0,75

4,5

,
,

1,25

11,1
5,7
14,6

2 RJ,

2,54,4
7,2
5,7
14
/

RJ

V-

2,5

11
7,5
12,7
/

12,1
8
21
GGP,

SC

RJ

.
0,3 0,6 .
. Performance Comparison of Small Form Factor Fiber-Optic
Connectors. Jean Trewilla, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights,
NY, [3.12], c.l ( IBM).
3.4.2.
, ,
. ():
1.

2.


( )
.
.
3.4.2.1.

6 1 .

.
,
.
, .
, ,
0,1 0,8 .
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,

, , .
3.4.2.2.

.
,
, ,
.

,
0,04 - 0,1 , .
.
: .
, ,
, , , . ,
, ..
.
,
.
. 3.4 ,
:
.

. 3.4. , . (
Corning, Inc., AN103, [3.4], . 1)

, (..
,

,
). , ..
,
, ,
.

. 3.5. ,
. ( Corning, Inc., AN103, [3.4], . 2, . 3)
. 3.5, (
) .
, , ,
).
,
MFD, . ,
0,04 -

, MFD, 9,30,5 , . , . ,
.

(MFD) .
. 3.5 MFD.
, .
.
, .

,

.

: ,
.
, ,
, . ,
Corning , , ,
.
.

.
,

.
,
, . .
.
, , , ,
. ,

.
.
.
/
.
X-Y.

, ,
, .
, V- .
.
:
1. ( ),
.
2.
(OTDR).
3. (LID)
( ).
4. .

5. V- .
, .
, .
, .
X-Y ,
.
. , (
) ,
. ,
, .
, ,
(OTDR). , OTDR,

.

(LID). , . ( )
. ,
, , , ( ) (
) .

,
.
. ,

.

,
, .
, . ,
-. V
V- , -.
.
.
,
.
. . ,
, ,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
, .

, .

() .
,
, : ,
. . ,
,
.
OTDR ,
.
OTDR . (
3.4.2.2 Corning - AN 103 (6/99) [3.4])

3.5. - ,

3.5.1.

(), , ,
(). ,
, (couplers).

.
(combiner) ,
.
, .
(splitter) - ,
.

.
(tree coupler) ,
() .
.

(star

coupler)

, , ,
.
,
.

) ,
: 1310 1550 .
.

. ,

.

(tap)


- .
.
(- HFC)
,
.
-
.

.


,
.

, .

.

(LMDS).
LMDS,
-,

.
3.5.2. /
. 3.6. , , , ,
.
,
Z, (),
, , .

. 3.6. .
, Z
.

,
, ,
, .
.
, , , , ,
: Z
, ;
- ; -
. .

, .
.
( Z, . . 3.6) .

50:50, , . ()
. ,
10 , , , 13 , .
. , . 0,7 . ,
13,7 .
, , .
,
, . 3.7: , Y-,

, ..

. 3.7. . (
Australien Photonics CRC, , [3.5])

. 3.8. . ( Australien Photonics CRC, , [3.5])


. 3.8 , , .
, . 3.8, . . , , .
100%, ..
,
, .
.

.
,
. ,

: 1300 1550 .
, 1550 , ,
1300 . , 1300
(100%) ,
. 1550
(100%) .
, .
. 3.9.

. 3.9. ,
. ( Australian Photonics CRC,
[3.5])

. 3.10. Y- 1 2. (
Australien Photonics CRC, [3.5])
. 3.10 , Y-, 1x2. , ,
. Y-
, , ,
.

.
Y- 1x4
1x8, . 3.11.

. 3.11. Y- . (
Australien Photonics CRC, [3.5])
3.5.3. /
. 3.2
- , .
3.2
/ )

()
4,0 log2n
()
-40
()b)
1580/1360
, ( ) 0,1(1+ log2n)
()

()
1,0 log2n
a)

1480/1260

50

, 2n 2 n 32
.
b)
;
, ,
, , ,
.
. . 6.2, . 11, ITU-T G.671 [3.8]

3.5.4. /
. (coupling
ratio), (splitting ratio),
, ,
, .

.
.
.
.
,
, .
,
,
.
,
Telcordia [3.9], .
-WDM , 1310/1550
WDM- , , SONET
,
:
1260 - 1360

WDM

1480 - 1580
SONET

:
1280 - 1335

1525 - 1575

DWDM :
1285 - 1325

1530 - 1566

, - (c

),

1290 - 1330

1530 - 1570

, , 1600 .
. . 3.3.1.
. -
, ,
, .
- ,
.
,
( , ,
(.. )
[3.10]. : ), (EMF).

- ,
,
[3.10].
.


.

,

. 3.3.9.
Telcordia (. [3.9]) L i

j k, j k
i.

, 10 /,
:
L 0,8log 2 N

N .
- :
L 0,5log 2 N

DWDM -.
, , .
,
, ,
.
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
( ) ,
().
, .

,
.
. 3.3.3.

3.5.5. /

:
.
. 3.12.

. 3.12. . (
Australian Photonics CRC, [3.5])
, ,
. , . 3.12, , ,
G, H, I, J, L.

.3.13 . .
( Australian
Photonics CRC, [3.5])


1N, 22.
- . ( )
.
. . 3.13. .

3.6.
,

,
,
, EDFA (. . 7).
,
( . . > 40 ),
, ,
, .
:
- ;
- ;
- (ORL);
- , (PDL);
- ;
- ;
- ;
- (PMD).


, ,
().
,
,

.
WDM,
,
,
EDFA. ,
[3.7].
(VOA) ,
.
3.6.1.
, 15%.

( ):
3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 .
, , 40 .
, , 1360 1580 , 1260 1480 .
1310-1580 . , (PMD), 0,3 .

3.7.
,

.
,
EDFA.
,
EDFA.

:
-

, 20 .
, 3
.
- , <1 ,
: 35 (
) 60 ( ),
.
- (PMD).

, PMD
( 50-100 , 1 = 10-15 ),
.
, PMD, ,
.
- , (PDL).
.

.
.
, ,
.
,
(YIG), ,
45.
, 45
. , ,
.
, , ,
[3.6].
, 30 .
40 .

3.8. -


, :
. ,
, .
:
- , ;
- ,
;
- ;
- .


WDM/ DWDM . ITU-T G.671 [3.8]
:
: 1,5 ;
: 40 ;
: 40 .
. . 8.

3.9. ,

.
, (),

,
.

. . , , , ,
,
.

,
.
.

, .

.
, -//-,
. ,
. ( -).
-
.
.
,
- .
-.

. ,
, ,
, :
- ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
. 3.3
, ITU-T G.671.
. 17.

3.3
, .

,
,

,

,
,

a)

1na)

2,5//log2n

2x2

-40

-40

// 0,1(1
+ log2n)

20//10

0,25

//
0,4 log2n

b)

50

(//b) :

, b
b)

25 ,

.
. 6.7, ITU-T G.671 [3.8].

4.1.
. 1.1, , -
, ( ),
, (. 5),
(. 2), (. 3).
1-5 .
, , () ().
,

, . ,
.
. 4.1 - -
.

. 4.1. - - .
,
: . ,
, , , ,
. VCSEL

4.2.
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
[4.1],
- , .
- .
.
, (30-60 )
.

, ,
, ,
. . 4.2
.
- , ,
- n-.
.
,
. .
,
1% .

. 4.2. ()
()

4.3.
,
.
( 155
/). ( , ,
LM):
- (MLM) ;
- (SLM);
- (DFB), DFB-;
- DFB- ;
- (VCSEL).
,
.

4.3.1. (MLM) ,

, -,
, . 4.3.

,
1 .
, , , .

(FWHM) 4-5 .

. 4.3. ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, ,

),


.
,

.
, ,
/, ,
, .
, ( )
,
,
.
, ,
, , , ,
.
, , , , 1
[4.2].
4.3.2. (SLM)
SLM- ,
, ,
MLM, . MLM-

.
, ,
.
, ,
, 1% . SLM-
, ,
30 , .

4.3.3.
(DFB)
DFB-
.
, .

( -InP
n-InGaAsP )
, . .
DFB- ,
,
.
( , 0,1%, , [4.1])
. ,
, ,

(RIN) - , DFB-).
,
. -
.
(. . 3),
. ,
, , (. . 3)
.
DFB-
(MSR).
(. . 4.3).
MSR > 30 DFB-

. , (.. ).

(FWHM) 0,2 ( 25 ).
DFB- , ,
MQW (c
),
(. [4.3], . 103). ,
(. . 6).
1 /. DFB-

. ,
.
DFB- ,
. DFB-
, .
, (PIN- , . . 5)
; (), ; ,
.
25.
DFB- . 4.4.

. 4.4. DFB-.

4.3.4. DFB-
, , , ,
, . , , - , 1,
0. .
-
, (.. )
.
( - ), .
1 0 -

() . 4.5.
,

(CW) .
CW - , , ..
.

. 4.5. (DFB) () ,
().

, ,
. ;
0 1.
:
1 - - (M-Z);
2 - c ;
3 - c ()
MQW.
- (Z) ,
LiNbO3 . M-Z- Y-.
LiNbO3 . , /
Z- ( )
.
,
, , . ,
, ,
. , , ,
.

(ER)

.
ER 20 (13)

75 /.
.
60
/.
() .
.

-,
,
.
() ,

. ,
. ,

MQW-,

.
ER 15
2 ,
/. , 5 /
.

20

/,

60 /.
,
, .
,
.
4.3.5.
(VCSEL)
MLM (), SLM

DFB . ,
() ,
,
3:1. ,
.
,
. VCSEL
.
. 4.6.

. 4.6.
MLM, SLM DFB ,
VCSEL.
VCSEL
p-, , n-.
.
,
In+Ga+As+(Al ). , In+Ga+As+
1310-1550 .
.
VCSEL ( ) ,

( 1 ),
.
,
, .
( )
VCSEL 2-3 .
VCSEL, , ,
DFB-, VCSEL ,
. DFB, . VCSEL
, ,
WDM-.
VCSEL- . 4.7 [4.1, 4.3].

. 4.7. VCSEL-

4.4. - ()
4.4.1.
, ,

1550 DFB-
( 40 ) MSR ( ).
, (
)
( ,
,

),

. ,
, -.
, ,
.
, (. . 6),
BER [4.1].
4.4.2.
, , .. , .
. ,
, .
. ,
. -
.

, .

, ,
1, ,
0.

. BL
( ) -
. -

, -6 1550 .
BL < 100 (/ ),
2 / L 50 .

, (.
.

6).

. , ,
, DFB-, . ,
, ,
, , [4.1].
4.4.3. ,
. 4.8
.
, t.
:
( ). ,

, .
.

.
.
. , ,
. , .

.

. 4.8. ( [4.2], . 3.12)

4.5.
[4.1] , ,
, /
( ) ( 500
/). :
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
,
, .
.
/ ()
, . -

, , ( , ).
BL.
.
. ,

(ISI).
,
.
,
. , d :
d 10 log f b

fb .
:
d 5log10 1 (4 BLD ) 2

(/), L (), D (//) , ( ).


[4.1] d
BLD = 0,1, d = 0,38
BLD = 0,2, d = 2,2
BLD = 0,25, d =
(MPN)

.
.
,

, . , , ,
, ,
. ,
/, , ,
.
,
k, 0 1. mpn - MPN.
(< 0,5 ), , ( BLD ) < 0,1.
, 1300 [4.1].
, 10
D = 1. = 2
. , MPN, , BL <
50 (/). , = 2 /,
25 . MPN
.
.
DFB- 1,55 ,
, MPN . MPN DFB MSR- ( > 30 ).
4.3.
,
.
rex , rex ,

. , rex P0 / P1 ,
0 1.
,
. < 2 ,
0,1 [4.1].
,
. ,
,
.
,
,
. - ,
, -. ,
,
.

, .
,
,
30 .
, ( , ).

.
: . ,
1 , 0 .
,
,
.

,
0.
, 0
0, 1 - 1,
:
rex P0 / P1

,
:
EX 10 log( A / B)

1,
0.
PIN -, rex

[4.8]:
0,5

rex

, 3

0,4

0,3

0,2

2,2 1,7 1,0

0,1 0,07 0,05 0,02


0,5

0,3

0,2

0,1

4.6.

4.6.1. ()

, 0,01 0,1 ( -20 -10 ).


, :
1. :
) 120;
) 30.
2. : 30-80 .

: 850, 1310
1550 . , : 850
1310 .
, ;

.
( -), . ,
, ,
.
, 155 / .
. . 4.1

.
4.1

, (25)
(NA)
/



2-50
0,1 - 0,6
3 ()
30-60
1,2%/ ()
0,5-0,8 /
0,4 / ()

. , [4.2, 4.4, 4.5].


4.6.2. ()
, ,
(> 155 /)
.
+3 - +10 (1-10 ).
(., +20 ) .


, , EDFA (. . 7),
500 . ,
,
DWDM (
). DWDM
.

DWDM. , ,
,
. ,
,
, > 80 ,
.
, DFB (.,
Lucent D2500), , -
(., Lucent Lithium-Niobate) Lucent EDFA
28 . 0,0 ,
6 .
2
.
:
0,0 - 6 - 2 + 28 = +20 .
Lucent , +
18 .
4.6.3.


(ELED)

. 4.2.
4.2
ELED )

ELED FP (MLM)- DFB-

, 850/1310
1310/1550
1550

-10 - -15
0,0
0,0
,

30-60
<3
<0,1
,

< 0,155
>2
> 10)
, /

MTBF),
109
108
107
)


VCSEL

850/1310
0,0
<3
2

108

(FWHM).
,
.
)

40 /,

.
)

MTBF - . ,

, .
. [4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7].
4.6.3.1.
. 4.9
.

. 4.9. , .
( ).
, .
4.6.4.


4.6.4.1.
2,5 / 488 Lucent Technologies

488

1500

.
Lucent ,
360 640 2,5 /.
DWDM 50 .
. 4.3. .

4.3
SLM (DFB) -

G.957
+3

+2 - +6

1280-1480;
1500-1650

> +20 1,2)

+3 - -2
0,5


16003)
1260-1360;
1260-1480;
1500-1580
1500-1660

24-30

24

24

10

8,2; 8,3

11

0,5

1,0

1)

> 11


2)

WDM, , .
3)

1550

EDFA.
. ITU-T G.957, [4.1, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8].
4.6.4.2. DFB- 10 /
OKI
.

4.10

DFB-

OKI.
- (MOVPE).
(DFB)
-. MQW-

, InGaAs,

InGaAsP.

, InGaAsP,
, 1480 ,
.
.

DFB-
. 350
, 200 .
30 .

. 4.10. DFB-
OKI. (. [4.7], . 1)
10 - 20 .
- 4 (+6
) , 100 ,
- 10 /, -3
16 . , 0,3-0,4.
. ,
10 /, 2
( ) .

