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Cloud Computing and Cloud Computing Opportunities

Tsang-Ming Chiang Mar. 28, 2012

Cloud Computing Research Center for Mobile Applications (CCMA)

Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

Outline
Web Evolution Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Opportunities

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Web Evolution

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Web Evolution
Machine to Human => Static Web page, PDF, search engine Human to Machine => Dynamic Web page, Flash, Online game

HTML, PDF

Status packets

Users

HTTP, FTP request

Web/FTP Server

Administrator

Users

Command packets

Game Server

Administrator

Machine to Machine => SOA, SOAP, XML

Human to Human => Cloud computing, EC2, S3, drop box

Administrator

User

SOAP, XML User Administrator

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Where are machines?

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Where are machines?


Cloud Computing Vendors

User
6

Administrator

User

Administrator

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Cloud Computing

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Types of Clouds
Hybrid Cloud
Public Cloud
Private Cloud
Service Users

Cloud End-User Services (SaaS) Cloud Platform Services (PaaS)


Middle ware, App servers, DB servers, Portal servers

Cloud Infrastructure Services (IaaS)


(virtualized servers, storage, networking)

Service Hosting Providers Providers

Public vs. Private vs. Hybrid


Public Cloud
A cloud computing environment that is open for use to the general public, whether individuals, corporations or other types of organizations

Private Cloud
A cloud computing-like environment within the boundaries of an organization and typically for its exclusive usage

Hybrid Cloud
Enterprises will likely move part of their IT to Public Cloud
Public facing web sites B2C & B2B transactions
Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

ITRI - Container Computer


- A Commodity-only Modular Design

Major Features Commodity H/W All-layer-2 data center network architecture Touch cooling-based thermal management Light-out management Fast deployment
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ITRI - Container Computer


- A Commodity-only Modular Design

More efficient power distribution and thermal management

Unification of all CPU, memory, networking and storage resources - Virtualization enables software-definable partition

Faster deployment: no on-premise installation is needed


Lights-out management
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The drivers of cloud computing

Source: Webtorials
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Characteristics of Cloud Computing Solutions


13 Centralization Virtualization Automation and Orchestration Dynamic creation and movement of resources Heavy reliance on the network (User) Self-service Usage sensitive chargeback Simplification Standardization (of the IT infrastructure) Technology convergence (convergence of LAN and SAN) (The development of) Standard Federation
Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

Virtualization
The potential of cloud computing is that of a flexible, shared pool of preconfigured and integrated computing resources that enables organizations to deliver better IT services faster, more reliably, and at a lower cost than with traditional data center models. The foundation for cloud computing is pervasive virtualization; the use of virtualized applications and operating systems throughout the enterprise and at every application tier.
Ref: http://www.vce.com/pdf/solutions/vce-vblock-infrastructure-technical-verview.pdf
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Virtualization

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Virtualization

VM VM VM

VM VM VMVM VM VMVM VMVM VMVMVM VMVMVM VMVMVM VMVMVM VMVMVM VMVM VMVM VMVM VM VM VM
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Virtualization
With more VMs per server, I/O requirements increase proportionally. Switch: High port density and port speed Hypervisor vSwitch issues VM-VM traffic on the physical server is isolated from the rest of the network Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB) Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator (VEPA) IT organizations are increasingly deploying hypervisors from multiple vendors Distributed Virtual Switching (DVS) Control plane - External centralized management system Data planes Open vSwitch
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Virtualization
VM migration Retain the its IP address VM needs to be on the same VLAN Migrates the VMs between disparate data center The data center LAN shall be extended across physical locations or data centers Requires at least 622Mbps for bandwidth and less than 5ms of round trip latency (Source: VCE) Migrate the data space associated with a virtual machine to the secondary storage location MPLS/VPLS, GRE, VXLAN
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Virtualization
One of the characteristics of cloud computing is increased reliance on the network => WAN
Virtual machine migration Virtual Desktops Collaboration Mobile Workers

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Virtualization
How to ensure acceptable application and service delivery over a WAN
WAN Optimization Controllers (WOCs) Application Delivery Controllers (ADCs) Virtual appliances

