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Advanced Computer Networks

Class Test -1

Max Marks: 30 Q.1 A Do as directed ATM breaks all traffic into 53-Byte cells because [2 marks] a) 53-Byte cells are the ideal size for the voice communication b) 53-Byte cells are the ideal size for data communication c) 53-Byte cells are the ideal size for circuit switching d) 53-Byte cells are the compromised size for both voice and data communication What gives ATM network the ability to operate at different data rates and why? [2 marks] a) Its short, fixed length cells: Allows the prediction of the size of buffers to be used. b) Its short, fixed length cells: Enables the cells to be transported via different routes. c) Its short, fixed length cells: Short delays for voice traffic. d) Its short, 5-Byte header: Less delay for routing the cells. Why is Frame Relay's throughput lower than that of ATM? [2 marks] a) Frame Relaying have error control (ARQ) functionality but not ATM. b) ATM does not need to have CRC checking/generation or bit stuffing functionality in the packets as in Frame Relay. c) Frame Relaying needs to do multiplexing of logical channels but not ATM. d) Although both Frame relay and ATM have frame boundary recognition (flags), ATM doesnt have bit stuffing as in frame Relaying. ATM is said to be a connection oriented technology. What does this mean and why is it necessary? [2 marks] a) Cells travel through the same path to the receiver. By this, cell does not have to be rearranged. b) Cells travel through different paths. Therefore cells can reach the receiver faster. c) A path is reserved exclusively for one user. Arrangement of cells is not necessary d) Cells are transmitted using fiber optic cables. Cells would be less susceptible to errors. Which three Layer 2 encapsulation types would be used on a WAN rather than a LAN? (Choose three) [3 marks] a) HDLC b) Ethernet c) Token Ring d) PPP e) FDDI f) Frame Relay Which three statements properly describe Frame Relay? [3 marks] a) Frame Relay works at the application layer. b) The connection to the network edge is often a leased line, but dialup connections are available from some providers using ISDN or xDSL lines. c) Frame Relay implements no error or flow control. d) Available data rates for Frame Relay are commonly up to 10 Mbps. e) Most Frame Relay connections are SVCs rather than PVCs. f) Frame Relay provides both PVC and SVC service using shared mediumbandwidth connectivity that carries both voice and data traffic. Which three statements accurately describe ATM? [3 marks] a) ATM is implemented by using virtual circuits. b) An ATM network comprises ATM routers, which are responsible for forwarding cells and packets. c) Virtual circuits provide a bidirectional communications path from one ATM endpoint to another. d) An ATM virtual circuit is a physical circuit-switched connection created AN S D

A D F

B C F

A C F

between two computer endpoints across an ATM network. e) ATM can run only over coaxial cable using DS3. f) ATM is a type of cell-switched connection technology that is capable of transferring voice, video, and data through private and public networks. H What is the difference between ATM and frame relay networks? [3 marks] Ans. ATM has more support for QoS and support for variety of traffic as compared to Frame Relay. ATM has higher bandwidth compared to Frame Relay. ATM has fixed size cell where as Frame Relay has variable frame length. I Suppose that the TCP congestion window is set to 64 KB and a timeout occurs. The receiver (sliding) window is 100 KB and the maximum segment size is 1 KB. Assume there is no linear mode. [4 marks] a) How big will the congestion window be after the next six transmission bursts allowed by the congestion window are all successful? b) Now the 7th transmission burst has a timeout. How big will the congestion window be after the next three transmission bursts are all successful? Ans. Cwnd = 64 KB, rwnd = 100 KB, MSS = 1 KB, because of timeout cwnd = 1 MSS=1KB a) 1st transmission cwnd = 1 KB, after transmission, cwnd = 2 KB 2nd transmission burst, cwnd = 4 KB, likewise next 8, 16, 32, 64 KB b) 7th burst timesout, so cwnd = 1 MSS = 1KB, next 3 are successful, so cwnd will be 2,4 and 8KB Suppose you are browsing www.yahoo.com from your machine cse.nirmauni.ac.in. If the round-trip time between yahoo and cse is 100ms; timeout value is 200ms; Maximum Segment Size (MSS) of TCP is 1KB; the congestion window is 1 MSS; the congestion threshold is 8KB; the available buffer size is 64KB and transmission bandwidth is 200 KB/sec. [6 marks] a) What is the transmission time for a TCP segment? b) How long will it take to download a page of 6KB from yahoo? Assume there is no prior TCP connection between yahoo and your machine, there is no packet loss or retransmission. Ignore transmission time for this part. c) How will the result in (b) change if the 4th. TCP segment is dropped and the client gets to detect this loss by timeout? Ans. RTT = 100ms, Timeout = 200 ms, MSS = 1KB, cwnd = 1MSS, ssthresh = 8KB, rwnd = 64KB, BW=200KBPS a) 1/200 Sec b) Page Size = 6 KB. Establish TCP connection will take one RTT = 100 ms 1st transmission, cwnd = 1MSS, 1 more RTTT = 100ms 2nd RTT, cwnd = 2MSS, 1 more RTT = 100 ms 3rd RTT, cwnd=4MSS of which 3 KB of data is transmitted in 1 more RTT = 100 ms So total time needed to download page = 400 ms. c) 4th TCP segment is lost. So 1st and 2nd transmission with 3 MSS sent successfully in 300 ms. To detect the loss of 4th segment, it will take one more RTT = 100 ms. Now cwnd = 1 MSS again, 4th segment in 1 RTT = 100 ms Cwnd = 2 MSS, 5th and 6th MSS in 1 more RTT = 100 ms So total time needed = 600 ms.