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Negotiation is a dialogue The intention of the dialogue varies based on situations.

The intention may be one of this To resolve disputes To produce an agreement upon courses of action To bargain for individual or collective advantage, or To craft outcomes to satisfy various interests.

Negotiation is getting what you want from other person- no matter what. , most people don't know why they want what they want. Understanding the reasons behind your needs is crucial to your negotiation success. The problem with negotiations in China is that negotiating parties tend to hide what they want from each other, resulting in breakdowns in negotiations. The trick is to get people disclose their needs, directly or indirectly. It is a discussion between people, with the goal of reaching an agreement on issues It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. People perform and engage in negotiation, mediation, and dispute or conflict resolution practically every day of their lives, without realizing they are doing so or knowing the process. Business is negotiation. You will negotiate to buy, to sell, to conclude contracts with suppliers, to fix the staff salaries and so on. What is more, you have to negotiate with regulators, Banks, Insurances. It means that the business life is a permanent negotiation with others people who are defending their own interests. Skills needed: Knowing how to read body language and non-verbal cues are important skills during business negotiation. Professional marketers and professional negotiators all have one thing in common. They have the ability to see things from more than one point of view. That is a major skill when you consider what kinds of things they do in their daily lives and in their work. Effective negotiation: Effective negotiation is dependent on a number of key factors. One of the least discussed, yet most essential, is mutual trust and understanding. Without these, the probability of successful negotiations is significantly minimized. Personality differences can make a major difference to the way in which you negotiate. Often in psychology the personality types are defined in a different way. There are "aggressive" people, "passive" people etc. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behaviour and substance.

The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. Behaviour refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end.

Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from Negotiation hypnosis, straight forward presentation of demands or Setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Cherry picking is an aggressive negotiation tactic used to create a best or optimum proposal. salami tactics (to win concessions in small doses (slices) when the other party would probably reject them if they were put on the table all at once. It is often used on a party that is mainly concerned with damage limitation) Intimidation Tactics:

"How do you negotiate with an elephant? Very carefully. Intimidation can take many forms: physical appearance (mean, tall, big, unfriendly); environmental (fatigue and discomfort); use of outside experts or legal authorities; use of hostages (resources, issues, people); status (bring in the CEO, president, a senior manager); threats. Recognize these intimidation techniques for what they are -negotiating tactics. Respond accordingly. Don't simply reciprocate with intimidation of your own, negotiate. See Emotional Outbursts The 4 Phases of the Negotiation Process 1) Pre-negotiation Everything we do, if we are to perform the activity properly, requires a certain degree of preparation beforehand. No doubt, there are many occasions we admonished ourselves for not being prepared, when things didn't turn out as well as we thought they would. Preparation is tantamount to any successful activity or endeavour. Negotiation is no different. The first thing we need to determine is whether there is actually any reason to negotiate at all. Secondly we need to be clear on the specifics we want to negotiate about. We have to get 'our ducks in a row' before we even contact the person with whom we are to negotiate. We then need to establish some form of agenda before beginning our talks. We should identify the correct people who will be involved in the talks and their levels or responsibility and authority. Where possible we should attempt to obtain as much information about these people and

their company or organization. Intelligence gathering is crucial in obtaining a picture of the other side so we can assess their needs, motivations, and goals with respect to our own.

Next, we need to set up a venue where we are going to meet and have appropriate time to conduct the talks. It is a good idea to begin this process by establishing direct contact with your counterpart. We can begin by building some kind of rapport, and set out the agenda, through a variety of means such as phone calls, faxes, e-mails, and even an informal personal get together beforehand. 2) Conceptualization This phase is where we develop the foundation of the agreement by framing the issues, without becoming bogged down in the miniscule details. The building blocks need to be put together to understand the basic concept of the agreement we are seeking. It's like two separate parties coming together to consider the blueprint design, or structure of the agreement. We are attempting to formulate principles upon which we can both agree, such as who will provide financing or the licensing aspects for example. This is the phase where we define each other's goals and objectives through fact finding and by establishing some measure of compatibility. It's not unlike that awkward first date with the opposite sex. We begin to consider creative options and discuss concessions. We advance proposals and counter-proposals, back and forth, until some manner of tentative agreement is reached. The terms of the partnership are re-framed until they reach the level, where both parties are as satisfied as they can be, within the various parameters of what they bring to the table. This is how we arrive at the basic concept of our agreement. 3) Settling the Details Simply put, this phase sees the completion of the agreement. Here, we use our external specialists to complete the details of the venture, that we are about to mutually embark upon. This phase discusses the problems of implementing the partnership realistically, so that it is both viable and workable. We also hammer out the details as they relate to production, scheduling, handling delays, task responsibility and authority. We will use our own technical and management people to streamline the process so it works smoothly, and meets both our standards and requirements. The final portion of this process is then left to the wordsmiths, usually our respective legal experts, to put our agreement into written form documentation, and to describe the contractual obligations to which both parties have agreed. This is not the 'walk in the park' like it sounds. Settling the details correctly and meticulously is extremely important. Many negotiations have collapsed because the parties failed to devote the necessary time and work to address the details efficiently. Until these are properly ironed out, we can't celebrate our success. 4) Follow-up

Just because we've signed on the dotted line doesn't means that it ends there. We cannot toss the contract into our files and forget about it. It seldom ends there as problems always arise. Any aspect of any contract may need to be re-negotiated, or the details altered to counter a broad variety of changing circumstances. Expensive and embittered legal battles can be circumvented simply by keeping the lines of communication open with our counterparts. We should be experienced enough by now to understand, that nothing is ever as simple as it seems.

The major communication strategies are as follows: 1.Kinesthetic. The kinesthetic style of thinking and of speech will often talk about their feelings a lot. They might speak in a way that uses their body too. They might say things like: "I can feel good about this decision" or "This just doesn't feel right". Some other ways to tell if someone is using their feelings in the way they think and act is to watch their body. They will often express themselves from deep within using their hands. 2. Visual. The visual kind of person will often use fast language and speak about what they see. They'll say "Look here" and "Can you see this?". They'll often be looking around, and they'll be fast talkers and they'll act quickly. The visual person has every intention of being productive and this means they don't want you to waste their time. Show them the goods, and do it now! 3. Auditory. The auditory personality will like to hear all the details. They will communicate with words like "Let's hear what you've got to say" or "Listen to this!". It's likely that they will not even look at you while you're talking, but they'll turn their head so they can hear you better. They love to pay attention to the sounds around them so they are not always paying attention to their other senses. Make sure you use varied tone and keep them interested in what you're actually saying. Express each word by making it sound like the word you're using. Non-Verbal Cues and What They (Probably) Mean Crossed arms: A closed-off posture implies resistance. "People might just be cold, but the stereotype is that they aren't listening," explains Ronald Riggio, director of the Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont McKenna College. A brief touch to the hand: This captures your attention and forms a quick connection. But toward employees, make sure the action doesn't appear condescending. A nose rub: This motion is often linked with deception. If you notice people doing this while you talk, you could be coming across as disingenuous. A hand placed under the chin: When you see this, a decision is being made. Don't oversell if someone looks interested afterward, but if you spot negative signals, bring up your second-best idea--stat. Feet pointed toward the door: The feet are the most honest part of the body, so no matter how mesmerized people seem to be, this proves they're actually over it.

A back-of-the-neck scratch: Your client might have an itch, but it could mean he still has questions and concerns.