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Sezione di Roma

SEMINARI SULLA QUALITA E SULLA SICUREZZA ELETTRICA


Il Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica dellUniversit di Roma La Sapienza, nellambito del corso di Distribuzione ed Utilizzazione dellEnergia Elettrica, lAEIT Sezione di Roma, la Commissione Elettrica dellOrdine degli Ingegneri di Roma e lIEEE-IAS Chapter del Centro-Sud Italia hanno organizzato presso lAula 40 della Sapienza Universit di Roma Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Facolt di Ingegneria, il seminario

IEEE and IEC Harmonic Limits


Mark Halpin Auburn University 21 May 2007

Harmonics in electrical power systems


Prof. Ing. Mark Halpin,
professore di Electrical Power Systems dellAuburn University - Alabama USA presidente dellIEEE/IAS, fellow IEEE

Coordinatore : Prof. Ing. Giuseppe Parise

Limits on Harmonics in Power Systems


IEEE Standard 519 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems suggests limitations for voltage and current harmonic contamination
individual harmonic limits total harmonic distortion limits

IEEE vs. IEC Harmonic Standards


IEEE does not have equipment standards Fundamental IEEE philosophy is shared responsibility
Limit users to an equitable current emission level
Users may not create undesirable resonance conditions

Other standards are different and should be consulted for systems and equipment manufactured or applied outside the U.S.
IEC 61000-3-2, 3-12 (and others): LV equipment standards IEC 61000-3-6: MV/HV/EHV system standard IEC 61000-4-7 and 4-30: Harmonic measurement standards

IEEE 519 and IEC 61000-3-6 have the same goal but utilize different conceptual approaches

Utility companies must control system resonances to limit voltage distortion Fundamental IEC philosophy is voltage quality maintenance Users may not inject harmonic currents that lead to excessive voltage harmonic production Utility (supply) system characteristics are defined by system requirements and are not manipulated to allow greater user harmonic currents

519 Limits on Harmonics in Power Systems


IEEE 519 considers the point of common coupling (PCC) as the customer-utility interface point
Harmonic current limitations for end-users apply at this point Harmonic voltage limits apply throughout the utility network and are suggested at the PCC to insure quality in the voltage supplied

IEEE 519: Limits on Voltage Harmonics


Voltage harmonic limits are suggested for both individual harmonics and total harmonic distortion. Different limits apply for different voltage levels
Voltage Harmonics
Voltage at PCC <69 kV 69-161 kV >161 kV Individual Limit 3.0 1.5 1.0 THD 5.0 2.5 1.5

Shared Responsibility requires compromise from owner/operators and users


Voltage limits set to avoid problems Current limits chosen based on equity between
Owners/operators and users Users and users

IEEE 519: Limits on Current Harmonics


Limits are provided for individual harmonics and THD (TDD) for general distribution systems. All values are in percent and based on a 15 or 30 minute demand interval
Harmonic Current Limits: 120-69000 V Systems
Current Ratio <20 20-50 50-100 100-1000 >1000 h<11 4.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 15.0 11h<17 2.0 3.5 4.5 5.5 7.0 17h<23 1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 23h<35 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 35h 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.4 TDD 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

IEEE 519: Limits on Current Harmonics


For higher voltage levels, lower percentages of harmonic contamination are permitted
Harmonic Current Limits: 69-161 kV Systems
Current Ratio <20 20-50 50-100 100-1000 >1000 h<11 2.0 3.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 11h<17 1.0 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.5 17h<23 0.75 1.25 2.0 2.5 3.0 23h<35 0.3 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 35h 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.5 0.7 TDD 2.5 4.0 6.0 7.5 10.0

Current ratio: Short-circuit current divided by maximum load demand current, ISC/IL

Current ratio: Short-circuit current divided by maximum load demand current, ISC/IL

IEEE 519: Limits on Current Harmonics


Limits for loads connected directly to the transmission system are the most stringent
Harmonic Current Limits: >161 kV Systems
Current Ratio <50 50 h<11 2.0 3.0 11h<17 1.0 1.5 17h<23 0.75 1.15 23h<35 0.3 0.45 35h 0.15 0.22 THD 2.5 3.75

Does IEEE 519 Over-Specify The Problem?