( ,

).

.
.
, .
(), InGaAs/GaAs
- (BP-MESFET), 0,2 .

. 4.11. 10 /. (. [4.7], . 2)
. 4.11
, 10 /.
NRZ- (
, . . 4.7.) 0,8 .
2,7 (Vpp),
( 20 80% ) - 32 30
.
9,5 - 3 , 15 .
1,8 . , 10 /.
. . 4.12 (
) . DFB-
, , , ,

,
, .

. 4.12. ( ) .
( OKI Electric Co., . [4.7], .3)
.
60%.
12 , 0,6 . . 4.13
, ,
. -3 9 ,
15 12 .
10 /
10 / ,
NRZ ().
EDFA . 80
, - 1554 , -

( 1550 ).
54,4 /.
.
,
.

. 4.13. . (
OKI Electric Co., . [4.7], . 4)

. 4.14. . DSF -
. ( OKI Electric Co., . [4.7], . 5)
. 4.14 .
. 4.15

10-9

-30,7 .

. 4.15. . (
OKI Electric Co., . [4.7], . 6)

4.7.
-
DWDM.
,
-. . 17.

DWDM, : , (., 100, 50

25 ) (., 2,5; 10 40 /).


, -,
. , . , ,
.

:
1. - (OADM);
2. (MAN);
3. (), ;
4. ().

, :
- ,
- ,
- ,
- ,
- ,
- .
,
. .
.
.
, . DFB- (. 4.3.3 4.3.4),
(DBR-), DBR (SG-DBR), VCSEL- (. 4.3.5)
(ECL-).

4.7.1. DFB-
. 4.3.3, DFB-
,
.
, ITU-T (. . 8, . 8.3).
, , .
- . .

.
DFB- 5 ; ,
, DFB-
. , ,
, .

. , ,
.
, .
.
4.7.2. (DBR)
DBR-
,
( ) ,
. 4.16.
, . .

, . DFB DBR- , ,
, DBR-, DFB-
.

. 4.16. . (
Iolon Inc., . [4.11])

DBR-

40

. ,
.

.
.
4.7.3. DBR- (SG-DBR)
SG-DBR- ,

. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
. ,

, .
SG-DBR- . ,
.
.
4.7.4. VCSEL-
VCSEL-
. 4.3.5.
.
,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
4.7.5.
ECL- -

,
.
,
.
. 4.17 ECL- , ,
(Littman-Metcalf).
- (. . 4.3.1).
.

,
,
. MEMS
( ), ,
.
:
,
.

. 4.17. .
, MEMS
,
,
.
. ( Iolon, Inc., . [4.11])
ECL- , -, .

,
. ,
, , DBR-.
.

.
.
MEMS .
,

MEMS

, ()
, L- .
[4.9] ,
ECL- MEMS
(DRIE),
MEMS.

.

. MEMS ,
, ,
.
,

, ,
. ECL- MEMS,
DRIE, 10
13 . 20
40 .
. 4.4. ,
.

4.4
.


(DFB)

-
;


- ;
1)

;


- ; 2)

;
-


; ;
; ;
; - 2)

-



3)
3)
/ ;
/ ;
;
;
850/1310

; ; - ;
RIN;
OADM
;


(DBR)
(DBR)


(VCSEL)

1)

DFB- > 20

, DFB- .
2)

> 25
3)

/ . / .

VCSEL ,
/ , , (~ 150 )
/.
. Iolin Inc., San Jose, CA [4.11].

4.8.

, . ,
, 1 0 ,
.
-,
. , ,
,
, .

, ,
.

,
,

.
.
.
. 4.18
. .
1. NRZ- ( ).
.
, ,
, , EIA-232 ITU-T V.10 V.11.
- (), 1

, 0 - .
NRZ 1 0
0 1. - ,
,
, .
NRZ
,
(
).

. 4.18. .
2. RZ- ( ).
,
1 0, . 4.18.

,
. (, ,
, 0 .
.
,
.)
3. NRZ- ( ).
NRZ, , 1
0 .
4. RZ- ( ).
NRZ, ,
(.. )
, .
5. . .

. 0
( 0 1), 1
( 1 0). ,
.
, . , RZ
.
,
RZ ,
. , .
4.18, ,
NRZ.
, ,
,

(.. ) .
NRZ,
, ,
(
[4.8]).
. ,
, RZ
.

,
. , RZ
,
NRZ .
, RZ
,
NRZ.

5.1.
,
, , ,
( ). ,
, ,
.
, , , .
, ,
.
:
PIN- (APD). PIN
/ , /
(I) -
. ,
, ,
- . .

5.2.
(
),
( ).
- p-i-n
,

; .

(D*)

,
. D* /,
1 ,
.
,
, . ,

.
, ( ) .
(NEP) -
, ,

/.

; NEP,
.

( L W ). L
, W .

.

( ), (
)
. ,
, ,
, .
(
), ,
,

, .
, ,
,
, ,
.
-
, ,
.
, ,
, .
< 10 [5.1].

, .
, ,
/, ,
, .
, -
,
, .

, , .

D *( ) , ,

.
,
;
.
,
,

.
-
,

, 0,63

, 0,37

( ),
0,707 .
( ),
10 90%
90 10% .
, .
,
( %)
( 20 50% ).
1998 New
England Photoconductor Web- www.netcorp.ici.net, . [5.2].
(F f) f = S/Nin /S/Nout
, f .
FdB = 10 log(f).
,

.
- , . [5.1].


: 1 = 1 , [5.3]
(q): 1,610-19 ()
: 1,3810-23 (/), [5.4], -228,6 ,
-198,6 [5.5].
: (h) 6,62610-34 (), [5.3]
, ,
1500 :
1 = 7,51015 /,
( [5.6], . 270, (5.1)).

5.3.
PIN-
(APD).
.
:
E = hv,

(5.1)

h (. ), a v .
.

, .
,
(5.1). . , . 5.2
/.

, %,
,


: :
(%) 1, 24 105 R /

(5.2)

R (/),
.
,
,

80%.

100%

.
: Web- www.west.net/centro/tech2.htm (. [5.7]).

.
/ /
.

()
()
.

, ,
, , .
R
,
, -. ,
R /1234 (A/)

(5.3)

.

q :
R q / hv

(5.4)

hv , . (5.1), q - , 1,610-19 ().


(NEP)
.
, ,
, . NEP :
NEP = ()/ (/).

(5.5)

NEP .
, NEP
. NEP /-1/2. , ,
, NEP . , NEP .
. ,
, Ip
Pin. :
I p RPin

(5.6)

R (. (5.3)).
,
APD PIN- ( ), :
1. .
2. (
).
(5.6) . ,
.
, .
(5.6) , Ip
.
[5.1]

():
s2 2q ( I p I d )f

(5.7)

q , Id , f
.
(5.7)
(Is):
I s 2qI d f

1/ 2

(5.8)

Id () [5.7].

. It
:
I t 4kT f / Res

1/ 2

(5.9)

k , , Res
( ) , f
[5.7].
[5.1]
( )
T2 4k BT / RL f n f

(5.10)

T /, fn - ,
RL ,
kB .
/ (S/N SNR).
SNR PIN-.
SNR = /

(5.11)

, .
(5.6) I p RPin . (5.11). (5.7)
(5.10), (5.11).

:
SNR R 2 Pin2 / 2q RPin I d f 4 k BT / RL f n f

(5.12)

R q / hv PIN-.

, ,
. , ,
, (5.12), SNR,
, :
SNR RL R 2 Pin2 / 4k BTf n f

(5.13)

. ,
1
, 0 (
, , 0
).
(. . 4.8).

.
:
Tr ln 9 tr RC

(5.14)

tr , RC - RC.
RC,
.
[5.6].

, ,
,
.
,

8106 / - .
PIN- 20 .

- 0,2 c (. [5.6]).
1 /,
, RC,
.
tr RC
. (
) [5.1]:
f 2 tr RC

(5.15)

,
. , .
.
0,2-1

0,04-0,5

InGaAs.

5.4. PIN-
,
.
.
PIN- InGaAs PIN-. . 5.1() , . 5.1()
InGaAs. ,
,

(850 ), InGaAs -
, 1310 1550 .

. 5.1().
. ( Silicon Sensors, . [5.9])

. 5.1().
InGaAs. ( Silicon Sensors, . [5.8])
5.4.1.
,
, .
, , ,

(
, /, . [5.3]). ,
.

. 5.2. . (
Web- [5.7]).
. 5.2 .
-.
- . . .
- - -.
,
. ,
.
- , - .
, , . .
, - ,

, - .
,
.
- .
, . ,
,
.
,
.
, -
.
.
, . . 5.3
.

. 5.3.
. ( A Primer on Photodiode
Technology Web-, . [5.7])
- ,
. -,

- -. ,
.
.

, , .
,
7 . Isc.
- 0,2%
.
:
, (
) ( ).
, ,
, .

. ,
,
.
5.4.2. InGaAs
. 5.4 PIN-
InGaAs.
( 1310 1550 ).
. 5.4 , InP -,
InGaAs i- InP n-.
InP 1,35 , InP
0,92 . , i-,
InGaAs, 0,75 .
1650 . ,

InGaAs, 1300-1600 . ( ), ,
. PIN-
. , 0,6 0,9 /
60-70%.

. 5.4. PIN- InGaAs. (a)


; () ( ). ( 1TU, . [5.10],
. 3.18, . 52)

5.4.3. (APD)
APD PIN- .
. 5.5
APD. .


.
,
. ,
, 100 (20 ) APD
10-40 InGaAs APD. ,

.

. 5.5. APD. ( ITU, .


[5.10])
5.4.3.1. APD
,
APD PIN-, .
/ APD :
I s MR0 (1) Ps

(5.16)

R0 (1) APD = 1
1; - APD Ps .
VR APD
.
APD, PerkinElmer, . 5.6.

. 5.6. - APD. ( Avalanche Photodiodes: A user Guide (. 2)


PerkinElmer, . [5.11])
APD.
, APD : ) )
. APD
. APD .
PIN- , IDB
, APD.
ID :
I D I DS I DB M

IDS .

(5.17)

APD (F) PIN-.


APD, ,
iN 2q I DS I DB M 2 F B1/ 2

(5.18)

q , .
,
, APD
, ,
. APD- iN (total )

. APD
:

1/ 2

iN ( total ) 2q I DS I DB M 2 R0 (1) M 2 Ps F B

(5.19)

F , , , IDS , IDB -
.
[5.11] ,
, APD / (SNR), F1/2
, PIN- . ,
APD
, APD
/ , PIN-.
NEP , SNR, ,
.
, SNR ,
-

. APD 100 1000, InGaAs APD 30


40.
F APD.
5.4.3.2. APD
, APD, ,
300 1700 . APD
300 1100 , APD
800-1600 , a InGaAs APD - 900-1700 .
InGaAs APD , ,
, 1700

.
5.4.3.3. APD
(SAM APD)
APD .

. ( InGaAs - 0,75 ),
,
, ,
.
APD
(SAM APD).
,
APD.
. InP,

InGaAs

InP - . . 5.5 5.7.


InP (1,35 )
.
950 .
SAM
APD, . , APD (
), ,
. PIN-,
APD InGaAs/InP .
APD .

.
. :
- ;
- ;
- .
(> 2,5
/) .
, 10 /
7-8 ,
.
10.

80 .
RC 8 .
APD ,
, (..
~ 10)

,
. APD, ,
-26 R 10-10.
GaAs
(-).
5-6
PIN-. . 5.7
SAM APD.

. 5.7. SAM APD. (


Epitaxx, Inc., . [5.12])
5.4.3.4. APD
. APD,
. 5.6,
. , APD
R0 (1)
= 1. , ,

= 1,

. APD,
/ .
, APD, (
) APD
. , ,
,
.
( InGaAs APD):
RMIN (1300 ) = 9,0 /, VOP = 50-90 , = ~10.
. (5.19) ,
APD ( )
, . .
InGaAs , ,
:
ID (R = 9,0 /) = 10 (), ~ 10,
i (R = 6,0 /, 1 , 1 BW) = 0,8 /1/2 (), ~ 5.
5.4.3.5.
, APD
. F. F1/2
, ,
APD (
),
, ,
.

, k, k, ,
(k < 1).
F ,
(McIntyre) [5.13],
. , F :
F k EFF M 1 k EFF 2 1/ M

(5.20)

,
k M, F. kEFF
k APD.
F
, .

.

APD,
F.
k
, APD.
( APD).
, ,
, k .
,
, ,
, ,
APD.

, .
,
( ).
kEFF APD

.
, k < 0,1 > 20, :
(5.21)

F 2 kM

APD F :
F= MX,

(5.22)

X F . ,
InGaAs APD k.
. 5.1 k, X F InGaAs APD.
5.1
k, F , InGaAs APD

(k)

InGaAs

0,02
0,002
0,9
0,45

0,95
0,7-0,75

(F)
150
500
10
10

()
4,9
3,0
9,2
8,5

. 5.4.3, ,
[5.11].
/ APD. APD ,
, . ,
APD ,

SNR RL R 2 / 4k BTf n f M 2 Pin2

(5.23)

PIN , , 2 .

5.4.4. APD
(< 622 /) APD

PIN-

. , 2,5 10
/, APD
PIN - .
InGaAs/InP APD,
, 7
PIN- 2,5
/ ( ) 5-6 10
/.

5.5.
. 5.8 -
. PIN- APD .
.
5.5.1. ,
. 5.8
, (PIN- APD) .

. , ,
,
. .
.

. -

RL.
(. . 5.8()).

. 5.8. () - , () , ()
.

RL

. . , ,
.

,
, .
,
( ).
, ,
() .
, , RL,
.
.
. 5.8() .

RL

. RL
,
G .
G ,
.
,
. ,
.

.
,
,
, ,
.
.
.
. ,
,

,
.
. 5.8 .

.

, ,
1 0. NRZ
1/, . , NRZ 1 /
1 .
1 / 1 c, 10 /
0,1 100 .

. , ,
.
( ) 10 , ,
R 10-10, 34,0 . 26 .
, , 8 ,
.
. ,
.
5.5.2.
, ,
.
. 5.9() ,
- . . 5.9()
, .
,


.
,

5.9().

.
, , ,
. 5.9().

. 5.9(). . .

. 5.9(6). 622
/, NRZ,
( ) .

:
-
. ,
,

.. R.
.
, .

. 5.9(). - , 622 /,
NRZ, 15 . , -
. 1
. ( Agilant Technologies, Inc.)
-
( ). ,
. 5.9(), .
, .
- .

,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
,
TIA/E1A-526-4A (. [5.18]),

.
5.5.3. R
-
,
.
, R
, .
10-9 10-12, , /. , Sprint
10-12, Agrawal - 10-9 [5,1],
MIL-HDBK-415 [5.14] - 10-9, ITU-T G.957 - 1010

, a Telcordia TSGR [5.16] - 210-10 ( DSX).

