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Disclaimer

Time domain vs. Frequency domain


Time domain analog signal overall RMS value
Frequency domain Fast Fourier Transform energy spectrum

Time domain RMS and Peak

RMS

ADCvalue
n 1 n

Peak RMS x 1.414

Sine wave FFT

WHY monitor Vibration ?


Vibration is the #1 indicator of machine health Preventing one catastrophic shutdown of critical process often pays for monitoring system Safety Shutdown normally takes place in the time domain API670: detection <100ms, shutdown after 1 to 3 seconds sustained Uptime / availability Predictive Maintenance Vibration problems often appear first at higher frequencies and lower amplitudes

WHEN should Vibration be monitored ?


Depends on how critical the process is
Expensive equipment
Natural gas turbines

Expensive downtime
Remote locations requiring skilled repair

Highly profitable process


Corn processing with profit loss in $$$/hour

Government regulations

WHEN
Walk the route handheld collector Off-line monitoring and analysis No immediate notification of problem No correlation to other process variables Lowest cost per point Dedicated, specially trained resources Scanning system Periodically takes vibration reading Continuous on-line system Simultaneous acquisition of multiple channels The more critical the process, the greater the need for continuous on-line measurement

HOW is Vibration measured ?


Human senses Highly subjective Expert or someone intimately familiar with that machine
Earthquake sensors Electromechanical relays Calibrate by hitting with hammer Protection only ?

HOW
o Displacement probes
o Proximity probe with ability to sense distance through eddy current principle; reports mils. o Two-part system consisting of probe and probe driver

o Calibrated lead length between probe and driver o Typical 5 / 7 / 9m or 15 / 20ft o DC bias typically -24V o Requires drilling and tapping bearing housing

HOW
o Velocity sensors
o First type of vibration sensor o Reports ips o Self-powered, moving mass in magnetic field o No DC bias o Status of probe circuit continuity unknown o Optimum for lower frequency vibration (10 to 1000Hz) o Heavier, larger size o Can be integrated (either hw or sw) to get displacement

HOW
o Accelerometer
o Piezoelectric sensor o Low impedance voltage o Reports in Gs o Charge mode o Reports in pC o DC bias typically +24V o Smaller, least cost o More sensitive to higher frequencies o Integrate (hw or sw) to get velocity

HOW
o Wireless sensors
o Typically battery powered accelerometers o Sleep mode to prolong battery life o Requires trigger pulse to capture synchronized waveform data o Newest sensors harvest energy

WHERE to place Vibration sensors ?


o Probes only sense in one axis
o Triaxial accelerometers available o Velocity transducers can be negatively affected by large angular vibration

o Casings
o Velocity or accelerometers

o Bearings
o Radial requires two displacement probes mounted at 90o offset

o Shaft horizontal movement = axial / thrust o Gear mesh


o Accelerometers required for high frequencies

o Piston rod drop


o Displacement probe either above or below horizontal shaft

WHAT systems are available to monitor / analyze Vibration ?


o Dedicated stand-alone o Provides shut-down signal to PLC o Bently Nevada, Vitec, PMC Beta o Off-line analysis o one-way data flow o No real-time shutdown protection o CSI (Emerson), Entek IRD (Rockwell), MAARS (Windrock), SKF o Direct input to PLC o 4-20mA transducers through analog input module o Modules with direct connection to vibration sensors o CTI, Allen-Bradley

WHY is direct PLC connection important ?


Direct correlation with process Real-time connection between vibration data and other process variables, e.g. pressure, flow, temperature Vital data available to process engineers Objective measurement of operators subjective senses Data available via established architecture Plant floor visibility on MMI Historical trending and archiving Remote monitoring PLC control of shutdown process Notification options

Setup considerations
Probe type
Accelerometer, velocity, displacement

Sensitivity Maximum full-scale range


Determines gain setting

Filtering
High-pass Low-pass
Correlated to Fmax and # of samples (lines of resolution)

