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Principles of Animal Physiology

Introduction

What is LIFE?
LIFE
Things organized to use energy and raw materials from their environment, maintain their integrity and reproduce.

Principles of Animal Physiology


Introduction

What is PHYSIOLOGY?
PHYSIOLOGY is FUNCTION!!! PHYSIOLOGY is an INTEGRATIVE science
Uses Anatomy, Physics, Chemistry . . .

SUBDISCIPLINES of Animal Physiology


Comparative; Environmental; Evolutionary; Development; Cell ...

Principles of Animal Physiology


Introduction
Why study Animal Physiology?
Curiosity - I just want to know. Applications - I want to profit from what I know. Insights - Now what do I do with what I know?

Human Physiology share: The same fundamental biological processes. A common set of laws of physics and chemistry. The same principles and mechanisms of genetics. A linked evolutionary history.

August Krogh principle:


For a large number of physiological problems, there will be some animal on which it can be most conveniently studied.

Principles of Animal Physiology


Introduction

A physician and medical researcher who understands physiology - both its potential contributions and limitations -is better equipped to make intelligent and perceptive decisions about the body.

Principles of Animal Physiology


Introduction Physiological processes arise through evolution
Natural selection - process by which traits that enhance a species survival are able to produce more surviving members than others not having those characteristics
Mechanistic (proximate) explanation
How does it work? Process by which events occur. Traditional core of the physiological sciences

Evolutionary explanation
How did it evolve to be the way it is?

Teleological approach
Why does it work? Purpose for the event/system. Sometimes assumes that features are always logically evolved

Principles of Animal Physiology


Introduction
The Hypotheticodeductive Method (Scientific Method) Science is a way of thinking. Science is a logical way to investigate the universe.
Observation
And ask questions

Experimentation Hypothesis
testable and falsifiable

Control Data
Analysis

Principles of Animal Physiology


Use of Animals in Research

Animal Rights vs Animal Welfare


Animal Welfare - have changed drastically over the years Physiologists accept certain moral responsibilities
Animals are used only for worthwhile experiments All necessary steps are taken to minimize pain and distress All possible alternatives to the use of animals are considered

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Animals rights - Animals have the same legal and moral rights as humans do

Principles of Animal Physiology


Levels of Organization

To understand how the body functions and coordinates its activities, we will first examine its components. Organizational levels Know and define these levels up to the organism

Principles of Animal Physiology


Levels of Organization

Basic cell functions include:


Self-organization: Using resources from the environment to create the cell Self-regulation: Maintain self-integrity in the face of disturbances Self-support and movement: Having structrures that give specific form to the cell and to move materials within the cell or to move the cell itself Self-replication: Reproducing to carry on the species, and to repair damage

Principles of Animal Physiology


Levels of Organization

Four primary tissue types:


Skeletal, cardiac and smooth

Muscular tissue - specialized for contraction and force generation

Nervous tissue - specialized for initiation and transmission of electrical impulses Epithelial tissue - specialized in the exchange of materials
Sheets and secretory glands

Connective tissue - have relatively few cells dispersed within an abundance of extracellualar material that they secrete

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis
Most cells are NOT in contact with the external environment Most cells CANNOT function without other cells Most cells are in contact with the internal environment The internal environment consists of material outside the cell, but inside the body Define ExtraCellular Fluid (ECF) Define IntraCellular Fluid (ICF) Define InterStitial Fluid (ISF)

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Components of the ExtraCellular Fluid (fig 1-5)

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Cells can live and function only when they are bathed by ECF that is compatible with their survival The cell must obtain nutrients and discharge waste to the ECF Claude Bernard (1813-1878)
Le milieu interieur

Walter B. Canon (1871-1945)


Coined the term Homeostasis

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Homeostasis
Maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the internal environment and in other body states

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Interdependent relationship of cells, body systems and homeostasis (Fig 1-6)

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Factors affecting Homeostasis


Amount of energy-rich molecule - fuel O2 & CO2 concentration - for chemical reactions Waste products - toxcicity pH - acid/base balance, enzymatic activity Water, salt & electrocytes - cell size Volume & pressure Temperature - narrow range Social parameters - social insects (termites)

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Feedback-Control Systems
Conformers - animals internal changes parallel the external conditions
e.g. starfish - salinity; annelid worms O2

Regulators - animal defend a relatively constant state Avoiders - minimize internal variations by avoiding environmental disturbances
Some fish avoid temperature changes by changing location

Enantiostasis (allostasis) - change in one physiological variable to conteract a change in another


Blue crabs - change blood pH to increase O2 binding when in brachish

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis
Comparisons of negative feedback control systems (Fig 1-8)

a -components of a basic feedback b - control of room system temperature c - control of mammalian body temperature

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Feedback effectors
Antagonistic control: Opposes change in the variable
Temperature falls -> effectors produce change to increase temperature (thermostatic effect)

Behaviors as effectors: Animal seeks out a different location (Avoiders)


Migration of Monarch butterflies to avoid the cold north Killifish seeks out water to keep its internal salinity about 35 to 45% that of normal seawater

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Enhancement & expansion of basic negative feedback systems (Fig 1-9)


Antagonistic effectors Feedforward control

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Flaws of Negative Feedback Systems


It must first suffer a disturbance before it can act Delayed response Overshoots the set point

Flaws Overcome by:


Feedforward system (Anticipation)
Predicts results of a disturbance Prevents overshooting of the set point
e.g. increased insuling secretion while meal is still in digestive tract

Acclimatization systems

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Adaptation, Acclimatization and Acclimation


Adaptation - evolution by natural selection Acclimatization - physiological, biochemical, or anatomical change within an individual from chronic exposure to a new environment Acclimation - same as above, but induced experimentally

Principles of Animal Physiology


Homeostasis

Other Controlled Systems


Rheostasis - non-homeostatic regulation
Reset system - changes the setpoint temporarily, permamently or cyclically
Fever Sex hormone concentrations - at puberty Reproductive cycle - menstrual cycle

Positive feedback system


Creates rapid change Reinforces the change in the same direction e.g. neuron action potentials, lactation, blood clotting, orgasms . . .

Principles of Animal Physiology


Mechanisms for regulated change
Homeostasis

Principles of Animal Physiology


Mechanisms for regulated change, contd
Homeostasis

Principles of Animal Physiology


Levels of Organization

Ten Physiological Organ Systems

Circulatory: transports gases, nutrients & wastes Digestive: obtains nutrients, water & electrolytes Endocrine: regulates processes for duration Immune: defends against foreign invaders Integumentary: proctective barrier Musculoskeletal: support, protect & movement Nervous: controls rapid response of body Reproduction: perpetuation of the species Respiratory: O2 and CO2, regulates pH