, , . ,
, , ,
. ,
, (-) , , , 100, R 210-12 ,
R 10-10, .
. 5.10 -
. , .
R ,
( - 10 /). ,
, ,
1 , ,
. . 5.11
, 10 /.

R
.

. 5.10. BER
.

. 5.11. BER
10 / 350 /. ( Discovery Semiconductor, . [5.17])
. 5.2 PIN APD.

5.2
BER .

155 /
2,5 /
622 /
155 /
622 /
2,5 /
2,5 /
155 /
10 /
10 /

R
-10

110
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10
110-10

()
-33
-26
-27
-35
-28
-23
-32
-38
-16,3
-26

Alcatel, PIN
Alcatel, APD
Alcatel, PIN
Alcatel, PIN
ITU-T G.957
Lucent, PIN
Lucent, APD
Fujitsu, PIN
Discovery, PIN
Epitaxx, APD

5.6.
, . 10,
.
.
R . BER, , ,
10-10 10-12,

.
: (1) , (2) .
- :
, PIN- ,
? , ,
,
.
. ,
,

, .
. BER.
: (,
, ), , , (, PIN-)
PIN- APD.
, , PIN , APD. PIN-
, APD, , .
10 , APD.
, .
. 10.

6.1.
.1 ,
(), .
,
, ,
. 1980- 1990-
.
.
,
WDM ( DWDM), ,

.
.
, , - (FWM).
, , , ,
.
,
: 2 +3 .
.
WDM, , , DWDM, .

+20 , ,
WDM.
,
. -

, , 40
/ .

. ,
. ,
, ,
. .
.

. , ,
, , ,
,
.

6.2.
:
1. .
2. , ( ).
3. .
4. , .
6.2.1.
,
,
, (
6.2.2). ,
,

. (SiO2)
< 0,4 .
,
> 7 . (),
, .
,
.
0,03
/

[6.1].

,
.
6.2.2. ( )
.

.
: , , , ,

.
, ,
,
. ,
() 2730 ,
1390, 1240 950 ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
, 50

1390 .
6.2.3.


: ,

, . 1550 ,
.

. .
. 1600
.
6.2.4. ()
- .

. 2.3. - ,
.
6.2.4.1.

. ( )
,
.
. ,
,

.

( )
: , .

.

,
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
.

.

V- ,
.

6.3.

. ,
:
1. .
2. .
3. (

).
4. (PMD).
6.3.1.
2.2 , ,
,
.
. 1, (1.6) , ,
, :
M V2 /2

(6.1)

V , (1.5). V=
2,405 , , F ,
. . 2.4
.
- ,
,
NRZ .
, V < 2,405.
, ,
IE [6.2]: ,
,
() .

- (11).
,
,
.
, 50%
.

6.3.2.
(DM) ,
.
, (n):
= c/v,

(6.2)

, a v -
. ,
(SiO2). ,
, .
IEEE [6.2] ,
, .
, ,
,
. .
, , , .
.4 ,
30 100 , DFB
0,1 1,0 . , -
, DFB
.

. 850
,
(, 865
, 835 ).
1550 , ,
(, 1535 ,

1560 ).
1310
. ZD, DM
, DM .
,
1276 . 1270-1290
,
.


[6.1].
,
30-40 ,
1310 .
-
.

. .
, ,
DFB
, ( )
1,2 /. 2,5
/. ,
: , .
.
,
. - NRZ,
. ,
( ) = 1/( )
:

(6.3)

- 1 / 1 ;
- 10 / 100 c;
- 1 / 1 c;
- 10 / 100 .
, .
, !

.
1550 ,
. ,
1550 .
6.3.3.

. ,
(, > 1 /),
, , , ,
DFB- ,
.
[6.4] .
, , ,
,
( ).
, ,
, , .. . , (DM) (DW) ,
.
, , , -

, . (GVD),
.
/- (/(), //).
, 1
1 . , 1550
17
//.

( ). , , , .
, , D,
//:
D DM DW

(6.4)

B T < 1,
(6.5),
T , ,

( ). , NRZ
( ) 1/( ).
, ,
B L D 1

(6.5)

( D , ). (6.5) [6.1] ,
. T
T L D

(6.6)

L , - .
B L ( L)
(6.6). SLM DFB

, < 1, ,
1 / .
.
.
1550 .
.
ITU-T G.653 [6.3].
, ,
DW ,
.
, D
1300 1600 .
(
), ITU-T G.655,
6 //,
, 1530 1565 -
WDM.

,
, (/).
:
-
;
- (,
, , ,
).
WDM
( ):
- ;

- .
:
- ( D);
- .

WDM.
6.3.4. (PMD)

11. , ,
.
, - .

, .

.
. [6.4] ,
.
,
, , .
, .
,

(
[6.1],
[6.4]). . ,
. ,

. .

) .
,

.
, (
) , .
,
.
PMD [6.4].
PMD . ,
PMD, PMD
.
, , /1/2. , ,
PMD, .

.
PMD.
PMD :
- (
);
- ( );

- ( WDM).
PMD
[6.4].
6.3.5.

- , (DCF),
.
6.3.5.1. , (DCF)

, .
.
, ( D)
, ,
,
. DCF ( D)
-200 // [6.1]( DCF D -2040
//,
120 ).
DCF . (L2)
:
L2 D1 / D2 L1

(6.7)

L1 , L2 DCF, D1 D2
DCF.
DCF. -, , DCF, ,

. 0,4 1,0 / . -, 1
DCF, 10-12 . -,
[6.1], , DCF ,
.

,
DCF.
6.3.5.2.

, .
, -
,
.
,
. .

[6.1].
. ,
.
- .
.
,
( ),
, .
- .

,
1550 , , .
, ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
,
[6.1, 6.4].

6.4.
7 :
1 - (SBS);
2 - (SRS);
3 - (SPM);
4 - ();
5 - (Ml);
6 - ;
7 - -.

. , ,
,
, .
,
,

/,

, . ,

.
?
.
6.4.1.

,
.
,
WDM .

, , ,
WDM DWDM.
: , (
) .
.
. , -, ,

, :
, , , , .
6.4.2.
,

. ,
, .
, . ,
1550 (
,

-) 11 .

(SBS)
. , SBS
. ,
5-10
.
20-30 .
G.653 SBS ,
G.652.
G.653. ,
, . SBS

. WDM.
6.4.2.1.
SBS ,
. . 6.1
,
.
. ,
, ,
SBS :
Pth 21

KAeff p B

gLeff
B

g , eff
, K , ( G.652, K = 2). B p

. Leff ,
Leff

1 exp L

, a L .

. 6.1. (. . II.3-1/G.663, . 11, ITU-T G.663, [6.10])


SBS Pth p .
, ,
SBS , :
Pth 21

KAeff
gLeff

6.4.2.2.
, SBS, ,

,
, SBS.
6.4.3.
(SRS)
, .
- ,
( 10 15 )
1550 .
, ( 7
). WDM

.

,
. ,
200 .
[6.1] , WDM
,
.
,
.
, 1 .
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

SRS

. ,

, .
/
[6.4].
6.4.3.1.
SRS , ,
. , SRS
, ,
+30 . ,
WDM
/,
, SRS.
,
WDM, ( ),
. [6.10]
, , , ,
1 ,
,
:
Ptot Leff 40 []

(6.8)

Ptot WDM (), (), , Leff , . SRS , G.653 , ,


G.652,
G.653. SRS .
WDM.
6.4.3.2.

. WDM
,
SRS. SRS
. [6.10] , SRS,
,
WDM.
6.4.4.

, .
,
(SPM). . 6.2,
. ,

) .

.

. 6.2. .
(. . II.3-6/G.663, ITU-T G.663, . 17, [6.10])

6.4.4.1.
,
.
,
.
.
SPM
WDM .
,
,
.
SPM

.

, ,
SPM. WDM ,
, SPM,
.
G.652, SPM,
,
,
, G.655
.
.
, ,
.
6.4.4.2.
G.653
SPM. -

1000 , SPM
, G.652.
,


G.655.
6.4.5.
, , ,
()
. WDM.
,
. ,
.
, ,
.

i ,

j ,

ijk ,

:
ijk i j k

(6.9)


ASE ,
. ,

, ( ) , . -
(. . 6.3),
, . ,

, , . ,
2 2 D t2 L / c 1

(6.10)

, D
( ), t
, L , . (
,

(6.10)).


. :
1 2

, gmax, :
g max 2 g P1 P2

(6.11)

g .

. 6.3. , , 3-
. (. . II, 3-2/G. 663, . 12, ITU-T. G.663, [6.10]).
6.4.5.1.
WDM , , DWDM,
. DWDM N

N 2 ( N 1) / 2

(6.12)

, WDM 24
, - 224 , ..

, , ,
G.653 [6.3]. , ( )

( ).
G.655 ( ) .
G.652 [6.5], , .
:
- ;
- ;
- .
200 ,
100 .

.

. ,

, ,
,
.

, .

. , G.652,
, , G.653.

,

( ).
.
WDM,
G.653, ,
.

. 6.4. ,
,
.
+8 ,
.
, ,
.

. 6.4. .
(. . II.3-3/G.663, .13, ITU-T G.663, [6.10])

,
ASE- ,
. ASE, ,
, , , .
6.4.5.2.
,
. ,
, G.655.
,
. ,
G.653,
,
.
, ( ) . , ,
, ,
. [6.10] ,
,
,
. ,
,
( )
. ,

,

.
,
DWDM G.653,
.
, , ,
.
(.. )

.



.
6.4.6.
(MI)
. [6.10]
, (..
),

, . 6.5.
,
.
,
1/ 2

max

8 2 cn2 P0
3

Aeff D( )

2 - , Aeff , 0 - ,
D() , - .
max ,

, g max 4 P0 / Aeff .

. MI
(
) . 6.6.

. 6.5. 1 . - 100 , 7
. Ml.
(. . I1.3-4/G.663, . 15, ITU-T G.663, [6.10])

. 6.6. Ml , 30 ( 0,24
/) 5
+16 . (. . II.3-5/G.663, . 15, ITU-T G.663, [6.10])

MI ,
.
6.4.6.1.
(MI)
/ , ,
(ASE). ,
gmax
, , MI

.
/ , MI

.
,
, .
ASE-
.
6.4.6.2.
MI

.
MI. ,

, .

Ml,

6.4.7.
6.4.7.1.

1550
10 /,
1000 . , , !

, . - ,
,
.
.
.

.
[6.1]:

- (GVD) (SPM),
. 6.4.2, (
, ;
, ,
b1, . [6.2].). ,
.
,
- (-) .
,
( 2 ) - ,

,
, C > 0. , 2 < 0 1550 ,
, 2 C < . , ,

, , ,
,
, , ,
, .

.

.
,
.
, RZ ( ),
NRZ, . RZ
( ), .

?
- .
.
, .
, . -
(, EDFA)
.
- . ,
, ,
(ASE), . . 7.
- ()
. ,
-

.
.

R.
6.4.7.2.
, ,
, G.652, G.653 G.655. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
6.4.7.3.
,
.

,
, .

.
6.4.8. -
WDM, DWDM, () ,
,
.
, , ,


.
,
, .
6.4.8.1.
, ,
, G.652 G.655.
()
WDM.
6.4.8.2.

WDM/DWDM. [6.10],
WDM

/ , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
5 ,
100 ,
. ,
,
.

. 6.1.

6.1
.

(),

-
()


> ~10
:

,
()


()


(SRS)

f-nf ()
f = 12
= 70
(1310 )
= 102
(1550 )

> ~1 (1
)
>~1

WDM

(SBS)

(FWM)

f n f
f = 13,2
(1310 )
f = 11,1
(1550 )

f 4 f1 f 2 f 3

> ~5
(


(
)

()

AM/


WDM

> ~10 ,

G.652
(

WDM

0)

: Table 11.1 / G.663, .20, ITU-T G.663, [6.10]

6.5.
6.5.1. (PMD)
. 6.3.4, PMD.
6.5.1.1.
PMD
, (ISI).
- 1
0,4 ,
. [6.10]
.
(. [6.10]), ,

,
,
.
,
, 0,1 . ,
0,1 ,
, 10-9,
1 .
, [6.10] ,
/,

(,

, ),
. ,
, ,
, ,
(. ).


, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
. .
. ,
, ,
.
6.5.1.2.
,
, ,
,
, .
,
() .

,
( ).
,
.
,
.

0 0,5 / km

, .
.
,
.
, ,
.
,

1
5 /.
(FDM).
6.5.2. ,
, (PDL),

.., .
, ,
, . , ,
PDL, .
6.5.2.1.
,
, PDL. ,
. PDL , . , ,
, PDL . , , , . , PDL ,


, .
/ Q
. ,
/ Q
. .
PDL
. ,

.
6.5.2.2.
-, , PDL
. ,
/, ,
.
/
. PDL
ITU-T ().
6.5.3.

()

, .
,
. ,
. ,
, ,


, ,
. ,
, .
.
.
.
, .
6.5.3.1.
,
,
. ,
/ ; PDL,
Q (). ,
, ,
.

.
.
, .
, . , , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
PDL . , ,

, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
.
, ,
( )
. ,
.

. ,
,
. , ,
/ .
Q .
6.5.3.2.

.
, . [6.10]

.

. ,

. .
,
. , PDL
.

, , ..
. ,
/ ,
.

.
,
, , ,
. ,
.

6.6.
6.6.1. ,
(. . 7.4.2),
, ASE, ,

. , ASE
, , ,
, , ASE
,
. [6.10] ,

.
ASE
. ASE
,
ASE, .
,
.
. ASE ,
,
, .
6.6.1.1.
ASE / ,
( ) , ASE,
/ .
. ,
. ,
.
, ASE,

,
(. . 6.6.2). , ,
, ASE
, .
ASE ,
,
. , /
.

6.6.1.2.

ASE

, , ,
,

( ). ,
ASE:
1. ASE.
2. , , .
, 10
. ,
ASE . . [6.10] ,
ASE, .
WDM
.
,
,
. ASE, ASE. WDM,
.
, , ASE.

,
WDM. [6.10]
. , ,
, .


,
3 .
6.6.2.
(
ASE ) ASE .

,
.
2-3
. .

[6.10]

,
.
,
, WDM.
6.6.2.1.
,

ASE.
,
.
,
. / ,
,

. ,
, .
WDM/DWDM, ,
( ). [6.10]
, 5
~3 , ~15
6 . WDM
, . , , ,
.

EDFA,
, . , ASE
. . 6.6.2.2.
6.6.2.2.
/ , , .
ASE,
, PDL .

, ,
,
, .
, . -

/.