Integration

Sensitivity, Gain, Resolution


Resolution in mV
2.441

Gain

Probe Sensitivity (specified by manufacturer) 100mV 10mV


500

50mV
100

500mV
10

50

1.953
0.976 0.488 0.244 .0976

1.25
2.5 5 10 25

40
20 10 5 2

400
200 100 50 20

80
40 20 10 4

8
4 2 1 0.4

Full Scale Range

Fmax and Time to Sample


Hz f max 50000 25000 12000 6000 3000 1500 800 400 200 100 50 25 12 6 3 1.5 # of lines # of samples 0.06 0.13 0.27 0.53 1.07 2.13 4 8 16 32 64 128 266.7 533.3 1067 2133 3200 8192 0.032 0.06 0.13 0.27 0.53 1.07 2 4 8 16 32 64 133.3 266.7 533.3 1067 1600 4096 0.016 0.032 0.07 0.13 0.27 0.53 1 2 4 8 16 32 66.7 133.3 266.7 533.3 800 2048 Time to Sample (in sec) 0.008 0.016 0.033 0.07 0.13 0.27 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 33.3 66.7 133.3 266.7 400 1024 0.004 0.008 0.017 0.033 0.07 0.13 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16.7 33.3 66.7 133.3 200 512 0.002 0.004 0.008 0.017 0.033 0.07 0.13 0.3 0.5 1 2 4 8.3 16.7 33.3 66.7 100 256 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.008 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.13 0.25 0.5 1 2 4.17 8.3 16.7 33.3 50 128 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.008 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.13 0.25 0.5 1 2.08 4.17 8.3 16.7 25 64 0.0003 0.0005 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.13 0.25 0.5 1.04 2.08 4.17 8.3 12.5 32

Setup considerations
Reporting mode
RMS, Peak, Peak-to-Peak (calculated values) True peak-to-peak English or Metric

Speed sensing
Single pulse-per-revolution tach
Necessary for analysis of synchronized signals

Multiple pulses-per-revolution
Toothed gear or blade pass Higher resolution for accurate speed measurement

Type of pickup
Positive, negative or bipolar signal Open collector Magnetic

Setup considerations
Intrinsic safety barrier Automatic compensation for attenuation factor Trip Multiply Increase alarm levels for startup or coast down harmonic regions Input / Output scale factor Increase resolution without using floating point numbers Alarm Setpoint and Time Delay Alert and Danger alarm levels DC Bias alarm Gap Over / Under for displacement probes Bias High / Low for accelerometers Displacement probe response curve Gapping the probe

Alarm levels
Voltage Gap Over or Bias High

Danger Setpoint

Alert Setpoint

Nominal DC bias voltage

True Peak-to-Peak Time

Gap Under or Bias Low

Displacement probe Response

-24

-22
-20 -18

Output (volts)

-16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6

-4
-2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Gap (mils)

Run-time data
Overall RMS vibration Also available as Peak or Peak-to-Peak True Peak-to-peak vibration Maximum value between + and - ADC reading Probe circuit voltage Value of DC bias for accelerometers or displacement probes or SPQ for velocity transducers Speed data RPM or Hertz Tach over or under-range or No Tach status Status bits Alert, Danger, DC Bias, Math overflow, ADC overrange

2505 Vibration Shut-down Module


High-speed parallel processing of up to four vibration sensors and tach input; meets API670. On-board Alarm processing. PLC setup for easy configuration changes.
Prox probes for radial and axial vibration and tach option.

Serial data output for interface to vibration analysis / historical trending packages

Accelerometer s

Raw data (RMS, bias voltage, True peakpeak) and Alarm status bits sent to PLC every scan. Buffered outputs of vibration sensors and tach inputs

Velocity transducers, both self-powered and with probe good test option.

2507 Vibration Trend Module


Sequential processing of up to eight accelerometers and/or velocity transducers. User-selectable FFT band for each channel. On-board Alarm processing. PLC setup for easy configuration changes.
Manual control of channel selection for local data collection and trouble-shooting.
Serial data interface for remote control and collection of raw data by analysis / historical packages.

Accelerometers

Velocity transducers, both self-powered and with probe good test option.

Raw data (RMS, bias voltage, True peakpeak), FFT band value, and Alarm status bits sent to PLC every scan.