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Maxwell2D

Ansoft
ElectromagneticandElectromechanicalAnalysis
ANSOFT CORPORATION 225 West Station Square Dr. Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119
usersguide Maxwell2D
12
electronicdesignautomationsoftware
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide 1
Theinformationcontainedinthisdocumentissubjecttochangewithoutnotice.Ansoft
makesnowarrantyofanykindwithregardtothismaterial,including,butnotlimitedto,
theimpliedwarrantiesofmerchantabilityandfitnessforaparticularpurpose.Ansoft
shallnotbeliableforerrorscontainedhereinorforincidentalorconsequential
damagesinconnectionwiththefurnishing,performance,oruseofthismaterial.
2009AnsoftCorporation.Allrightsreserved.
AnsoftCorporation
225WestStationSquareDrive
Suite200
Pittsburgh,PA15219
USA
Phone:412-261-3200
Fax:412-471-9427
Maxwell,ePhysics andOptimetrics areregisteredtrademarksortrademarksofAnsoft
Corporation.Allothertrademarksarethepropertyoftheirrespectiveowners.
Neweditionsofthismanualwillincorporateallmaterialupdatedsincetheprevious
edition.Themanualprintingdate,whichindicatesthemanualscurrentedition,
changeswhenaneweditionisprinted.Minorcorrectionsandupdateswhichare
incorporatedatreprintdonotcausethedatetochange.Updatepackagesmaybe
issuedbetweeneditionsandcontainadditionaland/orreplacementpagestobe
mergedintothemanualbytheuser.Notethatpageswhicharerearrangeddueto
changesonapreviouspagearenotconsideredtoberevised.
Edition:REV2.0
Date:15January2009
SoftwareVersion:12.1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide 2
Contents
Contents
Thisdocumentdiscussessomebasicconceptsandterminologyused throughout
theAnsoftMaxwellapplication.Itprovidesthefollowinginformation:
Overview
1.0- Maxwell2D
Examples EddyCurrent
6.1 JumpingRingsAxisymmetric Model
6.2 InstantaneousForcesonBusbars
Examples Transient
7.1 GappedInductorModel
7.2- SolenoidProblemwithanExternalCircuit
Examples BasicExercises
9.1 Electrostatic
9.3 Magnetostatic
9.4 Parametric
9.5 Transient
9.6 TransientwithCircuitEditor
9.8- Optimetrics
9.10 Scripting
9.12 EddyCurrent
9.13 RotationalTransientMotion
9.14 BoundaryConditions
9.15 PermanentMagnetsAssignment
Examples Motors
11.1- PermanentMagnetSynchronousMachine
11.2- Three-phaseInductionMachine
11.3- PermanentMagnetMotor
Maxwell

is a comprehensive electromagnetic feld simulation software package for engineers tasked with designing and analyzing 3D/2D
structures, such as motors, actuators, transformers and other electric and electromechanical devices common to automotive, military/
aerospace and industrial systems. Based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), Maxwell can solve static, frequency-domain and time-varying
electromagnetic and electric felds. In addition, the software can be dynamically linked with Simplorer

to create a powerful, system-level


electromagnetic-based design fow. This fow enables users to combine complex circuits with accurate component models to design high-
performance electromechanical and power electronic systems. Additionally, Maxwells 3D solvers have dynamic links to ePhysics

. This allows
engineers to perform complex 3D multi-physics studies by linking Maxwell to ePhysics thermal and structural solvers.
Key Benefits
Electromagnetic feld simulation
Maxwell includes 3D/2D Transient, AC Electromagnetic, Magneto-
static, Electrostatic and Electrotransient solvers that accurately solve
for force, torque, capacitance, inductance, resistance, and imped-
ance, as well as generate state-space models.
Automatic adaptive meshing
Maxwell uses the Ansoft-pioneered automatic adaptive meshing
techniques. This robust meshing algorithm automatically creates and
refnes the fnite element mesh as the solution converges, streamlin-
ing the solution process and making the software very easy to use.
Dynamic link - ePhysics
The Maxwell 3D solvers can be dynamically linked with ePhysics
thermal and stress analysis and are the ideal solution for every elec-
tromechanical device requiring cross-disciplinary design analysis.
Dynamic link - Simplorer
Dynamic links with Simplorer multi-domain system simulation allow
accurate high-fdelity component models to be combined with cir-
cuits and system architecture to create a powerful, electromagnetic-
based design fow.
Import
CAD fles can be imported in Maxwell streamlining the design pro-
cess.
Multi-processing and distributed analysis
Maxwell can leverage available computing power with multi-pro-
cessing and distributed analysis options for fast turnaround of your
largest designs.
Optimization
Optimetrics

provides parametric, optimization, sensitivity, and


statistical analysis capabilities to Maxwell. Optimetrics automates the
design-optimization process by quickly identifying optimal values for
design parameters that satisfy user-specifed constraints.
Customized pre-processors
RMxprt (electric machine design) and PExprt

(magnetic component
design) are used to design devices based on a traditional analytical
approach. They also can be directly linked to Maxwell and provide
fully automated design creation and analytical analysis. Users can
perform preliminary studies of design concepts prior to performing
rigorous electromagnetic analysis with Maxwell.
applications
Electromechanical
Motorsandgenerators
Linearorrotationalactuators
Relays
MEMS
Magneticrecordingheads
Electromagnetic
Coils
Permanentmagnets
Sensors
Power electronic
Transformers
Converters
Busbars
IGBTsandsimilardevices
EM behavior
Insulationstudies
Electrostaticdischarge
Electromagneticshielding
EMI/EMC
Semiconductor
Biomedical
The new 2D interface provides strong coupling with
3D and many new usability features.
3D/2D Electromagnetic Field Simulation
Maxwell,Simplorer,ePhysics,Optimetrics,PExprt,AnsoftLinks,andHFSSaretrademarksofAnsoftCorporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308
225 West Station Square Drive Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www.ansoft.com
Key features
Low-frequencyelectromagneticfeldsimulationandanalysisusing
FEM for 3D/2D structures
Transient-nonlinearanalysiswith:
Motionrotation, translational, non-cylindrical rotation
External circuit coupling
Permanent magnet demagnetization analysis
Core loss computation
Laminationmodelingfor3D
ACElectromagneticAnalysisofdevicesinfuencedbyskin/
proximity effects, eddy/displacement currents
MagnetostaticNonlinearanalysiswithautomatedequivalent
circuit model generation
ElectricFieldTransient,Electrostatic/Currentfowanalysiswith
automated equivalent circuit model generation
Display of data/visualization of results
Fieldvisualizationandanimations(shaded,contourandvector
plots)
Meshvisualization(full,partial)
Current,inducedvoltage,fuxlinkage
Powerloss,storedenergy
Coreloss,eddy,excess,hysteresisloss(includingtheminorloop
effects)
Impedance,inductance,capacitance
Force,torque
Customreportsofuser-defnedsolutiondata
Performance and integration
DistributedAnalysis*forparallelcomputingofparameterized
models
64-bitoperatingsystemsupport
LinkstoSimplorer
*
, ePhysics
*
,HFSS
*
, RMxprt
*
, PExprt
*
Integrated3DmodelerfeaturingACISv16andMFCtechnology
Standardprimitivesandmulti-sweepfunctions
Booleanoperations:union,subtraction,intersection
DirectimportofSATandDXFfles
AnsoftLinks

*forimportofSTEP,IGESandPro/Efles
Automatic, adaptive mesh technology
Fault-tolerantmeshingalgorithms
Mesh-generationfeedback
GUIperformsvalidationandintegritychecks
Softwareidentifesartifactswithintheimportedgeometry
Mesh-basedmodelresolution
Versatile material manager and material types
User,groupandsystemlibraries
Linear,nonlinearanisotropicmaterials
Materialassignmentbycoordinatetype:cartesian,cylindricalor
spherical
Integrated Optimetrics

*
Geometryandmaterialparameterization
Optimization,sensitivityandstatisticalanalysis
*Optionavailableatadditionalcharge.
AnsoftLinks

RMxprt

Maxwell

ePhysics

O
p
t
i
m
e
t
r
i
c
s

CAD Files
IGES, STEP, DXF, SAT, ProE
Simplorer

Electric Machine
PExprt

Converters & Transformers


Current density in a busbar system as calculated by Maxwell 3D.
OVERVIEW
FEATURED CAPABILITIES
Optimetrics

is an optional software module that adds parametric


capabilities, optimization algorithms, sensitivity and statistical analyses to
Ansofts best-in-class electromagnetic-feld simulation productsHFSS

,
Maxwell

3D and Q3D Extractor

. Optimetrics automates the design-


optimization process for high-performance electronics, such as microwave/
RF devices, printed circuit boards, on-chip passives, IC packages and
electromechanical components, by quickly identifying optimal values for
design parameters that satisfy user-specifed constraints and goals.
Optimetrics

enables users to study the effects of geometry and materials


on a design by creating parameters for the dimensions and material
constants of the model to be analyzed. Optimetrics then varies these
parameters and adjusts the geometry and materials to achieve the
desired, user specified, performance goal.
Leveraging previously computed parametric simulation results within
its optimizer, Optimetrics enables engineers to understand device
characteristics over a large design space and quickly identify the best
performing design that is least sensitive to manufacturing tolerances.

Optimetrics, when used in conjunction with HFSS

, Maxwell

3D and
Q3D Extractor

, delivers an innovative and robust design platform from


which users gain a greater understanding of the design space and the
ability to make insightful design choices.
Parametric Analysis
User-specifed range and number of steps for parameters
Automatic analysis of parameter permutations
Distributed Analysis (cost option)
o Automated parser management across multiple hardware
platforms and reassembly of data for parametric tables and
studies
Sensitivity Analysis
Design variations to determine sensitivities
o Manufacturing tolerances
o Material properties
This example is a connector designed with HFSS
and Optimetrics. The control panel displays design
variables (i.e., cost functions, parameters), launches
design perturbations and converges to the optimal
performance criterion.
Ansoft Corporation 225 West Station Square Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
TEL 1.412.261.3200 FAX 1.412.471.9427 EMAI L info@ansoft.com WEB www.ansoft.com
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Optimization
User-selectable cost functions and goal objective
o Quasi-Newton method
o Sequential Nonlinear Programming (SNLP)
o Integer-only Sequential Nonlinear Programming
Automatic analysis of parameter variants until optimum goal obtained
Tuning
User-controllable slide bar for real-time tuning display and results
Statistical Analysis
Design performance distribution versus parameter values
Current sensor optimization
results using Maxwell 3D
and Optimetrics
Ansoft Corporation 225 West Station Square Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
TEL: 412.261.3200 FAX: 412.471.9427 EMAIL: info@ansoft.com WEB: www.ansoft.com
Multi-domain simulation software
Overview
SIMPLORER

is the premier software program for the design and


analysis of complex, multi-domain systems commonly found in
automotive, aerospace/defense and industrial systems.
Multi-domain system design is challenging and complex. It
consists of many interdisciplinary and nonlinear components from
multiple domains: electrical, mechanical, thermal and control. The
close interaction across domains renders single-domain system
simulation tools ineffective.

SIMPLORER is the only system engineering tool to offer multiple
standard modeling techniques (VHDL-AMS, circuits, block
diagrams, state machines, C/C++) that can be used concurrently.
It also utilizes the concept of natures, allowing components of
different engineering domains to interact.
SIMPLORER is the ideal tool for system designs such as:
Power Systems
Electric Motors and Drives
Powertrains
Modeling Techniques
SIMPLORER v7 offers VHDL-AMS wizard technology,
making it easy to leverage the IEEE multi-domain
modeling standard.
Hybrid-electric Propulsion
Other Multi-domain
Systems
SIMPLORER allows components to be described as behavioral or
physical models using one or any combination of SIMPLORERs
modeling techniques. This eliminates error-prone mathematical
transformations and model analogies often employed by single-
domain simulation tools.
VHDL-AMS
IEEE-endorsed modeling language (standard
1076.1) created to provide a general-
purpose, easily exchangeable and open
language for multi-domain analog
mixed-signal designs.
CIRCUITS
Numerically stable and fast circuit
simulator with support for multi-level
semiconductor modeling that is optimized
to the needs of demanding power-electronic
and high-switching-frequency circuit design.
BLOCK DIAGRAMS
Enables the description of signal-ow-based
linear, nonlinear, continuous, time-discrete
and hybrid systems, making it ideal for
dynamic system simulation and closed-
loop-control applications.
STATE MACHINES
Highly efcient modeling technique for
event-driven systems, such as logical
control found in embedded control systems,
space vector controls or PWM for power-
electronic circuits.
v7.0
Models
SIMPLORER Model Libraries
SIMPLORER offers optional application-specic model libraries to
enhance productivity and reduce design time:
Alternative Power
Automotive
Hydraulic
Machine

Integration
FEA-Based Models
For models requiring the highest level of delity, SIMPLORER
provides a direct link to Ansofts industry-leading electromagnetic
eld simulation and design programs: Maxwell

, RMxprt

, and
PExprt

. Users can easily create equivalent circuit models from the


nite-element analysis (FEA) results and import them directly to
SIMPLORER.
Alternatively, users can employ the Transient Simulation coupling
link to couple transient FEA directly to SIMPLORER. This powerful
feature provides the ultimate in accuracy and exibility and is ideal
for detailed analysis of electromechanical components operating
within a system.
Manufacturers Models
SIMPLORER users can access up-to-date manufacturer-specic
components online at www.model.simplorer.com. MOSFET, IGBT,
ultra capacitors and other components are available to customers
as a free download.
Statistical Analysis and Optimization
SIMPLORER includes many advanced analysis capabilities such as
parametric sweeps and optimization routines to provide insight into
design variations and trade-offs.

Parameter Sweep/Table
Monte Carlo
3D Graphic
Genetic Algorithm
Successive Approximation
Mechanical
Power
SMPS
Sensor
SIMPLEX
Frequency Sweep
Worst Case
Sensitivity
Please consult your local sales representative for pricing and information on this and other Ansoft products.
SIMPLORER, PExprt and RMxprt are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PL37-0407 2004 Ansoft Corporation
SIMPLORER v7 includes many new statistical design
and optimization routines.
SIMPLORER v7 now includes a transient simulation coupling link.
Users can simultaneously solve a transient FEA project with a
transient system simulation.
Scripting
This powerful feature opens APIs in the SIMPLORER environment,
allowing SIMPLORER to be embedded into existing design ows.
The scripting capability is language independent so users can work
with popular scripting languages, such as Visual Basic

, Java

or
Tcl/Tk and interact easily with other tools supporting the Microsoft
Com interface, such as MS Ofce and LabView

Co-Simulation
SIMPLORER allows the integration of proprietary C/C++ programs,
MATLAB

/Simulink

, Mathcad

and other specialized programs,


allowing SIMPLORER to utilize customized code and existing
design control. The direct integration of models in their native
environment avoids model translation, saves design time and
allows communication and model exchange across departments
and between suppliers and OEMs.
RMxprt

is a versatile software program that speeds the design and optimization process of rotating electric machines. With RMxprt, users
can calculate machine performance, make initial sizing decisions, and perform hundreds of what if analyses in a matter of seconds. As
the entry point for the Ansoft motor and drive design methodology, RMxprt automatically produces both system-level models and geometric
data, allowing the preliminary design to be refned and integrated with power electronic and control circuitry.
Key Benefits
Fast design
RMxprt offers numerous machine-specifc, template-based interfaces
for induction, synchronous, and electronically and brush-commutat-
ed machines that allow users to easily enter design parameters and
to evaluate design tradeoffs early in the design process.
Performance metrics
Critical performance data, such as torque versus speed, power
loss, fux in the air gap, power factor and effciency can be quickly
calculated.
Robust calculation methods
RMxprt uses classical analytical motor theory and equivalent mag-
netic circuit methods to compute performance metrics for a specifc
machine design and accounts for nonlinear magnetic characteristics
and 3D effects, such as skew and end-turn.
Model pre-processor
RMxprt is a key part of Ansofts motor design methodology. In addi-
tion to providing classical motor performance calculations, RMxprt
can automatically create 3D and 2D geometry and assign material
properties and other necessary problem defnition data necessary
to perform rigorous fnite element analysis on the design using
Maxwell

.
Wire library
RMxprt includes a comprehensive database of ANSI and IEC wires.
High-fdelity system models
RMxprt creates high-fdelity, state-space system models incorporat-
ing machines physical dimensions, winding characteristics and non-
linear material properties. Engineers can use the resulting behavioral
model to explore electronic control topologies, loads, and interac-
tions with drive-system components in Simplorer

.
Convenient design sheet output
Design sheets list all the relevant input parameters and calculated
parameters and graphically display waveforms including current,
voltage, torque and back EMF as well as a detailed winding layout.
RMxprt also can output Excel-format design sheets based on the
user-defned template.
Design optimization
RMxprt can perform hundreds of what if analyses in a matter of
minutes, making it a valuable tool for designers needing to make
initial sizing and material decisions quickly.
Powerful scripting
RMxprt can be integrated with third party development programs
through scripting languages such as VB script, Tcl/TK, JavaScript

,
Perl, Excel and MATLAB

. This allows users to customize the design


fow and leverage internally developed programs and historical data.
design templates
Machine types
Inductionmachines
o Single-phase motors
o Three-phase motors
Synchronousmachines
o Line-start PM motors
o Salient-pole motors and generators
o Non-salient pole motors and generators
Brushcommutatedmachines
o DC motors and generators
o Permanent magnet DC motors
o Universal motors
Electronicallycommutatedmachines
o Brushless DC motors
o Adjustable-speed PM motors and generators
o Switched reluctance motors
o Claw-pole generators
RMxprt delivers the reports you need to quickly
analyze and tune your design.
Design Software for Electric Machines
RMxpRt

v12
RMxprt, Simplorer and Maxwell are trademarks of Ansoft Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
2008 Ansoft Corporation 0308
225 West Station Square Drive Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1119 USA
T 412-261-3200 F 412-471-9427 E info@ansoft.com W www.ansoft.com
Key features
Machine-specifctemplateeditor
o Rotor
o Stator
o Running strategies
o Drive circuits
Auto-designfeature
o Slot size
o Coil turns and wire diameter
o Starting capacitance
o Winding arrangement
Performancecurves
o Torque
o Power
o Effciency
Outputwaveforms
o Current
o Cogging torque
o Flux in the air gap
Graphicalwindingeditor
CrosssectionEditor
Customizabledesignsheet
Costevaluation
Integratedparametricsandoptimization
State-spacemodelexporttoSimplorer

AutomatedprojectsetupforMaxwell

2D
AutomatedgeometryandmaterialsetupforMaxwell3D
design flOW
RMxprt is the ideal starting point for a comprehensive electric machine design fow. RMxprt with Maxwell and Simplorer provides an effcient
and accurate methodology to design and optimize an electric machine and related electric drive and control system.
CeomeIry Skew
MaIerials SIackihg
Wihdihg Lhd L!!ecI
Ih!o
SIaIe Space Model
CeomeIry, wihdihg characIerisIics
ahd hohlihear maIerial properIies
Physics-based ParameIers
RMXPRT

SIMPLORER

MAXWELL

RMxprt

creates 3D and 2D geometry, assigns materials and sets up


boundary conditions for Maxwell. Additionally, any parameter changed in
RMxprt is automatically updated in the fnite element project.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-1
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell 2D is a high-performance interactive software
package that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to solve
electric field and magnetic field problems.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-2
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell 2D solves the electromagnetic field problems for a given
model with appropriate materials, boundaries and source conditions
applying Maxwell's equations over a finite region of space.
There are two geometry modes available in Maxwell 2D:
Cartesian (XY) model
Axisymmetric (RZ) model
There are six solvers available in Maxwell 2D:
Electrostatic
AC Conduction Electric Fields
DC Conduction
Magnetostatic
Eddy Current Magnetic Fields
Transient Magnetic
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-3
Overview
Presentation
1
DifferentMethodsofElectromagneticAnalysis
Electromagnetic
Analysis
Analytical
Techniques
Numerical
Techniques
Integral
Equations
Differential
Equations
Boundary
Elements
Finite
Difference
Finite
Elements
Scalar
Potentials
Vector
Potentials
Components of
H-Field
Closed
Form
BEM
FDM
FEM
Iterative
3D Magnetostatic
3D Eddy
3D Transient
2D Magnetostatic
2D Eddy
2D Transient
2D Electrostatic
3D Thermal
3D Electrostatic
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-4
Overview
Presentation
1
DifferentialFormofMaxwellsEquations
=

+ =
=

=
D
t
D
J H
B
t

y Electricit for Law s Gauss'


Law s Ampere'
Magnetism for Law s Gauss'
Induction of Law s Faraday'
0
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-5
Overview
Presentation
1
FEM and adaptive meshing
In order to obtain the set of algebraic
equations to be solved, the geometry
of the problem is discretized
automatically into small elements
(e.g., triangles in 2D).
All the model solids are meshed
automatically by the mesher.
The assembly of all triangles is
referred to as the finite element
mesh of the model or simply the
mesh.
Approximate aspect ratio limit in 2D:
X = 10,000Y
Start
Field Solution
Generate
Initial Mesh
Compute
Fields
Perform
Error Analysis
Stop
Field Solution
Has
Stopping
Criteria been
met?
Refine
Mesh
Yes
No
Y
X
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-6
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMApproximationFunctions
Thedesiredfieldineachelementisapproximatedwitha2ndorder
quadraticpolynomial
A
z
(x,y)=a
o
+a
1
x+a
2
y+a
3
x
2
+a
4
xy+a
5
y
2
Fieldquantitiesarecalculatedfor6points(3cornersand3
midpoints)in2D
Fieldquantitiesinsideofthetrianglearecalculatedusinga2
nd
orderquadraticinterpolationscheme
1
6 2
3
5
4
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-7
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMVariational Principle
Poissonsequation:
isreplacedwithenergyfunctional:
ThisfunctionalisminimizedwithrespecttovalueofAateach
nodeineverytriangle
J A =
2
( ) dV J A
A A
A F
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
2
1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-8
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMMatrixEquation
Now,overallthetriangles,theresultisalarge,sparsematrixequation
Thiscanbesolvedusingstandardmatrixsolutiontechniquessuchas:
SparseGaussianElimination(directsolver)
IncompleteCholeski ConjugateGradientMethod(ICCGiterative
solver)
| || | | | J A S =
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-9
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMErrorEvaluation
PuttheapproximatesolutionbackintoPoissonsequation
SinceAisaquadraticfunction,Risaconstantineachtriangle.
ThelocalerrorineachtriangleisproportionaltoR.
R J A
approx
= +
2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-10
Overview
Presentation
1
FEMPercentErrorEnergy
Summationoflocalerrorineachtriangledividedbytotalenergy
LocalerrorscanexceedPercentErrorEnergy
( )
% 100
1
=

=
n
i
i
R
Energy Total
local
Energy Error Percent
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-11
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolver
FullyCoupledDynamicPhysicsSolution
A v H V
t
A
J A
c s
+ +

=
Current Source
Density
Permanent Magnet
Magnetic Vector Potential
Electric Scalar
Potential
Velocity
Time-varyingElectricandMagneticFields
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-12
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolver- MagneticFieldDiffusion
Magneticfieldsdiffuse intomaterialsatdifferentratesdepending
on:
Materialpropertiesofthecomponent
Physicalsizeofthecomponent
Foracylindricalconductor,diffusiontimeis:
Inducededdycurrentsalwaysoccurinconductingobjectsdueto
time-varyingfields;however,theymaynotalwaysbesignificant
meters in radius a ty conductivi perm u where
a u
= = =
=
, , :
(sec)
4048 . 2
2
2

AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-13


Overview
Presentation
1
GUI - Desktop
The complex functionality built into the Maxwell solvers is accessed through
the main user interface (called the desktop).
Problem can be setup in a fairly arbitrary order.
A new validation check has been added to insure that all required steps are
completed.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-14
Overview
Presentation
1
ACIS solid modeling kernel
The underlying solid modeling technology used by Ansoft products is
provided by ACIS geometric modeler. ACIS version 16 is presently
used.
Users can create directly models using primitives and operations on
primitives.
In addition, users can import models saved in a variety of formats (sm2
.gds .sm3 .sat .step .iges .dxf .dwg .sld .geo .stl .prt .asm)
When users import models into Ansoft products, translators are
invoked that convert the models to an ACIS native format (sat format).
Exports directly .sat, .dxf, .sm3, .sm2, .step, .iges
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-15
Overview
Presentation
1
Supported platforms
Windows XP Pro
Windows XP Pro x64 Edition
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.3
Solaris 8 -10
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-16
Overview
Presentation
1
StartingMaxwell
ClicktheMicrosoftStartbutton,selectPrograms,andselecttheAnsoft>
Maxwell12>Maxwell12
OrDoubleclickontheMaxwell12iconontheWindowsDesktop
AddingaDesign
WhenyoufirststartMaxwellanewprojectwillbeautomatically addedtothe
ProjectTree.
ToinsertaMaxwellDesigntotheproject,selectthemenuitemProject>Insert
Maxwell2DDesign
Toolbar:
InsertMaxwell2DDesign
InsertMaxwell3DDesign
InsertRMxprt Design
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-17
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop
Status
bar
History
Tree
Menu
bar
Toolbars
Project
Manager
withproject
tree
2DModeler
Window
Property
Window
Progress
Window Message
Manager
CoordinateEntryFields
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-18
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop ProjectManager
MultipleDesignsperProject
MultipleProjectsperDesktop
IntegratedOptimetrics Setup(requireslicenseforanalysis)
ProjectManagerWindow
Design
Project
DesignSetup
DesignAutomation
Parametric
Optimization
Sensitivity
Statistical
DesignResults
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-19
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellDesktop 2DModeler
Graphics
area
Model
2DModeler
designtree
(history)
2DModelerWindow
Edge
Vertex
Contextmenu
(rightmouseclick
on2Dmodeler
window)
Origin
XY
Coordinate
System
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-20
Overview
Presentation
1
GeometryMode
Tosetthegeometrymode:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
2. SolutionTypeWindow:
W ChooseGeometryMode:CartesianXY
Maxwell GeometryModes
ACartesian(XY) modelrepresentsacross-sectionofa
devicethatextendsinthez-direction.Visualizethe
geometricmodelasextendingperpendiculartotheplane
beingmodeled.
AnAxisymmetric (RZ) modelrepresentsacross-sectionofa
devicethatisrevolved360 aroundanaxisofsymmetry(the
z-axis).Visualizethegeometricmodelasbeingrevolved
aroundthez-axis.
Geometric Model
Cartesian (XY Plane) Axisymmetric (RZ Plane)
X
Y
Z
Z
R

AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-21


Overview
Presentation
1
SetSolutionType
Tosetthesolutiontype:selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
MagneticSolutionTypes
Magnetostatic
ComputesthestaticmagneticfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofDCcurrentsandpermanent
magnets.Themagneticfieldmaybecomputedinstructureswithbothnonlinearandlinearmaterials.Aninductance
matrix,force,torque,andfluxlinkagemayalsobecomputedfromtheenergystoredinthemagneticfield.
EddyCurrent
ComputestheoscillatingmagneticfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofACcurrents.Alsocomputes
currentdensities,takingintoaccountalleddycurrenteffects(includingskineffects).Animpedancematrix,force,
torque,coreloss,andcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfromthecomputedfieldsolution.
Transient
Computestransient(TimeDomain)magneticfieldscausedbypermanentmagnets,conductors,andwindings
suppliedbyvoltageand/orcurrentsourceswitharbitraryvariationasfunctionsoftime,positionandspeed.Itcan
alsobecoupledwithexternalcircuits.Rotationalortranslationalmotioneffectscanbeincludedinthesimulation.
Usesatime-steppingsolver.Considerssourceinducedandmotioninductededdyeffects.
ElectricSolutionTypes
Electrostatic
ComputesthestaticelectricfieldthatexistsinastructuregivenadistributionofDCvoltagesandstaticcharges.A
capacitancematrix,force,torque,andfluxlinkagemayalsobecomputedfromtheelectricfield.
ACConduction
ComputestheACvoltagesandcurrentdensitydistributioninamaterialhavingbothconductiveanddielectric
propertiesgivenadistributionofACvoltages.Anadmittancematrixandcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfrom
thecalculatedfields.
DCConduction
ComputestheDCcurrentsthatflowinalossy dielectricgivenadistributionofDCvoltages.Aconductancematrix
andcurrentflowmayalsobecomputedfromthecomputedelectric fieldsolution.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-22
Overview
Presentation
1
SetModelUnits
Tosettheunits:
1. Selectthemenuitem
Modeler>Units
2. SetModelUnits:
1. SelectUnits:mm
2. ClicktheOK button
SetDefaultMaterial
Tosetthedefaultmaterial:
1. UsingtheModeler
Materialstoolbar,choose
Select
2. SelectDefinitionWindow:
1. Typesteel_1008 in
theSearchbyName
field
2. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-23
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler DrawaRectangle
Point1
Point2
Point1
Point2
CoordinateEntryFields
TheCoordinateEntryfieldsallowequationstobeenteredforpositionvalues.
Examples:2*5,2+6+8,2*cos(10*(pi/180)).
VariablesarenotallowedintheCoordinateEntryField
Note:Trigfunctionsareinradians
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-24
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler Importing.dxf and.dwg CADfiles
CheckImportas2Dsheetbodies soobjectscomeinassheetsandnotsolids
Tochangethenumberofsegmentsonanimportedcurve:
Changetofaceselectmode:Edit>Select>Facesandclickonface
Modeler>Surface>UncoverFaces
Changetoobjectselectmode:Edit>Select>Objectsandclickonopenpolyline
Modeler>PurgeHistory
Modeler>GenerateHistory
Expandthehistorytreeforthatpolyline andchangenumberofsegmentsasdesired
Selectthepolyline and:Modeler>Surface>CoverLines
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-25
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler ObjectProperties
InHistoryTree:
Commands
(dimensions
andhistory)
Attributes
Commands
Attributes
(properties
oftheobject)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-26
Overview
Presentation
1
SolveInside ifunchecked
meshesbutnosolutioninside
(liketheoldexcludefeaturein
materialmanager)
Model ifunchecked,theobjectis
totallyignoredoutsideofmodelerwith
nomeshandnosolution
Modeler Attributes
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-27
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler- Views
View>ModifyAttributes>
Orientation Predefined/CustomViewAngles
Lighting Controlangle,intensity,andcoloroflight
Projection Controlcameraandperspective
BackgroundColor Controlcolorof3DModeler
background
View>VisualizationSettings displayedresolutionofcurves
View>ActiveViewVisibility - Controlsthedisplayof:3D
ModelerObjects,ColorKeys,Boundaries,Excitations,Field
Plots
View>Options StereoMode,DragOptimization,ColorKey
Defaults,DefaultRotation
View>Render>WireFrame orSmoothShaded (Default)
View>CoordinateSystem>Hide orSmall(Large)
View>GridSetting Controlsthegriddisplay
Toolbar: ToggleGridVisibility
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-28
Overview
Presentation
1
ChangingtheView
Toolbar
ContextMenu
Shortcuts
Sincechangingtheviewisafrequentlyusedoperation,someusefulshortcutkeysexist.Pressthe
appropriatekeysanddragthemousewiththeleftbuttonpressed:
ALT+Drag Rotate
Inaddition,thereare9pre-definedviewanglesthatcanbeselectedbyholdingtheALTkeyand
doubleclickingonthelocationsshownonthenextpage.
Shift+Drag - Pan
ALT+Shift+Drag DynamicZoom
Pan
RotateAround
ModelCenter
DynamicZoom
ZoomIn/Out
Top
Bottom
Right
PredefinedViewAngles
Left
RotateAround
CurrentAxis
RotateAround
ScreenCenter
FitAll
FitSelected
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-29
Overview
Presentation
1
MaxwellV12KeyboardShortcuts
GeneralShortcuts
F1:Help
Shift+F1:Contexthelp
CTRL+F4:Closeprogram
CTRL+C:Copy
CTRL+N:Newproject
CTRL+O:Open...
CTRL+S:Save
CTRL+P:Print...
CTRL+V:Paste
CTRL+X:Cut
CTRL+Y:Redo
CTRL+Z:Undo
CTRL+0:Cascadewindows
CTRL+1:Tilewindowshorizontally
CTRL+2:Tilewindowsvertically
ModellerShortcuts
B:Selectface/objectbehindcurrentselection
F:Faceselectmode
O:Objectselectmode
CTRL+A:Selectallvisibleobjects
CTRL+SHIFT+A:Deselectallobjects
CTRL+D:Fitview
CTRL+E:Zoomin,screencenter
CTRL+F:Zoomout,screencenter
CTRL+Enter:Shiftsthelocalcoordinatesystem
temporarily
SHIFT+LeftMouseButton:Drag
Alt+LeftMouseButton:Rotatemodel
Alt+SHIFT+LeftMouseButton:Zoomin/out
F3:Switchtopointentrymode(i.e.drawobjects
bymouse)
F4:Switchtodialogueentrymode(i.e.draw
objectsolelybyentryincommandandattributes
box.)
F6:Rendermodelwireframe
F7:Rendermodelsmoothshaded
Alt+DoubleClickLeftMouseButtonatpointsonscreen:Setsmodel
projectiontostandardisometricprojections(seediagrambelow).
ALT+RightMouseButton+DoubleClickLeftMouseButtonatpoints
onscreen:givethenineoppositeprojections.
Top
Bottom
Right
PredefinedViewAngles
Left
Alt + double left Click
here to restore view in
an RZ model
Alt + double left Click
here to restore view in
an XY model
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-30
Overview
Presentation
1
SimpleExample
Magneticcorewithcoil
Use2DRZMagnetostatic Solver
Coil(120Conductors,Copper)
Core(Steel_1008)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-31
Overview
Presentation
1
Setupthegeometrymodeandsolver
ChooseCylindricalaboutZ underMaxwell2D>SolutionType
Choose Magnetostatic
Clickthe OK button
CreateCore
Tocreatethecore:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
2. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,enterthecenterposition
X:0.0,Y:0.0,Z:-3.0, PresstheEnter key
3. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,entertheoppositecorneroftherectangle
dX:2.0,dY:0.0,dZ:10.0,PresstheEnter key
ContinuedonNextPage
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-32
Overview
Presentation
1
CreateCore(Continued)
ToParameterizetheHeight
1. SelecttheCommand tabfromtheProperties window
2. ZSize:H
3. Pressthe Tabkey
4. AddVariableWindow
1. Value:10mm
2. ClicktheOK button
Tosetthename:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. FortheValue ofName type:Core
Tosetthematerial:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window
2. ClickonthebuttoninMaterialvalue:settosteel_1008
Tosetthecolor:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. ClicktheEdit button
Tosetthetransparency:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. ClicktheOKbutton
Tofinisheditingtheobjectproperties
1. ClicktheOK button
Tofittheview:
1. SelectthemenuitemView>FitAll>ActiveView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-33
Overview
Presentation
1
SetDefaultMaterial
Tosetthedefaultmaterial:
1. Usingthe3DModelerMaterialstoolbar,chooseSelect
2. SelectDefinitionWindow:
1. Typecopper intheSearchbyName field
2. ClicktheOK button
CreateCoil
Tocreatethecoilforthecurrenttoflow:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
2. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,enterthecenterposition
X:2.0,Y:0.0,Z:0.0, PresstheEnter key
3. Usingthecoordinateentryfields,entertheoppositecorneroftherectangle
dX:2.0,dY:0.0,dZ:4.0,PresstheEnter key
Tosetthename:
1. SelecttheAttribute tabfromtheProperties window.
2. FortheValue ofName type:Coil
3. ClicktheOK button
Tofittheview:
1. SelectthemenuitemView>FitAll>ActiveView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-34
Overview
Presentation
1
CreateExcitation
AssignExcitation
1. Clickonthecoil.
2. Selectthemenuitem Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
3. CurrentExcitation:General
1. Name:Current1
2. Value:120A(Note:thisis120Amp-turns)
3. Ref.Direction:Positive
4. ClicktheOK button
5. NotethatforRZmodels,positivecurrentflowsintothescreen,
howeverforXYmodels,positivecurrentflowsoutofthescreen.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-35
Overview
Presentation
1
DefineaRegion
Beforesolvingaprojectaregionhastobedefined.Aregionis basicallyanoutermostobjectthatcontainsallother
objects.TheregioncanbedefinedbyaspecialobjectinDraw>Region.Thisspecialregionobjectwillberesized
automaticallyifyourmodelchangessize.
Aratioinpercentshastobeenteredthatspecifieshowmuchdistanceshouldbeleftfromthemodel.
TodefineaRegion:
1. SelectthemenuitemDraw>Region
1. PaddingData: One
2. PaddingPercentage: 200
3. ClicktheOK button
Note:Sincetherewillbeconsiderablefringing
inthisdevice,apaddingpercentageofatleast
2times,or200%isrecommended
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-36
Overview
Presentation
1
SetupBoundary
AssignBoundary
1. Changetoedgeselectionmodebychoosing:Edit>Select>Edges
2. Usingthemouse,clickonthetop,rightandbottomedgeswhileholdingdowntheCTRLkey.
3. Selectthemenuitem Maxwell2D>Boundary>Assign>Balloon
4. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-37
Overview
Presentation
1
AddSolutionSetup
SolutionSetup- CreatinganAnalysisSetup
Tocreateananalysissetup:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolution
Setup
2. SolutionSetupWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral tab:
MaximumNumberofPasses:10
PercentError:1
2. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-38
Overview
Presentation
1
SaveProject
Tosavetheproject:
1. InanAnsoftMaxwellwindow,selectthemenuitemFile>SaveAs.
2. FromtheSaveAswindow,typetheFilename:2D_simple_example
3. ClicktheSave button
ModelValidation
Tovalidatethemodel:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell3D>ValidationCheck
2. ClicktheClosebutton
Note: Toviewanyerrorsorwarningmessages,
usetheMessageManager.
Analyze
Tostartthesolutionprocess:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
Validate
AnalyzeAll
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-39
Overview
Presentation
1
Viewdetailedinformationabouttheprogress
IntheProjectTreeclickonAnalysis>Setup1 withtherightmousebuttonundselectProfile
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-40
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshOverlay
Createaplotofthemesh
1. SelectthemenuitemEdit>SelectAll
Tocreateameshplot:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Plot
Mesh
2. CreateMeshWindow:
1. ClicktheDonebutton
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-41
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays
Tocreateafieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>Mag_B
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:Mag_B
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-42
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays(cont)
Createanotherfieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>B_Vector
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:B_Vector
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-43
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldOverlays(cont)
Createanotherfieldplot:
1. Intheobjecttree,selecttheplaneforplotting:
1. UsingtheModelTree,expandPlanes
2. SelectGlobal:XZ
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>Flux_Lines
3. CreateFieldPlotWindow
1. Solution:Setup1:LastAdaptive
2. Quantity:Flux_Lines
3. InVolume:Allobjects
4. ClicktheDone button
4. Whendone,turnofftheplotusing:
View>ActiveViewVisibility>FiledReporter
Thiscompletesthesimpleexample.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-44
Overview
Presentation
1
ScreenCapturing
TosavethedrawingWindoworaplottotheclipboardselectthe menuitem:Edit>CopyImage
InanyWindowsapplication,select:Edit>Paste topastetheimage
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-45
Overview
Presentation
1
FileStructure
Everythingregardingtheprojectisstoredinanascii file
File:<project_name>.mxwl
DoubleclickfromWindowsExplorerwillopenand
launchMaxwellv12
ResultsandMesharestoredinafoldernamed
<project_name>.mxwlresults
Lockfile:<project_name>.lock.mxwl
Createdwhenaprojectisopened
AutoSaveFile:<project_name>.mxwl.auto
Whenrecovering,softwareonlychecksdate
Ifanerroroccurredwhensavingtheautofile,the
datewillbenewerthentheoriginal
Lookatfilesize(providedinrecoverdialog)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-46
Overview
Presentation
1
Scripts
DefaultScriptrecordedinv12
VisualBasicScript
RemoteSolve(WindowsOnly)
Tools>Options>GeneralOptions>AnalysisOptions
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-47
Overview
Presentation
1
OverallSetupProcess
Design
SolutionType
2.Boundaries
2.Excitations
3.Mesh
Operations
2.AnalysisSetup
SolutionSetup
FrequencySweep
1.ParametricModel
Geometry/Materials
4.Results
2DReports
Fields
Mesh
Refinement
Solve
Update
Converged
Analyze
Finished
2.SolveLoop
NO
YES
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-48
Overview
Presentation
1
MenuStructure
Draw Primitives
Modeler SettingsandBooleanOperations
Edit Copy/Paste,Arrange,Duplicate
Maxwell2D Boundaries,Excitations,MeshOperations,AnalysisSetup,Results
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-49
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler ModelTree
SelectmenuitemModeler>GroupbyMaterial
GroupedbyMaterial
Material
Object
ObjectCommandHistory
ObjectView
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-50
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler Commands
ParametricTechnology
DynamicEdits- ChangeDimensions
AddVariables
ProjectVariables(Global)orDesignVariables(Local)
AnimateGeometry
IncludeUnits DefaultUnitismeters
SupportsmixedUnits
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-51
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler Primitives
2DDrawObjects
Thefollowing2DDrawobjectsareavailable:
Line,Spline,Arc,EquationBasedCurve,
Rectangle,Ellipse,Circle,RegularPolygon,
EquationBasedSurface
3DDrawObjects
Notethat3Dobjectscanbepastedintothe2D
modelwindow,buttheyareignoredbythesolution
Thefollowing3DDrawobjectsareavailable(in
Maxwell3D):
Box,Cylinder,RegularPolyhedron
Cone,Sphere,Torus,Helix,Spiral,BondWire
TrueSurfaces
Circles,Cylinders,Spheres,etcarerepresentedas
truesurfaces.Inversionspriortorelease11these
primitiveswouldberepresentedasfacetedobjects.
Ifyouwishtousethefacetedprimitives,selectthe
RegularPolyhedronorRegularPolygon.
Toolbar: 2DObjects
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-52
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler BooleanOperations/Transformations
Modeler>Boolean>
Unite combinemultipleprimitives
Unitedisjointobjects(SeparateBodies toseparate)
Subtract removepartofaprimitivefromanother
Intersect keeponlythepartsofprimitivesthatoverlap
Split breakprimitivesintomultiplepartsalongaplane(XY,YZ,XZ)
SplitCrossingObjects splitsobjectsalongaplane(XY,YZ,XZ)onlywheretheyintersect
SeparateBodies separatesobjectswhichareunitedbutnotphysicallyconnectedintoindividual
objects
Edit>Arrange>
Move Translatesthestructurealongavector
Rotate Rotatestheshapearoundacoordinateaxisbyanangle
Mirror Mirrorstheshapearoundaspecifiedplane
Offset Performsauniformscaleinx,y,andz.
Edit>Duplicate>
AlongLine Createmultiplecopiesofanobjectalongavector
AroundAxis Createmultiplecopiesofanobjectrotatedbyafixedanglearoundthex,y,orzaxis
Mirror- Mirrorstheshapearoundaspecifiedplane andcreatesaduplicate
Edit>Scale Allowsnon-uniformscalinginthex,y,orzdirection
Toolbar: Boolean
Toolbar: Arrange
Toolbar: Duplicate
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-53
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler- Selection
SelectionTypes
Object(Default)
Face
Edge
Vertex
SelectionModes
AllObjects
AllVisibleObject
ByName
HighlightSelectionDynamically Bydefault,movingthemousepointeroveranobjectwilldynamically
highlighttheobjectforselection.Toselecttheobjectsimply clicktheleftmousebutton.
MultipleObjectSelection HoldtheCTRL keydowntographicallyselectmultipleobjects
NextBehind Toselectanobjectlocatedbehindanotherobject,selectthefrontobject,presstheb keytoget
thenextbehind.Note:Themousepointermustbelocatedsuchthatthenextbehindobjectisunderthe
mousepointer.
ToDisable:Selectthemenuitem Tools>Options>ModelerOptions
FromtheDisplayTab,uncheckHighlightselectiondynamically
Selected
DynamicallyHighlighted
(Onlyframeofobject)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-54
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler MovingAround
Modeler>SnapModetosetthesnaps
Tools>Customize
SnapModetoviewSnapModetoolbar
Toolbar: SnapMode
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-55
Overview
Presentation
1
Modeler CoordinateSystems
CanbeParameterized
WorkingCoordinateSystem
CurrentlyselectedCS.ThiscanbealocalorglobalCS
GlobalCS
Thedefaultfixedcoordinatesystem
Relative CS
Userdefinedlocalcoordinatesystem.
Offset
Rotated
Both
Face CS (settingavailabletoautomaticallyswitchtofacecoordinatesystemintheModelerOptions)
Toolbar: CoordinateSystem
Step1:SelectFace
Step2:SelectOrigin
Step3:SetX-Axis
NewWorkingCS
ChangeBoxSizeandConeis
automaticallypositionedwith
thetopfaceofthebox
ConecreatedwithFaceCS
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-56
Overview
Presentation
1
2DMeasure
Modeler>Measure>
Position Location,Distance,andArea
Edge EdgeLength
Face SurfaceArea
Object SurfaceArea,ObjectVolume
PositionPoints
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-57
Overview
Presentation
1
Options General
Tools>Options>GeneralOptions>ProjectOptions
TempDirectory Locationusedduringsolutionprocess
Makesureithasatleast512MBfreedisk.
Options- Maxwell
Tools>Options>MaxwellOptions>Solver
SetNumberofProcessors=2for1dual-coreprocessor
ortwosingle-coreprocessors.Requiresadditional
license
DefaultProcessPriority setthesimulationpriorityfrom
Critical
(highest)toIdle(lowest)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-58
Overview
Presentation
1
Options ModelerOptions
Tools>Options>ModelerOptions>DrawingforPointandDialogEntryModes
CanenterinnewdimensionsusingeitherPoint(mouse)orDialog entrymode
AlternativelyuseF3andF4toswitchbetweenPointandDialogentrymodes
Tools>Options>ModelerOptions>Display tabtoenableplayback
Mustcloseandre-openMaxwellaftermakingchangeforthissetting,toactivate
Visualizationisseenbyclickingonprimatives inthehistorytree(undersubtractcommand,forinstance)
Typical Dialog
entry mode
window
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-59
Overview
Presentation
1
ConvertingOlderMaxwellProjects(pre-Maxwellv12)toMaxwellv12
FromMaxwellv11andolder,
1. SelectthemenuitemFile>Open
2. Opendialog
1. FilesofType:AnsoftLegacyEMProjects(.cls)
2. Browsetotheexistingprojectandselectthe.cls file
3. ClicktheOpen button
WhatisConverted?
ConvertsEntireModel:Geometry,Materials,Boundaries,
SourcesandSetup
Solutions,Optimetrics projectsandMacrosarenotconverted
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-60
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- Libraries
3-Tierlibrarystructure
System(global)level predefinedfromAnsoftandshipswithnewupgrades,userscannot
modifythis
UserLibrary tobesharedamongseveralusersatacompany(canbeencrypted)
Personallibraries- tobeusedonlybysingleuser(canbeencrypted)
Addanewmaterial:Tools>EditConfiguredLibraries>Materials
NewInterfaceforMaterialsSettingsharedwithRMxprt
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-61
Overview
Presentation
1
ClickAddMaterial.TheMaterialisonlyavailableinProject
Toaddamaterialintheuserorpersonallibrary:clickonExportLibrary andsaveitinthedesire
library.
Inthemainprojectwindow,clickonTools>ConfiguredLibraries.Locatethelibrarytohavethe
materialavailableforalltheprojects.
ClickonSaveasdefault toautomaticallyloadlibraryforanynewproject.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-62
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialsSetup- Editing
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-63
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup BHcurve
RobustBHcurveentry candeletepointsifyoumakeamistake
Canimportdatafromafile
ToexportBHcurveforuseinfuture,right-mouse-clickoncurveandselectExporttoFile
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-64
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- PermanentMagnets
Directionofmagnetizationdeterminedby
materialsobjectsOrientationand Magnetic
Coercivity UnitVectors.
TomodifytheOrientation,opentheAttributefor
theobjectandchangethecoordinatesystem.The
default Orientation forpermanentmagnetsis
GlobalCS.
TomodifytheMagneticCoercivity UnitVectors for
apermanentmagnetmaterial,entertheMaterials
Libraryandeditthematerial.
Thematerialcoordinatesystemtypecanbe
describedinCartesian,Cylindrical,Spherical
Themagneticcoercivity hasunitvectors
correspondingtothechosencoordinatesystem:for
instanceX,Y,Zforcartesian.
Torotateamagnetinaparametricsimulationand
themagnetizationdirection,youmustfirstrotate
theobjectandsecondassigntheFaceCS,as
shownbelowinthehistorytree
1. Rotate
2. Create FaceCS
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-65
Overview
Presentation
1
MaterialSetup- AnisotropicMaterialProperties

1
,
1
,and
1
aretensorsintheXdirection.

2
,
2
,and
2
aretensorsintheYdirection.

3
,
3
,and3aretensorsintheZdirection.
Note:NonlinearanisotropicpermeabilitynotallowedinMaxwell2D.
| | | | | |
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
0 0
0 0
0 0

yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
Anisotropic
Permeability
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
Anisotropic
Permitivity
no
no
no
no
no
no
DielectricLoss
Tangent
no no Transient
no no EddyCurrent
no no Magnetostatic
no yes ACConduction
no yes DCConduction
no no Electrostatic
MagneticLoss
Tangent
Anisotropic
Conductivity
Solver
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-66
Overview
Presentation
1
Planesofsymmetryin
periodicstructureswhereE is
obliquetotheboundary.
TheE-fieldontheslaveboundaryisforcedtomatchthemagnitude
anddirection(orthenegativeofthedirection)oftheE-fieldonthe
masterboundary.
Matching
(Master and
Slave)
Usethisboundarycondition
whentheresistivelayers
thicknessismuchsmaller
thantheotherdimensionsof
themodel.
Aresistanceboundarymodelsaverythinlayerofresistivematerial
(suchasthatcausedbydeposits,coatingsoroxidationona
metallicsurface)onaconductorataknownpotential.
Resistance
(DCconduction
solveronly)
Groundatinfinity Fieldbehavessothatvoltagecanfringe Balloon
BoundaryType E-FieldBehavior Usedtomodel
Default
Boundary
Conditions
(Natural and
Neumann)
Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Natural boundaries ThenormalcomponentofD changesby
theamountofsurfacechargedensity.Nospecialconditionsare
imposed.
Neumann boundaries E istangentialtotheboundary.Flux
cannotcrossaNeumannboundary.
OrdinaryE-fieldbehavioron
boundaries.Objectinterfaces
areinitiallysettonatural
boundaries;outerboundaries
areinitiallysettoNeumann
boundaries.
Symmetry Fieldbehavesasfollows:
EvenSymmetry (FluxTangential) E istangentialtothe
boundary;itsnormalcomponentsarezero.
OddSymmetry (FluxNormal) E isnormaltotheboundary;its
tangentialcomponentsarezero.
Planesofgeometricand
electricalsymmetry.
ElectricFieldBoundaryConditions(Electrostatic,DCConduction,ACConduction)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-67
Overview
Presentation
1
Nofringingatinfinity Fieldbehavessothatmagneticfluxcanfringe Balloon
BoundaryType H-FieldBehavior Usedtomodel
DefaultBoundary
Conditions(Natural
andNeumann)
Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Natural boundaries H iscontinuousacrosstheboundary.
Neumann boundaries H istangentialtotheboundary
andfluxcannotcrossit.
Ordinaryfieldbehavior.Initially,
objectinterfacesarenatural
boundaries;outerboundariesand
excludedobjectsareNeumann
boundaries.
MagneticVector
Potential
Setsthemagneticvectorpotentialontheboundary.
Note:IntheMagnetostatic solver,AisRMSwhileintheEddy
Currentsolver,Aispeak.
Magneticallyisolatedstructures.
Symmetry Fieldbehavesasfollows:
Odd Symmetry(FluxTangential) H istangentialtothe
boundary;itsnormalcomponentsarezero.
Even Symmetry(FluxNormal) H isnormaltothe
boundary;itstangentialcomponentsarezero.
Planesofgeometricandmagnetic
symmetry.
Impedance
(EddyCurrentonly)
Includestheeffectofinducedcurrentsbeyondtheboundary
surface.
Conductorswithverysmallskin
depths.
Matching(Master
andSlave)
TheH-fieldontheslaveboundaryisforcedtomatchthe
magnitudeanddirection(orthenegativeofthedirection)of
theH-fieldonthemasterboundary.
Planesofsymmetryinperiodic
structureswhereH isobliquetothe
boundary.
MagneticFieldBoundaryConditions(Magnetostatic,EddyCurrent,Transient)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-68
Overview
Presentation
1
Thechargedensityinanobject. ChargeDensity
Notes:
IntheElectrostaticsolver,anyconductorwithoutasourceconditionwillbe
assumedtobefloating.
Source TypeofExcitation
Floating
Conductor
Usedtomodelconductorsatunknownpotentials.
Voltage TheDCvoltageonasurfaceorobject.
Charge Thetotalchargeonasurfaceorobject(eitheraconductoror
dielectric).
ElectricFieldSources(Electrostatic,DCConduction,ACConduction)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-69
Overview
Presentation
1
Thecurrentdensityinaconductor. CurrentDensity
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
Notes:
IntheMagnetostatic solver,currentisRMSampturns.
PermanentmagnetswillalsoactasasourceintheMagnetostatic solver.
MagneticFieldSources(Magnetostatic)
MagneticFieldSources(EddyCurrent)
Thecurrentdensityinaconductor. CurrentDensity
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
ParallelCurrent Thetotalcurrentinaagroupofparallelconductors.
Notes:
IntheEddyCurrentsolver,currentispeakamp-turns.
Sourcescanbesolid(witheddyeffects)orstranded(withouteddyeffects).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-70
Overview
Presentation
1
Currentorvoltageonawinding
representing1ormoreturns
Coil
Source TypeofExcitation
Current Thetotalcurrentinaconductor.
CurrentDensity Thecurrentdensityinaconductor.
Permanentmagnetswillalsoactasasourceinthe
Transientsolver.
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Currentandvoltagesources(solidorstranded)canbeconstantorfunctionsofintrinsic
variables:speed(rpmordeg/sec),position(degrees),ortime(seconds)
Datasetfunctioncanbeusedforpiecewiselinearfunctions:Pwl_periodic (ds1,Time)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-71
Overview
Presentation
1
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Maxwell2D>Excitation>Current
Value:appliescurrentinamps
Type:
Solid
forwindingshavingasingle
conductor/turn
eddyeffectsareconsidered
Stranded
forwindingshavingmany
conductors/turns
eddyeffectsarenot considered
RefDirection:
PositiveorNegative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-72
Overview
Presentation
1
MagneticFieldSources(Transient)
Maxwell2D>Excitation>AddWinding
Current appliescurrentinamps
SolidorStranded
Inputcurrentandnumberofparallelbranchesas
seenfromterminal
Voltage appliesvoltage(totalvoltagedropoverthe
lengthofasolidconductorortheentirewinding)
SolidorStranded
Inputinitialcurrent,windingresistance,extra
seriesinductancenotconsideredinFEAmodel,
voltage,andnumberofparallelbranchesasseen
fromterminal
External couplestoMaxwellCircuitEditor
SolidorStranded
Inputinitialcurrentandnumberofparallel
branches
Maxwell2D>Excitation>Assign>Coil
Pickaconductoronthescreenandthenspecify:
Name
NumberofConductors
Polarity:positive,negative,orfunctionalwinding
direction
Note:WindingsintheXYsolverwillusuallyhave2coils:one
positiveandonenegativepolarity.Bothcoilswillbe
addedtotheappropriatewindingbyright-mouseclicking
onCoil intheprojecttreeandchoosingAddtoWinding
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-73
Overview
Presentation
1
ToCreateanExternalCircuit
1. Select:Maxwell2D>Excitations>ExternalCircuit>EditExternalCircuit>ImportCircuit
2. Aftercircuiteditoropens,addelementstoconstructthecircuit.Notethatthenameofthe
Windinginthecircuit(Winding1)mustmatchthenameoftheWindinginMaxwell(Winding1)
3. Savecircuitas*.amcp fileandthenMaxwellCircuit>ExportNetlist >*.sph file.
0
LWinding1
5.3ohm
LabelID=R3
-
+
Model
V
switch2
V
S_sw2
D
6
4
Model
d1
Model
I
switch1
I
W_sw1
L
a
b
e
l
I
D
=
V
I
1
Note:
The dot on the winding
symbol is used as the
positive reference for
the current (positive
current is oriented
from the "dotted"
terminal towards to
"un-dotted" terminal
of the winding as it
passes through the
winding).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-74
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Excitation>SetEddyEffects
Needtoenablethecalculationofeddyeffectsinobjects
Maxwell2D>Excitation>SetCoreLoss
Forobjectswithzeroconductivity(suchasalaminatedcore),
youcancalculatethecoreloss
Notethatthecorelosscoefficientsmustbedefinedinthe
materialsetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-75
Overview
Presentation
1
CoreLossCalculationMethod
Thecorelossforelectricalsteelisbasedon:
where:
Kh isthehysteresis coefficient.
Kc istheclassicaleddycoefficient.
Ke istheexcessoranomalouseddycurrentcoefficientduetomagneticdomains.
Bmax themaximumamplitudeofthefluxdensity.
fisthefrequency.
Thepowerferritecorelossisbasedon:
where:
Cmisconstantvaluedeterminedbyexperiment.
fx isthefrequency.
Bymax isthemaximumamplitudeofthefluxdensity
( ) ( )
5 . 1
max
2
max
2
max
f B K f B K f B K p
e c h
+ + =
y x
m
B f C p
max
=
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-76
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>DesignSettings
TheDesignSettingswindowallowsyoutospecifyhowthesimulatorwilldealwithsome
aspectsofthedesign.Tabsvarybysolverused(thepanelbelow isforthetransient
solver)
SettheSymmetryMultiplier(ForTransientXYSolutionsonly).
SettheMaterialThresholdfortreatingmaterialsasconductorsvs.insulators.
SetPreserveTransientSolutionoptions(ForTransientSolutions Only).
SettransientcouplingwithSimplorer ontheAdvancedProductCouplingtab(For
TransientSolutionsOnly)
SettheModelDepth(Maxwell2DXYTransientDesignsOnly).
SetthedefaultBackgroundmaterial(Maxwell2DDesignsOnly).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-77
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Parameters
Allowstheautomaticcalculationofparametersfollowingthefieldsolution
Includes:Force,Torque,Fluxlinkage,Coreloss,andMatrix
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-78
Overview
Presentation
1
Maxwell2D>Model>MotionSetup>AssignBand
1. Definesthedirectionandtypeofmotion(translationorrotation)
2. Definesthemechanicalparameterssuchasmass,damping,andloadforce
3. Defineslimitsofmotion
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-79
Overview
Presentation
1
Magnetostatic andElectricSolutionSetup
Startthemenuofsolutionsetupby:Maxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForMagnetostatic solveronSolvertab,suggestsettingnonlinearresidual=0.001.OndefaulttabchooseSave
Defaultstosetthisvalueforallfutureprojects.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-80
Overview
Presentation
1
EddyCurrentSolutionSetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-81
Overview
Presentation
1
TransientSolutionSetup
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-82
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshOperations
ToassignMeshoperationstoObjects,selecttheMenuitem:Maxwell2D>AssignMeshOperations
1. OnSelectionisappliedonthesurfaceoftheobject
2. InsideSelectionisappliedthroughthevolumeoftheobject
3. Surfaceapproximationisappliedtosetfacetingguidelinesfortruesurfaceobjects
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-83
Overview
Presentation
1
1. MeshOperationsOnselection
appliedontheperimeteroftheobject
Elementlengthbasedrefinement:LengthBased
SkinDepthbasedrefinement:SkinDepthBased
On selection length based
On selection skin
depth based (2 layers)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-84
Overview
Presentation
1
2. MeshOperationsInsideselection - appliedthroughoutthevolumeoftheobject
Elementlengthbasedrefinement:LengthBased
Inside selection length based
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-85
Overview
Presentation
1
3. MeshOperationsSurfaceApproximation
Fortruesurfaces,performfacetingcontrolona
face-by-facebasis
SelectMeshoperation>Assign>Surface
approximationandspecifyoneormoresettings:
Maximumsurfacedeviation(length)
MaximumSurfaceNormalDeviation
(degrees)
MaximumAspectRatio
ro
ri
ri
ro
o AspectRati
* 2
=
D

r
D = Maximum Surface
Deviation
= Maximum Surface
Normal Deviation
)) 2 / cos( 1 ( = r D
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-86
Overview
Presentation
1
Manualmeshcreation
Tocreatetheinitialmesh:ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
Torefinethemeshwithoutsolving
1. Definemeshoperationsaspreviouslydiscussed
2. ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
3. ClickMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>ReverttoInitialMeshtorestarttotheinitialmesh
Toviewmeshinformation:ClickMaxwell>Results>SolutionDataandclickonthetab MeshStatistics
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-87
Overview
Presentation
1
MeshDisplay
1. Selectanobject
2. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-88
Overview
Presentation
1
2Dtransientmeshingforrotationalmodels
MovingSurface methodused
Band
Air gap
Rotor
Stator
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6' 7'
master moving surface
slave moving surface
stationary part
moving part(s)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-89
Overview
Presentation
1
2Dtransientmeshingfortranslationalmodels
MovingBand methodused
Adaptivemeshingnotused,sousermustmanuallycreatethemesh orlinktoasolvedMSorEddy
design
Thebandareaisre-meshedateachtimestep
Thestationaryregionandmovingpart(s)arenotre-meshed
IfyoulinkthemeshtoasolvedMSorEddydesign:
Theentiremeshfromthelinkeddesignistransferredtothetransientdesign.
Themeshinobjectsinsideandoutsideofthebandneverchanges asmotionoccurs.
IfthestartingtransientpositionisthesameasthelinkedMSorEddydesign,thenthelinked
meshinthebandobjectisreused.
IfthestartingtransientpositionisthedifferentthanthelinkedMSorEddydesign,thenthe
linkedmeshinthebandobjectiscompletelydeleted.Thebandisthenre-meshedbasedonly
onmeshoperationsinthetransientsolver.Anymeshormeshoperationonthebandinthe
linkedMSorEddyDesignisignored.Thekeypointisthatmeshoperationsarealwaysrequired
onthebandobject(useinsideselection)forMaxwell2Dtransientdesigns.
Forsubsequentpositionsastheobject(s)moveintheband,themeshoperationsonthebandin
thetransientdesignarere-appliedateverytimestep andanewmeshiscreated.
Stationary
region
Moving part(s)
band
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-90
Overview
Presentation
1
PostProcessing
TwoMethodsofPostProcessingSolutions:
ViewingPlots
ManipulatingFieldQuantitiesinCalculator
FiveTypesofPlots:
1. Contourplots(scalars):equipotential lines,...
2. Shadeplots(scalars):Bmag,Hmag,Jmag,
3. Arrowplots(vectors):Bvector,Hvector,
4. Lineplots(scalars):magnitudevs.distancealongapredefinedline
5. AnimationPlots
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-91
Overview
Presentation
1
Contourplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-92
Overview
Presentation
1
Shadeplot(tone)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-93
Overview
Presentation
1
Shadeplot(fringewithoutline)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-94
Overview
Presentation
1
Arrowplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-95
Overview
Presentation
1
Lineplot
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-96
Overview
Presentation
1
Multiplewindowsandmultipleplots
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-97
Overview
Presentation
1
Animationplot
Varioustypesofanimatedplotsare
possible:
Animatewithrespecttophaseangle
(eddysolver)
Animatewithrespecttotime
(transientsolver)
Animatewithrespecttoposition(for
parametricanalysis)
Animatewithrespecttoshape
change(forparametricanalysis)
Exportto.gifor.avi format
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-98
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldsCalculator
TobringuptheFieldsCalculatortool
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell->Fields->Calculator
Typicalquantitiestoanalyze:
1. Fluxthroughasurface
2. CurrentFlowthroughasurface
3. TangentialComponentofE-fieldalongaline
4. AverageMagnitudeofB-fieldinacore
5. TotalEnergyinanobject
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-99
Overview
Presentation
1
FieldsCalculator ExportCommand
Exportsthefieldquantityinthetopregistertoafile,mappingittoagridofpoints.Usethiscommandtosavefield
quantitiesinaformatthatcanbereadbyothermodelingorpost-processingsoftwarepackages.Twooptionsare
available:
1. Gridpointsfromfile:Mapsthefieldquantitytoacustomizedgridofpoints.Beforeusingthiscommand,you
mustcreateafilecontainingthepoints.
2. Calculategridpoints:Mapsthefieldquantitytoathree-dimensionalCartesiangrid.Youspecifythe
dimensionsandspacingofthegridinthex,y,andzdirections.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-100
Overview
Presentation
1
ExporttoGrid
Vectordata<Ex,Ey,Ez>
Min:[000]
Max:[222]
Spacing:[111]
SpacedelimitedASCIIfilesavedin
projectsubdirectory
Vector data "<Ex,Ey,Ez>"
Grid Output Min: [0 0 0] Max: [2 2 2] Grid Size: [1 1 1
0 0 0 -71.7231 -8.07776 128.093
0 0 1 -71.3982 -1.40917 102.578
0 0 2 -65.76 -0.0539669 77.9481
0 1 0 -259.719 27.5038 117.572
0 1 1 -248.088 16.9825 93.4889
0 1 2 -236.457 6.46131 69.4059
0 2 0 -447.716 159.007 -8.6193
0 2 1 -436.085 -262.567 82.9676
0 2 2 -424.454 -236.811 58.8847
1 0 0 -8.91719 -241.276 120.392
1 0 1 -8.08368 -234.063 94.9798
1 0 2 -7.25016 -226.85 69.5673
1 1 0 -271.099 -160.493 129.203
1 1 1 -235.472 -189.125 109.571
1 1 2 -229.834 -187.77 84.9415
1 2 0 -459.095 -8.55376 2.12527
1 2 1 -447.464 -433.556 94.5987
1 2 2 -435.833 -407.8 70.5158
2 0 0 101.079 -433.897 -18.5698
2 0 1 -327.865 -426.684 95.8133
2 0 2 -290.824 -419.471 70.4008
2 1 0 -72.2234 -422.674 -9.77604
2 1 1 -495.898 -415.461 103.026
2 1 2 -458.857 -408.248 77.6138
2 2 0 -470.474 -176.115 12.8698
2 2 1 -613.582 -347.994 83.2228
2 2 2 -590.326 -339.279 63.86
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-101
Overview
Presentation
1
GettingHelp
IfyouhaveanyquestionswhileyouareusingAnsoftMaxwellyou canfindanswersinseveralways:
AnsoftMaxwellOnlineHelp providesassistancewhileyouareworking.
Togethelpaboutaspecific,activedialogbox,clicktheHelp buttoninthedialogboxorpresstheF1
key.
Selectthemenuitem Help>Contents toaccesstheonlinehelpsystem.
Tooltipsareavailabletoprovideinformationabouttoolsonthetoolbarsordialogboxes.Whenyou
holdthepointeroveratoolforabrieftime,atooltipappears todisplaythenameofthetool.
Asyoumovethepointeroveratoolorclickamenuitem,theStatusBar atthebottomoftheAnsoft
Maxwellwindowprovidesabriefdescriptionofthefunctionofthetoolormenuitem.
TheAnsoftMaxwellGettingStartedguideprovidesdetailedinformationaboutusingMaxwelltocreate
andsolve3DEMprojects.
PDFversionofhelpmanualat:../Maxwell/Maxwell12/help/maxwell_onlinehelp.pdf forprinting.
AnsoftTechnicalSupport
TocontactAnsofttechnicalsupportstaffinyourgeographicalarea,pleaselogontotheAnsoft
corporatewebsite,www.ansoft.com andselectContact.
YourAnsoftsalesengineermayalsobecontactedinordertoobtainthisinformation.
VisitingtheAnsoftWebSite
IfyourcomputerisconnectedtotheInternet,youcanvisitthe AnsoftWebsitetolearnmoreabouttheAnsoft
companyandproducts.
FromtheAnsoftDesktop
Selectthemenuitem Help>AnsoftCorporateWebsite toaccesstheOnlineTechnicalSupport(OTS)
system.
FromyourInternetbrowser
Visitwww.ansoft.com
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-102
Overview
Presentation
1
WebUpdate
ThisnewfeatureallowsyoutoupdateanyexistingAnsoftsoftwarefromtheWebUpdate window.Thisfeature
automaticallyscansyoursystemtofindanyAnsoftsoftware,and thenallowsyoutodownloadanyupdatesifthey
areavailable.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12 TrainingSeminar P1-103
Overview
Presentation
1
ForTechnicalSupport
ThefollowinglinkwilldirectyoutotheAnsoftSupportPage.TheAnsoftSupportPagesprovideadditional
documentation,training,andapplicationnotes.WebSite:http://www.ansoft.com/support.cfm
ApplicationSupportforNorthAmerica
Thenamesandnumbersinthislistmaychangewithoutnotice
TechnicalSupport:
9-4EST:
Pittsburgh,PA
(412)261-3200x0 AskforTechnicalSupport
Burlington,MA
(781)229-8900x0 AskforTechnicalSupport
9-4PST:
SanJose,CA
(408)261-9095x0 AskforTechnicalSupport
Portland,OR
(503)906-7944or(503)906-7947
ElSegundo,CA
(310)426-2287 AskforTechnicalSupport
Optimetrics
What is Optimetrics ?
Optimetrics enables engineers to determine the best design variation
among a model's possible variations.
Create the original model, the nominal design, and then define design
parameters that vary
Optimetrics includes five unique capabilities:
1. Parametrics: Define one or more variable sweep definitions, each specifying a series of variable
values within a range. Easily view and compare the results using plot or table to determine how each
design variation affects the performance of the design.
2. Optimization: Identify the cost function and the optimization goal. Optimetrics automatically changes
the design parameter(s) to meet the goal. The cost function can be based on any solution quantity
that can be computes, such as field values, R,L,C force, torque, volume or weight.
3. Sensitivity: Determine the sensitivity of the design to small changes in variables in the vicinity of a
design point. Outputs include: Regression value at the current variable value, First derivative of the
regression, Second derivative of the regression
4. Tuning: Variable values are changed interactively and the performance of the design is monitored.
Useful after performing an optimization in which Optimetrics has determined an optimal variable
value, and you want to fine tune the value to see how the design results are affected.
5. Statistical: shows the distribution (Histogram) of a design output like force, torque or loss caused by
a statistical variation (Monte Carlo) of input variables.
Five Unique Optimizers
1. Quasi Newton - This optimizer approximates the gradient of a user-defined cost function in its search for
the minimum location of the cost function. This gradient approximation is only accurate enough if there is
little noise involved in the cost function calculation. The cost function calculation involves FEA, which
possesses finite accuracy.
2. Pattern Search - This optimizer performs a grid-based simplex search, which makes use of simplices:
triangles in 2D space or tetrahedra in 3D space. The cost value is calculated at the vertices of the simplex.
The optimizer mirrors the simplex across one of its faces based on mathematical guidelines and determines
if the new simplex provides better results. If it does not produce a better result, the next face is used for
mirroring and the pattern continues. If no improvement occurs, the grid is refined. If improvement occurs,
the step is accepted and the new simplex is generated to replace the original one. Pattern Search
algorithms are less sensitive to noise.
3. Sequential Nonlinear Programming - The main advantage of SNLP over quasi Newton is that it handles
the optimization problem in more depth. This optimizer assumes that the optimization variables span a
continuous space. [Note: this is better for optimizations with only a few variables]
4. Sequential Mixed Integer NonLinear Programming - To be able to optimize on number of turns or
quarter turns, the optimizer must handle discrete optimization variables. The SMINLP optimizer can mix
continuous variables among the integers, or can have only integers, and works if all variables are
continuous. [Note: this is used for optimizations where some variables must be integers such as wire gauge
size and is better for optimizations having only a few variables]
5. Genetic Algorithm - The Genetic Algorithm (GA) search is an iterative process that goes through a number
of generations (see picture below). In each generation some new individuals (Children / Number of
Individuals) are created and the so grown population participates in a selection (natural-selection) process
that in turn reduces the size of the population to a desired level (Next Generation / Number of Individuals).
[Note: this is better for optimizations having many variables]
Optimetrics Module (cont.)
Distributed Parametrics and Optimization
Seamless setup
Integrated with force,
torque, matrix
Complete support of
Transient solution
Optimetrics Module (cont.)
Integrated with external circuit
Optimize on voltage
in Maxwell
Setup variables in
Maxwell Circuit Editor
Optimetrics Example
Optimization of a starter-alternator pack
The pack contains a motor used also as alternator
Three-phase claw pole motor
Permanent Magnets are added between teeth
Optimization of the Geometry
Want to see the influence on the output torque
Tooth angle Magnet thickness Magnet length
Results
Transient analysis run for the optimized design
Initial Peak torque: 63.40 Nm
Optimized Peak Torque: 67.42 Nm
Initial Optimized
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
6.0- 1
Chapter6.0
Chapter6.0 EddyCurrentExamples
6.1 JumpingRingsAxisymmetric Model
6.2 InstantaneousForcesonBusbars
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
Introduction
Thisexampleinvestigatestheclassicaljumpingrings experimentusinga
2Daxisymmetric eddycurrentmodel.Threeringsarestackedontopof
eachotheraroundacommonaxis.Thebottomringprovidesa10kHz
excitationthatinduceseddycurrentsandlossesintheothertworings.
Theseringsarerepelledfromring1andcanbesuspendedbythemagnetic
fieldasthecurrentinring1isincreased.
Themodelconsistsofthreesolidcopperrings.Thebottomring1hasapeak
currentof1A,whilering2andring3havenoexcitationandareopen-
circuited.Theopen-circuitconditionissimulatedbyconstrainingthetotal
currenttozero.Aphysicallayoutoftheactualdeviceisshown in:
Aftertheproblemissolved,youcandothefollowing:
Viewtheimpedancematrix.
Calculatethepowerlossusingtwoindependentmethods,and
compareittothelossintheconvergencetable.
Calculatetheinducedvoltage(V2)acrosstheopenendsofring2.
Theanalysisincludesallskinandproximityeffectsinthecalculationofthe
impedancematrix,powerlosses,andvoltage.
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:EddyCurrent
open points
in rings
I
1
ring3
ring2
ring1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units>Selectunits:cm
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Rectangle(Enterthefollowingpointsusingthetabkey).
X:0,Y:0,Z:-10
dX:20,dY:0,dZ:20
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Region
Transparency: 0.9
SelectView>Fitall >ActiveView toresizethedrawingwindow.
Selectwireframeviewbyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame.
CreatetheModel
Themodelconsistsofthreedonut-shapedrings.Across-sectionofthemodelis
shownbelow.Thisisa2-dimensionalaxisymmetric drawing;anaxisymmetric
modelisrotated360 aroundthez-axis(displayedasthev-axisinthedrawing).
Tocreatethecross-sectionoftherings:
Drawacirclenamedring1withacenterat(1,0),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredred.
Drawacirclenamedring2withacenterat(1,0.5),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredgreen.
Drawacirclenamedring3withacenterat(1,0.8),aradiusof0.1cm,36
segments,coloredyellow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheRings
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring1
Material:Copper
Color:Red
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0.5
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring2
Material:Copper
Color:Green
ClickonDraw>RegularPolygon
X:1,Y:0,Z:0.8
dX:0.1,dY:0,dZ:0
Segments: 36
Changeitsproperties:
Name:ring3
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheSources
Acurrentof1Awillbeassignedtothering1while0Awillbeassignedtobothring2
andring3.Thisforcesthetotalcurrentflowaroundtheserings tobezeroin
ordertomodeltheopen-circuit condition.
Selectring1fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current1
Value:1A
Type: Solid
Selectring2fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current2
Value:0A
Type: Solid
Selectring3fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current3
Value:0A
Type: Solid
Note:ChoosingSolidspecifiesthattheeddyeffectsinthecoilwillbe
considered.Ontheotherhand,ifStranded hadbeenchosen,onlytheDC
resistancewouldhavebeencalculatedandnoACeffectsinthecoilwouldhave
beenconsidered.
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjectto
edge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheParameters
Inthisexample,thecompete[3x3]impedancematrixwillbecalculated.Thisis
donebysettingaparameter.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
Checkeachofthethreesources:Current1,Current2,Current3
ComputetheSkinDepth
Skindepthisameasureofhowcurrentdensityconcentratesatthesurfaceofa
conductorcarryinganalternatingcurrent.Itisafunctionofthepermeability,
conductivityandfrequency
Skindepthinmetersisdefinedasfollows:
where:
istheangularfrequency,whichisequalto2f.(fisthesource
frequencywhichinthiscaseis10000Hz).
istheconductorsconductivity;forcopperits5.8e7S/m

r
istheconductorsrelativepermeability;forcopperits1

isthepermeabilityoffreespace,whichisequalto410
-7
A/m.
Forthecoppercoils,theskindepthisapproximately0.066cmwhichlessthan
thediameterof0.200cmfortheconductors.

r o
2
=
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
ClickRightonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup
OntheGeneral tab,re-setthePercentErrorto 0.01
OntheSolver tab,re-settheAdaptiveFrequencyto10kHz
AddMeshOperations
Inordertoaccuratelycomputethemutualresistancetermsintheimpedance
matrix,auniformmeshisneededinallconductors.
SelectallthreecoilsinthehistorytreeandthenMaxwell2D>Mesh
Operations>Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coils_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:1000
NotethatbychoosingInsideSelection insteadofOnSelection,themesh
operationisappliedevenlythroughtheareaoftheconductorsasopposedto
beingappliedonlyontheouterperimeteroftheconductor.
Meshoperation
OnSelection
Meshoperation
InsideSelection
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
ViewtheSolutionData
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheConvergence tabtoviewtheadaptiverefinement.
Notethetotallossisapproximately0.0002003W.
ClickontheMeshStatistics tabtoviewtherefinedmesh.
ClickontheMatrixtabtodisplaythe3x3impedancematrix.Bydefault,the
resultsaredisplayedas[R,Z]butcanbealsoshownas[R,L]orascoupling
coefficients.

