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CHAPTER 2 THE DIFFERENCES OF USING BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

2.1 BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE 2.1.1 Parts of Business Correspondence 1. Date In British: 25th July 1985 In America: July 25, 1985 In British, date written in natural rotation: Day/ Month/Year like the example above. News paper and companies of America used form: Month/ Day/ Year. In that case, there is a semi colon beetwen date and year. Example: July 25, 1985 All-Figure Dates Many People used number as the substitute of month. January is one, February is two and so on. In British, in this system: 3.5.85 is mean 3 May 1985( May the third or the third of May, nineteen eighty five). In America, 3.5.85 is mean March the fifth or March fifth, nineteen eighty five(March 5,1985)

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2. Greeting or Saluation Here are some examples in greeting or salutation: Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Sirs, Ladies As the substitute of Dear Sir, in America repeatedly use Gentleman that followed by a colon. Likewise in gesture of Dear Sir, in British always followed by a semi colon. Whereas in America always followed by a colon. The gesture used in trade correspondence, in correspondence we always used Dear Mr. Jones, Dear John, etc. The Gestures of Mr. Jones, Dear Mr.Hartanto may also used in trade correspondence if the person ever we met before.

3. Messrs Messrs is concise of French word Messieurs and used in front the name of a firm or trading. Messrs ought to use address the letter for partnership only, not for Consolidated Fiber Inc. We demand not use Messrs. For partnership if the companys name begin with The or name of people who was surnamed. Examples: Messrs. Jones, Smith & Co Messrs. T. Horbart & Co The South Australia Import Co

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Sir Joseph Bloggs & Company PT Eureka Aba Consolidated Fiber Inc.

4. Ltd and Inc Ltd is concise of Limited Liability Company. In America, Ltd called corporation and then concised so Corp and Incorporated so Inc. Incorporated used in America as the substitute of Ltds Word that used in British. Example: In British: Turner & Sons Ltd In America: Consolidated Fiber Inc

5. Complimentary Close In British, complimentary close in trade correspondence is Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely which followed by semi colon. Complimentary close must be pin with salutation. If you begin the letter with Dear Sir, end it with Yours faithfully and if you begin with Dear Mr. Smith end with use Yours sincerely. Use Yours sincerely when you ever met with the person that you have written on the letter, or if you hope to meet him immediatelly. The both of complimentary close will snatch almost of the business letter that you will write . It certain, there are many else of complimentary close as Cordially yours, Yours very truly,etc.

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In your business job, sometimes you will write letter for people that you have believed. As manager in your own company or another company. In that case, you may send the letter that have typed as usual, with salutation that have written of your own hand and as the substitute of yours sincerely you may use with best regards. In America, yours faithfully is seldom used. Sometimes, also used Trully yours, Yours very trully, and faithfully yours gestures. 6. Esq Esq is concise of Esquire which shape an old title, it means that person is gentleman. Now, Esquire is seldom to use. We consider that all of people are gentleman, so we use expressionMr when we adressthe letter. If we write Mr. John Smith, Esq this form will be wrong. Use one of the word like John Smith, Esq or Mr. John Smith. In America, Esquire used in the end of gentleman full name and begin the colon first, if the letter will bewitch for consul of America or consul of foreign country.

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2.1.2 Business Letter in British The form of this letter typed on paper that has a letterhead. However, The companys address is not printed right at the top of paper page or only plain paper that you used , typed senders address at the top of right corner. A letter that every row of the word typed begins from left line except the date, it is called blocked style and this model is very populer now because it is easy to type. Any companies still used indented style for their letters. It means that the first row in every pharagraph begin more far from the left line than another rows or the other word, at the first row there is a space in every pharagraph. In this business letter, there are several parts. They are: A. Refference Number If you reply the letter that has refference number, write it down on the left like the form and usually two or three spaces at the bottom of letterhead of that company. Example: Your refference: ST / 7-1 / VII / 95 This system will easy someone else to look for the letter in their archives and our refference number EA-SU-G/VII/85, typed two spaces at the bottom of their refference. After letter number it is not necessary put on point. It is normally, when reply letter to write down the date in your own letter. Example: Dear Sir, Thank you for your letter of 25 July 1995

