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Case study: The Hammam of Gazi Mehmed Pasha in Prizren, KOSOVO

Arbr Sadiki
Architect, PhD Student, University of Nish Kosova street, 17520 Bujanovac, Serbia +381(0)63 89 90 423, +381(0)17 650 240, arbersadiku77@gmail.com

SUMMARY This paper presents a study of possibilities of reviving architectural heritage in order to use it as touristic attraction and recreational activity through its functional reorganization. Through the scientific historical method, the construction and initial use of Hammam of Gazi Mehmed Pasha in Prizren has been studied. This important item of architectural heritage is examined in the context of its revitalization through functional reorganization offering space to create opportunities for the realization of cultural and recreational activities. Based on the analysis of intervention in the faclity, by changing its original function, in the case of Gazi Mehmed Pasha Hammam into an Art Gallery, it was concluded that this mode of intervention in the architectural heritage can be very effective, transforming it from a place that is rarely visited into highly frequented location, through the activities of the day. In this way the architectural heritage becomes a potential major tourist and recreational facility and also in this way this facility establishes a self sustained economy for its permanent maintenance. It is fundamental that during preconception of its function, new activities that will be foreseen in its new function should not present a risk to the longevity of the building and preservation of its architectural identity.

INTRODUCTION The dynamics of urban life development result in the need for expansion of the building spaces with different usage characteristics. As a results, many architectural heritage buildings located in urban area are throttled with new constructions around them by diminishing the indsiputable importance that they have. This brought the need for the architectural heritage to be treated in the context of the circumstances of modern life by giving them freshness through interventions to change the original function by creating spaces that provide opportunities for the development of activities, but without juperdizing under no circumstances the original identity of the object. One such case is Hammam Gazi Mehmet Pasha in Prizren, located in the central part of Prizren, and at the same time surrounded by an ensemble of buildings of the Ottoman Empire, such as Emin Pasha Mosque, the mosque of Kukli Bey, high school (madrese), a primary school (mejtep) and mausoleum (tyrbe) for the founder, but on the other hand the modern facilities like cultural center and the main post office.

HAMMAM OF GAZI MEHMET PASHA IN PRIZREN Historical context of construction and use of the building After the complete decline of Ottoman occupation, in 1459, the city of Prizren, which until then was known for religious Catholic Byzantine and Roman buildings, began the first constructions of Ottoman cults such as: mosques, religious schools, madrasas, bezistane, mausoleums and hammams. The Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha along with Gazi Mehmet Pasha Mosque and the mosque of Sinan Pasha, represent the most important cult buildings made by the Ottoman Empire from the conquest of the city, where with the presentation of the architectural brilliance, talk about the importance that Prizren was winning as important regional center of this Empire. Financed from Gazi Mehmet Pasha, Bey of Shkodra Sanjak, the hammam was built in 1573-74 along with a whole ensemble of buildings including the Mosque with dome which later became known as "Bajrakli Mosque, madresas, religious school and mausoleum built to honor the funder [1]. After the Hammam of Daut Pasha in Skopje, and that of Gazi Husrev Beg in Sarajevo, Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha in Prizren, is the third largest with the premises of the countries of former Yugoslavia. Representing the unique architectural values, Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha in Prizren, with the decision of the Provincial Office of Kosovo for the Protection of Monuments, nr.380 dated 18. september. 1954, is entered in the list of monuments of architectural heritage under the protection of this institution. According to data from the Institute for Protection of Monuments in Prizren, even though since 1954 the building was on the list of monuments of architectural heritage under the protection of Provincial Office of Kosovo for the Protection of Monuments, however, until 1958, the premises of the male part of Hammam, were used as dairy farm and processing milk products, where as a result of the acidity of dairy products, internal walls and floors, were damaged considerably. Also, until the early 60's, communication with the object through the northeastern and southern side was impossible because of construction of craftsmen shops in Prizren, which were built in the plot of Hammam.