Voltage and current are obviously related by impedance Ohms Law applies at each frequency of interest IEEE 519 recommends both voltage and current limits Does this indirectly recommend a frequency-dependent equivalent impedance at the PCC? Yes, but
The relationship is not exact due to allowances for diversity and resonance Treating ranges of harmonics the same leads to atypical impedance characteristics

Current ratio: Short-circuit current divided by maximum load demand current, ISC/IL

IEEE 519 Impedance Specification


Per-Unit Harmonic Impedance
maximum demand current IL used as base

A More Typical Impedance


Series and parallel resonances likely exist!
40

6.00 5.00 Impedance (pu) 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Harmonic Number I sc/IL ratio <20 20<50 50<100 100<1000 >1000

Positive Sequence Driving Point Impedance

Impedance (ohms)

30

20

10

12

18

24

Frequency (H pu)

IEC 61000-3-6 (Ed. 1) Impedance


Based on typical U.K. MV urban distribution without major resonance-causing capacitors
Im p e d a n c e ( )

IEEE Impedance Allows for Resonance


Limit-Based Impedance vs. Linear Short-Circuit Impedance
6.00 5.00 Impedance (pu) 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Limit SC

slope=1

slope=2

0.00 3
H a rm o n ic n u m b e r

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

Harmonic Number

Short-circuit impedance could be used to establish y-axis values

Based on a Short-Circuit to Load Current Ratio of 20

Impedance Summary
IEEE 519 and IEC 61000-3-6 (Ed. 1) show increasing impedance with frequency More realistic systems (with resonance) may show increases or decreases with frequency If IEEE 519 impedance is greater than the system impedance, what does this mean? IEEE 519 current limits could be increased or other customers served System impedance could be higher (resonance) IEEE 519 voltage limits could be reduced

IEEE 519: Consideration of Additional Service


# Of Customers That Can Be Connected For Different SCR Levels 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 5 7
(SCR=19.999) (SCR=49.999)

# of Customers

9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
Harmonic # (h)

IEEE 519 relies on this diversity to allow approach to be widely applied

The IEC Approach


IEC utilizes equipment limits for disturbances (harmonics, voltage fluctuations, etc.) to promote low-voltage system electromagnetic compatibility A voltage quality approach is used to coordinate disturbance emissions from MV, HV, and EHV loads and installations The entire IEC approach is based on compatibility levels and statisticsEMC can not be guaranteed, but compatibility can be maximized
planning level assessed level compatibility level

IEC 61000-3-6 Planning Levels


Odd harmonics non-multiple of 3 Harmonic Order h 5 7 11 13 17 h 49 Harmonic Voltage % MV 5 4 3 2.5
17 1.9 0.2 h

Odd harmonics multiple of 3 Harmonic Order h 3 9 15 21 21< h 45 Harmonic Voltage % MV 4 1.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 HV-EHV 2 1 0.3 0.2 0.2 Harmonic Order h 2 4 6 8 10 h 50

Even harmonics Harmonic Voltage % MV 1.8 1 0.5 0.5


0.25

HV-EHV 2 2 1.5 1.5


17 1.2 h

HV-EHV 1.4 0.8 0.4 0.4

Probability density

10 10 + 0.22 0.19 + 0.16 h h

disturbance level Disturbance level

immunity level

IEC MV-HV-EHV EMC Coordination


The IEC approach is based on maintaining adequate voltage quality with respect to compatibility levels Coordination is performed at each voltage level and from one level to another considering Summation laws for cancellation/diversity Transfer coefficients between voltage levels
HV upstream system MV St GMV+LV (LUS) TUM (LMV) GMV LV SLV SMV = St-SLV

IEC 61000-3-6 Emission Allocation


Voltage emissions are allocated to users according to the general concept formulae
G h = L Th Lus )h h (

Eh =

Si Gh Stotal

G denotes global emission level for a particular voltage level at harmonic h E denotes emission limit for ith user L denotes planning level at harmonic h T denotes a transfer coefficient between voltage levels is a summation exponent to account for cancellation, etc. S is load (or total system) power

IEC 61000-3-6 Current Emissions


Current emission limits are obtained, when necessary, using
The apportioned voltage limits The system impedance characteristics

IEEE 519 V/I vs IEC 61000-3-6 V/I


How Many Distorting Loads Can Be Served?
Allowable Distorting Loads For Various Current and Voltage Limits From IEEE 519-1992 and IEC 61000-3-6 For An Assumed Short-Circuit Ratio of 100
90

Harmonic Number, h Ih/IL

80

5 5

7 5

11 3

13 3

>13
# of Loads

70 60

500/h2

50 40 30 20 10 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 Harmonic #

519 61K-3-6

Important points regarding this particular table


Table applies only to MV users User must be less than 1 MVA Short-circuit to (agreed power) load ratio must be > 100 User should not have power factor correction capacitors

Technical Comparison of IEEE and IEC


System characteristics (impedances) are only an issue if both voltage and current limits are recommended IEEE does this for all customers
Easier to use

Technical Comparison of IEEE and IEC


Diversity and harmonic cancellation are addressed in both approaches The inconsistent impedance specification in IEEE can be interpreted as a diversity/cancellation/resonance allowance IEC uses a frequency-dependent exponent to account for diversity/resonance and actual system impedance to account for resonance