33 33 32 32 31 31
23 23 22 22 21 21
13 13 12 12 11 11
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
L R L R L R
L R L R L R
L R L R L R
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
Thediagonalresistancetermsrepresenttheself-resistanceofeachcoildue
totheDCcomponentandskineffects,aswellastheproximityeffectsinall
otherconductors.Theoff-diagonalresistancetermsresultfromproximity
effectcurrentsinducedinonecoilduetoexcitationintheothercoil.
Thediagonalinductancetermsrepresenttheself-inductanceofeachcoil,
whiletheoff-diagonaltermsrepresentthemutualinductancedueto
coupling.
Thematrixresultsshouldcloselyresembletheresultsshowninthefollowing
matrix.ThenegativeresistanceR13meansthatthecurrentinring1 induces
acurrentinring3,whichactuallyreducestheACresistanceofring3:
ThediagonaltermR11ismadeupofthefollowingresistivecomponentsdue
toring1,ring2,and ring3.(Thering1DCresistanceisobtainedbyrunninga
separatesimulationa0.1Hz.TheR11termaswellasring2andring3
proximitytermsaretakenfromthematrixabove.Finally,Thering1skin
effecttermiscalculatedasthedifferencebetweenofalloftheseterms.)
ring1DCresistance =3.458e-004
ring1skineffect =4.446e-005
ring2proximityeffectfromI1 =1.710e-005
ring3proximityeffectfromI1 =6.963e-006
R11 =4.004e-004ohms
Inthisexample,witha1Apeakcurrentinring1,andwithbothring2 and
ring3open-circuited,thetotalpowerlosscanbecalculatedbyhand
fromtheimpedancematrixusingthefollowingformula:
P=*I2peakR11 =*12*4.006e4=2.003e4(Watts)
ThisvaluealsocorrespondstotheTotalPowerLoss intheconvergence
table.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMeshandzoomin.
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
ViewtheResults
Nowthatyouhavegeneratedasolution,youcananalyzetheresults.
Specifically,whatyouwanttocalculateanddisplayare:
Thetotalpowerloss,totalcurrentflow,androtationalcurrent flowinthe
rings.
Fluxlinesplot.
Currentdensityplotforring2andring3.
Animatedcurrentdensityvectorplot.
Inducedvoltage(V2)acrosstheopen-circuitpointinring2.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputeTotalPowerLossintheCoils
SelectallthreecoilsinthehistorytreeandthenModeler>List>Create>
ObjectList .Objectlist1 appearsunderList intheHistoryTree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Objectlist1>OK
Integral>RZ
Eval ...Evaluate
TheevaluatedlossintheCoils shouldbeabout:2.003e-004(W). Thisvalue
isequaltothepowercalculatedbyhandfromR11intheimpedancematrix.
Click Done.
PlotFluxLines
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
Verifythetotalcurrentflowingaroundeachoftherings
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>J>ScalarPhi
Complex>Real
Geometry>Surface>ring1>OK
Integral>XY(NotethisisasurfaceintegralofJdotdA)
Eval ...Evaluate
Notethatthecurrentinring1iscloseto1A.Repeatingthese stepsforring2
andring3yieldsanetcurrent~0A,whichrepresentsanopen-circuitedring.
Click Done.
Calculatetherotatingcurrentintheopenrings
Althoughthenetcurrentflowinring2andring3iszero,thereisasmall
rotatingcurrentflowingdownonesideandbackontheoppositeofeach
openring.TakingtheabsolutevalueofJwillreturntwotimesthecurrent
flowingintheopenrings.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>J>ScalarPhi
Complex>Real
Abs
Geometry>Surface>ring1>OK
Integral>XY
Eval ...Evaluate
Themagnitudeofthetotalcurrentinring1isdisplayed.Notethatthecurrent
inring1iscloseto1A.Nowrepeattheaboveprocedureforrings2and3,
yieldingcurrentsof0.087and0.048A.Thecurrentflowingalongeachside
ofring2isarotational eddycurrentequalto *0.087=0.044A.Forring3,
thecurrentflowingalongeachsideofis *0.048=0.024A.Thiscurrent
flowsinoppositedirectionsoneithersideofring2andring3unlikethe
currentflowinring1,whichisonlyinonedirection.
Click Done.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
Plotthecurrentdensity
HidetheRegion byselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility andunchecking
Region.
SelectObjectList1 inthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JatPhase >Done
Modifythescaleoftheplottoobservethecurrentdensityinring2andring3
byselecting:ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>ModifyPlotAttributes>J>Ok
OntheScaletab,selectUseLimits andsetMin:-53000 andMax:53000
ClickonApply andClose.
Note:Onring1,theskin
effectcauseshigher
currentdensityonthe
surface.Currentdensity
ishighertowardstheaxis
ofsymmetryduetothe
DCspirality effect.
Note:Onring2and
ring3,therotational
eddycurrentscause
positiveandnegative
currentdensity.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 13
Maxwell 2D v12
Plotthecurrentdensityvectorandanimate
Hidethepreviousplotsbyselecting:View>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter
RotatetheviewbyholdingdownALTandthen leftmousedrag.
SelectObjectlist1
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>J_Vector >Done
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,doubleleftclickingonthelegendselectthePlots
tab.
Chooseplot:J_Vector1 andchangetheVectorplotspacingto:Min =0.02
andMax =0.02.
SelecttheMarker/Arrow tabandreducethesizeofthearrowsbyslidingthe
sizeslider totheleft.
SelecttheScale tabandsettoAuto.
IntheProjectWindow,rightclickonJ_Vector1andclickAnimate>OK.
ClickonExporttosavetheanimationasa.gifor.avi moviefile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 14
Maxwell 2D v12
Calculatetheopencircuitvoltageonring2andring3
Calculatethevoltage(V2)inducedacrosstheopen-circuitpointinring2.
Thisvoltageisthenegativeofthevoltagethatisrequiredtoensurethatthe
totalcurrentflowaroundring2iszero.Itcanbecalculatedby handfromthe
impedancematrixusingthefollowingformula:
Theopencircuitvoltage(V2)canalsobecalculatedbyintegratingthe
averageelectricfieldinring2arounditscircumferenceusingthefollowing
formula,whereE= jA, =2pi(10000),andarea=3.1257e-6:
peak) (V 91.4 6.851e
j6.849e .722e 1
) 1.090e * 10000 * 2 j (1.722e * 1
) 1.090e j (1.722e *
*
4 -
4 - 5 -
8 - 5 -
8 - 5 -
1
12 1
'
2
=
=
+ =
+ =
=

I
Z I V
) ( 85 . 6
1257 . 3
10000 * * 2
1
1
4
6
'
2
Vpeak e
V d A j
e
V d A j
area
V d E
area
L d E V
RZ
RZ
RZ

=
=
=
=
=

AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
6.1
EddyCurrent ApplicationNote
6.1- 15
Maxwell 2D v12
Calculatethecomplexmagnitudeofthevoltage
Tocalculatethecomplexmagnitudeofthevoltageusingtheplanecalculator,
chooseData/Calculator,thenselect:
Quantity>A
Scalar>ScalarPhi
Complex>CmplxMag,sinceA_vector isacomplexnumber,theCmplxMag
includesbothrealandimaginarycomponents.Notethatthecomplex
magnitudeisequalto:
Tomultiplybyw;select:
Number>Scalar>2>Ok
Function>Freq>Ok
Constant>Pi
*
*
*
Todividebyarea;select:
Number>Scalar>1>Ok
Geometry>Surface:ring2>Ok
Integral>XY>Eval
Exchange>Pop
/
Finally,doanRZintegrationtodeterminethevoltageacrosstheendsofring2.
Geometry>Volume:ring2>Ok
Integral>RZ>Eval
Theopencircuitvoltageinducedacrosstheopenpointinring2is6.86e-004V.This
equalsthevoltagecalculatedbyhandfromZ12intheimpedancematrix,aswellas
thatcalculatedbyintegratingtheaverageelectricfield.Thisisthecomplex
magnitudeofthevoltage.Therealandimaginarycomponentscanbeindividually
determinedbysubstitutingComplex/Imag andComplex/Realinthestepsabove.
Thesevoltagesare:V2'(real)=-1.80e-005andV2'(imaginary)=-6.85e-004which
arenearlythesameasthevoltagecalculatedbyhandonthepreviouspage.
Reference:PredictionandUseofImpedanceMatricesforEddy-CurrentProblems,
IEEETransactionsonMagnetics,KentR.Davey andDalianZheng,vol.33pp.
2478-2485,1997.
ThiscompletestheJumpingRingsexercise.
2
_
2
_ imag real CmplxMag
A A A

+ =
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Instantaneous Forces on Busbars in Maxwell 2D and 3D

This example analyzes the forces acting on a busbar model in Maxwell 2D and 3D. Specifically, it provides
a method for determining the instantaneous force on objects having sinusoidal AC excitation in the Eddy
Current Solver. Force vectors in AC problems are a combination of a time-averaged DC component and
an alternating AC component. The alternating component fluctuates at a frequency twice the excitation
frequency. Both of these components can be calculated using the formulas below so that the instantaneous
force can be determined. Three different force methods are used in this example: Virtual, Lorentz, and the
Maxwell Stress Tensor.
AC DC INST
AC
DC
F F F
degrees t phase at evaluated dV B J F
dV B J F
+ =
= =
=

) (
2
1
Re
2
1

Description

This example will be solved in two parts using the 2D Eddy Current and 3D Eddy Current solvers. The
model consists of two 4mm parallel copper busbars separated by a center-center spacing of 16mm. The
excitation frequency is 100kHz.


3D Model
2D Model
6.2 - 1 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

PART 1 - The 2D Eddy Project

A 2D model of the busbars will be simulated first. Access the Maxwell Project Manager and create a new
2D project called 2dbars. Open the project and change to the Eddy Current solver with an XY drawing
plane.

Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ...
Set Geometry Mode: Cartesian, XY
Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current
3. Draw the Solution Region
Click on Draw > Rectangle (Enter the following points using the tab key).
X: -150, Y: -150, Z: 0
dX: 300, dY: 300, dZ: 0
Change its properties:
Name: Region
Transparency: 0.9
Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame.

Create the Model

Now the model can be created. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square
cross-section, however a length of 1 meter is assumed so that the results must be scaled to compare to 3D.

Create the Left Busbar

Click on Draw > Rectangle
X: -12, Y: -2, Z: 0
dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0
Change its properties:
Name: left
Material: Copper
Color: Red

6.2 - 2 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Create the Right Busbar

Click on Draw > Rectangle
X: 8, Y: -2, Z: 0
dX: 4, dY: 4, dZ: 0
Change its properties:
Name: right
Material: Copper
Color: Red

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar. A
no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to the outside of the 2D problem region which is
also the default boundary for all 3D projects. This forces all flux to stay in the solution region.

1. The boundary must be set on the solution region.
Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge.
While holding down the CTRL key, choose the four outer edges of the region.
Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential
Value: 0
Phase: 0
OK
When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode.

2. Select left from the history tree
Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current1
Value: 1A
Phase: 0
Type: Solid
Reference Direction: Positive

3. Select right from the history tree.
Click on Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current2
Value: 1A
Phase: 60
Type: Solid
Reference Direction: Negative

6.2 - 3 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, you must manually turn on the eddy effect.

1. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Verify that the eddy effect is checked for both the left and right conductors.

Assign the Parameters

In order to automatically calculate force on an object, it must be selected in the Parameters panel. In 2D,
only the virtual force can be automatically calculated. Later, the Lorentz force will be calculated manually
in the Post Processor after solving the project.

1. Select the left busbar by clicking on it.
2. Click on Maxwell 2D > Parameters > Assign > Force
3. Click OK to enable the force calculation.

Add an Analysis Setup

1. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup
2. On the General tab, re-set the Number of passes to 15.
3. Percent Error to 0.01
4. On the Solver tab, re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz.

Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.


6.2 - 4 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

View the Results

1. Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Solution Data and click on the Force tab. The force results are
reported for a 1 meter depth of the model. The DC forces are shown below.















2. Now select Type:AC<Mag,Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is
approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.0 radians or -120 degrees.














6.2 - 5 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Create a Plot of Force vs. Time

The average, AC, and instantaneous components of the Lorentz force can be plotted vs. phase by creating
named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note.

1. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force:
Click on Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following:
Quantity > J
Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross
Scalar X > Complex > Real
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply
Geometry > Volume > left > OK
Integrate
Add Name: Force_DC
Click OK

2. Determine the AC component of Lorentz force:
Quantity > J
Quantity > B > Cross
Scalar X
Function > Phase > OK
Complex > AtPhase
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply
Geometry > Volume > left > OK
Integrate
Add Name: Force_AC
Click OK

3. Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force. In the Named Expressions
panel:
In the Named Expressions window, select Force_DC and Copy to stack
Select Force_AC and Copy to stack
Add
Add Name: Force_inst
Click OK and Done to close the calculator window.
6.2 - 6 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

4. Create a plot of Force vs. Phase. Now that the force quantities have been created, a plot of these
named expressions can been created.

Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
Category: Calculator Expressions
Quantity: Force_DC, Force_AC, Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once)
New Report > Close
Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add
Category: Math
Function: max
Add > Done
Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.
Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK.

Note: The "max" values match the results from Solution Data > Force. I can also be observed that
the forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency since there are two complete cycles over 360
degrees as shown below.



0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00
Phase [deg]
-0.000008
-0.000006
-0.000004
-0.000002
0.000000
0.000002
0.000004
0.000006
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o max
Force_DC
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
-2.5666E-006
Force_AC
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
5.0213E-006
Force_inst
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
2.4547E-006






















6.2 - 7 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

6. Finally, the instantaneous force on the left busbar can be calculated using an alternate method, the
Maxwell Stress Tensor method. This method is different than both the Lorentz force and virtual
force methods. The Maxwell Stress Tensor method is extremely sensitive to mesh. The force on an
object can be determined by the following equation:

( ) ) ( ) ( 5 . 0 degrees t phase at evaluated dV n H B H n B F
MST
= =


Determine the instantaneous component of force at time wt=0 using the Maxwell Stress Tensor
method in the calculator:

Quantity > B Loads the B vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt
Geometry > Line > left > OK This enters the edge of the left busbar
Unit Vector > Normal To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar
Dot To take B-dot-Unit Normal
Quantity > H Loads the H vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt
Multiply This multiplies B and H

Quantity > B Loads the B vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the B vector at phase = wt
Quantity > H Loads the H vector
Function > Phase > OK Loads the function Phase
Complex > At Phase Evaluates the H vector at phase = wt
Dot Computes B-dot-H
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply Multiplies the quantity by 0.5

Geometry > Line > left > OK Enters the edge of the left busbar
Unit Vector > Normal To determine the unit normal vector for left busbar
Multiply This multiplies the quantity times unit normal vector
Neg This takes the negative
Add
Scal? > ScalarX To extract the x-component of the quantity
Geometry > Line > left > OK Enters the edge of the left busbar
Integrate To integrate the force density and obtain the force in newtons
Add Name: Force_MST

6.2 - 8 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

7. Create a plot of the Maxwell Stress Tensor Force vs. Phase.

Select Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
Category: Calculator Expressions
Quantity: Force_inst, Force_MST

Note: The slight difference in these curves is due to mesh error in the stress tensor calculation.


0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 350.00 400.00
Phase [deg]
-0.000008
-0.000006
-0.000004
-0.000002
0.000000
0.000002
0.000004
Y
1
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o
Force_inst
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'
Force_MST
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='100kHz'























This completes PART 1 of the exercise.

6.2 - 9 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

PART 2 - The 3D Eddy Project

Now the identical model will be simulated in Maxwell 3D.

Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 3D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 3D > Solution Type ...
Select the radio button Magnetic: Eddy Current
3. Draw the Solution Region
Click on Draw > Box (Enter the following points using the tab key).
X: 0, Y: -150, Z: -150
dX: 10, dY: 300, dZ: 300
Change its properties:
Name: Region
Transparency: 0.9
Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame.

Create the Model

Now the model can be created. This model also consists of a left and right busbar that have a 4mm square
cross-section and a length of 10mm.

Create the Left Busbar

Click on Draw > Box
X: 0 Y: -12, Z: -2
dX: 10, dY: 4, dZ: 4
Change its properties:
Name: left
Material: Copper
Color: Red

Create the Right Busbar

Click on Draw > Box
X: 0 Y: 8, Z: -2
dX: 10, dY: 4, dZ: 4
Change its properties:
Name: left
Material: Copper
6.2 - 10 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Color: Red

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

The current is assumed to be 1A at 0 degrees in the left busbar and -1A at 60 degrees in the right busbar.
The default boundary in Maxwell 3D in no-fringing. So a boundary does not need to be explicitly
assigned.

1. To assign the source current, the four (4) end faces of the conductors must be selected. Choose Edit
> Select > Faces to change the selection mode from object to face.
2. Zoom in to the busbars using:View > Zoom In
3. Click on the front face of the left busbar.
Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current1
Value: 1A
Phase: 0
Type: Solid
4. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left
busbar. Select it and then:
Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current2
Value: 1A
Phase: 0
Type: Solid
Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of
the conductor
5. Click on the front face of the right busbar.
Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current3
Value: 1A
Phase: 60
Type: Solid
6. Select View > Rotate > Model Center to spin the bubars around to see the other face of the left
busbar. Select it and then:
Click on Maxwell > Excitations > Assign > Current
Name: Current4
Value: 1A
Phase: 60
Type: Solid
Click on Swap Direction to be sure that the red directional arrow is pointing out of
the conductor

6.2 - 11 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, the eddy effect must be turned on.

1. Choose Maxwell 3D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Verify that the eddy effect for left and right is checked.
3. Un-check the displacement current calculation.

Assign the Parameters

In order to automatically calculate force on an object, it must be selected in the Parameters panel. In
Maxwell 3D, you can calculate both virtual and Lorentz force. Note however that Lorentz force is only
valid on objects with a permeability = 1.

1. Select the left busbar by clicking on it in the history tree or on the screen.
2. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force
3. Name: Force_Virtual
4. Type: Virtual
5. Click OK to enable the virtual force calculation.
6. Click on Maxwell > Parameters > Assign > Force
7. Name: Force_Lorentz
8. Type: Lorentz
9. Click OK to enable the lorentz force calculation.

Add an Analysis Setup

1. Click Right on the Analysis folder in the Model Tree and select Add Solution Setup
2. On the General tab, re-set the Number of passes to 15.
3. Percent Error to 0.01
4. On the Solver tab, re-set the Adaptive Frequency to 100kHz.
5. Click OK to save the setup.

Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 3D > Analyze All.


6.2 - 12 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

View the Results

3. Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Solution Data and click on the Force tab. Notice that the 3D
results are reported for a 10mm depth while the 2D results were for 1meter depth. The DC forces
are shown below.














4. Now select Type:AC<Mag,Phase> This shows the magnitude of the force F(x)Mag is
approximately 5e-6 (N) and the phase F(x)Phase is -2.0 radians or -120 degrees.














6.2 - 13 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12

6.2

Eddy Current Application Note

Create a Plot of Force vs. Time

The time-averaged, AC, and instantaneous components Lorentz force can be plotted vs. time by creating
named expressions in the calculator using the formulas at the beginning of the application note.

1. Determine the time-averaged component of Lorentz force:
Click on Maxwell 3D > Fields > Calculator and then perform the following:
Quantity > J
Quantity > B > Complex > Conj > Cross
Scalar Y > Complex > Real
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply
Geometry > Volume > left > OK
Integrate
Add Name: Force_DC
OK

2. Determine the AC component of Lorentz force:
Quantity > J
Quantity > B > Cross
Scalar Y
Function > Phase > OK
Complex > AtPhase
Number > Scalar > 0.5 > OK
Multiply
Geometry > Volume > left > OK
Integrate
Add Name: Force_AC
OK

3. Determine the instantaneous (DC + AC) component of Lorentz force. In the Named Expressions
panel:
In the Named Expressions window, select Force_DC and Copy to stack
Select Force_AC and Copy to stack
Add
Add Name: Force_inst
Click on OK and Done to close the calculator window.

6.2 - 14 AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell v12


Eddy Current Application Note

6.2 - 15
6.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
4. Create a plot of Force vs. Phase. Now that the force quantities have been created, a plot of these
named expressions can been created.
Select Maxwell 3D > Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
Category: Calculator Expressions
Change the abscissa X: from the default Freq to Phase.
Quantity: Force_DC, Force_AC, Force_inst (hold down shift key to select all three at once)
New Report > Close
Right mouse click on the legend and select: Trace Characteristics > Add
Category: Math
Function: Max
Add > Done
Double left mouse click on the legend and change from the Attribute to the General tab.
Check Use Scientific Notation and click on OK. Note that these values match the results on
the Solution Data > Force. Also, since forces fluctuate at 2 times the excitation frequency,
there are two complete cycles in 360 degrees shown below.




















This completes PART 2 of the exercise.

Reference:

MSC Paper #118 "Post Processing of Vector Quantities, Lorentz Forces, and Moments
in AC Analysis for Electromagnetic Devices" MSC European Users Conference,
September 1993, by Peter Henninger, Research Laboratories of Siemens AG, Erlangen
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
7.0- 1
Chapter7.0
Chapter7.0 TransientExamples
7.1 GappedInductorModel
7.2 SolenoidProblemwithanExternalCircuit
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
Introduction
TheMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorsXYtransientsolvercanbeusedto
demonstratethedifferencebetweensinusoidalandnon-sinusoidal
excitationinagappedinductor.Inaddition,thefringingfluxeffectonAC
lossescanbeconsideredinthisdevice.
Theinductorconsistsofaferritecorewithagapinthecenter leg.The
windinghas15copperturnswhichareconnectedinseries.Theinductoris
excitedbya120A-60Hzsinusoidalcurrentanda20A-1kHztriangular
currentsuperimposedonit.
Althoughnomotionoccursinthisproblem,thetransienttime-stepping
solverisneededbecauseofthecomplexwaveformofthecurrent.
Aftertheproblemissolved,theusercandothefollowing:
Viewthefluxlinesandpowerlossdensityinthewinding.
Plottheinstantaneouspowerlossinthewindingvs.time.
Calculatetheaveragepowerlossovertime.
Asecondsimulationwillbedoneusingonlyasinusoidalexcitationinorder
tocomparethelosses.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:Cartesian,XY
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:Transient
OK
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units
Selectunits: in
OK
CreatetheModel
Themodelconsistsofacoreandawinding.Notethateachturnofthe
windingisexactlymodeledandissolid inordertoaccuratelydetermine
theAClosses.
Setthemodeldepth
ForalltransientXYmodels,thedepthmustbespecified.Thenalllosses
andforceresultsreportedareforthatparticulardepth.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Model>SetModelDepth...
ModelDepth: 1in
OK
DrawtheCore
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-2.5,Y:-3,Z:0
dX:5,dY:6,dZ:0
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Core
Material:Ferrite
Color:Red
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheCoreWindows
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-1.5,Y:-2,Z:0
dX:1,dY:4,dZ:0
Duplicatethewindowbyselectingthewindowand
choosing:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:0
TotalNumber:2
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
OK
SelectCore,Rectangle1,Rectangle1_1
andthenclickon:
Modeler>Boolean>Subtract
BlankParts:Core
ToolParts:Rectangle1,Rectangle1_1
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:unchecked
Ok
SubtracttheCoregap
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-0.5,Y:-0.2,Z:0
dX:1,dY:0.4,dZ:0
SelectCore,Gap andthenclickon:
Modeler>Boolean>Subtract
BlankPart:Core
ToolParts:Rectangle_2
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:unchecked
Ok
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheWindings
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:-1.4,Y:-1.825,Z:0
dX:0.8,dY:0.125,dZ:0
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Green
Createthereturnforthefirstwindingturn:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:0
TotalNumber:2
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
OK
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil_return
Material:Copper
Color:Green
CreatethecompletewindingbyselectingCoil andCoil_return andthenchoosing:
Edit>Duplicate>alongline
X:0,Y:0,Z:0
dX:0,dY:0.25,dZ:0
TotalNumber=15
Donotcheck Attachtooriginal.
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:100
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjecttoedge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AssigntheSources
A120A60Hzsinusoidalcurrentwillbeassignedtothe15series turnsintheinductor.
Inaddition,a20A1kHztriangularcurrentsourcewillbeaddedontopofthe
sinusoidalcurrent.Thewindingconsistsofagoandareturnfortheleftandright
sidesofthewinding.Asimplesinusoidalfunctionwithbeusedtocreatethe60Hz
componentwhileadatasetds1 willbeusedtocreatethetriangularcomponent
ofcurrent.
Inthehistorytree,select:Coil,Coil_1,...Coil_14
Choose: Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name: left
Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time)+pwl_periodic(ds1,Time)
TheAddDataset windowwillautomaticallyappeartoenterthetriangular
waveform.
Name:ds1
EnterthefollowingX,YcoordinatesandclickOK andDone.
Type:Solid
Polarity: Positive
Ok
5
4
3
2
Y X
0 0.001
-20 0.00075
0 0.00050
20 0.00025
0 0 1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
Inthehistorytree,select:Coil_return,Coil_return1,...Coil_return14
Choose Maxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name: right
Value: 120*sin(2*pi*60*time)+pwl_periodic(ds1,Time)
Name:ds1
EnterthefollowingX,YcoordinatesandclickOKandDone:
Type:Solid
Polarity: Negative
Ok
TurnontheEddyEffectsinthewinding
Choose Maxwell2D>Excitations>SetEddyEffects...
Checktheeddyeffectforall30coils.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
Clickon Maxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup...
OntheGeneralTab:
StopTime:0.05sec
TimeStep: 0.00025sec
OntheSaveFieldsTab:
Type: LinearStep
Start: 0sec
Stop: 0.05sec
StepSize: 0.01sec
Clickon: AddtoList>>
OK
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
AddMeshOperations
Inthetransientsolvers,themeshisnotautomaticallycreated. Itmusteither
belinkedtoamagnetostatic oreddycurrentdesign,oryoucanmanually
createit.Inthisexample,themeshwillbemanuallycreated.
Inthehistorytree,selectall30conductorsandthenMaxwell2D>Mesh
Operations>Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased ...
Name:Coils_Inside
RestrictLengthofElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:500
NotethatbychoosingInsideSelection insteadofOnSelection,themesh
operationisappliedevenlythroughtheareaoftheconductorsasopposedto
beingappliedonlyontheouterperimeteroftheconductor.
SelectthecoreandthenMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>Assign>Inside
Selection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:500
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatetheMeshbeforesolving
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>ApplyMeshOperations
ViewtheSolutionDatafortheMesh
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheMeshStatistics tabtoviewthestartingmesh.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateOutputforCurrentusingtheCalculator
Sincetheinputcurrentisnotanautomaticoutput,thismustbe created
manually.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator...
SelectthemenuitemQuantity>J>Scal?>ScalarZ
Geometry>Coil>OK
Integrate
Add...
Name:Current_in
OK
Done
Makethenamedexpressionavailabletobeplotted
Todothis,select:Maxwell2D>Results>OutputVariables...
UnderReportType,select Fields.
ChooseCategory: CalculatorExpressions
Quantity: Current_in
Function: <none>.
Name:typeinavariablesuchasI_in
Clickon InsertQuantityintoExpression andthen Add.
Thisoutputwillnowbeavailableforplotting.ClickonDone toleavethe
OutputVariableswindow.
Specifywhenexpressionwillbecalculated
Intheprojecttree,rightclickonAnalysis>Setup1 andclickonProperties.
UndertheOutputVariables tabclickonAdd toaddthenewlycreated
parameterforI_in. BesurethattheEvaluationTimeStep =0.00025swhich
isthesameasthesolvetimestepundertheGeneral tab.SelectOK toexit.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh.
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheResults
Nowthatyouhavegeneratedasolution,youcananalyzetheresults.
Specifically,whatyouwanttocalculateanddisplayare:
Fluxlinesplotatt=0.02sec.
Currentdensityplotforthewindingt=0.02sec.
Thecurrentandinstantaneousaveragepowerlossforthewinding
vs time.
PlotFluxLines
Setthetimestep =0.02secbyselecting:View>SetSolutionContext>
0.02sec>OK
Alternatively,youcansetthesolutioncontextbydouble-clickingonthe
Time boxinthelowerleftcornerofthemodelingwindow.
SelectallobjectsbyselectingCTRL-A
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 13
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotCurrentDensityinCoils
Thecurrentdensityinthecoilswillbegreaterneartothegap inthecore
becausefringingfluxcausedinducedproximitylossesinthecopper.
Createanobjectlistincludingonlythecoppercoils:
Inthehistorytree,selectcoil andcoil_return.
ClickonModeler>List>Create>ObjectList
CreatetheplotbyselectingObjectlist1inthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >Jz >Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 14
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheInputCurrent
Createtheplotofthenamedexpression.
SelectMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >RectangularPlot
Category: OutputVar.Cache
Quantity: OVC(I_in)
NewReport
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
O
V
C
(
I
_
i
n
)
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o
OVC(I_in)
Setup1 : Transient
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 15
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheLossesintheWinding
Createtheplotofthenamedexpression.Todothis,
SelectMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >RectangularPlot
Category: Lossand Quantity: SolidLoss
NewReport
Rightmouseclickonthelegendandselect: TraceCharacteristics>Add...
Category: Mathand Function: avg
Clickon AddandDoneandtheaveragelosses (approx.4.35W)willbe
displayedinthelegend.
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
S
o
l
i
d
L
o
s
s

[
W
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o avg
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
4.3540
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
0.00
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
7.1
GappedInductor TransientXYApplicationNote
7.1- 16
Maxwell 2D v12
Solveforthesinusoidalcurrentsourceonly
CopytheMaxwellDesign1andpasteitintheProjecttreeareato create
MaxwellDesign2
Removeallexcitationsforthewindingsandreassignthemwithoutthe
triangulardatasetcomponent.
ResolvetheprojectbyselectingMaxwell2D>Solve.Theaverage power
loss(approx.3.41W)issmallerthantheprevioussimulation(approx.
4.35W)whichincludedthetriangularcurrentcomponent.Also,youcansee
thatthepowerlossissinusoidalattwicetheexcitationfrequency.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
O
V
C
(
I
_
i
n
)
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign2
XY Plot 1
Curve Info
OVC(I_in)
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
Time [ms]
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
S
o
l
i
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L
o
s
s

[
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]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign2
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o avg
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
3.4118
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 1
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide

A Solenoid Problem with an External Circuit

This example models an AC solenoid using Maxwell 2D. A full wave bridge rectifying drive circuit will be
setup to drive the solenoid.

























