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T B~ Il.eEarches, of which the first put is now submitted to the public. were made in the para« Greece iDcladed within the three pomt& of Mouat At108, Cape Td!MrVS, and the city of ~polloau. ia IllJrimDn..

The chances of the public service having carried the author at difFereat times in the course of ten years iDto those provisoes of the Turkish Empire, and having obliged him to reside in them not Jess than four years, it would haft been an unpardonable aegtigeace IlQt to have employed his leisure DlOIDents in making lOIDe inquiries into -the prescat stMe of a country, ., interesting as it is impriectlJ kDown.

His principal object was a comparison of the ancient and modem geography, by con&ontiog the informatioo CODtained in·tIIe BDCient aGtboa with the actual state of the COIIIltry.

The vernacular tongues (the only key to the attainment of accurate intelligence in foreign COWltriea) baving been ODe of his earliest objects b

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of inquiry, some remarks upon them may form a suitable introduction to the other branches of research.

It was the author's first iutention to comprise within the limits of a Preliminary Essay, these observations upon the languages now spoken in 'Greece, but the very scanty notice, which the public possesses upon the modem Greek 'dialect, tempted 'him to believe that he could not have been more brief without being less useful, while the information which he had it in his power to collect, relative to the other languages in use within the limits already mentioned, increased the work to the bulk of a separate volume, and induced. him to present it to the public as a First Part of these Researches.

He cannot suppose that thus insulated it will be very widely interesting, but it may add something to the stock of the Philologist, and may not be unacceptable to those, whose duties or other pursuits may carry them into Greece, at a time, when our possession of some of its islands has increased the communication between that country and England.

The modern dialect of the Greeks bears the same comparison ~i~ its parent language, as the poverty and debasement of the present generation to the refinement and opulence of their ancestors," In

• Talis homioibus oratio, qualia vita. Seneca epiat. 114.

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regard to practical utility, however, it has the advantage of being the spoken dialect of two or three millions of people at the present day, and of being actually in 'use by a greater or smaller proportion of the inhabitants in' every part of the Turkish empire. A perfect knowledge of it cannot be acquired without the previous study of Hellenic, but it would be a very suitable appendage to the customary academical pursuits; 'and by leading to a better understanding of the physical and national peculiarities of Greece and its inhabitants, as well as to a variety of analogies in the customs and opinions of the ancients and


modems, it will introduce us to a more correct acquaintance with the

most important branch of ancient history, and to a more intimate familiarity with the favorite language 'of Taste and Science.

r '

By many persons the author may be thought to have bestowed more "attention than it deserves upon the poor and barbarous dialect of Albania. It must be considered curious, however, as holding a distinct character in the midst of the languages by which it is surrounded, being in all probability the ancient Illyric, with some alterations of the same" kind, as Latin and Greek have undergone from the Teutonic and Sclavonian conquerors of Southern Europe,"

Subsequent events, which have checked the torrent of French ambition, may have diminished the political importance of Albania,


• The modern DJyric is Sclavoniu.

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but at the time these Researches were made, its dialect had reeeived an additional claim to notice from the changes which had brought the country where it is spoken into contact with our own enemies, who then made DO secret of their design or seeking a road through AlbaDia i.uto Greece. Under these circumstances it became doubly interesting to obtaia some knowledge of the language of a nation, irregufar and wndisciplined as soldiers, but possessing a perfect familiarity with the ase of arms; rerocions and ignorant, and uncivilized, bot cherishing an enthusiastic partiality for their native mountains, and adding to the advantages of a country, which opposes the strongest natural obstacles to an invader, that determination to resist all foreign intruders, and that confidence in their ability to defend themselves, which had, until that period of the war, been found very deficient in some more civilized nations of Europe.

The dialect of BuJguia is limited to the Northern districts of Macedonia, and taat of V! allachia to some colODies dispersed along the nm~ of Mount Pi1tdw, and in the baDSVerse ridges, which unite it with :MOUDt Oly1WJlfU.

The Turkish is a fifth language spoken within the boundaries or Greece, but it is obvious that any remarks upon it would be better adapted to a work relating to Asia Minor or Constantinople, where it • spoken in purity, than to Greece, where it is little understood, even by the Musulmans themselves, and where its use is confined to the large cities, and some districts in .Macedonia.