IEC does this ONLY for small customers


Less likely to encounter inconsistencies

Technical Comparison of IEEE and IEC


Both approaches provide some allowance for background harmonic distortion The inconsistencies in the IEEE impedance specification can be interpreted as an allowance for background distortion
The background plus the customer under evaluation should not exceed the limiting values

IEC 61000-3-6 or IEEE 519


Compliance with IEC emission limits would be based on harmonic voltages produced at the PCC
IEEE 519 compliance (for the user) is based only on current harmonics

The two approaches may or may not result in the same conclusions regarding mitigation requirements and procedures
Cost of compliance could be substantially different

IEC specifically provides for transferring harmonic distortion from an upstream (source) system to a downstream (load) point

The harmonic problem is the same, so why must the standards be different?
Globalization is driving us toward harmonization

Towards Harmonization
Key members of 519 are active in the revision of 61000-3-6 Harmonious changes in 519 include
Adoption of measurement protocols Consideration of time variations through statistical methods Treatment of interharmonics Consideration of LV (<1kV) systems

Harmonization: IEEE Measurement Procedure


Recommended to use IEC 61000-4-7 and 61000-4-30 specifications
1.4

1.2

Harmonics @ 60 Hz

IEC current limits, where they exist, are similar to corresponding 519 current limits for lower frequencies
519 has diversity assumptions whereas IEC uses summation exponent

0.8

0.6

519 current limits vs. IEC voltage apportioning is not likely to be resolved in the near future
Each approach has advantages and disadvantages

0.4

Interharmonics @ 5 Hz

0.2

0 X+5 X+10 X+15 X+20 X+25 X+30 X+35 X+40 X+45 X+50 X+55 X+60 X-60 X-55 X-50 X-45 X-40 X-35 X-30 X-25 X-20 X-15 X-10 X-5 X

Harmonization: Indices and Statistical Analysis


From IEC 61000-4-30 3 s very short value
TDD (% ) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 Time (h)

Changes to the Limits


New voltage limit provision for low voltage (<1 kV) 5% individual harmonic, 8% total harmonic distortion Revised current limits for general transmission systems (> 161 kV)
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL
100.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% .0%

Fn,vs = 2

10 min short value

1 15 2 Fn,i 15 i =1

Fn,sh = 2

Frequency

1 F(2 ,vs ),i n 200 i =1

200

100 80 60 40 20 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/IL <25* 25<50 50 <11 1.0 2.0 3.0 11h< 17 0.5 1.0 1.5 17h< 23 0.38 0.75 1.15 23h< 35 0.15 0.3 0.45 35h 0.1 0.15 0.22 TDD 1.5 2.5 3.75

95th percentile should be less than limit 99th percentile should be less than X*limit

TDD (%)

Interharmonic Limits
Voltage-only 0-120 Hz limits based on (single-frequency) lamp flicker Similar work ongoing in IEC TC77/SC77A WG1 and IEEE Task Force on Interharmonics with several joint members
6
V1kV V1kV

Reality of Today
Utility company users of IEEE harmonic limit standards are finding an increasing need to make system improvements
Pressure on standards-making groups to decrease user current harmonic limits

5 Voltage (% of Nominal) 4
1 kV<V69 kV 1 kV<V69 kV

Utility company users of IEC harmonic limit standards are finding an increasing need to design systems differently
Pressure on standards making groups to increase compatibility levels

3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Frequency (Hz)


69 kV<V161 kV V>161 kV all voltages 69 kV<V161 kV V>161 kV all voltages

Customers are relatively accepting of existing limits Equipment emission limits (IEC only) are being strongly debated between manufacturers and utility companies

The Legalities of the Limit Standards


IEEE 519 is a Recommended Practice
Is not binding until directly or indirectly incorporated in power contracts or adopted by regulators

Standardization Conclusions
The global economy pushes us toward harmonization of standards IEEE and IEC recognize the needs and issues at technical and administrative levels Tangible progress is being made Technical harmonization through joint membership Administrative support through procedures to directly adopt standards (IEEE has adopted IEC 61000-4-15 for flicker, for example) and jointly develop standards

IEC 61000-3-6 is a Technical Report


Many European national standards and norms adopt 3-6 or variants of it

Engineering judgment is always necessary


Neither standard applies to all situations

Case Study Examples


Purpose: To demonstrate typical harmonic analysis procedures and IEEE 519 applications Two case studies are included proposed twelve-pulse rectifier (dc drive) load addition effects of six-pulse operation Applications of IEEE 519 harmonic limits also considered

System Diagram for Examples


220 kV Utility Supply Transformer 1 33 kV

SL

HF

Transformer 2

6.6 kV

SL

HF

Notation: M--motor load, SL--static load, C--static capacitors, HF--harmonic filters

