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FIRE & FIRST AID

FIRE TRIANGLE

PRINCIPLES OF FIRE FIGHTING


STARVATION- REMOVAL OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. SMOTHERING - REMOVAL OF OXYGEN SUPPLY i.e. LIMITATION OF O2. COOLING - REMOVAL OF HEAT i.e. LIMITATION OF TEMP.

PHASES OF COMBUSTION

INCIPIENT PHASE
FLAME SMOKE, UNBURNT, CARBON, PARTICLES

TEMPERATURE 1000 degree F

PRODUCT OF COMBUSTION 1, H2 O (WATER VAPOUR)


2, CO2

3, SO2

4, CO

FREE BURNING PHASE


REDUCED OXYGEN SUPPLY TEMP APPX 1300 degree F OXYGEN SUPPLY HAS DEPLETED FIRE HAS INVOLVED HEAT ACCUMULATES AT UPPER LAYER BREATHING DIFFICULT MASKS RECOMMENDED.

SMOLDERING PHASE
TEMP APPX 1000 degree F
OXYGEN SUPPLY NOT EQUAL TO DEMANDS OF FIRE. TEMPERATURE THROUGHOUT BUILDING IS VERY HIGH NORMAL BREATHING IS NOT POSSIBLE

FUEL

SOLIDS COAL

LIQUID GASOLINE

GASES NATURAL GASES

WOOD
WAX PLASTIC

KEROSENE
TURPENTINE ALCOHOL

PROPANE
BUTANE HYDROGEN

SUGAR
HAY CORK

COD LIVER
PAINT VARNISH

ACETYLENE
OTHERS

TYPES OF FIRE
CLASS A ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLES SUCH AS WOOD PAPER, CLOTH, TRASH, AND PLASTICS FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS e.g. PROPANE AND BUTANE ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS SUCH AS MORTOR TRANSFORMERS, AND OTHER ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

CLASS B CLASS - C

CLASS D

COMBUSTIBLES METALS SUCH AS POTASSIUM, SODIUM, ALUMINIUM, AND MAGNESIUM.


COOKING OILS, GREASE, ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE FACTS.

CLASS K

TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS WATER AND FOAM TYPE


EXTINGUISHES FIRE BY TAKING AWAY THE HEAT
ELEMENT OF THE FIRE. FOAM AGENTS ALSO SEPARATE OXYGEN. FOAM EXTINGUISHES CAN BE USED ON CLASS A AND B FIRE

WATER EXTINGUISHES ARE FOR CLASS A FIRE.

CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE


EXTINGUISHERS EXTINGUISHES FIRE BY TAKING AWAY THE OXYGEN AND ALSO BY REMOVING THE HEAT BY COLD DISCHARGE.

CARBON DIOXIDE CAN BE USED ON CLASS B AND


C FIRE. THEY ARE USUALLY INEFFECTIVE IN CLASS A FIRE.

DRY CHEMICAL AGENT


EXTINGUISHES FIRE BY INTERRUPTING CHEMICAL REACTION OF FIRE TRIANGLE. EFFECTIVE IN CLASS A B AND C FIRE. ACTS AS A BARRIER BETWEEN OXYGEN AND FUEL ELEMENTS IN CLASS A FIRE.

WET CHEMICAL AGENT


EXTINGUISHES FIRE BY REMOVING THE HEAT OF THE FIRE TRIANGLE AND PREVENTS RE IGNITION BY CREATING A BARRIER BETWEEN OXYGEN AND FUEL. EFFECTIVE IN CLASS K FIRE.

CLEAN AGENT
HALOGENATED OR CLEAN AGENT EXTINGUISHES INCLUDE HALO AGENT AS WELL AS LESS OZONE DEPLETING HALO CARBON AGENTS. EXTINGUISHES THE FIRE BY INTERRUPTING CHEMICAL REACTION . PRIMARILY FOR CLASS B AND C FIRES.

DRY POWDER
EXTINGUISHES THE FIRE BY SEPARATING FUEL FROM THE OXYGEN BY REMOVING THE HEAT ELEMENT.
EFFECTIVE IN TYPE D FIRE

WATER MIST
THEY ARE RECENT DEVELOPMENT THEY EXTINGUISHES THE FIRE BY TAKING AWAY THE HEAT ELEMENT OF FIRE TRIANGLE.

