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SCADA Monitoring System (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA Introduction In plant automation SCADA has a prominent

nt role. SCADA is a useful tool to monitor, operate and maintain an electrical substation. All the information from the substation will be reached then and there at master station in the remote control center. Similarly any operation of the switchgear or equipment of the substation can be performed from the master station. SCADA is an abbreviation for the Supervisory .Control and Data Acquisition. It has two parts Supervisory Control .1 .Data Acquisition .2 Data Acquisition We need a lot of information for monitoring and maintaining our power system. This is required for controlling the power system, maintaining the same, planning, reinforcement etc. Bus voltage, Line voltage, Load current, Max. Demand, MW, MVA, MVAr, power factor, past history of power system, status of circuit breakers, isolators, bus couplers etc. are some of the information we usually need. For obtaining this information, the related data of the power system are required. The data after processing .suitably, we will get the information in the required form So for information, data are required continuously and it should be processed then and there for getting up to date information. As such data are to be collected and processed. This can be done either manually or using microprocessors. Collecting data and processing them manually is very cumbersome; hence it is .being done by microprocessors in online Types of data From our power system we need two types of data. Voltage, current, frequency, power factor, MW, MVA, MVAr, MWHr, MD etc. are continuously varying with respect of time. The magnitude of these data varies .instant to instant. These are called analogue data The status of circuit breaker, disconnectors, earth switches, Bus couplers etc has only two values; either .on or off. These data are called digital data .Transducers Analogue data are collected by CTs, VTs or both. The output obtained from these equipments is very high compared to the level of the input signal required to the microprocessors. For getting a signal suitable to the microprocessors (i.e. to the level of DC, m Amps.) we have to convert the high magnitude signal suitably. Transducers do this function. The output from the transducers will be around +/- 2.5mA .for most of transducers .Potential Free Contacts All the digital inputs to the SCADA are taken from the potential free auxiliary contacts of the concerned equipments. Alarm signals are taken from the normally open contacts of the concerned protection relays. Indication inputs are taken from the N/C or N/O auxiliary contacts of the switchgear or equipment. These contacts switch ON/OFF the 5V DC (gives the digital signal) to the SCADA microprocessor through opto.couplers Opto-couplers SCADA system works with 24 or 48V DC battery. The digital input and output signals required for the microprocessor of the SCADA system as usual is at 5V DC. The coupling between these two deferent voltages is done through opto-couplers. i.e. input digital signal from potential free contacts switches on the 48V DC circuit, which in turn switches on the 5V DC input to the microprocessor through optical .coupling of the opto-couplers Similarly 5V DC output signal from microprocessor of SCADA system switches on the 24 or 48V DC through opto-couplers then passes it to interposing relay, which has enough capacity and voltage rating .to execute the command from the remote control center In short the input and out put signals to the SCADA system (Remote Terminal Unit RTU) are at 24 or 48V DC. But the voltage level of the SCADA microprocessor is only 5V DC. The 48V to 5V and 5V to 48 .volt coupling is done using opto-couplers

.Interposing Relays SCADA system (RTU) gives only 24 or 48V DC as its digital output, which is the signal to execute the command from the master station. This is not of enough capacity and not suitable as our auxiliary supply system is 115V DC. So we need a mediator to link between these two. Interposing relay does this function. The 24 or 48V digital output is given to the interposing relay; it closes a 115V contact of enough power handling capacity, which is suitable to close or open the switchgear or to operate other .equipments according to the commands issued from the control center .Microprocessor (CPU) and Other Modules Now the inputs are prepared to the level suitable to handle by microprocessors of the SCADA system. As there are a No. of transformers, feeders, bus couplers, bus sections etc. and a lot of equipments for each bay, there will be a huge No. of data to be collected and transmitted to the master station for processing. These inputs are given to a number of modules having a No. of input points in each module. It is not impossible to transmit all the data simultaneously through a single communication channel. So we have to transmit one data at a time, then the other, within a very small interval of time, to the master station. This is done by scanning the inputs using microprocessor (CPU). At a time there will be only one output .for various inputs given to the microprocessor. The output changes for all the inputs In the receiving end this signals coming one at a time in a cyclic order has to be separated to the deferent signals. For this also microprocessor are using in the remote control center. This output also will .be one at a time The sequence, order, priority of action to be done etc. are decided the master station and the CPU of the .RTU. RTU operates according to the instructions received from master station The commands issued from control center will be received by the RTU and the microprocessor (CPU) will identify the required equipment, selected by the control center, through the receiving modules, again having a No. of output points. From the receiving modules the signal goes to the inter-posing relay and .this relay executes the command Master station needs all the data simultaneously for processing. This is achieved by holding the available .data in the master station till the next updated one reaches in cyclic order Transducer Panel All the analog (CT, VT) inputs will be first connected to the transducer panel and the transducer output .will be taken out to RTU Field Marshaling Panel All the digital inputs from the field to the SCADA system will be terminated in the Field Marshaling Panel (FMP). In the FMP alarms will be grouped in the required manner and from one group only one output will be taken out. Indication and command connections will be taken out with out any grouping. Alarms .requiring local annunciation will be taken through annunciators provided on the local panels to the FMP SCADA Marshaling Panel All the connections from RTU are terminated in the SCADA Marshaling Panel (SMP). In the SMP isolating facility will be provided for all the connectors. FMP/transducer panel and SMP are connected through the .inter panel wirings. During this connection only grouped output will be taken from FMP to SMP for alarms Remote Terminal Unit Outputs from SMP are connected to the Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) where the transmitting modules are located. Similarly command out put to the equipment through SMP & FMP is coming from RTU where the receiving modules also are located. From this RTU, output signals are going to the control center through communication channel and from control center the commands are coming through the communication channel to RTU. From RTU commands go to the equipment for execution through inter posing relay .panel. All the functions inside the RTU are controlled by the CPU Communication Modules From RTU signal goes to control center through communication channel and it receives commands from control center through the same channel. This is achieved through communication modules. Communication can be Radio, PLC , FO ,2-wire , etc. system. Standby communication channel is also .provided in the RTU and it will take care of the communication if the first channel fails Supervisory Control

The second part of the SCADA is the Supervisory Control. The substation can be controlled from the remote control center. Substation can be maintained totally unmanned by the help of SCADA system. Any operation required at the substation can be performed from the control center and all the required information will be available at the master station of the control center. Any tripping or alarm or any .adverse condition will be intimated to the control center at the same instant When a command is given to operate particular switchgear, it reaches the selected substation and activates the interposing relay for the selected equipment & function and executes the operation and .there will be back indication of the performed operation Master Station Master station or control center contains a computer with display units and necessary software. The mimic diagram will be displayed through the monitor. Separate pages will be provided for each voltage level and up to date status of the system, KV, MVA, MW, MVAr, Tap Position of transformers, import, export etc. will be displayed with real time values. Also in some other pages load curve, alarm list, etc. .will be available. Whatever information we require can be retrieved using the software The substation can be controlled from the remote end master station using the Supervisory Control part of the SCADA. The required substation, feeder, or equipment can be selected from the display unit and .the command to execute the operation can be given through the display unit itself A number of substations will be connected to the master station or control center through communication network and SCADA system. From all the substations data are received and processed at the control center. From control center commands or instructions are issued to particular substation for execution on particular equipment in that substation. It will be transmitted to the entire system. But the addressee alone can receive it. For each equipment in a substation connected to the system, there will have a unique address. The command or instructions from control center will have a specific address just like our mail or telegram. The correct equipment in the correct substation will accept the instructions and it .will be executed correctly