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B. Date The date typed in two or three spaces at the bottom of letterhead, in a row with your refference. But do not type until outside the right line and the date is not necessary point. C. Inside Address Inside address is the same address in cover of letter because the cover of the letter perhaps will be throwed away by the letter receiver staff who opens the letter. If he or she does not write down inside address, so none of us will not know for whom the letter will be pointed. Inside address typed in one; two or three spaces at the bottom of refference number. D. Salutation Salutation is the same meaning with greeting that must be typed at the left line,two or three spaces at the bottom of inside address. For formal letter that we will send to government department, you may used: Sir, Madam or Gentleman. E. Subject of Letter Subject of letter is the same meaning with subject heading that typed at the left line, two or three spaces at the bottom of salutation. For the greater part of people, write subject heading in capital letter and it usually give underline. If the letter is long, continue the letter in another paper.

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F. Signature Signature is certainly done by hand. However when you sign the letter, typed your name at the bottom of signature. Thus, person who reads your letter is not necessary spend much time to guess your name out of your signature. G. Body of The Letter Body of business letter usually typed in one space, with double spaces among the pharagraphs. If the letter is short, you may used double spaces with extra space or among the pharagraphs. If the letter is long, you may continue the letter in another paper. The sheet of continuation paper must be numbered. Do not continue your letter in the back part of first page, because writing will visible behind the paper and destructive form letter. Beside that, reader, who receives the letter may guess that your company is unable to prepare an extra paper or not bonafide. H. Enclosure Enclosure is addition that sent in a same cover as business letter. It may in cheque, phamplet, sample and so on. Sometimes, enclosure more important than letter. If you send a ticket of exhibition show, you put into a short letter to indicate who sent the tiket. The kinds of letter called covering letter or way bill. In that case above, ticket is more important copies and way bill, it can not be put show together with the letter.

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Several offices sent many phamplets, photos for human or companies of their demand. If we send the way bill, it will spend much time, energy and our lay out of money. The salutation send compliment slip, that is a little piece of paper that named and the companies address. When you enclose something together with the letter, probable enclosers will be lost when the letter opened. That is why you must type the enclosure. On the lowest left corner of your letter, two or three spaces at the bottom of name and profession or at the bottom of copies. If the enclosures is very important, you may write down the explanation. Excample: Enclosure: Insurance of Policy No. LB 1250429 If the enclosure is smaller than letter, you may use stapler and stap on the upper left corner. I. Margins Bussines letter must have space in every edge. Margins make the letter more neat and let to make note for the reader and if the letter holed with punch before archived, none of the writing will be fault or lose because holes include in margins. Left margins is very important. The distance must three centimeters, content large read the letter without bring out side it from the archive. Right margins a half wide of left margins. Right corner is not straight, because every typing row length is different all. You can not obtain straight right margins by ordinary typing machine.

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2.1.3 Form of Business Letter in British Letterhead

Your ref : Our ref : Inside address Salutation Subject of letter Body of the letter

date

Complimentary close Signature Job title cc:

Encl.

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2.1.4 Business Letter in America In the form that more extreme, every unit of the letter like heading, inside address, body pharagraph typed on the left. But this formation inclining give a letter is too heavy on the left will be interested. That is why most of companies use a change of block style, that allow decided indentation. If we write letter on a paper without heading, the only sender address typed on the right corner above and devoted in order to straight with right margins. Inside address and several of salutations belong to title whatever it. That has by receiver of the letter. If the receiver has no another title, use Mr, Mrs or Miss. Mr and Miss always used and concise of Dr allowed fullfil. Many doctors prefer to use Mr in salutation, thus many of Proffesor and the person in academic enclose. If we know they prefer to the system, it certain ought to follow it. If we do not know they prefer or not, we better use their title. Many companies and proffessional bodies may be used Dear Sir or Mr. Johnson salutation in their opening letter and take on inside address complete two to five rows at the bottom of signature straight or equal with left margin. Kinds of this letter may use as a formal personal letter, depend on all information that needed for carbon copy in business letter. If basic cases that worked in the letter concerning special part of company, it is necessary to know that attention typed two rows at the bottom of inside address and two rows at the bottom of salutation.