Description

A model of an AC solenoid using an external circuit will be simulated using the 2D RZ transient solver.
The source is a 170V 60Hz sinusoidal voltage which is rectified using a full-wave bridge. The mechanical
force for a spring and gravity are modeled using an equation. The force, loss, position, speed and winding
current, flux, and voltage will be determined.


2D RZ Model
D
1
D2
D3
D
4
Model
rectify
LWinding2
25ohm
Rcoil
+
170V
LabelID=Vsource
0
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 2
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Setup the Design

1. Click on the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell 2D Design
2. Click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Solution Type ...
Set Geometry Mode: Cylindrical about Z
Select the radio button Magnetic: Transient

Specify the Drawing Units
1. Click on Modeler > Units
2. Select units: in > OK

Import the Model

Now the model can be created. Since this is a complicated geometry, the model will be imported from an
old Maxwell 2D model file *.sm2.

1. Click on: Modeler > Import
2. Navigate to find the file: Ex_7_02_Solenoid.sm2

Draw the Solution Region

1. Click on Draw > Region
Padding Data: Pad Individual Directions
Padding Percentage: X = +/- 300% Z = +/- 100%












3. Select View > Fitall > Active View to resize the drawing window.
4. Select wireframe view by selecting: View > Render > Wire Frame

NOTE:
For 2D RZ designs, the X limit
will be the Z-axis if the padding
percentage is large enough.
Otherwise, if the -X padding
percentage creates a region with
X > 0, then the region will
have a hole in the model.

Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 3
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Assign the Materials

Since the model was imported, no material properties have been assigned. Select the objects one at a time
and assign the appropriate material properties.

1. Select the coil and the shadering and choose: Modeler > Assign
Material > copper > OK
2. Select the endstop, flange, housing, plunger and top_nut and choose:
Modeler > Assign Material > steel_1008 > OK
3. Select the Band and choose: Modeler > Assign Material > Vacuum
> OK

Assign the Boundaries and Sources

A no-fringing vector potential boundary will be assigned to outside of the 2D problem region. This forces
all flux to stay in the solution region.

1. Choose Edit > Select > Edges to change the selection mode from object to edge.
2. While holding down the CTRL key, choose the top, right, and bottom outer edges of the region.
Note that the left edge does not need a boundary because it is automatically the axis of symmetry in
a RZ model.
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Boundaries> Assign > Vector Potential
Value: 0
OK
4. When done, choose Edit > Select > Object to object selection mode.

Because the solenoid is a converted AC solenoid, it contains a copper shading ring which may have
eddy currents induced in it. A zero voltage source must be set on the shade ring in order to properly
represent a shorted single turn winding and to see if the eddy currents are significant or not.

1. Select the shadering and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil
Name: shadering
Number of Conductors: 1
Polarity: Positive (into the screen)
OK
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 4
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide

2. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding
Name: Winding1
Type: Voltage and Solid
Initial Current: 0
Resistance: 0 (for solid windings, resistance calculated by the solver)
Inductance: 0 (coil inductance always calculated by the solver)
Voltage: 0 (zero voltage represents a shorted turn, with no source)
Number parallel branches: 1
















3. In the project tree, right mouse click on shadering under Excitations and click on the menu item
Add to Winding and
4. In the Add to Winding window, Winding1 will be selected and then click on OK.















Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 5
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
5. Select the Coil and click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Assign > Coil
Name: Coil
Number of Conductors: 2250
Polarity: Positive (into the screen)
OK
6. Click on the menu item: Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Add Winding
Name: Winding2
Type: External and Stranded (Note: stranded is assigned since the coil has 2250 turns).
Initial Current: 0
Number parallel branches: 1
OK
7. In the project tree, right mouse click on coil under Excitations and click on the menu item Add to
Winding
In the Add to Winding window, highlight Winding2 click on OK.
The project tree should look like this:










8. Create an External Circuit
To access Maxwell Circuit Editor, choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > External Circuit >
Edit External Circuit
Select Edit Circuit from the Edit External Circuit dialog

Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 6
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide

Click on File > New to create a new schematic
Click on the Components tab in the Project Manager Window
Expand Maxwell Circuit Elements to view the library elements
Expand Passive Elements and click on DIODE and drag this component onto the sheet:
Name: D1
mod: rectify
Copy this diode three times creating D2, D3, and D4 and rotate them using CTRL-R before
connecting together to form the full-wave bridge as shown below.
Select Passive Elements > DIODE_Model and drag this component onto the sheet:
Name: rectify

Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 7
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide

Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Dedicated Elements select Winding and drag this
component onto the sheet
In the properties window change the following:
Name: Winding2
Note that this name has to be exactly the same name as used in the Winding
definition described previously in Maxwell > Excitations > Add Winding
Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Passive Elements select Res and drag this component
onto the sheet:
Name: coil
R: 25 ohms
Under Maxwell Circuit Elements > Sources select Vsin and drag this component onto the
sheet, hit ESC to end insertion:
Name: source
Va: 170 volts
VFreq: 60 Hz
Connect all of the elements together using Draw > Wire and add a ground using Draw >
Ground.
The circuit should look like this:



















Click on Edit > Save As: ex07_02_solenoid.amcp
Click on Maxwell Circuit > Export Netlist:
File Name: ex07_02_solenoid.sph
D
1
D2
D3
D
4
Model
rectify
LWinding2
25ohm
Rcoil
+
170V
LabelID=Vsource
0
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 8
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9. Link the circuit file to the Maxwell project

Without closing the Maxwell Circuit Editor, return to the Maxwell project click on Cancel.
Then choose Import Circuit from the Edit External Circuit dialog and select
ex07_02_solenoid.sph















A window should indicate that the model imported successfully.









Clicking on the Circuit Path tab will verify the linked circuit file *.amcp.











Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 9
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Turn on the Eddy Effects in the winding

In order to consider the skin effects in the busbars, you must manually turn on the eddy effect.

1. Choose Maxwell 2D > Excitations > Set Eddy Effects ...
2. Check the eddy effect for the shadering and choose OK.

Apply Mesh Operations

The transient solver does not use the automatic adaptive meshing process, so a manual mesh needs to be
created. Note that after the mesh operations are assigned, clicking on them in the history tree will shade
the appropriate objects in the modeler window (assuming they are in wireframe view first).

1. Select the band and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside
Selection > Length Based.
Name: Band_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck
Restrict Number of Elements: Check
Maximum Number of Elements: 1000
2. Select the shadering and click on the menu item Maxwell 2D > Mesh Operations > Assign >
Inside Selection > Length Based.
Name: Shadering_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements: Uncheck
Restrict Number of Elements: Check
Maximum Number of Elements: 50
3. Select the coil, endstop, flange, housing, plunger, and top_nut and click on the menu item Maxwell
2D > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length Based.
Name: Other_Objects_Inside
Restrict Length Of Elements: Check
Maximum Length: 0.05 in (Note: be sure to set units = in)
Restrict Number of Elements: Uncheck

Setup the Motion

The plunger is the moving object and is surrounded by the band. (Note: moving objects are never allowed
to touch the band. The minimum air gap is 0.002 inches when the solenoid is "fully" closed.) Positive
motion is defined as upwards or in the positive Z direction. The starting position is -0.100 inch (or open)
so the plunger will move upwards (and close) when the solenoid is energized.. The load force acts
downward against the direction of motion and consists of: gravity (-0.04N), a spring preload force (-50N),
and a variable compression spring force (-5530 * position) which is zero at the starting position and
increases as the plunger closes. The units for the intrinsic variable "position" are meters.

Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 10
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
1. Select the band object by clicking on it on the screen or in the history tree.
2. Choose: Maxwell 2D > Model > Motion Setup > Assign Band
On the Type tab, the Motion Type will always be Translation for RZ models.
On the Type tab, the Moving Vector will Global:Z.
Set Positive as the direction of the moving vector.









On the Data tab:
Initial Position: -0.1 in
Translate Limit Negative: -0.1 in
Translate Limit Positive: 0 in










On the Mechanical tab:
Consider Mechanical Transient: Check
Velocity: 0 m_per_sec
Mass: 0.004 kg
Damping: 1e-005 N-sec/m
Load Force: -5530 * (.00254 + position) -0.04 -50 (units are in Newtons)










Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 11
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide


Create Analysis Setup

Click on Maxwell > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup
General Tab
Stop Time: 0.05 s
Time Step: 0.0002 s
Save Fields Tab
Type: Linear Step
Start: 0 s
Stop: 0.05 s
Step Size: 0.005 s
Click on: Add to List >>




















Solve the Problem

1. Save the project by clicking on menu item File > Save As
2. Select the menu item Maxwell 2D > Validation Check to verify problem setup
3. Click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All.


Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 12
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide

Create Output Plots vs. Time

The force, loss, position, speed and winding current, flux, and voltage will be plotted vs. time.

1. To create these plots select: Maxwell 2D > Results > Create Quick Report
2. Select: Force, Loss, Position, Speed, and Winding











3. In the force plot below, Force_z is only the magnetic component of force (upwards) while
LoadForce is gravity, spring preload force, and a variable compression spring force (downwards).























0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Time [ms]
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
Y
1

[
n
e
w
t
o
n
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Force Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Force_z
Setup1 : Transient
Moving1.LoadForce
Setup1 : Transient
Note:
When magnetic
force exceeds load
force (at Time =
4.2msec) armature
starts to close
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 13
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide












































0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

[
m
m
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Position Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Position
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
S
p
e
e
d

[
m
_
p
e
r
_
s
e
c
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Speed Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Moving1.Speed
Setup1 : Transient
Maxwell v12



2D Transient Application Note

7.2 - 14
7.2
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide











































This completes the exercise.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
S
o
l
i
d
L
o
s
s

[
W
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Loss Quick Report
Curve Inf o
SolidLoss
Setup1 : Transient
Notes:

1) In order to scale the plot and view the solid loss,
delete the stranded and core loss traces.

2) The solid losses in the shading ring are very
small, since the current is a rectified to be nearly
DC. If the full wave bridge rectifier is
eliminated so the solenoid uses AC voltage, the
shading ring will have a more significant effect
on both the losses and force.
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Time [ms]
-100.00
-80.00
-60.00
-40.00
-20.00
-0.00
20.00
40.00
Y
1

