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The Finite Element Analysis for Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns under Blast Load

J.H. ZHAO , X.Y. WEI AND S.F. MA School of Civil Engineering, Changan University, Xian 710061, China

1. Introduction The responses of blast load are always taken into consideration for the signicant building and protective construction. Presently, concrete lled steel tubular (CFST) is widely used in construction because it has the benecial qualities of both concrete and steel. In order to study the mechanical behavior of the CFST column under blast load, the dynamic responses of a square CFST column under surface explosion were simulated by the nonlinear nite element program ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The JHC model was used for concrete material and the MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC model which accounted for the strain rate used for steel. The failure behavior of the CFST column at scale distance equal to 1.0 was analyzed. The results indicate that the inner concrete was seriously damaged, however, the deformation of concrete was restricted by the steel tube. It shows that CFST column has excellent ductility and blast resistance. The time-history curve of displacement of key nodes at different scale distance are compared, which indicates that the deformation of column obviously decreases with the increase of scale distance. 2. Numerical Simulation 2.1. Numerical model As shown in Fig. 1, the responses of CFST column under surface blast occurred at various stand-off distances are investigated. The clear height of the CFST column is H = 3 m. Assuming the column has square cross section and the width, the depth and the thickness of the steel tube is 500 mm, 500 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The top and bottom of the column is considered as fully xed. A 3-D numerical model of concrete lled steel tubular column was set up. Solid elements are used to model both the concrete and the steel. There are a total of 40460 elements in the numerical model. Convergence test is conducted and it was found that further renements in mesh density did not signicantly improve global response. 2.2. Material model The Johnson-Holmquist (J-H) material model is used for concrete. This model can be used for concrete subjected to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures. The equivalent stress is expressed as a function of pressure, strain rate and damage. A more detailed description can be found in LS-DYNA theoretical manual.8 The parameters of concrete used in this study are shown in Table 1. The MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC material model is used for steel. Isotropic, kinematic, or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening may be obtained by varying a parameter between 0 and 1. For = 0 and = 1, respectively, kinematic and isotropic hardening
Corresponding author. E-mail: zhaojh@chd.edu.cn

Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications. Edited by Guowei MA and Yingxin ZHOU. Published by Research Publishing Services. Copyright c 2009 by Society for Rock Mechanics & Engineering Geology (Singapore). ISBN: 978-981-08-4455-4 doi:10.3850/9789810844554-0070

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Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications

Figure 1. Concrete lled steel tubular column under blast.

Table 1. Concrete material parameters (g-mm-ms). Parameter Value Parameter Value Parameter Value MID 1 FC 40 PL 800 RO 2.25E-3 T 3.92 UL 0.1 G 1.38E4 EPS0 0.001 D1 0.038 A 0.75 EFMIN 0.01 D2 1 B 1.65 SFMAX 7 K1 1.74E4 C 0.007 PC 13.33 K2 3.88E4 N 0.76 UC 7.3E4 K3 2.98E4

Table 2. Steel tube material parameters (g-mm-ms). Parameter Value MID 2 RO 7.85E-3 E 2.1E5 PR 0.3 SIGY 345 ETAN 1180 BETA 0 SRC 40.4 SRP 5 FS 0.3 VP 0

are obtained. Strain rates effect is accounted for using the Cowper-Symonds model which scales the yield stress by a strain rate dependent factor. The parameters of steel used in this study are shown in Table 2. 2.3. Blast loading model The explosive process is not included in this study. The blast pressures are generated using procedures outlined in TM5-1300 and the loading functions corresponding to these blast pressures are then applied to the numerical model. TM5-1300 is widely used by blast engineers for preliminary design purpose. It adopts the cube-root scaled distance for considering various stand-off distances and charge weight. The scaled distance is dened as Z = R/W 1/3 (1)

in which R is the distance from the source and W is the weight of explosives. Figure 2 shows a free-eld typical pressure-time history. At any point away from the burst, the pressure disturbance has the shape shown in Fig. 2. The shock front arrives at a given location at time tA and after the rise to the peak value, Ps0 the incident pressure decays to the ambient value P0 in time to which is the positive phase duration. This is followed by a negative phase with a duration t0 . The negative pressure has a maximum value of P . s0
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Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications

Figure 2. Free-eld pressure-time variation.