ASE
.
ASE- , ASE
, . FWHM < 1 .
ASE-
ASE-. , ,
, ,
.
WDM , ,
.
, , . ,
. ,
, ,
. , EDFA, ASE , EDFA,
-1530


/
-

.
6.4 6.6 Appendix II, ITU-T
G.663, . [6.10].

6.7.
4
:
1. .
2. (DSF).
3. (NZ-DSF).
4. / (DFF).
:
1. (DM),
.
2. (DW),

, .
.
, 1300
. . ,
.
. 1 2,

, .
(

) 1310 .
DW
, ,
.
1550 ,
. ITU-T G.653,
G.652.

. 6.7. . ( Siemens, . [6.9], . 4.11, .48)



,
1300 1600 . .
6.7
(1), (2)
(3).
ITU-T G.655.
,
,
.

. . 6.8 ()

(..

), . 6.8()

(/ ).

. 6.8. (
), () ; ()
. (
Siemens, . [6.9], . 4.12, .49)
. 6.9
. . 6.9()

( ), . 6.9()
. 6.9()

, . . 6.10
,

(
) . 6.10(). . 6.10()
W- ( ).

. 6.9. , ()

( ); () ; ()

. ( Siemens, . [6.9], . 4.13, .49)

. 6.10. , ()

( ); () W- (
). ( Siemens, . [6.9], . 4.14, .50)
6.7.1.

ITU-T G.652
ITU-T G.652 [6.5]
, 1310 ,
,
1310 . 1550 ,
. ITU-T G.652

. 6.2.
6.2
ITU-T G.652


(1310 )

8,6 - 9,5

10

, 9

125 2

1
(1310 )

< 2%

1260 1270

< 1

100
37,5
1550

< 0,5 / (1310 )


< 0,4 / (1550 )

- 0 . S0max =
1300-1324
0,093 /2/

:
1288- 1339
3,5 //
1271 - 1360
5,3 //

< 0,5 /

. ,
ITU-T G.652 [6.5].

1550
D1 ( ) :

4
D1 ( ) S0max / 4 0min
/ 3

S0 .
6.7.2.
, ITU-T G.653
ITU-T G.653 [6.3]
1550 ,
.
1550
1600 , 1310
, .
ITU-T G.653 . 6.3.
6.7.3. ,
ITU-T G. 654
ITU-T G.654 [6.8] ,
1300
. 1550
1500 1600 . ITU-T G.654 . 6.4.
6.7.4.
, ITU-T G.655
ITU-T G.655 [6.6] ,

,
.

DWDM.
1500 -1600 . ITU-T G.655
. 6.5.
6.3
ITU-T G.653


(1550 )

7,8 - 8,5


10 %

125 2

1
(1550 )

< 2%

1270

< 0,5

< 0,35 / (1550 )

S0max < 0,085 /2/


100
37,5
1550
< 0,55 / (1310 )
D ( ) 0 S0 , -


1525 1575

3,5 //

1550
0

. ,
ITU-T G.653 [6.3].

6.4
ITU-T G.654


(1550 )




( =
)

10,5

125 2
1
< 2%
< 1600

1530
)
(cc)
< 0,5


10%

1550
> 1350

< 0,22 /

S0max < 0,07/2/

20 //



< 0,5 /1/2

100
37,5
1550
1550
1550

400 10
/

. ,
ITU-T G.654 [6.8].

6.5
ITU-T G.655


(1550 )





8 11

125 2
1
< 2%
1480
< 0,5
< 0,35 /
0,1 6,0 / /
< 0,5 /1/2

10
%

1550
1470
100
37,5
1550
1530 1565


400
10 /

. ,
ITU-T G.655 [6.6].

7 -

7.1.
- ()
1980-. ,
1 0. 1980-
, -
, , - .

, , ,
, .
, . , . ,
.
;
, . .

. .
, .
- ,
, . , 1989
, , - . . -

20 -
,
, ,
.
WDM,
.
,
, ,
(EDFA), . ,

.

7.2.

, ,
.
.
. ,
- .
. . 7.1 .

.
,
.
. (. . 10
.)
Telcordia [7.8] ,

,
. ,
. ,

.

. 7.1. -
. 7.1 .
,
,
. , 1,
1, ,
, 0.

. ,
1 0,
.
PIN-.

SONET. SONET,
.

SONET , -

, . ,
, 0 +3 . , - - /
( ,
- ), , 20-25 .
, .
,
. ,
, .
,
, . ,

.
,
& (, )
SONET SDH ,
. ,
.
.
,
- ,
.
. ,
.
, - ,
, .

:
1. ,
.
2.

.
, , (. . 13,
. 13.8).
.
7.2.1. SONET
SONET, ,
Bellcore ( Telcordia) TR-NWT-000917, Issue I [7.9].
,
. 7.2.
SONET OA&M. Bellcore .
, () , ,
. . 9,
. 9.2.3. SONET RGTR ( SONET -
Bellcore)
RGTR, , ,
, .
(STS-1, SONET . . 9, . 9.4)
. 7.2.
(. 7.2) STS-1,
STS-N,

, (1 2),
1 STS-1.

. 7.2. SONET STS-1. (.


[7.12], . 2-33)
: 1 - ,
BIP-8, E1 - ,
F1 - , DCC -
, Dl, D2 D3. SONET RGTR
BIP-8 , F1
.
, OA&M, RGTR
DCC
() 192 /. , , 1 -.
. 7.3 -
(SONET STE) (RGTR). ,
, : (/ ),
1 0,
.
, ( )
1 0. ,

1, El, Fl, Dl, D2


D3. 1 ,
.
.
Bl, El, Fl, Dl, D2 D3. : BIP-8 ,
1 SONET STE RGTR.
, (/) ,
.

. 7.3. (SONET STE) (. [7.9, 7.13])


, . 7.3 AIS
( ). AIS (1 2), STS-1 (C1)
IP-8 ( 1). AIS El,

Fl, Dl, D2 D3, . AIS


( 1) STS-N
( STS-N . . 9, . 9.2.1.2).

7.3. -
(),
:
, .
.
,
, (EDFA).
,
.

. 7.4.
. 7.4 - EDFA.
- .
, , . EDFA
980 1480 .
, . 7.4,
,
/, ..

.
(),
.

, ,
. EDFA

1525 1565 . ,
, WDM
.
,
WDM
, WDM
. , , WDM 16 .
16 . ,
,
.
(, 700 )
,
.
7.3.1. -
- :
, . . , , ,
, .
EDFA. ,
,
.

7.3.1.1.
:
, (TW).
.

. ,
. ()
,

.
,
, .
,
, ,
(.. ).

80 19 , -3
- 50 .
.
() (MQW),
.
5-7 [7.1].

(), . 7.5. . 7.5()


.
,

- .

. 7.5. - : () ; () (); ()
.
. 7.5() ().
,
+15 - +20 .
, ,

, , WDM.
. 7.5() , .
,
.
.
.

,
, , .

, . 7.5.
1310 , EDFA
. , EDFA
1550 .

(.7.5()), ,
, , , . /
.
( 5-7 )
.
, .

(, . 7.5()), ,
< 10 . ( 5
) .
() ,
.
: ,
( WDM),
. EDFA ,
, ,
1550 .
7.3.1.2. , (EDFA)
EDFA .

,
1550 . WDM.

, .
, ,
, , , . ,
500 3500 . . 7.6
- EDFA.

. 7.6. - EDFA
EDFA, . 7.6,
: , 3+, .
.

. EDFA .
7.7.
980 1480 .
EDFA 600-700 .
GaAs ,
11 /.
EDFA.
. 7.4,
. . 7.8

, . . 7.8() ( . 7.4)

( ). . 7.8 ()
( ).

,
.
,
,
(ASE). ,
.

. 7.7. EDFA.
40 , 30 . ( EXFO,
[7.2], . 2.21, . 26.)
, , . 7.8(), . 1480 , - 980 .
.
1480 ,
, 980

. 7.8. EDFA. ( [7.3], . 5.7, . 97)

EDFA
+16 5-6
.
, +26 .
, ,
.

(, , )
ASE,
[7.2].
. 7.8()
,
.
, ,
980 1480 .
. 7.1.
7.1
EDFA

1480
InGaAsP/InP - -

1)

5 /
- 5,5
+20

980
InGaAs
10 /
3-4,5
+5

,
20 (1470 - 1490 )

50-200

,
2 (979-981 )

10-20

1)

1480 .
. [7.3], . 5.5, . 106.

7.3.1.3. EDFA
EDFA.
: EDFA
, ,
.

, .
: 1525-1560
.
EDFA ,
. 7.9.

. 7.9. EDFA
. (. [7.4, 7.14])

WDM. ( ) EDFA ,
WDM .


(. . 7.9). 1530-1542 .


WDM. , ,
, - ,
. 6.
,
. .
( )
,
.
EDFA ,
DWDM, . 7.10.

. 7.10. EDFA
, DWDM. (
Corning, Inc., . [7.12])
EDFA
,
1540 , EDFA .
, , EDFA

. ,
1480 , 980 , EDFA
. 980

. ,
,
[7.12].
7.3.1.4.

()

35 1550 .
200 , 0,25 /.
0,35 /,
DWDM
400 .
.

, (EDTFA),
90 .
1550
, ,
(TDFFA) (PDFFA).
TDFFA 1470
1650 . , ,
1310 .
EDTFA,
NTT Laboratories (), ,

1561-1611 , 50 . -

25 6
. NTT
EDTFA
1570-1617 , . [7.5], . 56-64.

7.4. EDFA
7.4.1.
7.3.1,
EDFA
.
.
.
WDM/DWDM. ,
,
, - .
EDFA in out. ,
.
GdB 10 log Pout (c ) Pase (c ) / Pin (c )

(7.1)

Pase .
,

ASE

GdB (7.1).

. ,
. ,
30 20

[7.2]. ,
.
, EDFA,
, -3
.
. EDFA, :
- ,
.
, .

,
.
,
. , , , ,
,
.

, ( )
[7.2].
7.2.
EDFA : 1536 1550

1535 - 1536

1550 - 1554

38-43
2
5,0
+ 15

38-41
4
4,25
+ 15,8

. 7.2
: 1536 1550 .
.
.
EDFA IN
. INO, Quebec, Canada [7.13].
7.4.2. (ASE)

(ASE).
.

,
. ,

.
,

.
.
Fn G nsp :
Fn 2nsp (G 1) / G 2nsp

(7.2)

nsp N 2 /( N 2 N1 )

(7.3)

a N1 N2 - ( ) .
(7.2). ,
3
, sp = 1.

Fn 3 6-8
[7.2].
ASE , , , :
N out ( ) N ( ) G ASE

(7.4)

: 1) Nin ( ) 2)
N out ( ) .
, , ASE . , , G
, , ASE
[7.2].
,
/ , EDFA, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( );
-
, , . ,
. IEEE, . [7.6],
, , , (
) , .
(
ASE-ASE). ,
ASE

, ASE , ,

. ,
, ,

, ,
.

, ()
ASE.
,
. , .
EDFA
.

7.5.
[7.10] , ,
( )
( )
(
).
(D-RAT);
,
.
.
,
.
. 7.11
. [7.11]:

(-) WDM
. .
.

. 7.11. - ( Corning, Inc., [7.15])



,
, .
, [7.11],
3,75 .
,
, WDM/DWDM.
,
. . 7.12

20 ,
13,2 . ,
. ,
.
200 , . 7.12,
7,78 ( -

) 3,5 . ,
( )/( ) =
3,5/7,78 = 0,45 , . 7.12.

. 7.12.
1443 100 200 .
30 (1530-1560 ), . [7.10, 7.11,7.15].

()

WDM;

EDFA

ASE.
. 7.13 DWDM 32
, / (OSNR) 125
: 1)
+ EDFA, 2) EDFA. ,
4,2 /.
/
125 LEAF

. 7.13. DWDM 32 ,
,
EDFA, EDFA
,
4,2 . ( Coming, Inc., [7.10, 7.11])

8.1.
[8.1] /
, , 4 18
. , , . :
1.
.
2.
.

WDM,
, . - WDM .
( , ).
, 1310 , 1550 . ,
.
.
1550 , () . , ,
WDM, .
. 8.1.

. 8.1. - WDM. : 1 = 1310 2 = 1550 .


. 8.1 . ( )
, , ( . 3.5) (
). , . 8.1,
,
. 1 2.
Coupler
, ,

Splitter, Coupler ,
.
, ,

.
. 8.6. WDM
.
.

8.2. WDM-
-
WDM. . 8.1,
- .
- , ,

.
:
.


. . 8.2.

, .

,
.

. 8.2.
, .
WDM
EDFA. (20-25 ) -

EDFA ,
,
, . ,
() 6 ,
12 . WDM
.
3 , 6 . .
, 1530 1565
EDFA. ITU-T
200/100/50
25 . ITU-T
:
F 193,1 m 0,1 ()

(8.1)

193,1 - , , . . 8.9.
1530-1565 , 2004
DWDM 160 , 40 /.

8.3. -

()

.
. 8.3.
, :
m 2d cos

(8.2)

, a d .

.

, ,
, ,
. . () ,
.

. 8.3. - (. [8.2])
- - ,
-. ,
. ( )
,
.
, .
, .
Q
.

,
.
,
.

50-100,

(F = 100 97%
, F ~ 1000).
. 8.4.
[8.3].

. 8.4. -

8.4. -
()
3- 3 , . 8.5.
,
(
,

).

. 8.5.

T ( ) , .
:
T (v) cos 2 v m

(8.3)

m
, a v .

,
.
[8.3] , ,
m , ,
.
, m 2m vch , , vch .
1

10-
, -,
1600.
.
- WDM
[8.2].

8.5. - (FBG)
. 8.6 ,
.
.
d. , , . d
. ,
.
, :
d nB / 2

(8.4)

, B - ; d , ,
.
, . = 1 (
), d = B /2, = 2 ( ), d = B .
.

. 8.6. ( ,
[8.2, 8.3])

(FBG)
,
.
. FBG ,

, , ,
.

, ,
, ,
. ,
.

. 8.7. . 1550
, d 1 10 .
. 8.7 .
,
.

() ,
/4. ,
.
,
, [83].
FBG ,
- (OADM), FBG
,

.
-FBG , ,
, . . . 8.8. FBG
,
,

EDFA.

. 8.8. : - FBG , ,
. FBG -
FBG , . .
. 8.1 FBG. DWDM . . 8.9 . 50
30 .

8.1

(100 ) (50 )
WDM
WDM

1530-1560
1530-1560
980
1310
1480
1550
0,05
0,05
0,05

ASE
1525-1545

0,05

99%

99%

1 99%

0,6 , FWHM

0,3 , FWHM

0,6 , FWHM

10

30

30
20 )

30

30

30

30
20 )

30

30

(1)
,
(2)
,
(3)

(1)
,
(2)
,
(3)

(1)
,
(2)
,
(3)

(1)
,
(2)
,
(3)

. Sumitomo Electric Lightwave Corp.,


[8.4]

. 8.9.
. ( Sumitomo Electric Lightwave Corp., [8.4])
8.5.1. FBG
8.5.1.1. FBG
,
FBG, .