[
A
]
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
Y
2

[
W
b
]
-100.00
-50.00
0.00
50.00
100.00
150.00
Y
3

[
V
]
Ansoft Corporation Maxwell2DDesign1
Winding Quick Report
Curve Inf o
Current(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
Current(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
FluxLinkage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
FluxLinkage(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
InducedVoltage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
InducedVoltage(Winding2)
Setup1 : Transient
InputVoltage(Winding1)
Setup1 : Transient
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
9.0- 1
Chapter9.0
Chapter9.0 BasicExercises
9.1 Electrostatic
9.2 DCConduction
9.3 Magnetostatic
9.4 Parametric
9.5 Transient
9.6 TransientwithCircuitEditor
9.7 PostProcessing
9.8 Optimetrics
9.9 Meshing
9.10 Scripting
9.11 LinearECE
9.12 EddyCurrent
9.13 RotationalTransientMotion
9.14 BoundaryConditions
9.15 PermanentMagnetsAssignment
9.16 MagnetostaticActuatorExample
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-1
Maxwell 2D v12
IntroductionontheElectrostaticSolver
ThisnoteintroducestheElectroStaticsolverbasedonsomesimpleexamples.
Thissolverismeanttosolvethestaticelectricfieldwithoutcurrentflowingin
conductors(conductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium).Theconductorsare
consideredperfectsuchthatthereisnoelectricfieldinsideconductors.
CapacitanceofaCylindricalCapacitorinRZ
Supposewehavealongcoaxialline.Wewanttoknowwhatisthe electricfield
distributionbasedonthepotential(orthecharges)thatareappliedoneach
conductor.Wealsowanttodeterminethecapacitance.WeuseanR-Z
representation.WewillthensolvethesameproblemusinganXYrepresentation.
DrawtheModel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle orclickontheicon
Fortherectangleposition,enter0;0;- 4 mm
Fortheoppositecorneroftherectangle,enter0.6;0;21mmorenterfor
dx,dy,dz 0.6;0;25mm;
ChangethenametoInner
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-2
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateasecondRectangle
Forrectangleposition,enter0.6;0;- 4mm
Fordx,enter0.4mm,fordz,enter25mmorenter1.0;0;21mmforthe
positionoftheoppositecorner.
ChangethenametoAir
ChangethematerialtoAir
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
Createathirdrectangle
Forcenterposition,enter1.0;0;- 4mm
Fordx,enter0.2mm,fordz,enter25mmorenter1.2;0;21mmforthe
positionoftheoppositecorner.
ChangethenametoOuter
Assignmaterialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Region.
Forthepaddingdata,choosePadAllDirections
ForthePaddingPercentage,enter300forpositiveXdirectionand0 forall
otherdirections
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-3
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
Basedontheassumptionsthattheconductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium,we
assignvoltagepotentialontheobjectitself.Inotherwords,wedonotsolve
insideconductors,weassumethatalltheconductorpartsareat thesame
potential.
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectInner
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.Asan
alternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanrightclickandselect
AssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter-1kV
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectOuter
SelecttheobjectOuter
selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1kV
AssignExecutiveParameter
Inadditiontothefields,weareinterestedbytheCapacitancevalueaswell
astheforceappliedtotheinnerarmature.
CapacitanceMatrix
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputationby
checkingtheradiobuttonsoftheSignalLinecolumn
Forcecomputation
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Force
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-4
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter0.5%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
Plottheelectricfield
Fromthemodelerhistorytree,selecttheplaneGlobal:XZ.
Onthe3Dmodelerwindow,rightclickandselectFields>E_Vector
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-5
Maxwell 2D v12
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthecontextmenu,
selecttheentrySolutions
SelectthetabentryMatrix
Inourproblem,weonlyhavetwoconductors,thereforethecapacitance
valuesaresymmetrical.
SelectthetabentryForce.Itgivesyoutheforceappliedtotheinnerobject.
Notethattheforceisessentiallyzerosincethemodelismagnetically
balanced.
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancepermeterforaninfinitelongcoaxial
wireisgivenbythefollowingformula:
C=2
0
/ ln(b/a) (aandbbeingtheinsideandoutsidediameters)
Theanalyticalvaluewouldistherefore1.089e-10F/m (a=0.6mm,b=1mm)
Inourproject,thenlengthoftheconductoris25mm,thereforethetotal
capacitanceis. 2.723pF. Weobtainagoodagreementwiththeobtained
result. 2.722pF.
Note:intheConvergencetab,youhaveaccesstothetotalenergyofthe
system.Wefind5.4459e-6 J.Itisexactly2000timesthecapacitance
(2000Vbeingthedifferenceofpotential).
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-6
Maxwell 2D v12
CapacitanceofaCylindricalCapacitorinXY
ThesameproblemisnowsolvedusinganXYrepresentation
DrawtheModel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CartesianXY
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter0.6mm;
ChangethenametoInner
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
Createanothercircle.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter1.2mm;
ChangethenametoOuter
Changethematerialtocopper
Changethecolorandtransparencylevelatyourconvenience.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle orclickontheicon
Forthecenterposition,enter0;0;0mm
Fortheradius,enter1.mm;
ChangethenametoAir
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-7
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
Basedontheassumptionsthattheconductorsareinelectrostaticequilibrium,we
assignvoltagepotentialontheobjectitself.Inotherwords,wedonotsolve
insideconductors,weassumethatalltheconductorpartsareat thesame
potential.
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectInner
SelecttheobjectInner
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.Asan
alternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanrightclickandselect
AssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter-1kV
ApplyvoltageexcitationtoobjectOuter
SelecttheobjectOuter
selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1kV
AssignExecutiveParameter
Inadditiontothefields,weareinterestedbytheCapacitancevalue.
CapacitanceMatrix
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputationbychecking
theradiobuttons.SetVoltage1 asasignallineandVoltage2 asground.
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter0.5%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-8
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthecontextmenu,
selecttheentrySolutions
SelectthetabentryMatrix
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancepermeterforaninfinitelongcoaxial
wireisgivenbythefollowingformula:
C=2
0
/ ln(b/a) (aandbbeingtheinsideandoutsidediameters)
Theanalyticalvaluewouldistherefore1.089e-10F/m (a=0.6mm,b=1mm)
Thismatchestheobtainedvalue.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-9
Maxwell 2D v12
Capacitanceofaplanarcapacitor
Inthisexampleweillustratehowtosimulateasimpleplanarcapacitormadeof
twoparallelplates.Thebottomplateismodeledandthetopplateisconsidered
byusingonlytheedgeofthedielectric(air).
Drawthemodel
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
Namethedesign Plate
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell>SolutionType
SelectGeometryMode:CartesianXY
SelecttheradiobuttonElectrostatic
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle tocreateaplate
Forthefirstpositioncorner,enter0;0mm
FortheXsize,enter25mm
FortheYsize,enter2mm
Forthematerialproperty,enterpec (perfectconductor)
NamethefirstboxDownPlate
SelectthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle tocreateaplate
Forthefirstpositioncorner,enter0;0mm
FortheXsize,enter25mm
FortheYsize,enter3mm
NametheboxRegion
Forthematerialproperty,enterair
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-10
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExcitation
SelecttheobjectDownPlate,selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations>
Assign>Voltage.Asanalternative,oncetheobjectisselected,youcanright
clickandselectAssignExcitations>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter0V
SelecttheupperedgeoftheRegion,selectthemenuitemMaxwell>Excitations
>Assign>Voltage.
Forthevoltage,enter1V
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-11
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignExecutiveParameter
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
IncludeVoltage1 andVoltage2 inthecapacitancecomputation
WegroundVoltage2.Wewillobtainjusta1by1matrix.
CreateAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
ForthePercentError,enter1%
FortheRefinementperPass (Convergencetab),put50%
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze.Theproblemisreallyeasy,thereforethesolutionis
obtainedalmostimmediately.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.1
BasicExercises ElectrostaticSolver
9.1-12
Maxwell 2D v12
Getthecapacitancevalue
FromtheProjectwindow,rightclickonSetup1.Fromthepulldownmenu,
selectSolutions,thentheMatrix tab
Theanalyticalvalueofthecapacitancefortwoparallelplatesisgivenby:
C=A/d*
0
(Aistheareaoftheplateanddisthethicknessofthedi
electrics)
Ifweconsidertheplatetobe25mmby25mm,usingtheaboveformula,
weobtain5.53pF (thedielectricis1mmthick).
Weobtain221.35pF.Thisvalueshouldbeconsideredasthecapacitance
ofthetwoparallelplateswitha1meterdepth.Ifwerescalethisvalueby
multiplyingby0.25mmwefind5.53pF aswell.
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-1 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
ForcecalculationinMagnetostatic Solver
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtosetupaforcecalculationinthe2D
Magnetostatic Solver.
ProblemDescription
Asshowninthefollowingpicture,acoilandslugaredrawninaplaneusingRZ
symmetry.Thecoilscarryacurrentthatexertaverticalforce onthe
ferromagneticslug.
2DSymmetricCoiland
Slugaboutz-axis
Actual3DCoilandSlug
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-2 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaNewProject
OpenupMaxwellV12
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic
ChangethegeometrymodetoCylindricalaboutZ
DrawtheSlug
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,-10,Enter (defaultunitsareinmm)
DX,DY,DZ:5,0,15,Enter
ChangeitsnamefromRectangle1 toSlug
SelecttheSlug andchangeitsmaterialtoSteel1008
Changeitscolorifdesired
DrawtheCoil
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:6,0,0,Enter
DX,DY,DZ:4,0,20,Enter
Changeitsnameto:Coil
Changeitsmaterialto:Copper
Changeitscolorifdesired
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-3 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
AddaRegion
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
SelectPadallDirections andtype100inPaddingPercentage
YoushouldseeamessageindicatingthattheXdirectionissettozerodue
toRZ-symmetryabouttheZ-axis.
SelectRegion andclickonthemenuitemView>HideSelection>Allviews.
Saveyourproject
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
Magnetostatic_Force.mxwl forBasicExerciseMagnetostatic Force
calculation
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign
>Current:
Name:Current1
Value:1000
Ref.Direction:Negative(sopositivecurrentwillbeinthenegativeY
direction)
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-4 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignBoundarytoRegionEdges
Fromtheobjecttree,selectRegion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>AllObjectEdges
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Balloon
AssignForceCalculation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>
Force
Name:Force1
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-5 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
MaximumNumberofPasses:15
RefinementperPass:30
ClickonOK
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
ViewtheAutomaticAdaptiveMeshConvergence
RightclickontheprojecttreeitemAnalysis>Setup1 andselect
Convergence.
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-6 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewCalculatedForceResult
ClickontheForcetabintheopenSolutions window.
Thecalculatedforceisupdatedautomaticallyaftereachpass.
9.3
BasicExercise Magnetostatic ForceCalculation
9.3-7 AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMagnitudeofMagneticFluxDensity
SelecttheobjecttreeitemGlobal:XZplaneunderPlanes
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >B>Mag_B
ClickOKontheCreateFieldPlot window.
ThisConcludestheMagnetostatic ForceCalculationBasic
Exercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
2DParametricstudyusingacoilandironslug.
AnRZMagnetostatic problemwillbeusedtodemonstratethesetupofa
parametricsolutionusingOptimetrics inMaxwell2D.Thecoilcurrentand
thedimensionallengthofanironslugwillbevariedandtheforceonthe
slugwillbeobserved.
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType>
Magnetostatic, andselectCylindricalaboutZ,
fromthepulldownmenu.
SettheUnitsandtheSnapMode.
ClickonthemenuitemModeler>Units..., andselectmm.
ClickonModeler>Snapmode
VerifythatSnapTo:Grid and Vertexareset.
2DGeometry:IronSluginsideacoil.
Drawthecoil:ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle,andarbitrarily
chooseastartingpointandoppositecornerforwhatwillbethe coil.
DoubleclickonCreateRectangle
underRectangle1intheHistory
Tree,andeditthePosition,Xsize
andZsize asshown,andclickOK.
2DFluxLinesandFluxDensity 3DGeometry:CoilandIronSlug
CoilOR=1.25mm
CoilIR=1mm
CoilHeight=0.8mm
Slugwidth=1mm
Slugdepth=1mm
SlugHeight=1mm
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheSlug:ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle,andarbitrarilychoose
astartingpointandoppositecornerforwhatwillbetheslug.
DoubleclickonCreateRectangleunderRectangle2 intheHistoryTree,
andeditthePosition,XsizeandZsizeasshown.
EnterthetextSlugHeight fortheValueofZsize.AfterselectingOK,theAdd
Variableboxappears.AssigntheValueforSlugHeightas1mm,andclickOK.
Note: Bydefiningavariablename(SlugHeight)itbecomesadesignvariable.
Similarly,ifanobjectismoved,itsmovedistancecanbeassignedavariable.
TheDesignVariablesareaccessibleinthePropertywindowbyclickingonthe
DesignnameintheProjectManager.
Ortheycanbeviewedbyclicking:Maxwell2D>DesignProperties...
Note: TheparameterforXsizeisdefinedusingthepredefinedconstant,pi,andan
equationthatcalculatestheequivalent2Dcross-sectionofa1mm
2
slugwhich
wasusedinthe3DExercise.Otherpredefinedconstantscanbefoundby
selectingfromthemenu,Project>ProjectVariables,andselectingConstants tab.
AssignMaterialsandNames
SelecttheRectangle1objectintheDesignTreeanddoubleclick itto
edititsproperties.
Name:Coil
Material:Select copperfrom
thematerialdatabase.
Color:Changethecolor
toOrange,andclickOK.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
Similarly,selecttheRectangle2objectintheDesignTreeanddoubleclickitto
edititsproperties.
Name:Slug
Material:Select steel_1008
fromthematerialdatabase.
Color:Changethecolor
toBlue,andclick OK.
CreatetheRegion
Selectfromthemenu,Draw>Region.
SelectthePadIndividualDirections
radiobuttonandassignpaddingpercentages
asshownbelowandClickOK.
SincethismodelissymmetricabouttheZ-axis,
theX=0boundaryisthelineofsymmetry.
AssigntheBoundaryCondition
Viewthefullgeometrybyselectingfromthemenu,View>FitAll>ActiveView,
orsimplytypetheshortcutCtrl+D.
ChoosetheEdgeselectionmodebyselectingfrom
themenu,Edit>Select>Edges ,orrightclickin
thedrawingspaceandclickSelect Edges.
WhileholdingdowntheCtrlkey,selectthetop,
bottom,andrightedgesoftheRegion.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>Balloon...
ChangebacktotheObjectselectionmodeby
selectingfromthemenu,Edit>Select>Objects.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheExcitation
SelecttheCoil fromtheHistoryTree.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>
Excitations>Assign>Current...
LeaveNameasCurrent1 andsetValue:AmpTurns andclickOK.
DefineAmpTurns as100 intheAddVariablewindow,andclickOK.
AssigntheForceCalculation
IncludeaforcecalculationbyselectingtheSlug fromtheHistoryTree.
SelectfromtheMenu,Maxwell2D>
Parameters>Assign>Force...
ChangethenametoSlugForce,inthe
ForceSetupwindow.
AddanAnalysisSetup
RightClickonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup.
ClickOK toacceptthedefaultsfornow.
AddtheForceasanOutputVariable.
Selectfromthemenu,Maxwell2D>
Results>OutputVariables...
SelectSlugForce.Force_z inthe
Quantity:windowandclickon
InsertIntoExpression.
InsertaminussignintheExpression
textboxinfrontofSlugforce.Force_z,
thiswillresultinapositiveforce.
EnterSlugForce astheNameand
selectAdd.
ClickDone.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
ModifySetupandsolveanominalproblem
Intheprojecttree,doubleclickonSetup1 undertheAnalysis folder.
ChangethedefaultMaximumNumberofPasses to15.
ChangethedefaultPercentErrorto0.5.
IntheConvergencetab,selectSlugForce tobedisplayedinthe
Convergence,asshownbelow.ClickOK.
FindtheValidateiconinthetoolbar.
(Itlookslikeagreencheckmark).
Thiswillchecktheproblemsetup.
Solvetheproblembyrightclickingon
Setup1 intheProjectmanager.
ClickonAnalyze.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
InspectResults
CheckthesolutionbyagainrightclickingonSetup1 andselectConvergence...
Plotfluxresults:
SelecttheCoil,Slug,andRegionobjectsbyusingctrl+A.
Fromthemenu,selectMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields>B>Mag_B,
clickDone intheCreateFieldPlotwindow.
Similarly,selectMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields>A>FluxLines,
clickDone intheCreateFieldPlotwindow.
IntheprojecttreeunderFieldOverlays,rightclickonMag_B1andcheckPlot
Visibility.DothesameforFlux_Lines1sothatbothplotsarevisible.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaParametricsolution
ClickontheMenuitemMaxwell2D>OptimetricsAnalysis>AddParametric...
ClickAdd...intheAdd/EditSweepwindowtodefinetheparameterstobeswept
intheanalysis.
SelectSlugHeightfromtheVariablepull-downmenu,andassign
Start=1mm,Stop=2mm,andStep=0.2,andclicktheAdd>> button.
Similarly,selectAmpTurnsfromtheVariablepull-downmenu,andassign
Start=100,Stop=200,andStep=50,andclicktheAdd>> button.
ClickOK.
ClickontheTable tabtoinspectthecombinationofsolutionsthathavebeen
created.Thereshouldbe18solutionssincewedefined6variationsofSlugHeight
and3variationsofAmpTurns.
Next,selecttheCalculationstabtodefinewhichoutputswillbecalculatedforeach
parametricsolution.
Then,clickontheSetupCalculations...Buttoninthelowerleftcornerofthe
Calculationstab.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
TheAdd/EditCalculation windowshouldappear:
Select:Category:OutputVariables.
Quantity:SlugForce (apreviouslydefinedOutputVariable).
ClickAddCalculation.
ClickDone.
IntheOptionsTab,clickbothboxesforSaveFieldsAndMesh,
andCopyGeometricallyEquivalentMeshes.
SolvetheParametricproblem
IntheProjectManagerwindow,underOptimetrics,rightclickon
ParametricSetup1,andselect Analyze.
Note: thesolvingcriteriaistakenfromthe
nominalproblem,Setup1 .Eachparametric
solutionwillre-meshifthegeometryhas
changedortheenergyerrorcriteriaisnot
metasdefinedinSetup1.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
Viewthesolutionprogress:
IntheProjectManagerwindow,rightclickonParametricSetup1,
andselect ViewAnalysisResult...
ClicktheTablebuttontoviewalltheresultsintablatureform.
Thefullparametricsolutionshouldtakeabout1minutedependingonthe
speedofthemachine.
GraphtheForcevs.AmpTurnsvs.SlugHeight
RightClickonResultsintheProjectManager,
andselectCreateMagnetostaticReport>RectangularPlot.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
IntheNewReport NewTraceswindow,SelecttheTrace tab:
Select: Category:OutputVariables.
Quantity: SlugForce(apreviouslydefinedOutputVariable).
X:SlugHeight,andY:SlugForce.
SelecttheFamilies tab:
EnsurethatthatAmpTurnsisselectedastheSweepsvariable.
ClickonNewReport,ClickonClose.
Theplotwillappearasshownonnextpage,themarkerscanbeaddedby
doubleclickingonthetraceandcheckingtheShowSymbolcheckbox.
Rightclickintheplotandselect ExportData... toexportthedatatoafile.
Theaxiscanbeeditedbydoubleclickingonthexoryaxis.
Thetitlecanbechangedby
editingthenameintheProjectTree.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
A3DsurfacecanbecreatedbyrightclickingonResultsintheProjectTreeand
selectingCreateMagnetostaticReport>3DRectangularPlot.
Editthe3DCartesianPlotwindowasshownbelow.ClickNewReport,Close.
Thisistheendofthe
2DParametrics
BasicExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.4
BasicExercises ParametricSolver
9.4- 12
Maxwell 2D v12
Animatethefluxplot:
SincetheSlugHeight andAmpTurns wereparametricallyvaried,thefluxplotcan
beanimatedwithrespecttoeitherofthesevariables.
IntheProjectManagerwindow,rightclickontheFlux_lines plotandselect
Animate
IntheSetupAnimation window,choose:
SweptVariable:SlugHeight
Selectvalues:(selectallvaluesinthelist)
ChooseOKtocreatetheanimatedplot.
Afterviewingtheplot,choose:Export tosaveasa.gifmoviefile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-1
Inductorusingtransientsource
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtousetransientsourcesasthe
excitationforaninductorcoil.
DrawtheInductor
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
GeometryMode:CylindricalAboutZ
Magnetic:Transient
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
StartPosition:0,0,0
XSize:2mm
ZSize:20mm
Changeitsnameto:Core
Changeitsmaterialto:ferrite
Changeitscolortogreen
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemEdit>Copy
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Paste,thenewobjectsnameis
Core1
IntheobjecttreeclickonCore1 andthenclickonCreateRectangle
IntheProperties windowchangethefollowing:
Position:0,0,1mm
XSize:5mm,ZSize:18mm
ClickonthenameCore1andchangeitsproperties
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
SelectCoil andCore andthenclickon2DModeler>Boolean>
Subtract:
BlankPart:Coil
ToolPart:Core
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:; checked
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-2
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:500
Changethenameofthedesignto:
BE_TransforBasicExerciseTransient
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>
Assign>Coil:
Name:Coil
NumberofConductors:150
Polarity:Positive (intothescreen)
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>AddWinding
Name:Winding_A
Type:Voltage
Stranded:; Checked
InitialCurrent:0.0amps
Resistance:25ohm
Inductance:0H
Voltage:0V(Note:Thiswillbechangedonthenextpage)
Numberofparallelbranches:1
SelectWinding_A fromtheprojecttreeunderExcitation andrightmouse
clickandselectAddCoils
IntheAddTerminalswindow,select:Coilandclick Ok.
Theprojecttreeshouldlooklikethis:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-3
CreatetheExcitation
Theexcitationforthisproblemwillbeavoltagesourcewitha1KHztriangular
wavesuperimposedona50Hzsinewavethathasa50voltDCoffset.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>DesignDatasetsandthenAdd anew
dataset
Name:DSet_A
Coordinates:
X1=0 Y1=0
X2=250e-6 Y2=1
X3=750e-6 Y3=-1
X4=1e-3 Y4=0
ClickOk andDone.
SelectWinding_A fromtheProjectTreeandrightmouseclickandselect
Propertiesandtypeinthefollowing:
ChangeVoltage:0V thatwasspecifiedonthepreviouspageto:
Voltage:V_DC+Vp*sin(2*PI*50*Time)+5*pwl_periodic (DSet_A,Time)
ClickonOK andinthedialogwindowenter50 forV_DC,clickonOK
Inthenextdialogwindowenter25 forVp,clickonOK
ThefirsttermistheDCoffsetandthe2
nd
ispeakvoltageofthesinewave
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-4
AssignBalloonBoundary
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edges
Selectoneoftheedgesofthebackgroundregion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Select EdgeChain
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Name:Balloon1
ApplyMeshOperations
Thetransientsolverdoesnotusetheautomaticadaptivemeshing process,soa
manualmeshneedstobecreated.
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:250
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coil_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:100
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
GeneralTab
StopTime:20ms
TimeStep:100us
SaveFieldsTab
Type:LinearCount
Start:0sec
Stop:20msec
Count:11
Clickon:AddtoList
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-5
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
SavetheDesign
ClickonFile>Save tosavethedesignandresults
PlottheVoltageandCurrent
ClickonMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >Rectangularplot:
SelectCategory:Winding
SelectQuantity:InputVoltage(Winding_A)
Clickon:New Report
SelectQuantity:Current(Winding_A)
Clickon:Add Trace
Clickon:Close
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.5
BasicExercise 2DTransient
9.5-6
PlottheFluxLines
Besurethatthe2DModelerwindowisintheactiveviewwindow.
SelectthemenuitemView>SetSolutionContext
Time:0.01sec
SelectalloftheobjectsbyclickingonEdit>SelectAll
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines
ClickonDone
Doubleclickontheplotlgend:
ColorMapTab >NumberofDivisions:56
PlotsTab>IsoValType:Line
Zoomintoseetheplotbelow.
ThisconcludestheBasicExampleforTransientSources
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-1
Inductorusingtransientsource
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtousetransientsourcesasthe
excitationforaninductorcoil.
DrawtheInductor
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
GeometryMode:CylindricalAboutZ
Magnetic:Transient
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
StartPosition:0,0,0
XSize:2mm
ZSize:20mm
Changeitsnameto:Core
Changeitsmaterialto:ferrite
Changeitscolorifdesired
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemEdit>Copy
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Paste,thenewobjectsnameis
Core1
IntheobjecttreeclickonCore1 andthenclickonCreateRectangle
IntheProperties windowchangethefollowing:
StartPosition:0,0,1mm
XSize:5mm,ZSize:18mm
ClickonthenameCore1andchangeitsproperties
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
SelectCoil andCore andthenclickon2DModeler>Boolean>
Subtract:
BlankPart:Coil
ToolPart:Core
Cloneobjectsbeforesubtracting:; checked
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-2
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
PaddingData:AllPaddingDirections
PaddingPercentage:500
Changethenameofthedesignto:
BE_Trans_Ckt forBasicExerciseTransient
AssignExcitation
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>
Assign>Coil:
Name:Coil
NumberofConductors:150
Polarity:Positive (intothescreen)
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>AddWinding
Name:Winding_A
Type:External
Stranded:; Checked
InitialCurrent:0.0amps
Numberofparallelbranches:1
SelectWinding_A fromtheprojecttreeunderExcitation andrightmouse
clickandselectAddCoils
IntheAddTerminalswindow,select:Coilandclick Ok.
Theprojecttreeshouldlooklikethis:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-3
CreateanExternalCircuit
ToaccessMaxwellCircuitEditor,rightmouseclickonExcitations andselect
ExternalCircuit>EditExternalCircuit
SelectEditCircuit fromtheEditExternalCircuit dialog
MaximizetheAnsoftMaxwellCircuitEditorwindowonthescreen.
ClickonFile>New tocreateanewschematic
SelecttheComponents tabandchooseMaxwellCircuitElements>Dedicated
Elements>Winding anddragthiscomponentontothesheet
SelecttheWinding ontheschematic.
Inthepropertieswindowchangethefollowing:
Name:Winding_A
Note:Thisnamehastobeexactly thesamenameasusedinthe
WindingdefinitiondescribedpreviouslyinMaxwell>Excitations>
AddWinding
SelectSources >VSin dragthiscomponentontothesheet,hitESC toend
insertion:
Va:100volts
VFreq:50Hz
SelectSource> VSin dragthiscomponentontothesheet:
Va:10volts
VFreq:1000Hz
SelectPassiveElements> Res anddragthiscomponentontothesheet:
R:25ohms
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-4
ConnectalloftheelementstogetherusingDraw>Wire andaddaground
usingDraw>Ground.
SelectProbes>Voltmeter andplaceitbetweenthetwovoltagesourcesand
ground.
Thecircuitshouldlooklikethis:
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
BE_Circuit.amcp forBasicExerciseCircuit(Notedirectorywherefileis
saved.)
ClickonMaxwellCircuit>ExportNetlist:
FileName:BE_Circuit.sph (Notedirectorywherefileissaved.)
LinkthecircuitfiletotheMaxwellproject
IntheMaxwellBE_Trans_Ckt.mxwlprojectclickonImportCircuit from
theEditExternalCircuit dialogandselectBE_Circuit.sph
TheEditExternalCircuitPanelshouldappearasbelowwithacheckin
theHasInductorinCircuit box.
Toverifythelocationoftheimported.sph file,clickonCircuitPath tab.
Note:Samenameused:
Winding_A
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-5
AssignBalloonBoundary
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edges
Selectoneoftheedgesofthebackgroundregion
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Select EdgeChain
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Name:Balloon1
ApplyMeshOperations
Thetransientsolverdoesnotusetheautomaticadaptivemeshing process,soa
manualmeshneedstobecreated.
SelecttheCore andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Core_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:250
SelecttheCoil andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>MeshOperations>
Assign>InsideSelection>LengthBased.
Name:Coil_Inside
RestrictLengthOfElements:Uncheck
RestrictNumberofElements:; Check
MaximumNumberofElements:100
CreateAnalysisSetup
ClickonMaxwell>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
GeneralTab
StopTime:20ms
TimeStep:100us
SaveFieldsTab
Type:LinearCount
Start:0sec
Stop:20msec
Count:11
Clickon:AddtoList
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-6
SolvetheProblem
SelectSetup1 fromunderAnalysis intheprojecttree,rightmouseclickand
selectAnalyze
SavetheDesign
ClickonFile>Save tosavethedesignandresults
PlottheVoltageandCurrent
ClickonMaxwell2D>Results>CreateTransientReport >Rectangularplot:
SelectCategory:NodeVoltage
SelectQuantity:NodeVoltage(IVoltmeter)
Clickon:New Report
SelectCategory:Winding
SelectQuantity:Current(Winding_A)
Clickon:Add Trace
Clickon:Close
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.6
BasicExercise 2DTransientwithCircuits
9.6-7
PlottheFluxLines
Besurethatthe2DModelerwindowisintheactiveviewwindow.
SelectthemenuitemView>SetSolutionContext
Time:0.01sec
SelectalloftheobjectsbyclickingonEdit>SelectAll
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines
ClickonDone
Doubleclickontheplotlegend:
Color Map Tab> Number of Divisions:56
Plots Tab>IsoValType:Line
Zoomintoseetheplotbelow.
ThisconcludestheBasicExampleforTransientwith
Circuits
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-1
Maxwell 2D v12
PuckMagnetAttractor
Thisexampledescribeshowtocreateandoptimizeapuckmagnet
producinganoptimalforceonasteelplateusingthe2DRZMagnetostatic
solverandOptimetrics intheAnsoftMaxwell2DDesignEnvironment.
Theoptimizationobtainsthedesiredforce=0.25Nbyvaryingtheairgap
betweentheplateandthepuckusingalocalvariable.
Magnet
SteelPlate
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-2
Maxwell 2D v12
CreateaNewProject
OpenupMaxwellV12
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType
ChangethegeometrymodetoCylindricalaboutZ
Solvershouldbe:Magnetic:Magnetostatic
Verifythatmm areunitsunder Modeler>Units
DrawthePlate
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,0,Enter (defaultunitsareinmm)
dX,dY,dZ:5,0,1,Enter
ChangeitsnamefromRectangle1 toPlate
SelectthePlate andchangeitsmaterialtoSteel1008
Changeitscolorifdesired
DrawtheMagnet
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Rectangle
X,Y,Z:0,0,2Enter
dX,dY,dZ:2,0,2Enter
Changeitsnameto:Magnet
Changeitsmaterialto:NdFe30
ChangeitscolortoRed
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-3
Maxwell 2D v12
Createtherelativecoordinatesystemforthepuckmagnetization:
ThedefaultmagnetizationdirectionforNdFe30isintheX-direction.Since
magnetizationintheZ-directionisdesiredforthisexample,afacecoordinatewill
becreated:
Changetofaceselectmodeusing:Edit>Select>Faces
Clickonthemagnetandthenchoose:themenuitemModeler>
CoordinateSystem>Create>FaceCS
Clickonthelowerleftcornerofthemagnetandtheupperleftcornerofthe
magnettocreatethefacecoordinatesystem.
Changebacktoobjectselectmodeusing:Edit>Select>Objects
AssigntherelativecoordinatesystemtothePuckobject:
Toassigntherelativecoordinatesystem:
IntheHistoryTree,selecttheobjectMagnet.
n theattributeswindow,changetheattributeOrientation toFaceCS1.To
changethevalue,clickonthevalueGlobal andselectthenewcoordinate
systemfromthepull-downlist.
Inthehistorytree,changebacktotheGlobalcoordinatesystem byclicking
onGlobalunderCoordinateSystems
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-4
Maxwell 2D v12
Setupthemagnetmotion
Tocreatethevariableallowingthemagnettomoveparametrically:
1. SelectthemagnetandthenEdit>Arrange>Move
2. Clicktwiceonthelowerleftcornerofthemagnet
3. ClicktheOKbutton
4. Thepropertieswindowappearsautomatically.Undercommandtabsetthe
MoveVector valueto0,0,move.PressEnter.
5. TheAddVariablewindowappearsautomatically.Setthevalueofthe
variablemoveto0mm.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-5
Maxwell 2D v12
AddaRegion
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Region:
SelectPadallDirections andtype300inPaddingPercentage
Resettheviewbychoosing:View>FitAll>AllViews
YoushouldseeamessageindicatingthattheXdirectionissettozerodue
toRZ-symmetryabouttheZ-axis.
Saveyourproject
ClickonFile>SaveAs:
Ex_09_08.mxwl forBasicExerciseOptimizationcalculation
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-6
Maxwell 2D v12
AssignBoundarytoRegionEdges
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Faces
WiththeCTRL keydepressedclickonthetop,right,andbottomedges.
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>Objects
AssignForceCalculation
SelectthePlate andclickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>
Force
Name:Force1
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-7
Maxwell 2D v12
AddanAnalysisSetup
RightClickonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup.
SetMaximumNumberofPasses:15
PercentError:0.1%
ClickOK.
AddtheForceasanOutputVariable.
Selectfromthemenu,Maxwell2D>Results>OutputVariables...
SelectForce1.Force_z intheQuantity:windowandclickon
InsertIntoExpression.
EnterFz astheNameandselectAdd.
ClickDone.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-8
Maxwell 2D v12
ModifySetupandsolveanominalproblem
Intheprojecttree,doubleclickonSetup1 undertheAnalysis folder.
OntheConvergencetab,checkUseOutputVariableConvergenceandthe
OutputVariable:Fz willbedisplayedintheConvergence,asshownbelow.
SetMaxDeltaPerPass:0.1%
ClickOK.
FindtheValidateiconinthetoolbar.
(Itlookslikeagreencheckmark).
Thiswillchecktheproblemsetup.
Solvetheproblembyrightclickingon
Setup1 intheProjectmanager.
ClickonAnalyze.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-9
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheAutomaticAdaptiveMeshConvergence
RightclickontheprojecttreeitemAnalysis>Setup1 andselect
Convergence.
ViewCalculatedForceResult
ClickontheForcetabintheopenSolutions window.
Thecalculatedforceisupdatedautomaticallyaftereachpass.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-10
Maxwell 2D v12
Optimetrics SetupandSolution
Itispossibletooptimizepositioninordertoobtainthespecifiedforce.Forthis
optimization,thepositionwillbevariedtoobtainadesiredforceof0.25N.
SpecifytheOptimizationVariables
Beforestartingtheoptimizationsetup,theappropriatevariablesmustbeincluded
intheoptimization.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>DesignProperties,clickonthe
Optimizationradialbuttoninordertospecifythatmove beusedinan
optimizationsolution.
ChecktheInclude box.
SettheMin=0mm,andMax=1mm.
SelectOKtoexit.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-11
Maxwell 2D v12
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Optimetrics Analysis>AddOptimization...
IntheSetupOptimizationwindow,changetheoptimizerto:SequentialNonlinear
Programming
ReducetheMaxNoofIterations:10sothesolutionwillnotdotomanyiterations.
ClickSetupCalculations... andthenOutputVariables
IntheOutputVariableswindow,enterthefollowing:
1. Name: target
2. Expression: 0.25
3. ClickonAddtocreatethisoutputvariableforthetargetinductance.
4. Name: cost1
5. Expression: (target- Force_z)^2
6. ClickonAddtocreatethisoutputvariableforthecostfunction.
7. ClickonDone toleavetheOutputVariablewindow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-12
Maxwell 2D v12
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
IntheAdd/EditCalculation notethatbothtarget andcost1 arenowlisted.
Highlightcost1 andclickAddCalculation.
ClickDone toleavetheAdd/EditCalculation window
SetupanOptimizationAnalysis
IntheSetupOptimization window,changetheCondition:Minimze
ClickOK toleavetheSetupOptimization window.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-13
Maxwell 2D v12
SolvetheOptimizationAnalysis
Intheprojecttreewindow,highlightOptimizationSetup1.
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAlltosolve.Solutiontimeis
approximately5- 10minutes.
Optimetrics Results
YourOptimetrics Resultswillbesimilartothefollowingresults.
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>Optimetrics Analysis>Optimetrics Results
CheckLogScale todisplaytheplotbelow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-14
Maxwell 2D v12
Optimetrics Results
ChooseView:Table todisplaytheresultsbelow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-15
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatePlotofCostvs Force
Tocreateareport:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>CreateMagnetostatic Report
>RectangularPlot
2. LeavethedefaultsettingsandclickNewReport
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00
move [um]
200.00
250.00
300.00
350.00
400.00
450.00
500.00
550.00
F
o
r
c
e
1
.
F
o
r
c
e
_
z

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
]
Ansoft LLC Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 1
Curve Inf o
Force1.Force_z
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.8
Optimetrics Example PuckAttractor
9.8-16
Maxwell 2D v12
CreatePlotofCostvs move
Tocreateareport:
1. SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>CreateMagnetostatic Report
>RectangularPlot
2. ChooseQuantity:cost1 andclickNewReport
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00
move [um]
1.00E-006
1.00E-005
1.00E-004
1.00E-003
1.00E-002
1.00E-001
c
o
s
t
1
Ansoft LLC Maxwell2DDesign1
XY Plot 2
Curve Inf o
cost1
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-1
Maxwell 2D v12
ScriptingtheCreationofaModelObject
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtorecord,modifyandrunascriptfor
automatinggenerationofacircle.Thefollowingtaskswillbeperformed:
Recordascriptinwhichacircleiscreated.
Modifythescripttochangethecirclesradiusandheight.
Runthemodifiedscript.
CreatetheProject
ClickonthemenuitemFile>New
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>SaveAs
Savethefileasscripting_example.mxwl
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-2
Maxwell 2D v12
StartRecordingtheScript
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RecordScript. Bydefaultthescriptwillbe
recordedinVisualBasicformat.
Specifythenameofthefileasscript.
DrawtheCircle
Theradiusforourinitialcircleobjectwillbe1mm.
Clickonthemenuitem Draw>Circle
Usingthecoordinateentryfield,enterthecenterposition:
X:0.0,Y:0.0,Z:0.0,PresstheEnter key
Usingthecoordinateentryfield,entertheradius:
dX:1.0,dY:0.0,dZ:0.0,PresstheEnter key
StopRecordingtheScript
ClickonthemenuitemTools>StopScriptRecording.
Thefileisnowsavedonthedisk.
DeletetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>ByName.SelectCircle1 andclickOK.
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Delete.
RuntheScripttoRecreatetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RunScript.
LocateandselectthescriptfileandclickOpen.
Ifsuccessful,theoriginalcircle,Circle1,shouldbeback.
Wecannowexplorethecontentsofthescriptfile.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-3
Maxwell 2D v12
OpentheScriptforEditing
Locatethefileontheharddiskandopenwithnotepad.
ScriptFileContents
Definitionofenvironmentvariables.Dim isthegenericvisualbasicvariabletype.
' ----------------------------------------------
' Script Recorded by Maxwell Version 12.0
' 11:38 AM Aug 09, 2007
' ----------------------------------------------
Dim oAnsoftApp
Dim oDesktop
Dim oProject
Dim oDesign
Dim oEditor
Dim oModule
ReferencedefinedenvironmentvariablesusingSet.
Set oAnsoftApp = CreateObject("AnsoftMaxwell.MaxwellScriptInterface")
Set oDesktop = oAnsoftApp.GetAppDesktop()
oDesktop.RestoreWindow
Set oProject = oDesktop.SetActiveProject("scripting_example")
Set oDesign = oProject.SetActiveDesign("Maxwell2DDesign1")
Set oEditor = oDesign.SetActiveEditor("3D Modeler")
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-4
Maxwell 2D v12
Createthecircle.
Alloftheparametersneededtocreatethecirclearedefinedin thislineof
code.HerewewillmodifytheRadius ofthecirclebychangingthe
appropriatetext.
oEditor.CreateCircle Array("NAME:CircleParameters",
"CoordinateSystemID:=", -1, "IsCovered:=", true,
"XCenter:=", "0mm", "YCenter:=", "0mm", "ZCenter:=", "0mm",
"Radius:=", "1mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"), Array("NAME:Attributes", "Name:=",
"Circle1", "Flags:=", "", "Color:=", "(132 132 193)", "Transparency:=", 0,
"PartCoordinateSystem:=", "Global", "MaterialName:=", "vacuum",
"SolveInside:=", true)
ModifyScript
LocatethelinecontainingtheRadius andchangethenumericalvaluesto5mm:
>> "Radius:=", "1mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"),
>> "Radius:=", 5mm", "WhichAxis:=", "Z"),
SavethefileandreturntoMaxwell.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-5
Maxwell 2D v12
DeletetheCircle
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Select>ByName.SelectCircle1 andclickOK.
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>Delete.
RuntheScripttoCreatetheModifiedCircle
ClickonthemenuitemTools>RunScript.
LocateandselectthescriptfileandclickOpen.
Ifsuccessful,themodifiedcylinder,Circle1,shouldappear.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.10
BasicExercise- Scripting
9.10-6
Maxwell 2D v12
GeneralizethescripttoruninanyProjectandDesign
Torunthescriptinordertocreateyourcircleinadifferentproject.Changethe
followinglinesinthescript.
Set oProject = oDesktop.SetActiveProject("scripting_example")
Set oDesign = oProject.SetActiveDesign("MaxwellDesign1")
Set oProject = oDesktop.GetActiveProject()
Set oDesign = oProject.GetActiveDesign()
ThisCompletestheScriptingExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 1
Maxwell 2D v12
IntroductiontotheEddyCurrentSolver
ThisexampleintroducestheEddyCurrentsolverbasedonasimple
examplewithadiskaboveacoil.Thissolvercalculatesthemagneticfields
ataspecifiedsinusoidalfrequency.Bothlinearandnonlinear(forsaturation
effects)magneticmaterialscanbeused.Also,eddy,skinandproximity
effectsareconsidered.
2DGeometry:IronDiskaboveaSpiralCoil
Asinusoidal500Hzcurrentwillbeassignedtoaneightturnspiralcoil
underneathofacastirondisk.Thecoilinduceseddycurrentsandlossesin
plate.The2Dmodelwillbesetupasshownbelowusingthe2DRZ
axisymmetric solver.
SetuptheDesign
ClickonthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwellDesign
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>SolutionType...
SetGeometryMode:CylindricalaboutZ
SelecttheradiobuttonMagnetic:EddyCurrent
SpecifytheDrawingUnits
ClickonModeler>Units>Selectunits:cm
ChecktheSnapMode
ClickonModeler>Snapmode
VerifythatSnapTo:Grid and Vertexareset.
Cast iron
disk
Spiral coil
Actual 3D model Simulated 2D model
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 2
Maxwell 2D v12
DrawtheSolutionRegion
ClickonDraw>Rectangle(Enterthefollowingpointsusingthetabkey).
X:0,Y:0,Z:-100
dX:120,dY:0,dZ:200
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Region
Transparency: 0.9
SelectView>Fitall >ActiveView toresizethedrawingwindow.
Selectwireframeviewbyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame.
DrawtheSpiralCoil
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:17,Y:0,Z:-1
dX:2,dY:0,dZ:2
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Coil
Material:Copper
Color:Yellow
ClickonEdit>Duplicate>AlongLine
Inputthefirstpointoftheduplicatevector:X:0,Y:0,Z:0
Inputthesecondpointoftheduplicatevector:dX:3.1,dY:0,dZ:0
SetTotalNumber:8
Donotcheck AttachToOriginalObjectandchoose OK.
DrawthePlate
ClickonDraw>Rectangle
X:0,Y:0,Z:1.5
dX:41,dY:0,dZ:1
Changeitsproperties:
Name:Plate
Material:CastIron
Color:Red
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 3
Maxwell 2D v12
AssigntheSource
Acurrentof125Awillbeassignedtoeachcoil.Thiswillresultinatotalof1000
A-turnsbeingassignedtothecompletewinding.
SelectCoil,Coil_1,...Coil_7 fromthehistorytree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Current
Name:Current
Value:125A
Type: Solid
Note:ChoosingSolidspecifiesthattheeddyeffectsinthecoilwillbe
considered.Ontheotherhand,ifStranded hadbeenchosen,onlytheDC
resistancewouldhavebeencalculatedandnoACeffectsinthecoilwouldhave
beenconsidered.Stranded isappropriatewhentheskindepthismuchlarger
thanthestrandedconductorthickness,forexamplewhenusingLitz wire.Note
thattheinducededdyeffectsintheplatewillbecalculatedin eithercase.
AssigntheOuterBoundary
Theboundarymustbesetonthesolutionregion.
ChooseEdit>Select>Edges tochangetheselectionmodefromobjectto
edge.
WhileholdingdowntheCTRL key,choosethethreeouteredgesoftheregion.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>Balloon
Whendone,chooseEdit>Select>Objecttoobjectselectionmode.
AssigntheParameters
Inthisexample,thecompete[8x8]impedancematrixwillbecalculated.Thisis
donebysettingaparameter.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Parameters>Assign>Matrix
Checkeachoftheeightsources:Current_1,Current_2,...Current_8
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 4
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputetheSkinDepth
Skindepthisameasureofhowcurrentdensityconcentratesatthesurfaceofa
conductorcarryinganalternatingcurrent.Itisafunctionofthepermeability,
conductivityandfrequency
Skindepthinmetersisdefinedasfollows:
where:
istheangularfrequency,whichisequalto2f.(fisthesourcefrequencywhichinthis
caseis500Hz).
istheconductorsconductivity;forcastironits1.5e6S/m