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Virtualization
WAN Optimization Controllers (WOCs) Improve the performance of applications and services that are delivered across a WAN Traffic compression Traffic caching TCP optimization (ex: HSTCP HighSpeed TCP) Open-source OpenNOP WANProxy TrafficSqueezer Vendors Cisco, Citrix, Exinda
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Virtualization
Application Delivery Controllers (ADCs) Improve the performance of servers Traditional SLB SSL offload => SSL Proxy Application firewall DOS attack prevention Response time monitor Delay: client site, network, ADC, server site Support SLAs for guaranteed user response time Support for server virtualization Control APIs (ex: SOAP) Vendors Array Networks, Brocade/Foundry, Cisco Systems, Citrix NetScaler, F5 Networks BIG-IP 22 Nortel/Alteon, Radware, Zeus Technology
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Virtualization
Virtual appliances
Example
Two or more appliances (ADCs) can be combined to appear as a single logical ADC A single physical ADC can be partitioned into a number of logical ADCs WOC, ADC, firewall, route

Easy to deploy application optimization functionality at a CCSPs data center Cost: Software-based < hardware-based
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Software defined networks and network virtualization


Removes the control plane from every physical and virtual switch and centralizing it in a control plane server Control plane OpenFlow controller NOX Controller (API) Data plane OpenFlow-enabled switch Programmatic control is a key aspect of the concept of a Software Defined Network (SDN) Uses an abstraction layer or network hypervisor between the network operation system (NOS) control software and packet forwarding data plane hardware
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Software defined networks and network virtualization


Potential benefits
Network virtualization
Multiple independent virtual networks can share a common physical infrastructure

Loops can be avoided


Control plane has a global view of the network topology

Achieve high levels of management integration across the data center or the cloud.

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Global server load balancing (GSLB)


Makes routing decisions based on criteria.

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Global server load balancing (GSLB)


The criteria that it uses to make a routing decision Performance currently being provided by each cloud. Value of the business transaction Cost to execute a transaction at a particular cloud Relevant regulatory requirements Benefits of cloud balancing Maximize performance Minimize cost Minimize cost and maximize service Regulatory compliance Manage risk
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Cloud Computing Opportunities

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Top 10 CIO Priorities


2010
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
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2011
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cloud computing Virtualization Mobile technologies IT Management Business Intelligence (BI) Networking, voice, & data communications 7. Enterprise applications 8. Collaboration technologies 9. Infrastructure 10.Web 2.0

Virtualization Cloud computing Web 2.0 Networking, voice, & data communications Business Intelligence (BI) Mobile technologies Document mgmt & Storage Service oriented applications & architecture Security technologies IT management
Source: Gartner

Copyright 2011 ITRI/CCMA

Enterprise IT spending challenge


Global Annual IT Spending
Estimated US$B 1996-2010
300 250 200 150 100 50 $0B Power and Cooling Costs Server Mgt and Admin Costs New Server Spending

Uncontrolled system management costs

Steady CAPEX spend: Not the key problem to address

Industry hypothesis is that clouds will be driven by scale. However to capitalize on this, providers must address the server management cost problem, not just CAPEX
Source: IBM Corporate Strategy analysis of IDC data, Sept. 2007

Cloud Opportunity@ TW

()

-, ,
(,,,, ,,,,,,)

(, , , , IBM, VMWareOpenStack)
(, , , , ,)


() ( )

( )


()

( )

( )

()

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Cloud Industry Analysis


End User
(SaaS) SaaS User Enterprise User Consumer
..

Data Center-less Company


(IaaS) (PaaS)

SaaS Provider Enterprise IT Department Web Application Developer

ITRI ISC PCHome

Cloud Data Center Operator HW Mega Data Center Hardware Provider SW

Cloud Application Platform Provider

..

.. .. .. .. ..

Mega Data Center Software Provider


MicrosoftVMware

..

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Role & Service Ecosystem of CCMA


Role
End Users / SaaS

Service Ecosystem
APP APP APP

End Users, Applications


SaaS

Professional Services

System Integration

IT manager, Internet Service Developer, SaaS Provider

Tech Support

PaaS, IaaS Data Center Operator


Data Center, Telecommunications

ClOudS + Commercialization Cloud in a box


CCMASolution Provider
Containers

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What Cloud?