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Example: John L. Jones, Inc. 1782 west 48th Street New York 38, New York Attention: Personnel Department Gentleman: Two form of complimentary close in business correspondent nowadays which often used in United States of America are Sincerely yours and Yours truly where both of them may be changed like Very truly yours and Yours sincerely. Formal correspondence or correspondent together with appointed prominent people may use respectfully. Only the first letter of first word written with capital letter and gesture as the whole always followed by a semi colon. Signature for business correspondence, always written at the top of name that typed. Title or position of people who signed the letter often shown at the top of name that typed. Example: Sincerely yours, Sincerely yours, J.L. Jones, Inc

John Smith Advertising Manager

John Smith Advertising Manager

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The main purpose of business letters is give the information to the receiver. But business correspondent also fill up by carbon copy or copies, a note of cases or trade occupation which done and decision that invented, by name and address of the letter receiver. Date, name and proffession who writes the letter,it had been a common to show initial of the writer and type written on the left margin, two rows at the bottom of the writter proffession. Initial of writter replaced for the first( for example, the writer of letter is john Smith and typewritten is Linda Bancroft). JS/LB JS:LB JS/lb JS:lb are for ways can be accepted, but choose one of them in write this initial.

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2.1.5 Form of Business Letter in America Letterhead (heading of the letter) dateline Inside address

Attention: Subject: Salutation

body paragraphs

Complimentary close

Signature title or position Writers and Typists initials

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2.2. GRAMMAR AND USE IN SENTENCE Grammar is the rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences. Here are some examples usage in sentences: (B) British English (A) American English 1. (B) The children were playing in the street (A) The children were playing on the street 2. (B) It is twenty miles trip (A) It is a twenty mile trip 3. (B) He did not come back straight away (A) He did not come back right away 4. (B) I can not come, as I have to work (A) I can not come, because I have to work 5. Is it going to rain? (B) I expect not (A) I guess not 6. (B) I have not gone to work now (A) I do not have to work now 7. (B) John suggested that she should come (A) John suggested that she come

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8. (B) Have you finished your home work? (A) Are you through with your home work? 9. (B) He finished his studies at the SMA Remaja in 1984 (A) He graduated from the SMA Remaja in 1984 10. (B) I learnt Japanese for two years (A) I studied Japanese for two years 11. (B) Mind the dog (A) Watch out for the dog

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2.2.1 Lists of Spelling in British and America As we know, British English is soo different with American English. The difference can be seen in pronounciation, spelling, and gestures. In this part, I will be mentioned several words that different between British and American English. British English By post Air srew Lorry Wind cone Angry Chest of drawers Timber Visiting card Wallet Water tap Straight away School fellow Wind screen Break ones journey Stop the night Stupid American English By mail Propeller Truck Wind sleeve Mad Bureau Lumber Calling card Bill fold Faucet Right away Schoolmate Wind shield Stop over Stay over Dumb

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English that be pronounced in America is different from English that be pronounced in England that the language has been developed in the different place. It is a characteristic of language that sure will get a change. Because of that, we can not say English that be pronounced in one place is better than English in the other places.