r
istheconductorsrelativepermeability;forcastironits60

isthepermeabilityoffreespace,whichisequalto410
-7
A/m.
Forcastirontheplatetheskindepthisapproximately0.24cm.
Afterthreeskindepths,theinducedcurrentwillbecomealmostnegligible.The
automaticadaptivemeshinginMaxwell2Ddoesanexcellentjobofrefiningthe
meshintheskindepth,sothatmeshoperationsarenotneeded.
AddanAnalysisSetup
ClickRightonAnalysis intheModelTreeandselectAddSolutionSetup
OntheGeneral tab,re-settheMaximumNumberofPassesto 15
OntheSolver tab,re-settheAdaptiveFrequencyto500Hz
SolvetheProblem
SavetheprojectbyclickingonmenuitemFile>SaveAs
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>ValidationCheck toverifyproblemsetup
YouwillgetawarningaboutBoundariesandExcitations.Toclearthiswarning,
simplyreturntotheeddyeffectscreenbychoosing:Maxwell2D>Excitations>
SetEddyEffects>OK.Thistellsthesolverthatyouhavecheckedtheeddy
setupandthatyouhavecorrectlysettheeddyeffectontheappropriateobjects.
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll

r o
2
=
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 5
Maxwell 2D v12
ViewtheConvergence
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Results>SolutionData
ClickontheConvergence tabtoviewtheadaptiverefinement.
Notethetotallossisapproximately284W.
ClickontheMatrixtabtodisplaythe8x8impedancematrix.Bydefault,the
resultsaredisplayedas[R,Z]butcanbealsoshownas[R,L]orascoupling
coefficients.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 6
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheMesh
SelectallobjectsandclickonMaxwell2D>Fields>PlotMesh
Whendone,hidetheplotbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>Fields
Reporter andunchecking theMesh1 plot.
ComputeTotalPowerLossinthePlate
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Plate>OK
Integral>RZ
Eval ...Evaluate
Note:TheevaluatedlossinthePlate shouldbeabout260W.
ClickDone
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 7
Maxwell 2D v12
ComputeTotalPowerLossintheCoils
SelectalleightcoilsinthehistorytreeandthenModeler>List>Create>
ObjectList .Objectlist1 appearsunderList intheHistoryTree.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Calculator andthenperformthefollowing:
Quantity>OhmicLoss
Geometry>Volume>Objectlist1>OK
Integral>RZ (Note:RZisavolumeintegral,XYisasurfaceintegral)
Eval ...Evaluate
TheevaluatedlossintheCoils shouldbeabout24W
Click Done.
Note:Thetotalpowerlossfortheplateandthecoils=260+24=284Wwhich
matchesthelossresultintheconvergencetable.
PlotFluxLines
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines>Done
Notethatthefluxlinesareattractedtotheplatesinceitismagnetic.Also,
skineffectsarepresentintheplatesincethereareeddycurrentsflowingin
it.Thiscanbeseenbestifyouzoomintotheplate
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 8
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotCurrentDensityScalarinthePlate
HidetheRegion byselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility andunchecking
Region.
ResizetheviewbyselectingView>FitAll>All Views
Veritythattheviewiswireframebyselecting:View>Render>WireFrame
Selecttheplate.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JAtPhase >Done
PlotCurrentDensityScalarintheCoils
SelectObjectlist1toselectalleightcoilsinthewinding.
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>JAtPhase >Done
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 9
Maxwell 2D v12
PlotOhmic LossDistribution
HidepreviousplotsbyselectingView>ActiveViewVisibility>FieldsReporter and
unchecking theprevious plots.
Selectallobjects
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >Other>Ohmic_Loss
Orrightmouseclickafterobject Plateisselected, then Fields>Other>Ohmic_Loss
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,changetoalogscalebydoubleleftclickingonthelegendand
changetoLog ontheScaletab.
AnimateCurrentDensityVector
RotatetheviewbyholdingdownALTandthen leftmousedrag.
SelectthePlate
ClickonMaxwell2D>Fields>Fields >J>J_Vector
Aftertheplotisdisplayed,doubleleftclickingonthelegendselectthePlots tab.
Chooseplot:J_Vector1 andchangetheVectorplotspacingto:Min =0.5andMax =0.5.
IntheProjectWindow,rightclickonJ_Vector1andclickAnimate>OK.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 10
Maxwell 2D v12
CopytheDesignandSolveagainatDC
InordertoshowthedifferencebetweentheACcaseandtheDCcase,
copythedesignandre-runitat0.001Hz(whichisessentiallyDC).
Intheprojectwindow,selectMaxwellDesign1 andchooseEdit>Copy
ClickonthegreenprojectfolderandchooseEdit>Paste.
MaxwellDesign2shouldappear.
UnderMaxwellDesign2,chooseAnalysis>Setup>Solver andchange
theadaptivefrequency=0.001 Hz.
ClickonMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
PlotCurrentDensityScalar
Intheprojectwindow,justclickon JAtPhase1todisplaythecurrentdensityplot.Note
thatthereisnosignificantcurrentinducedintheplateat0.001Hz.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.12
BasicExercises EddyCurrentSolver
9.12- 11
Maxwell 2D v12
PlottheFluxLines
Intheprojectwindow,justclickon Flux_Lines1todisplaythefluxlinesplot.Notethat
thefluxlinespenetrateinandthroughtheplate.WhilesaturationisconsideredatDC,
noACskineffectsorshieldingoccurs.
ThisistheendoftheEddyCurrentBasicExercise.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-1
Maxwell2Dv12
LargeMotion itsQuickImplementationUsingtheMaxwell
2DTransientSolver
MaxwellTransientisabletoconsiderinteractions betweentransient
electromagneticfields andmechanicalmotion ofobjects.
MaxwellTransient (with motion)includes dB/dt arising from
mechanically moving magnetic fields inspace,i.e.moving objects.
Thus,effects coming from so-called motion induced currents can be
considered.
InMaxwellrotational motion can occur around one single motion axis.
Thispaper represents aquickstarttousing rotational motion.It will
exercise rotational motion inMaxwell2Dusing arotational actuator
(experimentalmotor)example.
Subsequent papers willdemonstrate rotational motion inmore depth,
non-cylindrical rotational motion using arelays example,aswellas
translational motion which asolenoid application willserve asan
example for.
The goal ofthese papers is solely toshow andpractice working with
largemotion inMaxwell.It is neither the goal tosimulate real-world
applications,nor tomatch accurately measured results,nor willthese
papers show indetailhow tosetup andwork with other Maxwell
functionality.Please refer tothe corresponding topics.
Quickstart Rotational MotionUsing aRotational Actuator
Example
MaxwellTransient with largemotion is aset ofadvanced topics.Users
should have thorough knowledge onMaxwellfundamentals aswellas
MaxwellTransient (without motion)prior toapproaching largemotion.If
necessary,please consult the propertraining papers,help files,
manuals,andapplication notes.
We willexercise the following inthis document:
Create anew or read inanexisting rotational actuator model to
serve asanexperimentaltestbench for largemotion
Prepare andadapt this existing actuator model toour needs
Apply largemotion tothe rotational actuator
Create the band object
Setuprotational motion
Mesh
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-2
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform basic largemotion tests
LargeRotational Standstill test
LargeRotational Constant Speed test
LargeRotational Transient Motion test
Compute magnetic rigidity andmechanical natural
frequency
Estimate timestep for transient solver
Make afield animation with largemotion
Openthe Rotational Actuator Model
Locate the project
Ex_09_13_BasicTransient_MotionRotational_M2dTrs120.mxwl.Openit,
activate the design 00_Template andstartworking from there.You can
copy/paste 00_Template into your own working project.The other designs
show the fully setup models we willbe working on.
The model should look like this:
Fig.1: Rotational actuator example
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-3
Maxwell2Dv12
SetupandVerify the Electromagnetic Part
Priortoemploying largemotion,the electromagnetic part ofthe model
should work correctly.Usersare welladvised nottosetup acomplex
model completely atonce andthen try tosimulate,but rather work in
steps.Especially incases eddy current effects,external circuits,and
largemotion are included,the correctness ofthe setup for each
individual property should be verified.Afterthat,allproperties can be
considered together.
Forthis quickstart,please study the winding setup andbackground.
We use stranded windings with constant current (togenerate afixed
stator flux vector around which Rotor1willoscillate later).Also,eddy
effects willbe excluded.
Verify the symmetry multiplier being set to1.Intheprojecttree: RMB
click onModel>SetSymmetry Multiplier (the full geometry is
simulated).
Verify the model depth being set to25.4mm.Intheprojecttree: RMB
click on:Model> SetModelDepth (taken from the original3Dproject).
Perform atestsimulation onthe electromagnetic part alone.If desired,
playwith various excitations,switch eddy effects inStator1andRotor1
onandoff,vary materialproperties,etc.Foreach testcheckthe
electromagnetic fields for correctness.
Refer tothe corresponding topics onmaterials,boundaries,excitations,
meshing,transient simulations without motion,andpostprocessing.
If the electromagnetic part without motion effects yielded correct results,
make sure tore-apply the same model setup aselaborated atthe
previous page (00_Template).
Rotational LargeMotion The MaxwellApproach
Maxwellseparatesmoving from non-moving objects.
Allmoving objects must be enclosed
by one so-called band object.
Forrotational motion,the band object
must be cylindrical with segmented
outer surface,i.e.aregular polyhedron.
Maxwellconsiders allmoving objects
(inside the band)toformone single
moving object group.
Fig.2: Bandobject separating rotor from stator
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-4
Maxwell2Dv12
Constant Speed mode:
If the model is setup tooperate inconstant speed mode(see below),
Maxwellwillnotcompute mechanical transients.
However,changing magnetic fields owing tospeed
m
,i.e.dB/dt
effects are included inthe field solution.
Mechanical Transient mode:
Incase inertia wasspecified,Maxwellwillcompute the motion
equation ineach timestep.
SeeAppendixAfor avariableexplanation.
Apply LargeMotiontothe Rotational Actuator Create the
Band Object andMesh
First,lets examine the moving parts tocomply with Maxwells conventions:
Allmoving objects can be separated from the stationary objects and
can be combined toone single rotating group.Allmoving objects be
considered toperform the same cylindrical motion.
Create the band object:
We want aregular polyhedron that encloses allmoving objects.
Outer surface segmentation should be between 1 and5,i.e.we will
have between 360and72outer surface segments.
The band object should preferably cut through the middle ofthe airgap,
leaving about the same space toRotor1andStator1.However,this is
notamust.
Hide allobjects except Rotor1andStator1.
Determine the required radius:
Modeler >Measure >Position
Inthe geometry,click first onthe origin,then move sothat the
mouse pointer snaps toone outer corner pointofRotor1.Read
the Distance value from the Measura Data window (51.05mm).
Then move over sothat the pointer snaps toone innercorner
pointofStator1.Read the Distance value (53.75mm).
SeeFig.3 next page.
Thus,band should have aradius of52.4mm.Here,52.5mm
wasused.
J
m
d
2

m
(t)/dt
2
+k
D
(t) d
m
(t) /dt =T

(t) +T
m
(t)
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-5
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.3: Rotor1radius measurement
Drawthe band:
Draw>Regular Polygon,have X=0,Y=0,Z=0for the Center
position.When asked for the Radius,enter 52.5into the dX(or
dY)field,leaving dZ anddY (or dX)zero.Setthe number of
segments to72.
Rename the thus created object toBand1,apply atransparency
of0.9,andmaybe use some nicer color.
The created Band1object should look like Fig.4.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-6
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.4: Bandobject Band1
We have now created Band1that encloses allrotating objects
(onlyRotor1inthisexample).
72 outer segments means anew segment every 5.Formore
accurate simulations we should apply more segments.
Setuprotational motion:
Inthehistorytree,right mouse click onthe Band1object andchoose:
Assign Band...
This automatically separatesmoving from stationary objects.
Under MotionType,checkRotational for the MotionType,leave
Non-Cylindricalunchecked,andselect Global:Z Positive for
the RotationAxis.
Onthe Datatab, apply zero for the initial position.Thus,motion
willstartatt =0with the rotor position being asdrawn.Applying

m0
0would startwith Rotor1rotated by
m0
from the drawn
position.Leave Rotate Limitunchecked (allowingtherotorto
spincontinuously) andleave Non-Cylindrical unchecked.
Under Mechanical,uncheck Consider Mechanical Transient and
apply anAngular Velocityofzero.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-7
Maxwell2Dv12
Now,we have setup largerotational standstill.Positivemagnetic
torque is generated around the positivez-axis (globalcoordinate
system,Fig.5). Inthe project tree >active design >Model,two new
entries have been created MotionSetup1 andMoving1. Clicking on
Moving1 inspect the motion setup.
Applying the same constant current asbefore,we can expect the
same constant magnetic torque (provided agoodmesh).
Fig.5: Motionsetup
Mesh
Meshing is avery critical issue with respect tosimulation speed and
accuracy.Forhere,we willapply arather coarse mesh only,by which
the solver willjustyield satisfactory results.
Band1:
Fortorque computation,the most critical areas are the airgap
andits immediateproximity.Thus,the band mesh is crucial for
accurate results.
We willapply alength based mesh onthe surface andinside of
Band1.We willrestrict the number ofelements to5000.This
willdofor these tests.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-8
Maxwell2Dv12
Right mouse click onBand1>Assign Mesh Operation>Inside
Selection >Length Based.
Rename this mesh entry toBand_Length,
Restrict Length ofElements unchecked,
Restrict Number ofElements checked,set to5000,OK.
Forallother objects we willalsojustrestrict the number ofelements
for simplicity reasons only.The mesh willbe assigned one by one.For
each,
rightclick the object >Assign Mesh Operation>Inside
Selection >Length Based.
Restrict Length ofElements unchecked,
Restrict Number ofElements checked.
Following,first the object names are listed,secondthe
maximum number ofelements toapply,andthird the name
given tothe resulting mesh entry:
Rotor1 1000 Rotor_Length
Stator1 1000 Stator_Length
CoilA andCoilB 100 Coils_Length (simultaneously
selecting CoilA,CoilA_Neg,CoilB,andCoilB_Neg willtry
toassign 100triangles tothegroup, i.e.about 25
triangleineachcoilwillresult)
Background1 1000 Background_Length.
Once done assigning,you should see project tree entries like Fig.5.
Assign asolution setup:
Inthe project tree,rightmouse click Analysis>Add Solution
Setup...
ClickOK toacceptthedefaultvaluesfornow.
We need this setup justtoallow meshing andcheckthe mesh,
we willcare about its values later.
Inthe project tree rightmouse click Analysis>Setup1>Apply Mesh
Operations.Watch the progress bar(usually bottom right).Watch the
message window (usually bottom left)for amessage that says that the
Simulationhasbeen successfully completed.Now,meshing is done.
SelectView>SetSolutionContext leavingTime=-1(thesimulation
hasnotyetstarted)andthenclickonOK.
Select allobjects except for Background1.Maxwell>Fields>Plot
Mesh.Your mesh plot should look similar toFig.6.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-9
Maxwell2Dv12
Fig.7: Resulting mesh Fig.6: Mesh entries
Perform BasicLargeMotionTests
Thesebasic tests serve model verification.They can be executed rather
quickly.Should they fail inwhatever respect,there is nouse going further
andworking with more complex models (like mechanical transients,external
circuits,eddy currents,etc.).
Simulate the LargeRotational Standstill test:
Refer todesign 11_GeoFull_MagI_MchStandstill.
SetupSolution
Inthe project tree,double clickon:Setup1.
Set 20msfor the stoptime.Set5msfor the timestep.
Leave allother properties ofSetup1untouched.Exit by OK.
We have now told MaxwellTransient tosimulate five timesteps only
(icl.zero),because we are expecting aquasimagnetostatic result.
Rightmouse click Analysis>Setup1>Analyze willstartthe simulation
process.Its progress can be monitored inthe progress window.
Postprocess:
We willjustlook atthe forcefunction atthe moment.
Inthe project tree,rightmouse click Results >Create Transient
Report.>Rectangular Plot,select Category =Torque,and
Quantity =Moving.Torque,pressNewReport,andClose.
Your report should show constant forceofabout 400 mNm.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-10
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform the Large Rotational Constant Speed test:
Refer todesign 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow.
We willnow operate the rotational actuator atavery slow constant
speed.
Remember,there is only one magnetic excitation present inthe model
namely constant coil current with stranded windings.Alternatively,
Rotor1could have been assigned permanentmagnet properties.Eddy
effects are switched offfor allobjects.
We can now use Transient with LargeMotiontomonitor cogging
torque effects.
Setupmotion
Intheprojecttree,underModel rightmouseclickon
MotionSetup1andselect Properties.
Under Data,set InitialPositionto-61deg.
Under Mechanical,set Angular Velocityto1deg_per_sec.
Rotor1asdrawn hasa-29 offset.This is taken tobe the zero
position for the transient solver.By giving anextra-61,positive
rotationof1/sstarts at:-61-29= -90.
SetupSolution
Rightmouse click onAnalysis>Setup1>Properties.
SetStopTimeto180s.
SetTimeStepto5s
By rotating ataspeed of1/s180slong,Rotor1willmove
180,i.e.from -90 to+90,at5/step.
RightmouseclickAnalysis>Setup1>Analyze
During solving,you can already open the report Torque(t).The plot is
going tobuild upwith each timestep completed.SeeFig.7.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00
Time [s]
-500.00
-400.00
-300.00
-200.00
-100.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
T
o
r
q
u
e

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
M
e
t
e
r
]
Ansoft Corporation 12_GeoFull_MagI_MchSpeedslow
Torque(t)
Curve Info
Torque
Setup1 : Transient
Fig.8: Magnetic torque T

(t)
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-11
Maxwell2Dv12
Perform the LargeRotational Transient Motion test:
We willnow operate the actuator asaone-body oscillator.
Inertiawillbe specified aswellassome damping.
We can expect Rotor1tooscillate around the stator flux axis (y-axis)at
some natural frequency f
0
,which can be approximated as:
J
c
f

2
1
0
=
J inkgm
2
is the totalmoment ofinertia acting onRotor1.
c

inNm/radis the magnetic rigidity.Asananalogy it can be


understood asamechanical springspanned between Rotor1and
Stator1,whose forcecoming from the magnetic field.
We can roughly calculate rigidity c from the cogging torque function
(stable limb):
Nm/rad 3 . 2
) rad(10
mNm 400
=

=
m
T
c

Assuming inertia J=0.0024kgm


2
,anapproximated f
0
=5Hzresults.
This is sufficient for estimating the necessary timestep asfaras
mechanical oscillations are regarded.
Refer todesign 13_GeoFull_MagI_MchTransient.
MotionSetup(Model >MotionSetup >Properties):
Under Data,set InitialPosition=0.
Under Mechanical (see Fig.9), set
Consider Mechanical Transient =checked
InitialAngular Velocity=0,
MomentofInertia=0.0024kgm
2
,
Damping =0.015Nms/rad,andLoad Torque =0.
This causes 15mNm resistive torque at1rad/sspeed.
We thus expect oscillation between -29 and+29 (w.r.t.stator
flux axis)atf
0
<5Hzwith damped amplitudes.
Fig.9: Motionsetup
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-12
Maxwell2Dv12
SolutionSetup:
Under Analysis>Setup1>Proporties, set
StopTime=0.5s,TimeStep=0.01s
From f
0
,we can expect a>200mscycle.At10ms
timestep we willsample one cycle >20times.
Analyze this design.Openthe already generated report Torque(t).
This andthe two additionalreports for speed andposition should look
like Fig.9-11.
-400.00
-300.00
-200.00
-100.00
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
T
o
r
q
u
e

[
m
N
e
w
t
o
n
M
e
t
e
r
]
Curve Info
Torque
Setup1 : Transien
-80.00
-60.00
-40.00
-20.00
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
S
p
e
e
d

[
r
p
m
]
Curve Info
Moving1.Speed
Setup1 : Transient
0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 50
Time [ms]
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
M
o
v
i
n
g
1
.
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

[
d
e
g
]
Curve Info
Moving1.Position
Setup1 : Transient
Fig.10: Torque T

(t)
Fig.11:
Mechanical speed
m
(t)
Fig.12:
Mechanical position
m
(t)
0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.13
BasicExercise:Transient LargeMotion Rotational
9.13-13
Maxwell2Dv12
The transient reports have been created using:
Category: Speed,Quantity: Moving.Speed,and
Category: Position,Quantity: Moving.Position.
Fig.10-12onthe previous page:
T

looks asexpected from previous simulations.

m
corresponds toT

s first derivative andis correct.

m
oscillates around +29,which is the stator flux axis (y)with
respect tothe initial position.
AppendixA:VariableExplanation:

m
(t) Mechanical angular position inrad
(angles can alsobe given indegrees).

m0
Initial
m
inrad.Notethat the drawn
rotor position is considered as
m0
=0.
d
m
(t)/dt,
m
(t) Mechanical angular speed inrad/s.

m0
Initial
m
inrad/s.
d
2

m
(t)/dt
2
Mechanical angular acceleration in
rad/s
2
.
J
m
Momentofinertia inkgm
2
.This is the
totalinertia acting onthe moving object
group.If extrainertia needs tobe
included (i.e.inertia notgeometrically
modeled),justadd this toJ
m
.
k
D
(t) Damping koefficient inNms/rad.Fork
D
=1Nms/rad,resistive torque of1Nm
would be generated if the moving parts
turnat1rad/s.k
D
can be afunction oft,

m
,or
m
.
T

Magnetically generated torque inNm.