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In the Seeoad Part of these Researches it is proposed to present a Comparative VieW' of the Ancient and Modem Geography of Greece, illustrated by a. delineation of the country. The collection of materials for the coutruction of a Map of Greece was indeed the Author's chief pursuit during his leisure hours in that country, but its complete execution was a task too arduous for a single person, often disturbed in his operations by the usual obstacles, attending an ill-regulated government, and an uncivilized state of society, as well by many political contingeDcies, and the superior claims of public duty.

In the hope of influencing some future traveller to direct his attention to the districts with which the Author of the present Researches is least acquainted, it may here be remarked, that his materials are chiedy defective in regard to the interior oftbe North of MtJCtcUmiathe gulf of Torone, and its two adjacent peninsulas-the East coast of the Morea between Astr6 and Monemvasfa-and the iSlands contiguous to the coast of Greece. Of Euhaa, and the islands near the eoaat of MagJtaia, he has tbe less reascm to lament, that cireumltaDces did not admit of his attempting a nearer examination, as he believes tbey have been explored by a former traveller, of whose laban geography formed a 1earling part;· and who, in regard to every other pari of Greece, would have left the Aothor but a slender task to perform, if hit observations had been communicated 10 the public.

• Mr. Hawm..

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In the islands of the Western coast of Greece, the deficiencies of the author's Researches have become of little moment, sincea portion of the late Ionian Republic has been taken under "the protection of His Majesty's arms: and it is to be hoped that so good an opportunity of obtaining the most accurate knowledge of the topography of 'those islands will not be neglected ..

The length of time which must elapse before the Second Part of these Researches can be completed, renders it difficult to foresee, whether a third part will be required. The great number of intelligent travellers, who have lately been tempted, by their exclusion from the rest of Europe, added to the increased facility which 'has lately been "presented to their progress in Greece, to visit that interesting region, will probabJ y anticipate every thing new, which the Author might have to offer upon the state of societyin the country, 'or its present appearance and condition.

His researches in Greece extended over too large a tract of country to admit of that minute examination 'of particular spots, or existing remains of antiquity, which are necessary to give much information to the artist, or satisfaction to the antiquary, but he may be able to afford some assistance in directing their attention to those places, where it may be employed to the best advantage.

In the different classes of Natural History, as wen as in the minuter

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details of some of the arts of modern Greece, he regrets the Jess his inabilit.1 -to enter ioto such particulars as could alone be satisfactory in the present advanced state of science, when be considers that in the pursuits of Mineralogy, Botany, Zoology and Agriculture, he has been preceded by travellers, .. well qualified to investigate those branches of knowledge, and who directed their especial attention to inquiries, important in every eountry, but in Greece rendered doubly interesting by the light which they reflect upon many of the writings of antiquity.

But the objects of which the discovery leads more immediately to an intimate acquaintance with the polished times ofGreece are mana. scripts or ancient authors, and monuments of ancient art, Of the former of tbeae there appears DO very ftattering prospect of. making any important acquisitions, but scarcely any doubt of being amply rewarded for our labor and expense in searching for the latter.

:M. de ViUaitlOD,. in the course of a tour, which had tOt its princjpal object the collection of manuscripts, examined Attica, Dlany parts of the Morea, the vicinity of'Conetantinople and of Smyrna, Mount Athas and all the Archipelago j and although Dr. Clarke has since had the good. fortune to mako an important discovery. in one tIf the i8lands, it if! not likely tbat much bas escaped the zeal and erudition of the French tral"elJer.

Mr. Hawkins, in the course of a four years' residence ill Greece,

• Mr. Hawkins, aod the late Dr. J. Sibthorpe.

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in which he visited almost every province, succeeded only in procuring a transcript of the works of Josephus, and a few copies of the four Gospels. Mr. Carlyle was equally unsuccessful in regard to the classical authors of ancient Greece.

'. In the course of the Author's tours he visited several religious houses, where no European traveller had preceded him, in the memory of the persons who then occupied them ; and though he was always per .. mitted to look over the old books, generally thrown aside in some obscure comer of the building, he never succeeded in finding any manuscripts, but such as related to the Greek church, its doctrines, and ceremonies, with the exception of one manuscript of the Annals of Zonaras. He often found the earliest and best printed editions of the Greek classics.