Source: MIC20123
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Cloud Service Models


Software as a Service (SaaS)
Turn-key software hosted on the cloud and accessible through the browser Example: salesforce.com, and all major desktop software vendors

Hotel

Furnished Apartment

Platform as a Service (PaaS)


An operating environment including (application-specific) libraries and supporting services (DBMS, AAA) Example: Googles App Engine, Microsofts Azure, IBMs XaaS

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)


A set of virtual machines with storage space and external network bandwidth Example: Amazon Web Service
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Unfurnished Apartment

Public Cloud Wheres it heading?


Service oriented industry
IaaS industry will experience tremendous growth
Enterprise IT cost is getting out of control

PaaS will enable huge number of application developers


Exactly whats happening to iPhone App and Android Marketplace

SaaS
Unstoppable wave

Mobile internet access will surpass Desktop in 5 years


Smart phone will become a de facto device Users should be able to access their data from anywhere with any device
Desktop virtualization Device personalization

SMB industry will significantly reduce their in-house IT budget and move their Back-office to the cloud
Email Backup/Archive Online conference Collaboration & Document management

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What about Private Clouds?


Enterprise sees benefits of Cloud Computing
Commodity servers Significant cost reductions Horizontal scalability High Availability

Security will continue to be major concern for large Enterprises Birth of Data Center Industry
Container Computer for high efficiency and environmental conservation (Packaging, PUE, ) Bundled software (Cloud OS) for integrated service, high scalability, and availability

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Critical Factors of IaaS


Cost
Scalability + Elasticity Energy Efficiency

Empowering the Service Providers


Self-provisioning Security Manageability

High Availablity

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Moores law for Data Centers


1990 1998 2008 2015

Datacenter Colocation Generation 1 (10K Servers)

Quincy and San Antonio Generation 2 (100K Servers)

Chicago and Dublin Generation 4 Generation 3 (??? Servers) (300K Servers)

?
Server Capacity Server Density and Manageability Container Scalability

Google Warehouse Style Computer Data Center

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Timing is right
Data Center Budget

Technology Push
Broadband network connectivity getting faster and more reliable Internet service availability significantly improved Sufficient trust in infrastructure providers By many measures, Google is already a critical service for most of the world, and it is in the cloud! Big Data Software install on premise Software as a service (SaaS) Information technology (IT) on premise IT service as a rented utility (as in electricity)
IT should not and will not be a core competence for most corporations
Nicholas Carrs - Does IT matter? and The Big Switch
25%

Servers 15% 45% Power distribution & Cooling Power Draw (utility) 15% Network

Market Pull

Lowering up-front and day-to-day IT cost: pay only as much as actual resource usage

ITRI/ CCMA Cloud

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Current ITRI Projects


Goal: Enabling Taiwan to build cloud data centers for the world Container Computer 1.0
Manageable container computer Differences between a set of servers/switches/storage boxes and a container computer? Scalable storage/network architecture Comprehensive monitoring and control Energy-efficient cooling

Cloud Operating System 1.0


Integrated data center software stack for supporting a AWS-like service on a set of commodity HW Tight integration of storage, resource, security and system/network management

First fully tested prototype of both expected at 1/31/2011

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Container Computer

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Container Computer 1.0


Objective: Physical data center in a box Architecture Design Principles:
Commodity HW only No storage box, appliance or accelerator System-wide optimization server container computer warehouse computer Energy efficient Army of cheap commodity HW components Failure is a common case No HW element is indispensible

Major features:
All-layer-2 data center network architecture (Ciscos FabricPath) Scalable Internet edge appliance functionality Touch cooling-based thermal management Light-out management

Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

Containerization

More efficient power distribution and thermal management

Unification of all CPU, memory, networking and storage resources - Virtualization enables software-definable partition

Faster deployment: no on-premise installation is needed


Lights-out management
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Container Computer 1.0 Architecture


Physical Server
VM0 VM1 VMn

Layer-3 Border Routers

Layer-2-Only Data Center Network


Load Balancing Traffic Shaping Intrusion Detection NAT

Compute Server Rack


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Storage Server

All-Layer-2 Data Center Network


Scale to 1 million VMs Use only commodity switches: forwarding table < 16K Low fail-over latency: < 50 msec Load-balancing routing: use all links Support for hybrid cloud: Every VDC has its own IP address space Virtual machine-aware Unified LAN and SAN: QoS support Combination of PCIe and Ethernet
Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

Cloud OS

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What is Cloud OS?