There are several words will be explained below, They are: Draught: Draught is a flow of cool air in a room or other enclosed space. In British spells Draught but in America is Draft. Draft: Draft is a system in which proffessional teams in some sport choose players each year from among college students. In British spells Draft but in America is Checkers Ground Floor: Ground Floor is the floor of a building that is at the same level as the ground outside. In British Spells Ground Floor but in America is First Floor Lawyer: Lawyer in British called Solliciator or Barrister. In America, Lawyer has a perfectly mean than Solliciator or Barrister. America was called Councillor

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2.3. RANKS IN BRIRISH AND UNITED STATE ARMED FORCES 2.3.1 Ranks in British Armed Forces Army 1. Field Marshal 2. General 3. Lieutenant 4. Major General 5. Brigadier 6. Colonel 7. Lieutenant Colonel 8. Major 9. Captain 10. Lieutenant 11. Second Lieutenant 12. Warrant Officer(Class I) 13. Warrant Officer(Class II) 14. Staff Sergeant 15. Sergeant 16. Corporal 17. Lance Corporal 18. Private 19. Recruit Air Force Marshal of The Royal Force Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer Warrant Officer(Class I) Warrant Officer(Class II) Flight Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Senior Aircraftman Leading Aircraftman Air Craftman Navy Admiral of The Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sublieutenant Acting Sublieutenant Warrant Officer(Class I) Warrant Officer(Class II) Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer First Class Petty Officer Second Class Leading Seaman Able Seaman Ordinary Seam General Lieutenant Major General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Warrant Officer(Class I) Warrant Officer(Class II) Colour Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Marine First Class Marine Second Class Recruit Marine Corps

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2.3.2 Ranks in United States Armed Forces Army 1. General of the Army 2. General 3. Lieutenant General 4. Major General 5. Brigadier General 6. Colonel 7. Lieutenant Colonel 8. Major 9. Captain 10.First Lieutenant 11.Second Lieutenant 12. Chief Warrant Officer 13. Warrant Officer Junior Grade 14. Master Sergeant 15. Sergeant First Class 16. Sergeant 17. Corporal 18. Private First Class 19. Private 20. Basic Private Airman First Class Airman Second Class Airman Third Class Air Force General of the Air Force General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Junior Grade Master Sergeant Technical Sergeant Staff Sergeant Navy Fleet Admiral Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant Junior Grade Ensign Commissioned Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Marine Corps General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Commissioned Warrant Officer Warrant Officer

Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer First Class Petty Officer Second Class Petty Officer Third Class Seaman First Class Seaman Second Class Apprentice Seaman

Master Sergeant Technical Sergeant Sergeant Corporal

Private First Class Private -

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2.4 LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES 2.4.1 Language Ideologies in British `The research reviewed by Woolard and Schieffelin(1994) focuses over whelmingly not on differences, but on commonalities underlying language ideologies in Britain, France, Canada, and United States and elsewhere, thus allowing different practices in speech communities of various types to be interpreted within a more general theoretical framework. Against this back drop, my purpose here is to explore differences in the way language ideologies manifest themselves in public life and in the beliefs of individuals about language in two English speaking countries: Britain and United States. While we need to acknowledge similarities in Peoples belief in the standard language ideology or in the passion with which issues of correctness are debated. It is also clear that there are differences, as axemplified above. Indeed, it is hard to imagine a long running moral panic in the United States with all the ingredients of the great grammar debate discussed by Cameron(1995). Equally, it is hard to imagine the British press focusing over many years on an English Only movement or reacting quite as savegely as their American counterparts to the idea that Black English should have a role in classroom, as in the Ebonics affair. Later in this chapter I consider the sociohistorical underpinning of current language ideologies in each nation.

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Woolard(1989) has commented on the strong and visceral nature of language attitudes. In Britain the strongest gut reactions emerge in response to social class or class related stereotypes, while in the United States they emerge in response to race and ethnicity, as illustrated above. In making the distinction, however, we need to acknowledge that the focus on race and ethnicity in the United States is mediated by class; Affrican-American Vernacular English is essentially a working class black variety. Foreign accents also seem to more subject to negative evaluation than in Britain, unless associated with prestigious groups-generally north Europeans, as pointed out by Lippi Green(1994) among others. For example, to the bemusement of many non-Americans in the University community, the unintelligibility of overseas Graduate student Instructors is a regular source of undergraduate grievance In 1996 objections were vociferous enough to impel a senior administrator of the University of Michigan to react in a fashion which bears the hallmark of an ideologically driven response. Specifically, British GSIs were not thought to be in need of special assessment and remedial instruction, while monolingual English speaking Irish students were. A major instantiation of American language ideology thus presents itself overwhelmingly as a negative and sometimes demonstrably irrational attitude to languages other than English, and by association to English spoken with a foreign accent. Spanish and Spanish-accent English and viewed with particular disfavour. Such hostile public discourse both underpins and is supported by a fierce and