,

.

FBG .
EDFA
WDM. ,
,
, (, 20 ).
EDFA . ,
WDM,
.
, , 32
. , ; , 32 .
, EDFA. , (
) 32 .
EDFA
.
,
,
. FBG,
980 1480

,

FBG

.
8.5.1.2.

FBG. , EDFA
1530-1560 ,

FBG.
,
, EDFA, , ,
WDM.

. 8.10. DWDM
, () , () , () , - .
(. Lightwave [8.10], . 2, . 191)
8.5.1.3. FBG

6.3. ,
, ,
, ,
, , , .
- ,
DWDM, , ,
-.
. 8.10 DWDM,
, .

8.6.

,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
[8.1]. , ,
, ,
. ()
, , , .
12
4 , 3 .
1 .
,
. 116 -

14,5 .
:
[] = 0,5 + 3,5 log2 N,

(8.5)

N [8.1].

. ,

EDFA
.

(, 50 ).
,
-
WDM, 16-32 .
.
8.6.1.
, , .
, .
,
1550-1625 , :
- : < 1,0 1,5 ;
- : 35 ;
- : 40
- : -20 +70.

8.7.
(AWG)
.
, .

. 8.11. .

InGaAsP/InP,
WDM. AWG
. 8.11. , WDM
,
() .
,
, .
,
. ,
,
.
, AWG (

AWG . [-21],
. , . 11.1.6.3).
100%. ,
WDM, ,
.
. 8.12 AWG,
-.

. 8.12. , - -.

8.8.
,
, :
12.
,
. ,


,
.
, . ,
14,
DWDM 50 , 4
200 .
,
. . 8.13.

. 8.13. .

,
.

. ( Bob
Shrine, Wavesplitters Technology, Fremont, CA).
, , - .
,

:
, , .
[8.9] ,
-.
3-
. ,
( ITU-T)
(. . 8.9). ,
,
, ,
, .

(..
),
. ,

, .

,
() ,
. ,
,

.
.
/
-

. . 8.14.

. 8.14. ,
-.
.
: , -
, ,
. ( Bob Shrine,
Wavesplitters Technology, Fremont, CA [8.9])

- ,
, 0,6 1,6 .
- .
8.14. 0,6 ,
0,5 > 50% .
, < 25 ,
() .

/ . 8.2.

8.2

/

50
< 0,6
(< 0,4 - )

< 0,2
> 11
0,5
> 20
3,0

> 12 ( 10 )

< 10 / ( 10 )
PDL
< 0,1

Bob

Shrine,

50
< 1,6
(< 0,8 - )
< 0,4
> 10
> 17,5
> 22 ( 10 )
< 10 / ( 10 )
< 0,1

Wavesplitteis

Technology, Fremont, CA [8.9].

8.9. ITU-T () ,
WDM
. 8.3
50 100 .
ITU- ITU-.
ITU-T G.692 Annex (. [8.6]),
:
, , , 2,99792458108 /.

8.3
50

()


()

196,10
196,05
196,00
195,95
195,90
195,85
195,80
195,75
195,70


() 100

196,10
196,00
195,90
195,80
195,70

195,65
195,60
195,55
195,50
195,45
195,40
195,35
195,30
195,25
195,20
195,15
195,10
195,05
195,00
194,95
194,90
194,85
194,80
194,75
194,70
194,65
194,60
194,55
194,50
194,45
194,40
194,35
194,30
194,25
194,20
194,15
194,10
194,05
194,00
193,95
193,90
193,85
193,80
193,75
193,70
193,65
193,60

195,60
195,50
195,40
195,30
195,20
195,10
195,00
194,90
194,80
194,70
194,60
194,50
194,40
194,30
194,20
194,10
194,00
193,90
193,80
193,70
193,60

1532,29
1532,68
1533,07
1533,47
1533,86
1534,25
153464
1535,04
1535,43
1535,82
1536,22
1536,61
1537,00
1537,40
1537,79
1538,19
1538,58
1538,98
1539,37
1539,77
1540,16
1540,56
1540,95
1541,35
1541,75
1542,14
1542,54
1542,94
1543,33
1543,73
1544,13
1544,53
1544,92
1545,32
1545,72
1546,12
1546,52
1546,92
1547,32
1547,72
1548,11
1548,51

1538,77
1529,16
1529,55
1529,94
1530,33
1530,72
1531,12
1531,51
1531,90

8.3

()


()

193,55
193,50
193,05
193,00
192,95


() 100

193,50
193,00
-

192,90
192,85
192,80
192,75
192,70
192,65
192,60
192,55
192,50
192,45
192,40
192,35
192,30
192,25
192,20
192,15
192,10

192,90
192,80
192,70
192,60
192,50
192,40
192,30
192,20
192,10

1554,13
1554,54
1554,94
1555,34
1555,75
1556,15
1556,55
1556,96
1557,36
1557,77
1558,17
1558,58
1558,98
1559,39
1559,79
1560,20
1560,61

1548,91
1549,32
1552,93
1553,33
1553,73

.
.

, .
. A.1/G.692, ITU-T Rec. G.692, [8.6].
8.9.1.

WDM
ITU-T 193,10 .
, -
AFR.
100 ,
50 .
ITU-T G.692.
EDFA.
,
, -

.
, ,
. ,
( ) ,
ITU-T G.692.
193,10 ( AFR)
,
/
. , ( ) He-Ne, ,
He-Ne, .
AFR .
- WDM;
-
WDM;
- ;
- / .
. / AFR
.

ITU-T.
: 8.9.1. Appendix II, ITUT Rec. G.692 [8.6].

8.10. WDM
. 8.4
ADC, a . 8.5 - ADC.
.

8.6

/ ADC. . 8.15 16 DWDM ADC.


8.4
DWDM ADC.

,

1 (),

3 (),

1),
1)

4
200

8
100

15
100

32
100

0,7

0,3

0,3

0,3

0,8

0,4

0,4

0,4

1,5

2,3

3,3

5,3

. ADC, [8.8].
8.5
DWDM ADC.

,

1 (),

3 (),

20 (),

1),

()2),
1)
2)

4
200

8
100

15
100

32
100

0,7

0,3

0,3

0,3

0,8

0,4

0,4

0,4

1,5

0,8

0,8

0,8

2,0

2,8

3,8

5,8

30

30

30

30


, .
. ADC, [8.8].

8.6
/ ADC.





,

0,1
0,5
0,0012 /
1,0
-45
0,2
-5 55
Corning SMF28

. ADC, [8.8].

. 8.15. 16- ADC


( ADC, [8.8]).

9 SONET
SDH

9.1.
SONET SDH
,

,
. SONET ,
. , SDH ,
. , SONET
, a SDH - .
, .

,
.
.
50 /, DS3 ( 3 =
44,736 / -
PDH). () ,
,
150 / ( 4 =
139,264 / -
PDH). .
, 13 180 -
150 /, ,
STS-3.
STS-3, 9 270 , ,

1 (2,048 /), : 9
4 -, 32- 1
125 .
ANSI T1X1 1988,
CCITT, SONET/SDH. 9- ,
SONET SDH [9.1].
SONET, SDH,
. , SONET 51,84
/. STS-1 (
1- ). , , STS-1,
-, N STS-1
STS-N. ;
, STS-N
N 51,84 /, N 1,
3, 12, 24, 48 192 ( 96 786) [9.2].

SDH

1 (STM-1), 155,52 /.

STM-1,
N STM-1,
STM-N. STM-N N
STM-1, N 155,52
/. STM-1, STM-4, STM-16 STM-64

ITU-T

(STM-256

) [9.5].
SONET, SDH,
8000 /, 125 .

SONET SDH.
: 51,84 / SONET
155,52 / SDH, . ,
SONET , STS-3,
SDH 155,52 /. . 9.1
9.2 SONET SDH. . 9.1
SONET SDH.

. 9.1. SONET. (. ANSI


[9.1], .3, .4.)

. 9.2. SDH. (. [9.3], .4,


.4.)

9.1
SONET SDH

SONET OC-N SONET
STS-N
-1
STS-1
-3
STS-3
-12
STS-12
-24
STS-24
-48
STS-48
- 192
STS-192
-768
STS-768
1)

SDH STM-N
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64
STM-256

51,84
155,52
622,08
1244,16
2488,32
9953,28
39813,121)

(. [9.2-9.5]).
, SONET
SDH .
:
.
.
, . , SONET ,
. .
,
( , ), SONET SDH . ,
,
, 622 / (STS-12 STM-4) , 40 .

, , ,
. 9.2 SONET, a
9.3 - SDH. 9.4

. SONET SDH
[-21].
,
/ ITU. ,
, 1 1993 ,
CCITT CCIR. ,
,
(ITU), ,
, , ITU-T,
, , ITU-R.

9.2. (SONET)
9.2.1.
SONET ,
8- (),
. ,
N ,
. ,
, , ,
.
SONET ( ) ,
STS-1, . ,
SONET , SONET

. , STS-N (STS - ), N .
OC-N ( - ) STS-N

.
STS-1 OC-N ( : OC-N = NSTS-1).

-1,

-3,

-12,

-24,

-48

-192

SONET.
9.2.1.1.
STS-1 . 9.3. STS-1
SONET.
810 (810 6480 ),
(SPE), . , ,
,
; ,
, 2 : 7- 8-
; ( )
: - 8 ,
, . STS-1
9 90 (.. 990).
125 (8000 /), ,
STS-1 51,840 /. . 9.3.
( )
, . STS-1 (MSB)
. . 9.3,
STS-1 . 27
(93), 9 , 18
. 87 STS-1,
. 9.4.
STS-1 (SPE)
STS-1. SPE 783
987. 1- , 9

, ( ) ().
SPE 30 59 ,

. ,
STS-1 SPE BIP-8
STS-1. . 9.5.
STS-1 84 - 756
.
SPE STS-1
STS-1. , SPE STS-1
. . 9.6. , ,
SPE .
STS-1 .
, SPE. .

. 9.3. STS-1.

. 9.4. .

. 9.5. () STS-1
SPE. , STS-1 84
. ( Agilent Technologies, [9.7].)

. 9.6. SPE STS-1 .


( Agilent Technologies, [9.7].)
STS (
), , () STS-1 SPE, , .
, ,
.
9.2.1.2. STS-N
. 9.7 STS-N.

N810

STS-1 STS-M (3 N).


SPE STS ,
STS-1 , SPE
( ).

. 9.7. STS-N.
9.2.1.3. STS
(
51,84 /) SPE STS-1.
FDDI, B-ISDN, .
,

).

STS-Nc N
STS-1 .

SPE STS-Nc. SPE STS-Nc

OC-N

STS-N.

,
N, , , STS-1,
STS-Nc, .
STS-Nc N783 .
STS-Nc . 9.8. 9(N87) 9 N87 .
, SPE STS-Nc
STS . STS N STS-1,

STS-Nc (. [9.10]).

. 9.8. SPE STS-Nc. (


Agilent Technologies, [9.7])

. 9.9. , 3, SPE STS-3. ( Telcordia


Technology, GR-253-CORE, Issue 3, [9.6], . 3-8, . 3.)

. 9.9 -3,
SPE STS-Nc.
9.2.1.4.
SPE STS-1 SONET 50,11
/
DS3. , - ( 51,84
/) , DS1,
(VT) ( PDH SDH . [20, -21]). 4 : VT-1.5 (1,728 /)
DS1, VT-2 (2,304 /) El, VT-3 (3,456 /)
DS1C, VT-6 (6,912 /) DS2.
. 9.10. VT
. 9.11. SPE STS-1 (987)
VT 3, 4, 6 12 .

. 9.10. . ( Agilent
Technologies, [9.7].)

. 9.11. . (
Agilent Technologies, [9.7].)
9.2.2.
STS
SPE STS
, SPE.
SONET, , .
.

. ,
(IEC),
(LEC),
. ( Stratum 1)
(, 10-11 ),

. , . SONET -

. (
) (
).
SONET. ,
.
,
, SPE ()

. ,
, SONET.
,

, SONET
.
,
SPE STS STS.

. 9.12. (HI, H2). . [9.1,


9.2, 9.6].

H1 2
(LOH) ,
SPE STS. . 9.12. 1 4
(NDF), 5 6 ,
7-16 .
7 16 . ,
0 782.
STE STS, .. (
SPE).
. , 0 , SPE STS
, 3, 87,
, SPE , 2.
, . 9.9.

, .

SPE,
.

,
,
,
.
9.2.3. SONET
SONET:
1. () ().
2. (LOH).
3. (SOH).

,
SONET, . 9.13. ,
, ,
(&).

. 9.13. , SONET. (.
[9.7], . 2-28.)
() 9
SPE, .
SPE, .
SPE ,
SPE. :
- 8- ( 3) BIP (
), SPE;
;
- (G1);
- 8- ( 2),
SPE, 256 ;
- (J1), 64 ,
- , ;



, ;
- (F2),
, .
SPE

.
STS-1. SOH
( 9 ), LOH - (18 ).
LOH :
- ( H1, H2 ) ( STS-1
STS-N );
- ( 1
2);
- BIP (B2);
- 576 / ( D4D12);
- ( 2).
. 9.13.
:
- () ( 1 2);
- STS-1 ( 1): ,
STS-N,

;
- BIP-8 ( 1):
;
- ( D1-D3);
- ( 1);

- ( F1), [9.8, 9.9].


9.2.4. / SPE

SPE. SONET.
,
, , . , , () .

.
DS3, 44,736 /, SPE
STS-1 49,540 /.
SPE STS-1
50,110 /. SPE . 9.14.

. 9.14. SPE. ( Agilent Technologies,


[9.7].)
, ,
DS3 ,
. SPE . 9.15.

. 9.15. SPE. ( Agilent


Technologies, [9.7].)
SPE , . , SPE
STS-1 DS3
50,110 /.
,
DS3, 44,74 /. ,
DS3 44,736 / [9.8, 9.9, 9.10].
9.2.5. - (ADM)
- (ADM) SONET
DS-N OC-N.
, ADM SONET
STS-N, ( ) DS-N,
. ADM
-, . - ADM , -

DS1 SONET,
, SONET, , .

. 9.16. ADM - SONET.


. 9.16. ADM,
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OC-N , , DS1 .
DS1C, DS2, DS3 - ( N).
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. DS1 OC-N
OC-N, . . 9.16
, ,

(OIM), ,

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ADM
( ) , ,
.

. 9.17. ADM.
. 9.17 ADM
DS1. ADM
N28DS1 ( , DS3 28DS1)
OC-N.
: , OC-N (
), , [9.11].