Multiplexing multiple VDCs in a physical data center Virtual Data Center Management Physical Data Center Management

Service Provider
Provision and Deploy

Photo Sharing VDC

Video Streaming VDC

Web Conference VDC

DataCenter Operator

Physical Cluster
Cloud Application Developer Cloud Service Provider
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Cloud Service Infrastructure Administrator Carrier

Monitor, Diagnose and Configure Monitor and Configure Physical Resources Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA Virtual Resources

Cloud Operating System 1.0


Multiplexing virtual data centers on a physical data center

Design Goals

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Cloud OS 1.0 Service Model


Virtual data center consists of one or multiple virtual clusters, each of which comprises one or multiple VMs Users provide a Virtual Cluster specification
No. of VM instances each with CPU performance and memory size requirement Per-VM storage space requirement External network bandwidth requirement Security policy Backup policy Load balancing policy Network configuration, e.g. public IP address and private IP address range OS image and application image
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Why Cloud OS?


Traditional OS
Scheduling, placement, and migration

Cloud OS
Scheduling, placement, and migration High availability and scalability Inter-VM/VDC protection L3/L7 firewall

High availability and scalability


Inter-process protection L3/L7 firewall Turn off unnecessary HW

Turn off unnecessary servers

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Cloud OS Components & Features

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Components in Cloud OS 1.0


Virtual Data Center Management
Primary/Secondary Storage Management (EMC) Virtual Data Center Provisioning (VMware)

Physical Data Center Management (Tivoli)

Physical Resource Management (Dell)

Physical Compute Servers Distributed Main/Secondary Storage All-layer-2 Network


Inter-VM Load Balancing (F5)
Security (Checkpoint)

Power Management (Tivoli)


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Inter-PM Load Balancing and VM Fail-over (VMware)


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Physical Resource Mgmt


Physical Layout Topology Remote configuration Monitoring Trouble ticketing Root cause analysis Centralized Data Center Log analysis

PDCM
ticket

GLPI

Zenoss
event

Unified Logger

monitoring via SNMP


Switches & physical machines
Cloud OS components

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Virtual Resource Mgmt



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VDC, VC, VM provisioning Virtual Data Center Virtual Data Center Resource scheduling Image Repository VCluster Vcluster VCluster Load Balancing Failover Live Migration v v v v v v v v v v v v Auto-scaling mmm m mmm m mmm m Monitoring Usage Statistics PM PM PM PM
APs APs APs OS OS OS APs OS APs APs APs OS OS OS APs OS APs APs APs OS OS OS APs OS

APs APs APs

APs

OS

OS OS OS

Cloud Storage System


Cloud Storage aims at cloud-scale data centers, and is designed to be scalable, available and low-cost Key Features
Storage Virtualization: Thin Provisioning Reliability - Data is always protected Scalability - up to 1,000 ~ 1,500 disks, several petabytes of storage space Dynamic storage tiering Manageability Lower TCO
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Scalable Load Balancer


Client & Server
End User

SLB distributes site traffic among several servers


End User

SLB

Web server

Web servers

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All Layer-2 Network

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Security
A.Inter-VDC Isolation
1.Virtual Machine Packet Filter

B.Virtual Appliance
1.Host-based Intrusion Detection System 2.Layer7 Filter 3.Security Policy (Firewall) B 4.WAF 5.Authentication Services

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Mapping Virtual to Physical


Users create VDC, VC, VM according to their needs On-demand resource provisioning VRM maintains a PM pool Each PM registers to VRM upon startup VRM schedules VM onto PM per request
VDC VC VC