Figure 1 Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha in the early 60s Architectural characteristics of the building Hammam is of dual type, where longitudinal wall separates the male section from the female section in almost symmetrical way. Both sections have separate entrances and are composed

from the cold part or reception, the warm or wordrobes and sanitary joints, heated parts or saunas and also burning furnaces where water was heated and from where other premises were evaporating through ceramic pipes within the walls and vault of floors. In the entrance, which, at the same time, is also the largest space of the facility, the central stone water fountain is located. This space was serving as a meeting point between the people where they were served with hot drinks. The walls are of stone with alternately brick clay strips and connected with mortar lime bond. Dome of the entrance, at the same time those with larger diameter, are of connected bricks with mortar lime and covered with traditional tiles.

Figure 2 Ground floor Small dome which is covering sauna units, the circular cover of spaces of coat rack and sanitary joints and the roof cover with one-way water leak in the water heating chambers, are all covered with lead. In terms of architectural configuration, along with Fateh Sultan Mehmet Mosque in Pristina, Sinan Pasha Mosque in Prizren, Hadum Mosque in Gjakova and mausoleum of Sultan Murad in Fushe Kosova, represents one of the most important dome built facilities on the territory of Kosovo, which belong to the buildings made at the time of the Ottoman Empire [2]. Maintenance, interventions and projects for the restoration of Hammam Existing inscription plate with dimensions 40x35 cm located in the wall over the gate of men entry, tells us the completion of the renovation of Hammam on 11 Muharram of the year 1249 by the Islamic calendar, which corresponds to May 31 of year 1832 according to the Gregorian calendar, funded by brothers Emin Pasha and Mahmud Pasha sons of Tahir Pasha [3].

Figure 3 The inscription on the gate of male entry Since the facility is in the list of monuments of architectural heritage of the Kosovo Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments, and with the decision of the Municipal Assembly of

Prizren nr.03/3-4859/1-63 1963, cadastral parcels which extends facility are expropriated and ownership was given to the Municipality of Prizren, for the maintenance of the facility catered these two institutions. According to evidence that possesses the Institute for Protection of Monuments in Prizren, there were continuously allocated funds from the Municipal Assembly of Prizren and Kosovo Provincial Office for the Protection of Monuments, for the maintenance of the facility. Thus in the period 1959-65 there has been done the cleaning of the internal spaces of the facility from waste that were stored in, and relocation of Prizren craftsmen shops that were within the plot of Hammam. In the years 1968-70 there were small interventions done on large dome of the facility, repair of joints in the exterior facade of the building and partly on the interior walls, partial repair of floor with stone plates and drainage around the building for the purpose of protection of moisture. Here it should be noted that since the repair of joints in the walls with cement mortar, because of not good properties of cement in contact with moisture, they began to crack very soon, where even today it is very easy to identify the parts where it was interfered. This fact indicates that interference was not done by adequate masters, with appropriate materials and under the escort of restoration experts. Evidences of the Institute for Protection of Monuments in Prizren, talk for to many partial interventions in and around the facility subject to regulation of the courtyard and the perimeter wall, but there was never done any authentic restoration and conservation led by specialist in this field. One of the concrete projects of intervention in the Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha in Prizren, is that one of the architect Ivan Zdravkovi who envisaged the adoption of Hammam at the Museum and Gallery of Arts. According to him, a fundamental problem which arises during its transformation in the Museum and Art Gallery, is the scheme of movement of visitors. Trying to adhere to fundamental principles of restoration, which attempted to intervene as little as possible with the breaks in the existing facility, is proposed to open the main entrance to the southern facade of the building, in the furnace of the burning. In this way through the circular-shaped opening that should be made in the wall that separates the area of furnace of the burning and sauna in the male section, enlargement of existing opening in the wall that separates the space coat rack by the reception to the male section and two new openings in the wall that separates the section of women with men, could be benefited be a scheme of circular movement throughout all premises of the Hammam, returning back to the lobby entry, which is profitable for museums and art galeries [4].