9.2.6. (APS)
-, 1+1 N+1.
APS . 9.18. APS
. SONET,

(LTE)

, APS.
APS STS-N
ANSI Telcordia .

. 9.18. APS, : 1+1 N+1. () APS 1


+ 1, () APS 1+N.

APS

APS,

,
SONET LTE . , SPE
STS, OC-N, . ANSI
Telcordia APS-:
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2. N+1 ( 1:1 1: n).
1 + 1 ,
,
,
(.
. 9.18). OC-N
( ) .
,
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1+1 .
. ,
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,
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N+1 ( 1:N, .. 1 N)
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(. . 9.18). N
1 14. APS 1 2
(LOH)
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,

1:1 N+1.
N+1 . , ,
1+1, . ,
.
N .
N+1
,
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.

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.

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[9.1], . 5-6.)

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9.3.1.
SDH SONET.

SONET , .
SONET .
, SDH , SONET,
, PDH,
1.
9.3.2. SDH
SDH
STM-1 - 155,520 /. STM
, N .
STM N = 4, 16, 64 (
256 ). 9.2
, SDH (G.707, [9.5]),

SONET.

SDH

. 9.2.
9.2
SDH [9.5]
SDH
1
4
16
64

SONET
STS-3/OC-3
STS-12/OC-12
STS-48/OC-48
STS-192/OC-192

(/)
155 520
622 080
2 488 320
9 953 280

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,
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(SOH) , ,
125 .

, .
, STM 155,520 /
STM-1. ,
, N. STM
N = 4, 16, 64 ( 256, . ). . 9.20
STM-1.

. 9.20. STM-1: RSOH -


, MSOH - .
STM-1
(AUG) (SOH). STM-./V N
AUG SOH. . 9.21 STM-N.

. 9.21. STM-N.

(VC-n).
,
SDH.
() ,
, 125 500 .
VC-n .
:
1. : VC-n ( = 1,2,3).
;
2. : VC-n (n = 3,4).
n
TUG-2 TUG-3 (
, . [-20, -21]).
(AU-n).
,
.
(
) ,

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. AU-4 VC-4
, VC-4 STM-N. AU-3 VC-3
, VC-3 STM-N.
AU STM-N.
AU, STM, AU (AUG). AUG
: AU-3 AU-4.

(TU-n).
,
.
( )
,
.
TU-n ( = 2,3) VC-n .
, VC-n ,
(TUG). TUG ,

.
TUG-2 TU-1
TU-2.
TUG-3 TUG-2
TU-3.
(-n, n = 1,2,3,4). - ,
. VC-
-n. ,
.
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2 2, . [-20, -21]).
.


, .
9.3.3.1.

(9.3) : , .
.
(1) ,
.
9.3.4. SDH

9.22

, .
SDH.
. 9.23-9.27
, ,
, . 9.22.
9.3.4.1. (AU) STM-N
STM-N N AUG,
AUG :
- AU-4
- AU-3.
VC-n, AU-n,
STM-N.
VC-n AU-n. AU-n
STM-N.
. 9.21 9.23-9.28.
AU-4 , VC-4,

TU-n

(n

1,2,3),

. . 9.27() 9.28().
VC-n, TU-n,
VC-4. TU-n
VC-4, VC-n
TU-n.

.9.22. (.[9.13], ITU-T G.707, .6-1, .6)

. 9.23. -1 U-4. (.
[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-2, . 7.)

. 9.24. -1 AU-3. (.
[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-3, . 7.)

. 9.25. -3 AU-. (.
[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-4, . 9.)

. 9.26. -4 AU-4. (.
[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-5, . 10.)
AU-3 , VC-3,
TU-n ( = 1,2), .
. 9.27() 9.28(). VCn, TU-n,

VC-3. TU-n
VC-3, VC-n
TU-n.

. 9.27. STM-1. (. [9.13], ITU-T


G.707, . 6-7, . 12.)

. 9.28. . (. [9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 68, . 12.)


9.3.4.2. STM-N
SDH ,
, ,
CCITT G.702.

.

(. G.707):

. 9.29. STM-N. (. [9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-9,


. 16.)
1. AUG
AU, : AU-3 AU-4, : AU-4.
AUG, AU-3,
VC-3 TUG-2 ( )
AUG TUG-3/VC4/AU4. . 9.29() 9.29().
2. VC-11,
TU, : TU-11 TU-12, :
TU-11. . 9.29(). VC-11, TU-11 TU-12 .
SDH ,

ITU-T G.802 ,
PDH .
9.3.4.3.

NNI,
. . 9.30
- .
1 + X6 + X7.

. 9.30. - . (.
[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 6-10, . 17.)
9.3.5. 51,84 /
SDH ,

STM-1, 51,84 /
.
SDH ( , , STM-0),
NN1 (. [9.13]).
( STM-0) 51,840
/ (. ITU-R S.1149)
(. ITU-R F.750) . 9.31.

. 9.31. ( STM-0)
51,840 /. (. [9.13], ITU-T G.707, . , . 89.)
9.3.6. SDH
9.3.6.1. STM-N
AUG STM-N. N AUG
STM-N . 9.32. AUG - (9261)
9 4 ( AU-4). STM-N SOH,
, ( ) 9 (N261)
AU-n N9 4. N AUG
-
() STM-N.

AU-4

AUG.

1 AU-4 AUG .
9.33. 9 4 AU-4.
9261 VC-4.
VC-4 AU-4.
VC-4 AU-4 .
AU-4 AUG.

. 9.32. N AUG STM-N (. [9.13],


ITU-T G.707, . 7-1, . 18.)

. 9.33. AU-4 AUG. (.


[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 7-2, . 19.)

U-3

AUG.

3 AU-3 AUG
. 9.34. 3 4 AU-3.
987 VC-3

.
AU-3 .
VC-3
AU-3. VC-3
AU-3 . AU-3
AUG -.

. 9.34. AU-3 AUG. (.


[9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 7-3, . 20.)
9.3.6.2. VC-4 VC-3
(TUG-3) VC-4.
3 TUG-3 VC-4 . 9.35. TUG-3 986. VC-4
VC-4 , 258
. TUG-3 VC-4 9258
VC-4.
AUG STM-N, VC-4
AU-4 AU-4.

. 9.35. TUG-3 VC-4. (. [9.13], ITU-T


G.707, . 7-4, . 21.)
TU-3 TUG-3.
TU-3 TUG-3 . 9.36. TU-3 VC-3 9

VC-3

TU-3.

TUG-3

( 986) TU-3 (
H1, H2, ) () . VC-3
TUG-3 TU-3.

. 9.36. TU-3 TUG-3. (. [9.13], ITU G.707, . 7-5, . 21.)

TUG-2 TUG-3.
TUG-2 TUG-3 . 9.37. TUG-3 -
986, .

. 9.37. TUG-2 TUG-3. (. [9.13],


ITU-T G.707, . 7-6, . 22.)

. 9.38. TUG-2 VC-3. (. [9.13],


ITU-T G.707, . 7-8, . 24.)

TUG-2 VC-3.
TUG-2 VC-3 . 9.38. VC-3 - VC-3
984 . 7
TUG-2 VC-3.
9.3.7.
9.3.7.1. AU-n
AU-n
VC-n AU-n. , VC-n AU-n. , VC-n SOH,
.
U-. AU-4
H1, H2 3, . 9.39. AU-3
H1, H2 3, .
9.40.

. 9.39. AU-4. (. [9.13], ITU-T


G.707, . 8-1, . 34.)

. 9.40. AU-3. (. [9.13], ITU-T


G.707, . 8-2, . 35.)

. 9.41. AU-n/TU-3 (H1, H2, 3). (. [9.13],


ITU- G.707, . 8-3, . 36.)

AU-n. , H1 2,
, VC-n.
, ,
, . 9.41. 10 ( 7 16)
.
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0 782, (
) VC-4 (. . 9.42).
. 9.41
. 1001 1-4,
5-6 , 10 (7-16) 1. AU-4
AU4.

. 9.42. AU-4, . (. [9.13], ITU-T G.707, . 8-3, . 36.)

. 9.41, AU-3
0 782. AU-3 AUG,
H1, H2 3.
,

9.39

. H1, H2, 3 AU-3,


- AU-3 .., AU-3
.
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.
AUG VC-n,
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(..,
),
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AUG,

VC-n


1. 7, 9, 11, 13
15 (1-) , 5-

,
3 AU-4, 1-.
.
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3 AU-3,

1-.
.
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AUG,

VC-n

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1. 8, 10, 12, 14
16 (D-) , 5-
.
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1.
4. D- ,

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9.4.
. 9.3
SONET/SDH. . 9.4
STM-1 STM-3 SDH.
9.3
(PL) SONET/ SDH

SDH
PL
POH
PL

- PL POH AU-3 /AU-4


PL

DS1 (1.544)

VC-11
VC-12
VC-12

1.648
2.224
2.224

1.728
2.304
2.304

(AU-3), AU-4
AU-3, AU-4
(AU-3), AU-4

VC-2
VC-3
VC-3
VC-4
VC-4
VC-4-4C
VC4
VC-4

6.832
48.384
48.384
149.760
149.760
599.040
149.760
149.760

6.912
48.960
48.960
150.336
150.336
601.344
150.336
150.336

(AU-3), AU-4
AU-3, AU4
(AU-3), AU-4
(AU-4)
(AU-4)
(AU-4)
(AU-4)
(AU-4)

1 (2.048)
DS1C (3.152)
DS2 (6.312)
3 (34.368)
DS3 (44.736)
4 (139.264)
ATM (149.760 )
ATM (599.040)
FDDI (125.000)
DQDB (149.760)

SONET

VT1.5

1.648

1.664

STS-1

VT2
VT3
VT6

2.224
3.376
6.832

2.240
3.392
6.848

STS-1
STS-1
STS-1

STS-1
STS-3C
STS-3C
STS-12c
STS-3
STS-3C

49.536
149.760
149.760
599.040
149.760
149.760

50.112
150.336
150.336
601.344
150.336
150.336

STS-1
STS-3C
STS-3C
STS-12c
STS-3
STS-3

. /
. IEEE Press [9.3], . 2, . 64
9.4
STM-1 STM-3c.
1

J1

F1

B3

D1

D3

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1430- 1576
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1293)- 1334/
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STM-1 (155 /). 10.3 .
10.2, STM-4 (622 /). 10.4 STM-16 (2,488 /
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ITU-T G.957 [10.2]. ,
.
10.3.2. 1
, 100 ,
155 / (STS-3/STM-1),
, G.826 [10.6].
.
, ,
.
. 10.1.
10.3.2.1.
,
1550 . , 1550
G. 654 [10.7].
, .
0,25 /, . 6, . 6.3.
, 2
0,03 ;
( S R), 0,5
( 1,0 ).
1,0 , . , ,
MLM, 10 .
28 ,
0 ,
28 . (
. -28 . 2-4, ITU-T G.957, BER =
10-10; 1 ,

BER=10-12. , 28
BER. . . 5.5.3
. 5.2 . PIN-
33 38 BER
.) :
-

1,0 ;

25,0 (100 0,25 / = 25,0 );

- ,

1,0 .

27 .

1 . ,
.
, . 6.4 ITU-T G.957
, . 2-4, ,
. 2
, .
,
.
,
,
: PIN- APD-. . 5.2. PIN Alcatel 35 BER=10-10.
,
, +3
; 4
(.. 28 2-4 G.957
35 PIN Alcatel BER).
, ,

, , ,
. . 1
, 2 , 3 ,
- .
10.5.
10.5

-35

,
,

PIN-

Alcatel

35

1,0

0,5

S R
ITU-T G.654,
1550

(0,25 /) 100

25
1,0
4,8
31,8
3,2

5%
)

10.3.3. 2
, 160 , - 622 /
.
() ,
- .
- (EDFA) 1550 .
() 17 . ,

, 0 ,
+17 , EDFA.
- , ,
. 28 (.
10.1) 622 /. EDFA
(17 ) 45 . 45 +17,
62 .
, . . 10.6.
10.6

-
SLM EDFA
:
EDFA

:

160
(160+0,05 160)

+ 17

EDFA

-45
62
2.0
42

2.1
0,1 /

2.0

4,8

52,9

9.1

4
5%
;
0,25
/

2 , .. 21

,
9,1 .
-. , ,
, - . , 40
.

10.3.4. 3
SONET
. - 36 . 12 :
4 4 .
STS-3. ,

STS-24 (1244 /).
/ (ADM)
. ADM ,
6 . ,
SONET ,
,
SONET &,
( ) .
.
, .

:
- 1244 /;
- ;
- , ,
. .
,
PIN-.
, ,
, , ( )
;
- . .

. 10.7.
10.7

, -3

BER =10-12

-25


:


(0,5 /)
6 1310


)

22

1,0
1,0
3,0


MLM-,

PIN- 1244 /

0,5 S R
ADM

1,0
3,0
13,0
0,0

10-12
10.3.5. 4
, ,
100 . 8 WDM,

STM-16

(2,5

/).

, ITU-T

200

ITU-T G.654 0,25 /,


,
20 //.
WDM
. , ITU-T G.671
[10.8], - .
.

- WDM.
1.5log 2 n , (.. ,

[10.8]).
8 8
, 4,5
. 1,5 . ,
8- WDM, ,
10,5 (4,5 + 4,5 + 1,5 = 10,5).
, 2,5 /
100 , , ,
: .
10.4. , ,
, .
. 10.8.
10.8

+3
SLM
PIN-:
EDFA

-45
48
3,0

26,25
100
WDM + 10,5


4,8

44,55

3,45
)

,, . . 4
G.957
(-28 + -17 = 45 ); 2,5
/, BER = 10-10, . . 4
G.957]
6 ,
WDMa)
(100+0,05100)0,25 = 26,25 (5%
;
- 0,25 /)

: , WDM-,
WDM- ,
, ,
EDFA, .

, 200 ,
. EDFA 17.

10.4. , ,

10.4.1.
,
.
IEEE
[10.9] : ,
0,1 0,9 .
, 0,9 0,1
.

Tr :
2
Tr2 Ttr2 Tfiber
Trec2

(10.1)

Ttr , Tfiber Trec ,


, [10.10].
, f Tr
:
Tr 2, 2 / 2f 0,35 / f

(10.2)

, , ,

. 0,35 Tr f
. , , ,
.

, ,
, f , .. , RZ NRZ . (. 4.7, .)
. , ,

.
Tr :

RZ:

Tr 0,35 / B ;

NRZ:

Tr 0, 7 / B .

. [10.10].