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longstanding political conflict, most clearly visible in the so called English Only movement. The lobbying effort known as US English emerged in the early 1980s and is currently in 1997 particularly active, although its precise objectives are not clear. Broadly speaking, it opposes the use at all official levels of languages other than English. Although it originated as and remains essentially an anti-Hispanic, antiimmigrant coalition, it is hostile also to official educational provision for the needs of AAVE-speaking children, as shown by its interventions in the ebonics debate which became particularly acrimonious in January 1997. Associated with right wing political groups, US English has an extremely high public profile, characteristically eliciting and expressing intemperately strong, irrational and polarised reactions. For example, Cardenas presents a moderate and carefully argued case for initial instruction in Spanish for Texas children who are monolingual when they start school. Citing a somewhat geographically and historically challanged but supposedly religious objection.

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2.4.2 Language Ideologies in America American social and linguistic history and linguistic historiography presents even to the casual reader a very different picture from the dominant one in Britain. In the early twentieth century we find both a parallel and a contrast to the British situation. The parallel lies in the widespread but intemperately expressed fear of engulfment. However, the groups which are seen to threaten the social fabric are not an urban proletariat speaking varieties of English rooted in historically established dialects, but immigrants who are speakers of languages other than english. While the United States is inherently a multiculturaland multilingual nation, the historical roots of an ideological focus on monolingualism and assimilation run as deep as the corresponding British focus on class and rank. In this section, I will attempt to pull together several different starnds of relevant sociohistorical information, referring freely to Crawfords (1992) comprehensive collection of readings on the official English controversy. I shall consider later the issue of African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), which seems to be underpinned by a rather different but sometimes interacting set of sociohistorical developments. Before the nineteenth century, national multilingualism and personal bilingualism were generally accepted in the United States as a fact of life, for several compelling reasons. First, there are two colonial languages other than English in the United States: Spanish has been spoken in the South West and Florida for more than 400 years, and antedates English speaking settlements in these areas; French was spoken in the eastern areas formerly held and populated by the French and is still

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spoken in parts of the North East (particularly Maine) and the South. Second, a large number of indigenous American languages were spoken. Finally, the large Cerman population of the United States has a particularly long history of effective mothertongue maintenance.

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2 .5 Punctuation Quotation The most obvious punctuation difference between the two versions in the way quotations are marked. The original American version uses quotation marks (xx), while the British version employs inverted commas (x). American and British English also uses inverted commas and quotation marks differently, respectively, when marking a quotation within another quotation. For example: U.SOh, is that your suit? I said. This is the first I ever heard about it U.K Oh, is that your suit? I said. This is the first I ever heard about it

Commas In general, the British version had more commas than the American one, as can be seen in the table below The British Version 1.Broke off, ceasing to compel my attention 2. Days, under sun and rain 3. afternoon, and when 4. went toward the little office, mingling immediately The American Version 1.Broke off ceasing to compel my attention 2.Days under sun and rain 3. Afternoon and when 4. went toward the little office mingling immediately

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5. Discussing, in impassioned voices, whether 6. The evening too would be over

5. Discussing in impassioned voices whether 6. The evening, too, would be over

Hypens Another noticeable difference is the use of hypens The British Version 1. Anti-climax 2. Upstairs 3. Weather-proof 4. downstairs 5. To-morrow 6. Countryside 7. Rough-neck 8. To-night 9. Good-bye 10. A seventeen year-old boy The American Version 1. Anticlimax 2. Up-stairs 3. Weatherproof 4. Down-stairs 5. Tomorrow 6. Country-side 7. Roughneck 8. Tonight 9. Good-by 10. A seventeen-year-old boy

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