Static provisioning Model


Round-robin, worst-fit allocation To balance the workload between PMs The scheduler finds PMs that can host the capacity requirement of the VM Among those PMs, allocate one PM that has most residual capacity after the allocation
VDC VC

vm vm vm APs OS APs OS APs Node OS

vm APs OS

vm vm vm APs OS APs OS

vm APs OS

vm vm vm APs APs APs

vm APs

vm vm vm APs APs APs

vm APs

Node

APs OS

OS OS Node OS OS OS OS OS

OS Node

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Auto-scaling
Scale up
100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time 120

High watermark Break point Break point


Average workload

Low watermark

Scale down
140 160 180 200

Breach duration

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VM Migration and Consolidation


Consolidation for power efficiency External migration by VRM Network: handles GARP; Notify SLB; setup Dynamic consolidation and load VM network (e.g. IP) at the target balancing
Compute the possible consolidation plan
2-D vector bin packing

Apply the configuration through VM live migration

Power management
Turn off idle PMs Prediction for avoiding oscillation

Security: setup security on target PM for new VM; setup cluster level security policy Storage: detach source volume, attach target volume Meta information: remove from source PM, restore to target PM
candidate to be turned off
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Underlining technology: live migration


Hypervisor provides internal migration

15

15 D=25 B=20 D=25 80

E=20

B=20

A=65

A=65 C=60 E=20

C=60

64

PM1

PM2

PM3

PM1

PM2

PM3

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Multi-Dimensional Load Balancing

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Fail-over & Load Balancing


Virtual Machine Manager
1. One VM die 2. System is busy 2.1 Migrate to meet load balancing 1.1 Restart the dead VM

VM

Die

I am the new one!

Monitor Hypervisor
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Monitor

VM Failover
Status monitoring
VRM monitors both VM and PM PM agent reflects VM status to VRM Invalidate a PM if it fails the health check Invalidate a VM if it disconnects for 60 seconds

VM failover
Persistent VM data, stored in shared Cloud storage VM level
Automatically restart a crashed VM Provided by the hypervisor (currently Xen 3.1)

PM level
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PDCM notifies VRM upon detection of defective PM VRM reallocates VMs on a defective PM to other PMs
Copyright 2012 ITRI/CCMA

ITRI Cloud OS Summary


Turnkey IaaS solution for Data Center Operators Integrated data center software stack that provides
virtual resource management, storage management, network management, load balancing, security, and virtual/physical data center management Targets at cloud-scale data centers and supports virtual data centerbased IaaS

Currently evaluated by Taiwan telecom providers Roadmap


Hybrid cloud Federated architecture Traffic shaping and QoS consideration
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Demo

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Architecture

Service Service node2 node3 XEN Service node1


Notebook1

Server load balancers Compute node 1

Video servers

Video Video client1 client2

XEN

Notebook2

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Load balance

Service Service node2 node3 XEN Service node1


Notebook1

Server load balancers Compute node 1

Video servers

Video Video client1 client2

XEN

Notebook2

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Fail over

Service Service node2 node3 XEN Service node1


Notebook1

Server load balancers Compute node 1

Video servers

Video Video client1 client2

XEN

Notebook2

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Web Evolution (cont.)

Sensor User

Admin

User
User Admin User User

Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensors: detect the temperature or humidity, etc to do argument reality Sensor

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Q&A
-- Thanks
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Container Computers

VRM Landscape
Commercial Solutions
VMware vCloud - http://www.vmware.com/solutions/cloud-computing/ Citrix Essentials for XenServer http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/products/subfeature.asp?contentID=1686947 VMOps http://www.vmops.com Xen Cloud Project - http://www.xen.org/products/cloudxen.html Eucalyptus Project - http://open.eucalyptus.com/ Open Nebula - http://www.opennebula.org/ Nimbus - http://workspace.globus.org/ Trend (TCloud Computing) Amazon Web Service http://aws.amazon.com/ GoGrid - http://www.gogrid.com/ Rackspace Cloud Computing - http://www.rackspacecloud.com/ Convirture http://www.convirture.com
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Open Source

Hosting Solution

Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB)

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Open vSwitch
Management Interface
NetFlow, sFlow, SPAN, RSPAN, CLI

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