Tr
(10.2):
Tr 2 ;
Tr 0,1 .
3
,
(10.2), f :
(10.3)

Trec 0,35 / f

(10.1):
(10.4)

2
Tr2 Ttr2 Tfiber
Trec2

-
, 10% , :

2
Tr 1,1 Ttr2 Tfiber
Trec2

1/ 2

(10.5)

Tfiber :
2
2
2
Tfiber
Tmodal
TGVD

(10.6)

TGVD , , modal , .

modal Tfiber TGVD , TGVD



TGVD DL

(10.7)

D - , - , a L .
2-4 ITU-T G.957
[10.2]. , D
, . , -
D [10.10, 10.11].
1.
, ,
(. 10.3.5):
- : 100 , G.654;
- : 0,1 ;
- (. 10.4): 1 ;
- : 10 .
NRZ. 2,5
/.
- G.654: D = 20
//,
6.2 G.654.
- G.653: 1525-1575 D =
3,5 //,
6.2 G.653.
Tfiber TGVD DL
Tfiber = 20 // 100 1 = 2000 2 .

-3 10 , -

, (10.3) :
9

12

Trec = 0,35/10 10 = 35 10 = 35 = 0,035

(0,0352 = 0,001225).
10.5, :
Tr = 1,1 (0,01 + 4 + 0,001225)

1/2

= 1,1 4,0112251/2 = 2,203

, ,
2,5 /, :
Trec 0,7/2,5109 2,203 0,28 .
, ,
. ? ,
Tfiber . :
-, G.653,
3,5 //. :
Tfiber = 3,51001 = 350 = 0,350 .
Tr = 1,1 (0,01 + 0,1225 + 0,001225)

1/2

= 1,10,1337251/2 = 0,40225

0,40225 0,28 .
, .
?
50 . Tfiber , :
Tfiber = 3,5501 = 175 = 0,175
Tr = 1,1 (0,01 + 0,030625 + 0,001225)

1/2

= 1,10,041851/2 = 0,22503

0,22503 0,28 .
, .
, ,
, .

, , 2
, , 1
10 . (, ) , ,
. , .
2.

G.653

3,5 //) STS-24 (1244 /).


, .
200 ?
, ,
,
EDFA. ,
.
NRZ. 1 .
.
, ,
:
Tr 0,7 / , = 1244 /, ,
6

-9

Tr 0,7 / 1244 10 = 0,5627 10 = 0,5627 .

0,1 .
0,35/10 109 = 0,035 .
2
Tr 1,1(0, 01 Tfiber
0, 001225)1/ 2

Tfiber = 3,52001 = 700 = 0,70 .


1/2

Tr = 1,1 (0,01 + 0,49 + 0,001225)

= 0,7788

Tr = 0,7788 , 0,5627, .

Tr
. , . , :
Tfiber DL , . (10.7). ,

:
- ( D);
- L;
- , - .

(0,5 )
. ,
0,5 , :
Tfiber = 3,52000,5 = 350 = 0,35

Tr :
Tr = 1,1 (0,01 + 0,1225 + 0,001225)

1/2

= 0,4023

Tr = 0,4023 ,
0,5627, . ,

, .

10.5.
10.5.1.
10.5.1.1.
,
,
/ (OSNR).
OSNR R.

, R
. R
, .

(.. ) ,
. ,
ASE ,
,
.
ASE, ,
:
PASE 2 N SP (G 1)hv

(10.8)

Nsp 1 , G , h v .
:
2 N SP 1

NF 10 log 2 N SP
in
G

(10.9)

in - .
,
( ASE)
G 1, OSNR :
OSNR Pout L NF 10 log N 10 log hvv0

(10.10)

Pout ( ) , L
, NF , v0 , N , ,
. 1550 10 log hvv0
= 58 0,1 .
, ; ,

, L,
OSNR .
,
OSNR ( R(N) . 10.1)
N
,
. , G >>1,
[10.12].
(10.10)

OSNR.
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, OSNR .
WDM ,
, , ,
. ,
, , . ,
(10.10)

,
(..
,
).

10.5.1.2.

,
.
( ASE) 3,
3, , Pch max ,
:
Pch max P3 A 10 log M

(10.11)

- . , , , P3 A . ,
, ITU-T G.692 [10.12].
, ,
. , (SPM),
- (), (SBS) . , SPM SBS,
, SPM,
, G.652 G.655. ,
,
.
G.652, G.653 G.655.
,
, SPM ,
, .

, SBS,
ITU- .

(FWM)
, G.652
G.655.
, G.652,
ITU-T G.692.

, G.653,
.
10.5.1.3.
, ,

. , 8 ,
,

, SPM .
,
,
. , ,
[10.12].
10.5.2.

, :
Ptot Pout NBW eff hv10

NF L /10

(10.12)

NF L ,
.
ASE, BWeff ASE,

ASE, ASE. 20-30


15 10 ,

. ,
[10.12, 10.13].

11

11.1.
-
, ,
. .
: ) ,
, ) ,
.
- .
. .

11.2.
11.2.1.
,

.
,
,
:
1.
, .
2.

, ,
, ,
. , . 11.1
,
.
11.1


, - ,
, ,

,

. I/I-590-, . 1, . 4, [11.1]
3.
, , , ,
,
.
4.
, .
; ,
,
.
5.

,
, ,
,

.
6.
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7. , ,
.
, ,
, ,

, . ,
,
, ,
.
. 1-5 [11.1].
11.2.2.

, . 11.2.
. TIA/EIA-590-A [11.1]
. ,
NESC ( , ), 353D [11.2]. , . 11.2 11.3,
.

11.2

750
600
450
750

. I/I-590-, . 2, . 6, [11.1]
11.3

,
0-600
601-50000
5000 1-

,
600
750
1070

. I/I-590-, . 3, . 6, [11.1]
11.2.3.

, ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
. 300
. ,
.
,
300 , ,
, 450 .

, , , [11.1].
11.2.4.
,
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2,5 . , U- ,

, . 11.2.

.
,
, U-
.
,

U-

.
11.2.5.

.
U- .
11.2.6.

. :

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,
.
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() ,
.


().
11.2.8.

,
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.
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), ,
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,
, .
,

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/.


.

.
, , ,
,

.
11.2.10.
,

.
. , ,

,
,

(ULCC),
()
.
(OSHA, . Code of Federal
Regulations, title 29, Ch.XVII, subpart P, Excavations, Section 1926.651).
, ,
, , ,
, , , -

, .

, ,
.
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.

,
:
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;
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( : , , ,

);
- , , ;
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-
.

11.3.
11.3.1. -
, , -
. ,
, . , , ,
.
11.3.2.
,
,
. (
) :
- (
- (ADM)
). span
length, ,
, - ,
, . [-21];

- ;
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/ ;
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,
;
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.
11.3.2.1.
.
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.

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,
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.
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11.3.2.2.
,
. 10,
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( ),
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.
,
/,
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;
,
,
. ITU-T (. [11.2]) ,
, , : , ,
.
11.3.2.3.
.

.
, ,

.
,
/,
,
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.
4 (
) 12 .
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,
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, .
,
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,
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). , ,
. ,
,

. , /,
1 10 .
,
.
( ) :
- = ();

- = 2% ();
- + 10 = 20 ;
- ,
(1+0,02) + 20 .
, , , .

, [11.2].

, , (
):
-
= x ();
- + 10 = 20 ;
- ,
( + 20) .
11.3.2.5. /
, ,
.
, ,
, . /. ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, - .


, ,
(handhole) ,
.
/
(HFC, . 13)
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:
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, ,
..


.),


[11.3].

, ,
. ,
. ,
,
.

, . , ,
.
, , .
. , :
40%. , 1-
0,6
. :
(%) = (d2/D2)100,
d , D
. , -

. 3 8 ( 76,2 203,2 ),
0,75 2 ( 19,2 50,8 ) [.3] (
. [-10, -14]).
, ,
. [11.3],
,
, , , .

.
0,25.
,

.
, , (OTDR)
(. .15).
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,
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,
.
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( ) .
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.

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.
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:
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;
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:
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;
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;
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). ,
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;
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;
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;
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.
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, .

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(750 ), .

,
30 , ,
.

11.3.3.3.

, .
,
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,

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11.3.3.4.

:
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()

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;
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;
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.
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.

.
.
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. 11.4

, ,

,
1800

,
1800
,
4500
,
2700
,
2700
,
2700
,
2700

. . . 7.2 CommScope HFC Upgrade Manual [11.7],


CommonScope Optical Reach


. . , ,
.

, ,
.
,
.
.
11.3.3.7.
. 2,
. 2.2().
. (.. ,

.
,
.

.
. 11.5
.
: .
,
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25%
, . . 11.4.

.

. ,
.
11.5

/

, / 18
, / 18
, /48
, /48
, /96
, /72
, /72
, /216

18,5
9,2
18,5
9,2
24,9
12,4
25,4
12,6
29,0
14,5
24,9
12,4
27,7
13,9
36,6
18,4

. . . 7.3 CommScope HFC Upgrade Manual [11.7].


.
, , ,
.
5%
, ( )
.
, .
.

11.4.
, ,


:
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( ) ;
- .
11.4.1.
( )
.
,
.

.
, 1 .

, .
(OTDR).
. 15.
,
,
.

, - ,
.

11.4.2.

1 /,
,
. . 1,
,
. ,
,

. ,
ITU-T G.652, G.653,
G.654 G.655 (. . 6, . 6.6). . 15.
11.4.3.

. ITU-T G.955
G.600 G.900 BER
10-10. ,
BER=10-12. , Sprint (),
BER.

,
BER ( 10-12). SDH/SONET 10 /
BER=10-10 1
1010 , 1 . BER=10-12
100 .
, 2,5 /,
4 , 400 , 1 / 16 1600
. -

, ,
, .
ITU-T BER=10-3.
. BER
, 10-3,
. , 50%
,
BER. BER=10-6
? ,
.

11.5.

. ,
,
, ,
- ,

12.

99,99% .
, , .
.

. .
. 40 ,
.

11.5.1.
, ,
,
(, 99,9999+):
-

,
;
(., );
- ()
;
- , ,


;
-


.
ITU-T [11.2] .
, , :
) 25 ;
)

();
)
, ,
,
;

)
;
) ,
, ,
;
) , ,

;
)

[11.1].

12

12.1.
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, .
, . ,
, .
. ?
, , . ,
, . , , . ,
,
, .

, ,
- .
, .
,
. ,
,
, , .
, ,

.

(
) .
, ,
, ,
.
12.1.1.
, ,
.
.
(, ),
. , , ,
( , ,
), [12.1].
(, 99, 993%).
, - .
99,997,
? , (1-), .. , 1
- 99,997 = 0,003%. ,
? - 8760 , 87600,00003 = 0,2628 15,768
.
:
% = [MTBF/(MTBF + MTTR)]100,

(12.1)

MTBF , , a MTTR
, .

12.1.

, MTBF -
() - 10000 MTTR 1 . :

% = [10000/(10000 + 1)]100 = 99,990001%


MTBF .
FIT, , . 109 .
(12.1)
MTTR. MTTR : )
, ) :
, , . , - ,
( ).
MTTR
, ,
.
,
.
.
MTBF, MTTR .
.
, ,
, , 2) , . , (, )
, .
(BITE) .
12.1.2. -
,
, - . - , ,

, , .
.

.
, - .
,
- - .
,
.
,
,
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, , .

.
.
. , ,
, ,
.

.

, .
, .
12.1.3.
Telcordia TSGR [12.6]
(): ,

,

. ITU-T G.821 (.
G.826), :
,
(BER) , 10-3, 10
. 10
.

(SES) . :

(BER) , 10-3,
10 . 10
.

, . , ,
, , 10

, . SES
, BER > 10-3.
, ,
() ,
[12.6].
12.1.4. (Telcordia)
Telcordia
99,98% ( - 0,02%) 400 . ,
105 . 400
0,26 //.

DS3 DSX3-DSX-3 0,75 DS1: 79 /


/83 400 .
, 400 ,
0,2 //. 75%
25% .
12.1.5.



. MIL-STD-217E [12.2] Telcordia TR-332 [12.3],
, GR-929-CORE [12.4],

. ITU-T
G.911 [12.5].
12.1.6. (TSGR):


. (.
MIL-STD-217E [12.2]). Telcordia
.
,
.
, ,
40 50% .

,
, .

II

, I.

,
,

(RPP)

: ,
.

III

,
.

,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
/ .
,
.
, , , , .
, .

ITU-T

G.911

[12.5]

. ,
. .

12.2.
FIT Failure In Time -
. 109 . ,
106 ,
10-3. ,
. ,
,
, MTBF.
,
.
FIT (F), MTBF (M)
= (1,14105)/F,

(12.2)

.
, MTBF .
.
:
1

FIT/ = 1500

FIT = 15001 = 1500

FIT/ = 300

FIT = 3006 = 1800

FIT/ = 123

FIT = 1235 = 615

FIT/ = 57

FIT = 578 = 456

FIT/ = 27

FIT = 271 = 27

1 ( )

FIT/ = 27

FIT = 271 = 27

4425 FIT
, MTBF = 1,14105/4425 = 25,76
.

, .

( , ),
. :
6

FIT/ = 8000

FIT = 80006 = 48000

FIT/ = 6500

FIT = 65005 = 32500

FIT/ = 12050 FIT = 120505 = 60250

1 FIT/ = 12300 FIT = 123001 = 12300


1

FIT/ = 3400

FIT = 34001 = 3400

156450 FIT
, MTBF = 1,14105/156450 = 0,7286673
= 6383 .
, , 6383 . ?
.
, MTBF.
40 744 292 , .
, ,
1+1.
, ,
FIT 12050.
, FIT MTBF,
, FIT.
MTBF FIT = 12050.
MTBF = 109 /FIT = 109/12050 = 82987
(82987 )2 = 6,886933765109
F = 109/6,8869109 = 1/6,8869 = 0,1452

MTBF

50,1452 , .
FIT 96201. ,

MTBF :
MTBF = (1,14105)/96201 = 1,1875 .
, .
MTBF FIT,
FIT = 109/MTBF.

(12.3)

FIT
MTBF, ,
MTBF = 109 / FIT ().

(12.4)

, 8760 (24365).

12.3.
, ,
- ,
.
12.3.1.
, -
99,0%. ,
, BER,
0,998760 = 8672,4 . , 8760
8672,4 = 87,6 , ,
BER, .. ,
. 87,6 .
, , a U , ,
, , :
U = 1 - A.

(12.5)

, 0, 01%,

? , 0,0001,

0,0001 = 1 - , =1- 0,0001 = 0, 9999, 99,99%


, .
(12.1):
% = [MTBF/(MTBF + MTTR)]100
, MTBF
50000 FIT, 109/5104 = 20000 MTTR,
30 , 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 ,
, . 12.1.
12.1
MTTR MTBF = 20000.
MTTR () , %

0,5
99,9975
24 /,
,
I)
1,0
99,9950
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99,9900
,

TSRG

)
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,

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, 3
)
6,0
99,9700
8,0
99,9600
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)

BITE (Built-in Test Equipment) - .