T
m
Mechanical extratorque inNm,this can
be aconstant or afunction oft,
m
,or

m
.Note,that apositiveT
m
value will
accelerate rather than brake.
t The current simulation timeins.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-1
AssigningBoundaryConditions
BoundaryConditions
Boundaryconditionsenableyoutocontrolthecharacteristicsof planes,
faces,orinterfacesbetweenobjects.Boundaryconditionsareimportantto
understandandarefundamentaltosolutionofMaxwellsequations.
PurposeoftheExercise
ThisexerciseintroducesvariousboundaryconditionsusedinMaxwell2D
basedonasimpleexamplewithcoilsandsteelcore.Theuserwilllearnhow
touseVectorPotential,Balloon,SymmetryandMatchingBoundary(Master
andSlave).
AnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironment
ThefollowingfeaturesoftheAnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironmentareusedto
createthemodelscoveredinthistopic
2DSheetModeling
UserDefinedPrimitives(UDPs):SRMCore
BooleanOperations:SeparateBodies
Boundaries/Excitations
Current: Stranded
Boundaries:VectorPotential,Balloon,Symmetry,Master/Slave,
Analysis
Magnetostatic
FieldOverlays:
HVector
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-2
Summaryofeightdesignstobesimulated
1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon
3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
4_Symmetry_Oddand6_NoSymmetry
5_Symmetry_Even
7_Matching_Positive
8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-3
GettingStarted
LaunchingMaxwell
ToaccessMaxwell,clicktheMicrosoftStart button,selectPrograms,andselect
AnsoftandthenMaxwell12.Ordoubleclicktheicononthedesktop.
SettingToolOptions
Tosetthetooloptions:
Note:Inordertofollowthestepsoutlinedinthisexample,verifythatthe
followingtooloptionsareset :
1. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>Maxwell2DOptions
2. MaxwellOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral Optionstab
UseWizardsfordataentrywhencreatingnewboundaries:;
Checked
Duplicateboundarieswithgeometry:; Checked
2. ClicktheOK button
3. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>ModelerOptions.
4. 3DModelerOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheOperation tab
Automaticallycoverclosedpolylines:; Checked
2. ClicktheDrawing tab
Editpropertyofnewprimitives:; Checked
3. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-4
OpeningaNewProject
Toopenanewproject:
1. InanMaxwellwindow,clickthe ontheStandardtoolbar,orselectthe
menuitemFile>New.
2. SelectthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign,orclickonthe
icon.
3. SavetheprojectwithnameEx_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions toyour
ownfolder.ChangethenameofthedesignfromMaxwell2DDesign1 to
1_VectorPotential.
SetSolutionType
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic,orright
mouseclickon1_VectorPotential andselectSolution Type.
TheGeometryModeshouldbe:Cartesian,XY
Creating2DModel
Theexamplethatwillbeusedtodemonstratehowtoassignboundaryconditions
doesnotrepresentanyreal-worldproduct.Theintentofthiswrite-upisratherto
demonstratehowboundaryconditionsareimplemented.
SetModelUnits
SelectthemenuitemModeler>Units>SelectUnits:mm(millimeters)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-5
CreateStatorandCoils:
AUserDefinedPrimitivewillbeusedtocreatetheStatorandCoils
Draw>UserDefinedPrimitive>Syslib >Rmxprt >SRMCore
UsethevaluesgiveninthepanelbelowtocreatetheStatorand Coils
Clickontheobjectjustcreatedinthedrawingwindowandinthepanelon
theleftchangeitsnamefromSRMCore1 toStator.
ChangetheMaterialfromvacuum tonickel.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-6
Thestatorandcoilswerecreatedasoneentityandtheyneedto be
separated.
1. ClickontheStator-Coilgroupsothattheyareselected
2. Selectthemenuitem Modeler>Boolean>SeparateBodies,the
resultwillbeasinglestatorandeightcoilcross-sections.
AswasdonewiththeStator,changethename,materials,andcolorfor
Coils.ThematerialpropertyfortheStatorwillbenickel,and thematerial
propertyfortheCoilswillbecopper.Thenameandcolorforeachobjectis
givenbelow.
Coil1
Coil4
Coil3
Coil2
Stator
Coil5
Coil6
Coil8
Coil7
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-7
AssignCurrentSourcetoCoils
SelectalleightcoilsbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandusingyourmouseor
selectingfromtreeonthelefthandsideoftheGUI
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Currentorrightclick
>AssignExcitations>Current
1. ChangetheBaseNametoCurrent
2. Changethevalueto100Amps
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-8
TheprojecttreenowshowseightseparateExcitations,eachofthem
ispointingoutoftheplane(alongZaxis):
ChangingdirectionsofExcitations
RightclickonExcitations>List,holddownCTRLkeyandselectCurrent_2,
Current_4,Current_6andCurrent_8,thenclickonProperties,changedirection
fromPositivetoNegative.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-9
CreatetheProblemRegion
OneofthemaindifferencesbetweenMaxwellV11andV12isthataBackground
Regionisnotautomaticallycreatedwhenaprojectisstarted.Aseparateobject
needstobespecificallycreated.
TocreatearectangularregionsimplyselectDraw>Region,orclicktheicon
fromstandardtoolbar.Thesizeofthisrectangularregionisbasedondimensions
oftheexistingobjects.ChangePaddingPercentageto20.
ClickView>FitAll>All Views,orCTRL+D.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-10
CreateanAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetupor right
clickontheAnalysisintheprojectwindow>AddSolutionSetup
SelectGeneral andverifythesettingasfollows
SelectConvergence andverifythesettingasfollows
SetupBoundaryConditions
SelectthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edgesor rightclickintheModeler>Select
Edges
SelectouteredgeoftheStator
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotential
Accpet thedefaultvalueandOK.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-11
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>Save
ChecktheValidityoftheModel
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>ValidationCheck,orclickontheicon
Theproblemwontsolveunlesseachitemhasacheckmark.
Analyze
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll,orclickontheicon
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-12
SolutionData
ToviewtheSolutionData,selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Results>SolutionData,orrightclickon Setup1under Analysis>
Convergence
HereyoucanviewtheProfile andtheConvergence.
Note:ThedefaultviewforconvergenceisTable.ClickonthePlot
radiobuttontoviewagraphicalrepresentationsoftheconvergence
data.
Note:Youdonthavetowaitforthesolutiontobedonetodothis.
Youcandothiswhilethesimulationisrunning,allinformation will
updateautomaticallyaftereachpassisdone.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-13
PlotMesh,H-FieldVectorandFluxLine
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>SelectAllVisibleorSelectAll,oruseCTRL+A ,
orselecteverythingfromthehistorytreewindow,thenrightmouseclickinthe
modelerandselectPlotMesh.
Dothesame,selectallobjects,thenrightmouseclickinthemodelerandselect
Fields>H>H_Vector,and Fields>A>FluxLines.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-14
ThefollowingH-fieldvectorplotwillappear,whichistheresultofthecurrent
excitationontheleftside.
Iftheplotisnotasniceasyoumaywanttosee,youcandoubleclickonthe
legendbar,thenchangevarioussettingsunderColormap/Scale/Marker/
Arrowor Plots tabs.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-15
CreateDesign2:2_Balloon
Clickondesign1_VectorPotential intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled1_VectorPotential1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto2_Balloon.
ClickonVectorPotential1under Boundariesinthe ProjectManager,andpress
Delete fromkeyboardtoremovetheboundarycondition.
RightclickinthemodelerandselectSelect Edges,tochangefromobject
selectionmodetoedgeselectionmode.
LeftmouseclickononeoftheedgesoftheRegion,thenrightmouseclickand
selectAllObjectEdges toselectalledgesoftheRegion.
Rightmouseclickagain,AssignBoundary>Balloon
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwiththepreviousdesignthathas
vectorpotentialboundary.
BalloononalledgesoftheRegion ZeroVectorPotentialontheouteredgeoftheStator
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-16
CreateDesign3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclick
andselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation.
ModifyCurrentExcitation
ClickonExcitations>Current_3 inthe
Project window,youwillseeaProperties
windowunderProject window,changefrom
Positive toNegative intheDirection row.Also,
ChangeCurrent_7fromPositive toNegative
ChangeCurrent_4 andCurrent_8from
Negative toPositive.
Thepurposeistochangethecurrent
excitationasshowninthegraphbelow.
Current_2
Current_1
Current_8
Current_7
Current_3
Current_4
Current_5
Current_6
Positive Current_8
Negative Current_7
Negative Current_6
Positive Current_5
Positive Current_4
Negative Current_3
Negative Current_2
Positive Current_1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-17
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwithDesign22_Balloon thathas
differentexcitations.
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-18
SymmetryBoundary
CreateDesign4:4_Symmetry_Odd
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,right
clickandselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeen
created,changethedesignnameto4_Symmetry_Odd.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Boolean>
Split,chooseXZplanetocreatehalfgeometry.
Inthehistorytree,doubleclickonCreateRegion underVacuum>
Region,changeYPaddingPercentageto0.
RemovetheBalloonboundary,reassigntheBalloonboundaryto
threeedges(notonthesymmetryedge).
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandclickontheedgeoftheRegion
alongXaxis,rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>
Symmetry,chooseOdd(FluxTangential).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-19
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Odd(FluxTangential)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-20
CreateDesign5:5_Symmetry_Even
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto5_Symmetry_Even.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryandchangeittoEven(FluxNormal).
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Even(FluxNormal)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-21
CreateDesign6:6_NoSymmetry
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto6_NoSymmetry.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryanddeleteit.
Runsimulationandviewresults.
TheresultshouldlookthesameasDesign4:4_Symmetry_Oddbecauseoddsymmetry
orfluxtangentialisthedefaultboundarycondition.
NoSymmetry:bydefaultanOdd(Flux
Tangentialboundaryisassigned)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-22
MatchingBoundaries(Master/Slave).
Slave=Master
Master
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Slave= Master
Master
Design7:7_Matching_Positive Design8:8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-23
MatchingBoundaries:Master/Slave
CreateDesign7:7_Matching_Positive
Clickondesign6_NoSymmetryintheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled6_NoSymmetry1 hasbeencreated,changethe
designnameto7_Matching_Positive.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Edit>Boolean>Split,
chooseYZ plane.
ChangeXPaddingPercentage oftheRegion tobe0.
RemovetheexistingBalloonboundaryandredefineitontwoedgesofthe
RegionthatarenotonXandYaxis.
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandselecttheedgeoftheRegion thatisalongX
axis.Rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>Master.Besurethat
themastervectorarrowispointinginthepositiveXdirection. IfnotuseSwap
Direction.
SelecttheedgeoftheRegionthatisalongYaxis.Rightmouseclickinthe
modeler>AssignBoundary>Slave.Besurethattheslavevectorarrowis
pointinginthepositiveYdirection.IfnotuseSwapDirection.
Choose Master1fromthepulldownmenu, and Relationas Bs=Bm.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-24
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-25
CreateDesign8:8_Matching_Negative
Clickondesign7_Matching_PostitiveintheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled7_Matching_Postitive1 hasbeencreated,
changethedesignnameto8_Matching_Negative.
ChangetheSlave boundaryRelation toBs=- Bm.
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=-Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-1
AssigningBoundaryConditions
BoundaryConditions
Boundaryconditionsenableyoutocontrolthecharacteristicsof planes,
faces,orinterfacesbetweenobjects.Boundaryconditionsareimportantto
understandandarefundamentaltosolutionofMaxwellsequations.
PurposeoftheExercise
ThisexerciseintroducesvariousboundaryconditionsusedinMaxwell2D
basedonasimpleexamplewithcoilsandsteelcore.Theuserwilllearnhow
touseVectorPotential,Balloon,SymmetryandMatchingBoundary(Master
andSlave).
AnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironment
ThefollowingfeaturesoftheAnsoftMaxwellDesignEnvironmentareusedto
createthemodelscoveredinthistopic
2DSheetModeling
UserDefinedPrimitives(UDPs):SRMCore
BooleanOperations:SeparateBodies
Boundaries/Excitations
Current: Stranded
Boundaries:VectorPotential,Balloon,Symmetry,Master/Slave,
Analysis
Magnetostatic
FieldOverlays:
HVector
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-2
Summaryofeightdesignstobesimulated
1_VectorPotential 2_Balloon
3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
4_Symmetry_Oddand6_NoSymmetry
5_Symmetry_Even
7_Matching_Positive
8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-3
GettingStarted
LaunchingMaxwell
ToaccessMaxwell,clicktheMicrosoftStart button,selectPrograms,andselect
AnsoftandthenMaxwell12.Ordoubleclicktheicononthedesktop.
SettingToolOptions
Tosetthetooloptions:
Note:Inordertofollowthestepsoutlinedinthisexample,verifythatthe
followingtooloptionsareset :
1. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>Maxwell2DOptions
2. MaxwellOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheGeneral Optionstab
UseWizardsfordataentrywhencreatingnewboundaries:;
Checked
Duplicateboundarieswithgeometry:; Checked
2. ClicktheOK button
3. SelectthemenuitemTools>Options>ModelerOptions.
4. 3DModelerOptionsWindow:
1. ClicktheOperation tab
Automaticallycoverclosedpolylines:; Checked
2. ClicktheDrawing tab
Editpropertyofnewprimitives:; Checked
3. ClicktheOK button
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-4
OpeningaNewProject
Toopenanewproject:
1. InanMaxwellwindow,clickthe ontheStandardtoolbar,orselectthe
menuitemFile>New.
2. SelectthemenuitemProject>InsertMaxwell2DDesign,orclickonthe
icon.
3. SavetheprojectwithnameEx_9_14_BasicBoundaryCondictions toyour
ownfolder.ChangethenameofthedesignfromMaxwell2DDesign1 to
1_VectorPotential.
SetSolutionType
Selectthemenuitem:Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetostatic,orright
mouseclickon1_VectorPotential andselectSolution Type.
TheGeometryModeshouldbe:Cartesian,XY
Creating2DModel
Theexamplethatwillbeusedtodemonstratehowtoassignboundaryconditions
doesnotrepresentanyreal-worldproduct.Theintentofthiswrite-upisratherto
demonstratehowboundaryconditionsareimplemented.
SetModelUnits
SelectthemenuitemModeler>Units>SelectUnits:mm(millimeters)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-5
CreateStatorandCoils:
AUserDefinedPrimitivewillbeusedtocreatetheStatorandCoils
Draw>UserDefinedPrimitive>Syslib >Rmxprt >SRMCore
UsethevaluesgiveninthepanelbelowtocreatetheStatorand Coils
Clickontheobjectjustcreatedinthedrawingwindowandinthepanelon
theleftchangeitsnamefromSRMCore1 toStator.
ChangetheMaterialfromvacuum tonickel.
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Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-6
Thestatorandcoilswerecreatedasoneentityandtheyneedto be
separated.
1. ClickontheStator-Coilgroupsothattheyareselected
2. Selectthemenuitem Modeler>Boolean>SeparateBodies,the
resultwillbeasinglestatorandeightcoilcross-sections.
AswasdonewiththeStator,changethename,materials,andcolorfor
Coils.ThematerialpropertyfortheStatorwillbenickel,and thematerial
propertyfortheCoilswillbecopper.Thenameandcolorforeachobjectis
givenbelow.
Coil1
Coil4
Coil3
Coil2
Stator
Coil5
Coil6
Coil8
Coil7
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-7
AssignCurrentSourcetoCoils
SelectalleightcoilsbyholdingdowntheCTRLkeyandusingyourmouseor
selectingfromtreeonthelefthandsideoftheGUI
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>Excitations>Assign>Currentorrightclick
>AssignExcitations>Current
1. ChangetheBaseNametoCurrent
2. Changethevalueto100Amps
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-8
TheprojecttreenowshowseightseparateExcitations,eachofthem
ispointingoutoftheplane(alongZaxis):
ChangingdirectionsofExcitations
RightclickonExcitations>List,holddownCTRLkeyandselectCurrent_2,
Current_4,Current_6andCurrent_8,thenclickonProperties,changedirection
fromPositivetoNegative.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-9
CreatetheProblemRegion
OneofthemaindifferencesbetweenMaxwellV11andV12isthataBackground
Regionisnotautomaticallycreatedwhenaprojectisstarted.Aseparateobject
needstobespecificallycreated.
TocreatearectangularregionsimplyselectDraw>Region,orclicktheicon
fromstandardtoolbar.Thesizeofthisrectangularregionisbasedondimensions
oftheexistingobjects.ChangePaddingPercentageto20.
ClickView>FitAll>All Views,orCTRL+D.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-10
CreateanAnalysisSetup
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetupor right
clickontheAnalysisintheprojectwindow>AddSolutionSetup
SelectGeneral andverifythesettingasfollows
SelectConvergence andverifythesettingasfollows
SetupBoundaryConditions
SelectthemenuitemEdit>Select>Edgesor rightclickintheModeler>Select
Edges
SelectouteredgeoftheStator
ClickonthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotential
Accpet thedefaultvalueandOK.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
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Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-11
SavetheProject
SelectthemenuitemFile>Save
ChecktheValidityoftheModel
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell>ValidationCheck,orclickontheicon
Theproblemwontsolveunlesseachitemhasacheckmark.
Analyze
SelectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>AnalyzeAll,orclickontheicon
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-12
SolutionData
ToviewtheSolutionData,selectthemenuitemMaxwell2D>
Results>SolutionData,orrightclickon Setup1under Analysis>
Convergence
HereyoucanviewtheProfile andtheConvergence.
Note:ThedefaultviewforconvergenceisTable.ClickonthePlot
radiobuttontoviewagraphicalrepresentationsoftheconvergence
data.
Note:Youdonthavetowaitforthesolutiontobedonetodothis.
Youcandothiswhilethesimulationisrunning,allinformation will
updateautomaticallyaftereachpassisdone.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-13
PlotMesh,H-FieldVectorandFluxLine
ClickonthemenuitemEdit>SelectAllVisibleorSelectAll,oruseCTRL+A ,
orselecteverythingfromthehistorytreewindow,thenrightmouseclickinthe
modelerandselectPlotMesh.
Dothesame,selectallobjects,thenrightmouseclickinthemodelerandselect
Fields>H>H_Vector,and Fields>A>FluxLines.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-14
ThefollowingH-fieldvectorplotwillappear,whichistheresultofthecurrent
excitationontheleftside.
Iftheplotisnotasniceasyoumaywanttosee,youcandoubleclickonthe
legendbar,thenchangevarioussettingsunderColormap/Scale/Marker/
Arrowor Plots tabs.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-15
CreateDesign2:2_Balloon
Clickondesign1_VectorPotential intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled1_VectorPotential1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto2_Balloon.
ClickonVectorPotential1under Boundariesinthe ProjectManager,andpress
Delete fromkeyboardtoremovetheboundarycondition.
RightclickinthemodelerandselectSelect Edges,tochangefromobject
selectionmodetoedgeselectionmode.
LeftmouseclickononeoftheedgesoftheRegion,thenrightmouseclickand
selectAllObjectEdges toselectalledgesoftheRegion.
Rightmouseclickagain,AssignBoundary>Balloon
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwiththepreviousdesignthathas
vectorpotentialboundary.
BalloononalledgesoftheRegion ZeroVectorPotentialontheouteredgeoftheStator
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-16
CreateDesign3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclick
andselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation.
ModifyCurrentExcitation
ClickonExcitations>Current_3 inthe
Project window,youwillseeaProperties
windowunderProject window,changefrom
Positive toNegative intheDirection row.Also,
ChangeCurrent_7fromPositive toNegative
ChangeCurrent_4 andCurrent_8from
Negative toPositive.
Thepurposeistochangethecurrent
excitationasshowninthegraphbelow.
Current_2
Current_1
Current_8
Current_7
Current_3
Current_4
Current_5
Current_6
Positive Current_8
Negative Current_7
Negative Current_6
Positive Current_5
Positive Current_4
Negative Current_3
Negative Current_2
Positive Current_1
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-17
RunthesimulationandcompareHFieldplotwithDesign22_Balloon thathas
differentexcitations.
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-18
SymmetryBoundary
CreateDesign4:4_Symmetry_Odd
Clickondesign2_Balloon intheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,right
clickandselectPaste,anewdesigncalled2_Balloon1 hasbeen
created,changethedesignnameto4_Symmetry_Odd.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Boolean>
Split,chooseXZplanetocreatehalfgeometry.
Inthehistorytree,doubleclickonCreateRegion underVacuum>
Region,changeYPaddingPercentageto0.
RemovetheBalloonboundary,reassigntheBalloonboundaryto
threeedges(notonthesymmetryedge).
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandclickontheedgeoftheRegion
alongXaxis,rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>
Symmetry,chooseOdd(FluxTangential).
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-19
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Odd(FluxTangential)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-20
CreateDesign5:5_Symmetry_Even
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto5_Symmetry_Even.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryandchangeittoEven(FluxNormal).
Runsimulationandviewresults.
Symmetry:Even(FluxNormal)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-21
CreateDesign6:6_NoSymmetry
Clickondesign4_Symmetry_Odd intheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled4_Symmetry_Odd1 hasbeencreated,change
thedesignnameto6_NoSymmetry.
SelecttheSymmetryboundaryanddeleteit.
Runsimulationandviewresults.
TheresultshouldlookthesameasDesign4:4_Symmetry_Oddbecauseoddsymmetry
orfluxtangentialisthedefaultboundarycondition.
NoSymmetry:bydefaultanOdd(Flux
Tangentialboundaryisassigned)
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-22
MatchingBoundaries(Master/Slave).
Slave=Master
Master
Design2:2_Balloon Design3:3_Balloon_ChangeExcitation
Slave= Master
Master
Design7:7_Matching_Positive Design8:8_Matching_Negative
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-23
MatchingBoundaries:Master/Slave
CreateDesign7:7_Matching_Positive
Clickondesign6_NoSymmetryintheProjectManager windowandthenright
mouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled6_NoSymmetry1 hasbeencreated,changethe
designnameto7_Matching_Positive.
Selectallobjectsandrightmouseclickinthemodeler>Edit>Boolean>Split,
chooseYZ plane.
ChangeXPaddingPercentage oftheRegion tobe0.
RemovetheexistingBalloonboundaryandredefineitontwoedgesofthe
RegionthatarenotonXandYaxis.
ChangetoEdgeselectionmodeandselecttheedgeoftheRegion thatisalongX
axis.Rightmouseclickinthemodeler>AssignBoundary>Master.Besurethat
themastervectorarrowispointinginthepositiveXdirection. IfnotuseSwap
Direction.
SelecttheedgeoftheRegionthatisalongYaxis.Rightmouseclickinthe
modeler>AssignBoundary>Slave.Besurethattheslavevectorarrowis
pointinginthepositiveYdirection.IfnotuseSwapDirection.
Choose Master1fromthepulldownmenu, and Relationas Bs=Bm.
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
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RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwellFieldSimulatorV12UsersGuide
9.14
Topic 2DBoundaryConditions
9.14-25
CreateDesign8:8_Matching_Negative
Clickondesign7_Matching_PostitiveintheProjectManager windowandthen
rightmouseclickandselectCopy.
ClickontheprojectnameEx_9_14_Basic_BoundaryConditions,rightclickand
selectPaste,anewdesigncalled7_Matching_Postitive1 hasbeencreated,
changethedesignnameto8_Matching_Negative.
ChangetheSlave boundaryRelation toBs=- Bm.
RunSimulationandviewresults.
Slave=-Master
Master
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-1
Maxwell 2D v12
PermanentMagnetsAssignment
Thisexercisewilldiscusshowtosetupapermanentmagnet(PM) materialtoanobject.This
procedureisapplicableforMagnetostatic andTransientSolvers.
StartworkingwithMaxwell
StartMaxwellV12
Ifanewprojectisnotopenclickon Project>New
Project>InsertMaxwell2DDesign
Maxwell2D>SolutionType>Magnetic:Magnetostatic;GeometryMode:Cartesian,XY
Problemdefinition
WeareinterestedtosolvethemagneticfieldofaCircularPMplacedinvacuum.Thematerialof
PMisNdFeB35andthemagnetismagnetizedinthedirection30degreesrelativetotheGlobalX
direction.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-2
Maxwell 2D v12
Orientation ofobjectsasoneoftheattributes
EachobjectinMaxwellisassociatedwithcertaincoordinatesystem.ThisiscalledOrientation
anditisspecifiedunderattributesforeachobject.Letuscreateanobject(circlewiththecenterin
[0,0,0]andradiusof1mm)andobserveitsOrientation.
ClickonthemenuitemDraw>Circle
X,Y,Z:0,0,0Enter
DX,DY,DZ:1,0,0Enter
Edit>Properties;SelectAttributeTab
ChangethenamefromCircle1 tomagnet
BeforeclickingOKseethatoneoftheattributesdisplayedisOrientation.TheOrientation ofthis
objectisGlobal.Thismeansthatourobjectmagnet iscurrentlyassociatedwiththeGlobal
coordinatesystem.GlobalCoordinatesystemexistsbydefaultin anewlyinsertedMaxwell
Design.Left-clickingonGlobalallowschangingtheOrientation toothercoordinatesystem,
provided,ofcourse,thatsomeothercoordinatesystemexists.ClickOK toclosethewindow.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-3
Maxwell 2D v12
Orientationcanalsobeviewedgraphically.First,makesurethatthisfeatureisenabled:
Tools>Options>ModelerOptionsselect DisplayTabandcheck Showorientationof
selectedobjects
Selecttheobjectmagnet (left-clickonmagnet fromthehistorytree).TheOrientation isshownas
smallarrowsstartingfromtheorigin.TheseshouldnotbeconfusedwiththeCoordinateSystem
axesarrowswhicharebiggeranddisplayxorynexttoarrows.Thevisibilityandsizeof
CoordinateSystemaxesarrowscanbecontrolledfrom:View>CoordinateSystem>Small
CreateanewCoordinateSystem(CS)withx-axisrotated30degreesrelativetox-axisofthe
GlobalCS:
Modeler>CoordinateSystem>Create>RelativeCS>Rotated
OntheStatusBar(bottomright) changetheCStypefromCartesian toCylindrical and
specify
R,Phi,Z: 1,30,0Enter
ThenewlycreatedCSautomaticallybecomesaworkingCS(smallw signisdisplayed
nexttotheiconofaWorkingCS).ExpandCoordinateSystemsformHistoryTreeandleft-
clickonGlobal tomakeitaWorkingCSagain:
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-4
Maxwell 2D v12
TheOrientationofmagnetcannowbechanged.Objectmagnetcannowbeassociatedwith
RelativeCS1coordinatesystem:
Select magnet
Edit>Properties
Change OrientationfromGlobalto RelativeCS1;OK
Selecttheobjectmagnet againandobservetheorientation:
Orientation:Global Orientation:RealtiveCS1
SpecifyingpropertiesofPermanentMagnets
Changethematerialofmagnet fromVacuum toNdFeB35:
Select magnet
Edit>Properties
ClickonVacuum toenterthematerialdatabase,findNdFeB35 andclickonView/Edit
Materials
APermanentMagnet(PM)withlinearcharacteristicisuniquelydefinedbyspecifyingtwo
ofthefollowing:CoerciveField,Remanent FluxDensity,RelativePermeability.Coercive
FieldandRelativePermeabilityarechosenbydefaulttobespecified.Ifanyother
combinationofquantitiesisknowinstead,selectCalculatePropertiesforPM (seenext
page)andspecifythetwoknownquantities.Theremainingquantitywillbedetermined
automatically.
Thedirectionofmagnetizationisspecifiedbyaunitvector (seenextpage)relativetothe
CoordinateSystemassociatedwiththegivenobject,thatisrelativetotheOrientationof
theobject.IftheOrientationoftheobjectisGlobal,theunitvectorwillbespecifiedrelative
totheGlobalCS.Maxwellalsoallowstospecifythetypeofthe CoordinateSystem(upper
rightcorner seenextpage).ThusCartesian,CylindricalandSphericalCStypecanbe
defined.ThismeansthatiftheOrientationoftheobjectisGlobal andCStypeCartesian,
theunitvectorwillbespecifiedasX,Y,andZ relativetotheCartesianGlobalCS.And,
e.g.,iftheOrientationoftheobjectisRelativeCS1 andCStypeisCylindrical,theunit
vectorwillbespecifiedasR,Phi andZ relativetotheCylindricalRelativeCS1CS.
Hence,therightdirectionofmagnetizationisspecifiedbytheappropriatecombinationof
objectsOrientation,CStypeandUnitVector.
ClickOK toapprovethematerialdefinitionandtoperformtheassignment.
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-5
Maxwell 2D v12
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-6
Maxwell 2D v12
ExamplesofPMdirectionofmagnetizationassignment
DirectionofMagnetizationintheGlobalXdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0,0
DirectionofMagnetizationinthedirection30degreesrelativetoGlobalXdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0.5,0
OR
Orientation:RelativeCS1;CSType:Cartesian;UnitVectorX,Y,Z:1,0,0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-7
Maxwell 2D v12
DirectionofMagnetizationintheoutwardradialdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cylindrical;UnitVectorR,Phi,Z:1,0,0
DirectionofMagnetizationintheinwardradialdirection
Orientation:Global;CSType:Cylindrical;UnitVectorR,Phi,Z:-1,0,0
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-8
Maxwell 2D v12
DefinitionoftheSolutionSpace- Region
Beforeproceedingtodefinethesolutionspacemakesurethatthedirectionofmagnetizationis
30degreesrelativetoGlobalXdirection,asrequiredbytheproblemdefinition(seepage9.15-1).
FEMrequiresthatafinitesolutionspaceisdefinedpriorsolvingtheproblem.Thissolutionspace
inMaxwelliscalledRegion.TheRegioncanbeveryconveniently definedusingthefollowing
command:
Draw>Region andspecifyPaddingPercentage500.PaddingPercentageof500%
createsarectanglewhichextends5timesthediameterofthecircleineachdirection.As
thediameterofthecircleis2mmand5times2mmis10mm,thecornersofthe
rectanglewillbe[-11,-11]and[11,11].
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-9
Maxwell 2D v12
DefinitionoftheBoundaryConditions
WeexpectthatRegionissolargethatthemagneticfieldwillnotextendbeyondRegions
boundary.Thissituationcorrespondstotheboundaryconditionspecifyingthemagneticvector
potential(A)zeroontheedgesofRegion:
SelectRegion andEdit>Select>AllObjectEdges
Maxwell2D>Boundaries>Assign>VectorPotentialandleavethevaluezero;OK
DefineAnalysisandsolvetheproblem
Maxwell2D>AnalysisSetup>AddSolutionSetup
Acceptalldefaultvalues; OK
Maxwell2D>AnalyzeAll
AnsoftMaxwell2DFieldSimulatorv12UsersGuide
9.15
BasicExercise PMAssignment
9.15-10
Maxwell 2D v12
Viewingtheresults
Wewillplotthemagneticfluxlinesthroughoutthesolutionspace
Magneticfluxlines:
SelectAllobjects(CTRLAorEdit>SelectAll)
Maxwell2D>Fields>Fields >A>FluxLines;Done
Double-clickontheLegend
SelectColorMapTabandspecify40 intheNumberofDivisionsfield;Apply;Close
Zoomin
Wecanseethatthefluxlinesarereallyoriented30degreesrelativetotheGlobalCoordinate
System.Thismeansthatthemagnetizationofthemagnetiscorrectlyassigned
Thiscompletestheexercise