Usually the negative phase is less important in the design than is the positive phase. Hence, only the positive phase of blast pressure is considered in the numerical simulation. The empirical pressure-time history in Ref. 2 is used herein: P(t) = Ps0 (1 t/t0 ) exp ( bt/t0 ) (2)

in which b is the parameter of the shock wave. The shock waves propagate with supersonic velocity and nally it hit the building. They reect from the building with amplied overpressures and it can be determined from TM51300. Assuming the stand-off distance is 5 m, three blast scenarios are considered, i.e., the scaled distance Z = 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3. The blast pressure is uniformly loaded on the column surface.

3. Numerical Results Numerical simulations are carried out to estimate the blast response and damage of the CFST column subjected to explosive blast loading based on the transient dynamic nite element program LS-DYNA.

3.1. Results of scaled distance = 1 Figure 35 shows the deection in X direction and maximum principal stress of concrete of time t = 2 ms, 5 ms, 9 ms, respectively. It is observed that the maximum deection occurs at the middle of the column. It is expected because the column has symmetrical supports and it is under uniform load. The deection increases with time and reach its maximum value of 117 mm when t = 9 ms. From the stress contour of the column, it can be found that the tensile damage occur rst at the top and bottom of the concrete. The maximum principal stress reaches the tensile strength of concrete. When time increases to 9 ms, the concrete at the middle of the column is also damaged and erosion occurs. However, the ratio between the deection and the height of column is 3.9%. Hence, it can be concluded that the steel tube effectively restricted the lateral deection of the column and thus can improve the blast resistances.
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Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications

(a) Column deflection in x direction

(b) Maximum principal stress of concrete

Figure 3. Deection and stress of t = 2 ms.

(a) column displacement in x direction

(b) maximum principal stress of concrete

Figure 4. Deection and stress of t = 5 ms.

3.2. Comparison of Displacement Figures 6(a) and (b) shows the deection in x direction of the column for scaled distance z = 0.7m/kg1/3 and z = 1.3m/kg1/3 , respectively. It can be seen that the maximum deections of the column decrease signicantly with increase of the scaled distances.

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Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications

(a) column deflection in x direction

(b) maximum principal stress of concrete

Figure 5. Deection and stress of t = 9 ms.

(a) scaled distance z=0.7m/kg1/3

(b) scaled distance z=1.3m/kg1/3

Figure 6. Deection in x direction.

4. Conclusion The following conclusions are deduced from the numerical results: The Johnson-Holmquist (J-H) material model can be applied to simulate reasonably both the compressive crush zone and tensile damage. When scaled distance is 1.0 m/kg1/3 , the ratio between the deection and the height of column is 3.9%. It can be concluded that the steel tube effectively restricted the lateral deection of the column and thus can improve the blast resistances. The maximum deections of the column decrease signicantly with increase of the scaled distances.
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Analysis of Discontinuous Deformation: New Developments and Applications

Acknowledgements The supports of the Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20040710001) and Shaan Xi Province Natural Scicence Foundation (SJ08E204) are gratefully acknowledged. References
1. Georgios Giakoumelis, Dennis Lam. Axial capacity of circular concrete-lled-tube columns. Journal of constructional Steel Research, 60, 2004, pp. 10491068. 2. Ben Young, Ehab Ellobody. Experimental investigation of concrete- lled cold-formed high strength stainless steel tube columns. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 62, 2006, pp. 484492. 3. Zhang, F.G. and Li, E.Z. A computational model for concrete subjected to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures. Explosion and Shock Waves. 2002, 22(3), pp. 198202. 4. LSTC. LS-DYNA keywords manual, Version 970, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, 2003. 5. Wei, X.Y. Dynamic response of concrete and masonry structure under explosive and impact loads. Reports of post PhD, 2007. 6. TM5-1300. Structures to resist the effects of accidental explosions. US Army, USA, 1990. 7. LSTC. LS-DYNA theoretical manual, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, 1998.

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