, , ,
(). (
).
.
)
MTTR = 1 , ( 30 )
. , ,
.
)
TSGR (Transport System Generic Requirements) -
( Telcordia [12.6]). 2
, , ,
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ADM, , ,
, .

12.4.

.
.
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,
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,
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Frame Relay, IP ATM. ,
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100% ,
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APS ,

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10-9. , ,
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.

BER 10-3 10-4.
- , ,
, , , BER
, , , . 10
.

- 1 2 SONET,
. . 12.2.

12.2
( ) 1 2
X

1
X X 0

2
0

X - (1 0)
. ANSI T1-105.01 [12.8] Telcordia
GR-1230 [12.7].

, 50 .
. ,
50 .
, , , 50 -
. Telcordia, ,

.
, ,
50 .
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(
),
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, /10
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).
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,

.
, , , R
.
WTR ,
,
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12.4.3.1. APS-
, ,
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APS-. . 12.2 (Kl, K2),
. APS
(Kl, K2).
1 2 ,
. 1/2 , :
1 ( 1-4)

0000 ( )

1 ( 5-8)

(NODE ID)

2 ( 1-4)

(NODE ID)

2 ( 5)

0 ( )

2 ( 6-8)

000 ( )

,
:
1 ( 1-4)

()

1 ( 5-8)

(NODE ID)

2 ( 1-4)

(NODE ID)

2 ( 5)

1/0 ( / )

2 ( 6-8)

- (STATUS)

2.
1 2.
2.
2
1-4


1 ( 1-4) (0) (1)

6-8 111 = AIS ( )


110 = RDI ( )
101 =
100 =
011 = ()
010 = (Br&Sw)
001 = (r)
000 =

. [12.7, 12.8].
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12.4.4.1.
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(, AIS). ,
( )
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. , ,
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. :
1.

N
MXN.
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12.4.4.2.

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2. ,
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4.
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5. ,
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6.
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50 [12.6].
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12.4.5.2. N+1

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[12.8].
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SONET 4
,
. ,
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. 16.
SHR SONET . 9, . 9.2.6
9.2.7.
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SHR
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SHR
SONET .
STS VT

.
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SONET. (ADM -)

(UPSR) [12.10]. SHR


, . ,
. ()

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12.4.7.

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(SONET UPSR) . 12.1 ( ).
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12.1()). ,
Z Y .
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,

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(BLSR)

12.1.

BLSR.

(UPSR),

, .
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BLSR.

12.2,

BLSR

. 12.2(). ,
, .
, () ~ .

. SONET
.
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. ,
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1+1 /.
, ,
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/.
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APS

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. 12.2. () ()
BLSR.
BLSR, OC-N,
OC-N, BLSR,
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.
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.
(NE).

: LOS - BER.
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, .
(, )
.
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, ,
.
.
, .. . ,
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BLSR , UPSR, . BLSR
. 12.3.

. 12.3. BLSR
BLSR (2F-BLSR)

-,
-
.

BLSR

, 100%
, 50% .

(OC-N)/2.

BLSR. 24 - W
X 24 - W X
.
SONET
1 2 . ,
, , .
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OC-N, - 1 N/2 .
- (N/2)+1 N . -
X - X+(N/2)
, X 1
(N/2).

. 12.4. BLSR (4F-BLSR)


.
. 12.4 BLSR.
, .
: /

. BLSR (4F-BLSR)
.

.
STS , (NE) . , .
-,
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, , , .
NE.

BLSR, , , ,
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. ,
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BLSR. BLSR . , -,
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( SONET) . , ,
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SONET.

12.5. (NOCC)
NOOC


, ,
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SONET. ,
SONET, SDH.
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SONET SDH, ,
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12.5.2. TL1
TL1

, . TL1
NE
, NOOC. TL1
. ,
, Megasys Telenium System
,
. Telcordia GR-831
[12.14].

12.6. SONET

SONET

SDH)

NOOC.
SONET/SDH . .
9.3.2, . 9.19 . , , ,
APS. . 12.5 SONET
, ,
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, &, NOOC.
:

APS (. . 12.5.3.1);

, .

. 12.5. SONET, .
12.6.1.
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: , .
. 12.5,
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12.6.1.1.
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)
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(, SDH, ,
():
, . [-21]).

.
; SDH

(, SDH ,
SDH, , SONET, . [21]).
.

( SDH , . [-21]).
12.6.1.1.
SONET . . 12.6
, SONET
(., GR-253 CORE). ,
,
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.

. 12.6. (, )
.
,

.
,
, 192 /
.
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.

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576-/ .
. ()

(. . 12.6) SONET.
, ,
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(VT)
(VC).
, .
12.6.2.

SONET. SONET,
, ,
. ANSI ITU-T,
SONET SDH, -
,
, .

, , ITU-T G.784 [12.11] ANSI


T1.231-1997 [12.12].
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,
,
.
:
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.
(FEPR).
, .
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.
( ) (SEF).

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3 .
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(CV-S),
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.
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.
(SES-S), (SES-L),
(SES-P), VT/VC (SES-V). ,
1 , (
)
.
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, SEF-.

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.
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(ALS-P), VT/VC (ALS-V).
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.
12.6.3. ,
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AIS

.
(RDI).

AIS LOP.
(AIS).
,
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().

.
. 12.7.

. 12.7. SONET/SDH.
: , STE, LTE -
, .
: [12.13], . 3, . 262.
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SONET/SDH
. 1
2 , . . 12.5.
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(,
STE ).
.

12.6.5.
64 /,

,
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F2.
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12.6.6. (DCC)
ANSI
SONET, D1, D2 D3
, 192 /.
64 / ,
.
576 /. 576 / , 7 OSI.
, ,
.

(LTE).

12.7.
(12.1) ,
MTBF MTTR.

, ,
. .
() , , , . -
, MTTR ,
. , , ,
. , ,
, . ,
, . , , .
7
Telcordia SR-TSY-000385, Reliability Manual (
) [12.15].
(SCO),
,
, 99,99%, Telcordia SCO 99,9%.

(, 160000 ); .
,
NRT, N , ; R
; - .
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Telcordia ( ), , ,
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( Ethernet).
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13

13.1.

.
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48

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Power [13.3])
(1),
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220 , DC-.
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(SCR).

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(13.1)

IL A, a TR - .
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(13.1),
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;
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24
12
8
6
4
2


(-),
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75
66
60
55
50
40

(%)
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100
91
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. [13.2], . 34-1, . 3091.


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55,20
2,17
52,08
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3,5

14,5

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: 48 (DC) 24 .

: 1,75 (DC).
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12 1,75 FV) 5,5 .
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: 10 + 1 = 11.
: 21.
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UPS.

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) ( Warren G-V Communications, [13.2], . 34-3, .
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60

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16

12

92

37

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19

10

143
129
105
143-105

58
51
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58-42

38
34
27
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30
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, X
. = 3.

. 14.3. 1990.
,
35 (. [14.8, 14.9]).

. 14.4. , . 14.3,

.
. (
ADC, Minneapolis, MN, [14.8])

. 14.5. ,
X .
X = 3. ( ADC, Minneapolis, MN, [14.8])

14.3. -

-
.

500, 600 800


.
, .
,
(), (

AM ). ,
.
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, (
AM) (

, . [-20, -21]).
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,

. :

AM .
AM .
.
14.3.2.
14.3.1. AM -

/ (S/N) 53
, (C/N)
PIN- .
:
S/N = C/N - 4,1 ( )

(14.1)

, , 6,8 ,
:
S/N = C/N + 2,7 ()

(14.2)

AM
(-) 87,5%.
, S/N
, ,
C/N .
(14.2) S/N=53 , ,
C/N=50,3 .
, .
14.1. 53 ,
50,3 . ,
.

14.1
AM

()

()

C/N=50,3 ()

2 ,


0,25 /

: 40
(19
2 0,08 /)

+7 )
-58,7

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S/N = 53

15
13
10
1,52
0,48
1,0

= 1550 , 2

,

0,08

40

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.
S/N (53 ) C/N (50,3 )
(, 2 ).
0 1-2 ,
. , 40
, .
C/N 50
:
- (CSO): -62 ;
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,
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: 1:2, 3,5
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14.3.2.

. 14.1 , (2 ),
. 40 ,
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60 4 .
.
.
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.
. :
-, .
, . , R 10-5 , ,
R.

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. 14.2

AM .
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: 1310 1550 .
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, ,
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(+5 (-12)= 17). . 14.2 .
14.2
AM -
/


, 0,35 /
PINFET



. :
,

+5
1,0
3,5
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17
1,0
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1550
2 2
OB G.652 + 10
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17- 1 -3,5- 1,0= 11,5

,
. 14.2. , , , . /, .

14.4. -

- ,
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.
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50 10000.
, , 1000 2000 . ,
,

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, .
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500 . ,
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. 14.6. ,


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14.3
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HDTV

1,544/

20 /

. [14.1]

2 /
128 /

- 256 /

(VPN)
B-ISDN/
1024 /
ATM

64 /

Frame
1024

Relay

MPEG-2

.
: 64 /,
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50% ,
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1 1000 2000.

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250 ,
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35 .
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DOCSIS (

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, .

/ 6 /.
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15

15.1.

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64 /,
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15.2.

1975

,
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,
, .
Ethernet ( 22
CSMA/CD) ,
1 10 /, FDDI, Token Ring, TCP/IP.
, , SONET/SDH, ATM , , FC ( ).

62,5

(.

2,

2.1.2)

160 850 500 / 1300 .



, ,
300 .
, , (MAN), 60
, ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-B.1 [15.1].
Corning Cable Systems
[15.2] :
62,5 , 850 ,
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. 15.1. (
Corning Cable Systems, . [15.2], . 2.8, . 2.6)

. 15.2. () (
Corning Cable Systems, . [15.2], . 2.7, . 2.6)

. 15.3. ( ANSI/EIA/
TIA, . [15.1], . 1-1, . 3).
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15.3.1.
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ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-B.1, . [15.1], . 11-6, . 56)

. 15.6. (
ANSI/EIA/T1A-568-B.1, . [15.1], . 11-7, . 57)

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4

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22,5
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25
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. 15.2
.
15.2
).

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86-216
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74-216
2
4

2700
608
600
135
2700
608
600
135
1800
404
600
135
2700
608
1000
225
5000
1124
2500
562
5500
1236
3000
674
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600
600
135
750
169
200
45
1100
247
440
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-

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ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-.1 [15.1]
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). . 15.7
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ANSI, . TIA/EIA-568-B.1, [15.1], . 10-1, .36)
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15.5.
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VCSEL (. . 4) . ,
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15.3
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(/)

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20

Token Ring

32

100VG-AnyLAN

120

100BASE-F

125

FDDI

125

1000BASE-F

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133
266
531
1062
52
155
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(< 100 ) (< 300 )
(< 2000 )

()

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.
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) .
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155 /. 622 /
40 .
- 850
1300 . . 850 , 1300 .
850 .
1300 ,
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850 , 1300 .

15.4
,
/

ANSI/TIA/ EIA-568-B.1

Ethernet)
FDDI-SMF
Fiber channel (OB )
Fiber channel (OB )
ATM/SONET
ATM/SONET
)
)

,
60000a)

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/
-

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0,5/0,5)

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1310/1550

3000

1000

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60000
10000
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55000
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1300
1300
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ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.l.

, 1,0/1,0 / 1310/1550 .
)

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1000BASE-SX .
)

. ( 32 ).

. Corning Cable Systems,


. [15.2], .3.5, . 3.7.
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15.5

ATM
10BASE-F (Ethernet)
100BASE-F (Ethernet)
1000BASE-F (Ethernet)
Token Ring
FDDI
Fiber channel
SONET/SDHa)
( )
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()

2
2
2
2
4
4 (DAS), 2 (SAS)
2
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SONET/SDH

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( FDDI).
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. [15.2], . 4.4, . 4.3.

. ,
,
. , ,
.

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Ethernet .

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Systems, . [15.2], . 4.5, . 4.5.)

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) [15.10].
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, .
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3 ( , ).
Agilent 86100 [15.10].
- .
Agilent / 5980-0990 [15.10].
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[15.7]

IETF RFC 2544 [15.9],


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(OTDR),
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16.2.
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/
NTSC -

OTDR ( ) ,
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BERT (BER )
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16.3. ,

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16.3 , , .
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. 16.2. OTDR .
OTDR,
, OTDR.
OTDR -
. (n) , (T), , OTDR D , , :
D () = 3108(T)/2()

(16.1)


OTDR. OTDR . -

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. 16.2.
OTDR
() .
, OTDR.
, . ,
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.
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. 16.3. OTDR.

, , ,
.

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1. OTDR;
2. -OTDR;
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. 16.4.
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. 16.5 OTDR.

. 16.5. OTDR, . , , .
.
OTDR. OTDR
, .
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OTDR 30 1550
[L(/)] = 0,25 /, .
?
() = D(DR)() / L(/) =
= 30 /0,25 / = 120

(16.2)

.

.

.

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,
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,
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.
- OTDR, ,
.

.
(16.3) Dcable
Dfiber, OTDR.
Dcable = Dfiber / (1+/100)

(16.3)

= ,
.
.
OTDR - 48,36 .
- 5,4%.
, , .
(16.3), [16.1, 16.2]:
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1 6.5. BER
16.5.1. BERT

(QoS) BER. ,
, . BER -
. ,
BER .
BER-
. ,
.
SONET/ SDH PDH (. . 9).
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(PRBS).
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- ;
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).
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BER, 10-15.
10 40 /. -

BER BER 10-15, :


( )
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1012/106 = 106 . 277 (106/60/60=277) 11,57 .
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BER

10-12. (. .)).

: ,
BER? ,
(WDM), .
2 .
BER .
, BERT ,
,
.
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.
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[16.3].

16.6. (OSA)

.
( ) ( )
( ). OSA
WDM.
(OSNR),
DWDM. OSA ,
OSNR, ,
WDM,
, .
OSA OSNR.
( ,
())
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. 16.7. WDM OSA.

WDM
.

2 . . 16.7 OSA,
WDM.
OSA,
(TLS), EDFA (. . 7).
: , , - .
. , , 0,15/10 . OSA -
100 10 .

,
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16.7.

, ,
, , ,
.

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. 16.8. .(. [16.5], . .,


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. 16.8 -
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Agilent
70000.

.
PIN-. ,
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.
DC- -. DC-
.
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32 ,

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100 -22 , .
-.
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:
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;
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;
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;
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16.8.

(OSC)

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.


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4. Technical

promotional

rtp.com/products/passives/

material

from

Components/

the
fbg.html,

Web

at

Sumitomo

www.selElectric

Lightwave Corp., Research Triangle, NC.


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Telcordia

TR-NWT-U00357-

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