Required Information
Table 1. Utility Supply Data Param eter Value Supply Voltage 220 kV Short-Circuit Capacity 4000-10000 MVA X/R 10.0 Table 2. Transformer Data Value Param eter
(transformer 2)

Case Study 1: DC Drive at 6.6 kV Bus


This example demonstrates the potential impacts of adding a twelve-pulse 5000 hp dc drive load at the 6.6 kV bus The questions to be addressed: Does the addition of the drive lead to significant voltage distortion in the plant?
A study for IEEE 519 customer compliance would not consider internal plant conditions

Parameter
(transformer 1)

Value 30 MVA 33-6.6 kV 10% 10.0

Power Rating Voltage Rating Impedance X/R

100 MVA 220-33 kV 14% 10.0

Power Rating Voltage Rating Im pedance X/R

Is IEEE 519 limit compliance attainable?


Customer is responsible for current distortion at the PCC Utility is responsible for voltage distortion at the PCC

Table 3. Static Load and Capacitor Data 33 kV Bus Load 25 MVA@ lag. 0.8 Capacitor 8.4 Mvar 6.6 kV Bus Load 15 MVA@ lag. 0.8 Capacitor 5 Mvar

Case Study 1: DC Drive at 6.6 kV Bus


The magnitude of the impedance seen looking into the rest of the system from the 6.6 kV bus indicates multiple resonance conditions exist
1.5

Case Study 1: Rectifier at 6.6 kV Bus


Under normal conditions, the 6.6 kV bus voltage is slightly distorted by the drive current.
6.6 kV Bus Voltage (LN) Spectrum
4000

6.6 kV Bus Driving Point Impedance

Twelve-Pulse Drive Current Spectrum


500

THD=0.636%

THD=11.13%

400 3000

1.0 Impedance (Ohms)


Voltage (V) 2000 Current (A) 0 10 20 30 Frequency (H pu) 40 50 60

300

200

1000

0.5

100

0 0 10 20 30 Frequency (H pu) 40 50 60

0.0 0 10 20 30 Frequency (H pu) 40 50 60

Case Study 1: DC Drive at 6.6 kV Bus


In some cases, waveforms provide greater information than spectral plots
6.6 kV Bus LN Voltage and Drive Load Current
6000 6.6 kV Bus LN Voltage Twelve-Pulse Drive Current 1000

Case Study 2: Six-Pulse Operation


It is important to consider possible changes in multi-pulse equipment when evaluating harmonic impacts For critical drive loads, operation with a reduced pulse order is a common backup plan
6.6 kV Bus Voltage (LN) Spectrum
4000

4000 500 dcdrive-bus6k (A) 2000 bus6k (V)

Six-Pulse Drive Spectrum


500

THD=3.63%

THD=35.8%

400 3000

300 Voltage (V) 2000 Current (A) 0 10 20 30 Frequency (H pu) 40 50 60

-2000 -500 -4000

200

1000 100

-6000 0 10 20 Time (ms) 30 40 50

-1000
0 0 0 10 20 30 Frequency (H pu) 40 50 60

Case Study 2: Six-Pulse Operation


The 6.6 kV bus voltage remains only slightly distorted
6.6 kV Bus Voltage (LN) and Drive Current Waveforms
6000 6.6 kV Bus Volltage (LN) Six-Pulse Drive Current 1000

Case Studies 1&2: Conclusions So Far


Twelve-pulse drive operation will not create a harmonic voltage problem at the load (6.6 kV) bus. Six-pulse drive operation will not create a harmonic voltage problem at the load (6.6 kV) bus. What about compliance with IEEE 519 limits at the PCC? The PCC is the 220 kV high-side bus in this case Twelve and six-pulse operation must be considered Primary question involves customer compliance with current limits

4000 500 dcdrive-bus6k (A) 2000 bus6k (V)

-2000 -500 -4000

-6000 0 10 20 Time (ms) 30 40 50

-1000

Case Studies 1&2: 519 Current Limits


To apply 519, we must know the maximum demand current and the available fault current. For this case, let use assume the following: SL=45 MVA SSC=10000 MVA ISC/IL= SSC/SL=222.2 We use the second (bottom) row in the HV (>161 kV) current limit table. All currents must be expressed as a percentage of IL!

Case Studies 1&2: 519 Current Limits


The results for h<20 clearly indicate a limit violation at the 5th harmonic during six-pulse operation. Twelve-pulse operation is not a problem.

Harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 Harmonic Current, % of IL 6.77 0.44 0.81 0.09 0.33 0.09 519 Limit Value 3 3 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2

For Additional Information


My coordinates are: Mark Halpin 200 Broun Hall Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849 (USA) halpin@eng.auburn.edu

Thank you for your attention!