Figure 4 Adaptation in the Museum and the Galery according to I. Zdravkovic

According to the author, placing the main entrance in to the southern facade of the building will contribute positively to the communication of the facility with other urban structures knowing that in the south passes the promenade of the city which would affect the revival of the facility. Entry to the women section, on the north side had to be closed, while entry to the men in the eastern facade, could be used only for emergency needs. Although there was never done any work under this project in the Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha, however the idea of returning the Hammam to Museum and Art Gallery, partially realized in 2001, when with German KFOR assistance were done some small conservation interventions in the males waiting room, turning it into an Art gallery.

Figure 5 Adaptation at the Gallery of Art after intervention in 2001 This intervention had more to do with the emergency intervention in order to rescue the building from total collapse than it was a genuine restoration intervention. Since the object is within the Historic Zone of the city of Prizren, with the "Plan of Conservation and Development of Historic Zone of Prizren", compiled in 2008 by Istanbul Technical University and supported by the Swedish organization "Cultural Heritage withaut Borders", is foreseen restoration of the Hammam as one of the most important building of the historical area [5]. In this regard, in December 2010, the Municipality of Prizren with the mediation of UNESCO signed an agreement to implement the grant from the Turkish Government, for total restoration of the Hammam. Institute for Protection of Monuments in Prizren in cooperation with restorer experts from UNESCO, is drafting restoration project documentation based on which will be intervention.

CONCLUSTION Based on the analysis of the current status of the Hammam of Gazi Mehmet Pasha in Prizren, and available documents of some interventions made at different times in this object, it can be said that the facility is seriously in damaged in regard of his physical condition. All interventions that are made up today, have been more of character to prevent deterioration of the situation of the facility or what is called "Indirect Conservation, than they were genuine interventions made based to an authentic restoration project. Regarding the idea to return the object to Museum and Art Gallery, can be said that this can be accomplished but with a good analyzed project, designed and then implemented by experts in the field of restoration, based on the basic principles laid down by Charter of Venice of the year 1964. In this regard, all projects with the purpose of adopting the spaces of Hammam in

the Museum and Art Gallery, which will interfere in the authentic and aesthetic structure of Hammam, would be unacceptable and excluded. Since the building materials used in the initial building facility as floors stone tablets and stone clays of walls are derived in a location near Prizren, the same should be used for the amount of stones that will be needed for repairing the floor and walls of Hammam. All other materials like lead and the tiles of the coverage should be produced and worked according to traditional methods. In order to protect the identity of the object in terms of its function as well, a good option would be the maintenance the original function in the female section. In this case the functional structure of this part, keeping the northern entrance, would remain without taching. In terms of revitalization of the facility by offering to the visitor day activities within it, the men section could be back to Museum and Art Gallery, opening the main entrance to the southern facade of the building. In this regard the building at the same time would attract visitors through daily activities but at the same time will also maintain its original function characteristic of Ottoman culture, values which characterize the city in general. This mode of intervention by changing partially the initial function of the facility will affect the attraction of visitors to it but at the same time it is a good opportunity for economic sustainability of the facility through own revenues.

BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Cultural Heritage in South-East Europe:KOSOVO, UNESCO, 2003 [2] Redzic, H. - Pet Osmanljijskih potkupolnih spomenika na Kosovu i Metohiji, Oblasni Zavod za Zatitu Spomenika Kulture, 1963 [3] Ayverdi, E. - Avrupada Osmanli Mimarli Eserleri, Yugoslavya, III, Istambul Fetih Ceniyeti, 1981 [4] Zdravkovic, I. - Starine Kosova i Metohije II-III, Oblasni Zavod za Zatitu Spomenika Kulture, 1963 [5] Glersay, N.; Eybolu, E.; Koramaz, T.; Abacilar, P. - Conservation and Development Plan of Historical Zone of Prizren, Istambul Technical Universty, 2008

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