WATER MIST EXTINGUISHES ARE PRIMARILY FOR CLASS A


FIRE ALTHOUGH THEY ARE SAFE FOR CLASS C FIRE AS WELL.

CARTRIDGE OPERATED DRY CHEMICAL


CARTRIDGE OPERATED DRY CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHERS EXTINGUISHES THE FIRE BY INTERRUPTING THE CHEMICAL REACTION EFFECTIVE ON CLASS A, B AND C FIRE.

THE RULES FOR FIGHTING FIRES JUST REMEMBER THE THREE As


IF FIRE IS SMALL & CONTAINED

USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER IN INCIPIENT STAGE OF FIRE. EVACUATE THE BUILDING CLOSE THE DOOR .

IF YOU ARE SAFE FROM TOXIC SMOKE


IF THE FIRE PRODUCE LARGE AMOUNT OF THICK, BLACK SMOKE & CHEMICAL SMOKE, IT MAYBE BEST NOT TO TRY TO EXTINGUISH FIRE. NEITHER SHOULD YOU TRY TO EXTINGUISH THE FIRE IN A CONFINED SPACE. ALL FIRES WILL PRODUCE CARBON MONO OXIDE AND MANY FIRES WILL PRODUCE TOXIC GASES THAT CAN BE FATAL EVEN IN A SMALL AMOUNT.

IF YOU HAVE MEANS OF ESCAPE


WE SHOULD ALWAYS FIGHT OF FIRE WITH AN EXIT OR OTHER MEANS OF ESCAPE.

IF YOUR INSTINCTS TELL YOU IT IS OK


IF YOU DO NOT FEEL COMFORTABLE ATTEMPTING TO EXTINGUISH FIRE DONT TRY AND GET OUT OF THE PLACE AND LET THE FIRE DEPARTMENT DO THEIR JOB.

FIRE EXTINGUISHER USE

FIRST AID

THESE ARE THE SIMPLE PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING MEDICINAL HELP TO A INJURED BEFORE ARRIVAL OF DOCTOR

WHEN YOU ARE HANDLING CHEMICALS AND YOU EXPERIENCE: eye discomfort breathing difficulty Dizziness Headache Nausea vomiting or skin irritation Stop what you are doing!
You may be overexposed. Leave the area, obtain first aid if necessary and tell your supervisor what happened.

FIRST AID PROCEDURES


BURNS
KEEP THE VICTIM CALM. WASH WITH PLENTY OF WATER IMMEDIATELY. COVER HIM WITH A BLANKET TO KEEP HIM WARM BUT NOT HOT. THEN GET MEDICAL ATTENTION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

EYE CONTACT IMMEDIATELY FLUSH YOUR EYES FOR 15 MINUTES WITH PLENTY OF WATER. USE THE NEAREST WATER TAP, SINK, WATER FOUNTAIN OR ANY SOURCE OF CLEAN WATER. MAKE SURE THAT YOUR EYES ARE OPEN. HAVE SOMEONE HELP YOU GET MEDICAL ATTENTION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

SKIN CONTACT Wash with lot of soap and water. After washing, if you feel sick or your skin is discoloured or itches, get medical attention.

Remove contaminated clothes and don't use them again until they have been washed. If you take work clothes home, wash them separately from household clothes. Leather goods (belts, shoes, etc.) are difficult to clean and you may have to destroy them if they cannot be decontaminated.

INHALATION If a fellow worker is overcome by gases or vapours, remove the victim to fresh air and call for medical help. Remove any object that is in his mouth and keep him warm.
If the victim is not breathing. DON'T WAIT! Give artificial respiration right way! Continue unitl the victim can breathe on his own or until medical help arrives. Follow these respiration. instructions for artificial

A. The back of the tongue may obstruct the airway.

B. Lift the jaw forward to help open it.

C. Pinch the nose shut. Take a deep breath. Open your mouth wide and put it over the victim's mouth. Make a tight seal. Blow to fill the lungs. Watch the chest rise.
D. Listen carefully for air to come out. Watch the chest fall. Repeat steps C and D over and over every five seconds until the victim starts to breathe.

Thank you.

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