His inquiries, however, In this department, not being a leading object of his travels, must be considered as very imperfect, and it is to 'be hoped, that a more complete search for manuscripts than has' yet been made, will hereafter be attempted. throughout Greece. With a view to such an undertaking, it may not be useless to remark, that the convents, which the Author had not an opportunity of .visiting, are t~ose situated in Mount Olympus, and in the districts of A'grafa,· Asprop6tamo, Kravari, Karpenisi, and )falandrina, being the mountainous regions formerly inhabited by the

• In A'pfa there is said to be a good library at theeonvent.of mndioa.

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Dolope», Dryopu, and a part of the .£tolia~s and L~cri Osola. There are likewise some situations in the great ridge of Mount Pindus, to the North of Konitsa, which he did not visit; and he cannot take upon himself to decide, that a more accurate search than he had the convenience of making in the seven monasteries of the Metcora, on the rocks of Kalabaka in ThelaalYt would be a hopeless undertaking, although their position in the principal pass of Mount Pindus, which exposes them to be frequently pillaged by the Turkish and Albanian troops,

-.,. .' - -'

together with the circumstance of their haviqg been "fur many years

f!ntirely deserted, would not lead him to be very sanguine as to the success of any inquiries in that situatio», Beyond the limits of Greece Proper, the convents of Servia and Bulgaria, and of a part of the coasts of .dria Minor, ~m not unworthy of examination with a view to the diacovery of manuscripts.

The treasures of ancient art, with which the excavations at Athens, lEgi,"" and Phigaieia, have rewarded the labors of those who under .. took them, and enriched the stock of models for the improvement of the arts in civilized Europe, promises better success in the discovery of ancient monuments in Greece. TJIere is, indeed, hardly one of the more celebrated cities either on the C088~, or in tbe interior, which does not, by its present appearance, give ample promise of valuable discoveries.


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Before this preface is concluded, the reader may perhaps expect to be put more fully in possession of the grounds, upon which the Author presumes to claim attention to his remarks upon Greece. It may not be improper, - therefore, to give an outline of his journies in that country, altogether omitting a great number of excursions, which he made from various parts of it, for the sake of viewing particular spots.

When he arrived at Athens in the year 1802, in company with Mr.

Hamilton, ana the late Lieutenant-Colonel Squire, of the Royal Engi .. neers, he was already habituated to Oriental travelling and Turkish customs, having traversed the interior of Asia Minor, and a great part of its coasts, having passed some months in Cyprus, and the principal islands of the Archipelago-seen the greater part of Syria and the Holy Land-twice crossed the deserts, which separate Palestine from the Delta-spent a year in Egypt, which he had examined from the coast of the Mediterranean to the Cataracts of the Nile-s-nor was it for the first time, that be then visited Attica itself.

In the company of his two friends, he made the tour of Attics, Argolis, and Carinthia,' traversed Baotia and Phocis in various directions, and advanced North as far as Zituni.

In his passage by sea from Athens to Malta, the ship in which they

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were embarked was cast ashore on the coast of Cerigo, where, the passengers having hardly had time to gain a footing upon the rocks, before the extremity of the masts was the only part of the vessel yisible above the water, he lost the greater part of the memoranda of his former journles=-a misfortune little to be regretted in regard to his travels in Egypt and Syria, as he had then the advantage of accompanying Mr. Hamilton, whose papers upon those countries have since been recovered, and in part published, and whose remarks were a duplicate of the Author's own, in' those parts where their joint observations had required nothing more than diligence and fide~ity, but in every other respect were far more valuable.

Returning into Greece in the year 1805, upon a special mission from His Majestys Government, he had an opportunity, during that and the succeeding year, of undertaking several joumies both in the :Morea and in Northern Greece. From the vicinity of Elis and Olympia. he passed through a part of Messe"ia and A.,·cadia to Tripolitza, the modern capital of PeloponneSUl. From hence turning Southward, he made a complete tour of Laconia and Me8lenia, comprehending the extseme points of Monemvas1a,· Cape Mataplm, and Moth6ni, and after examining Arcadia in several different directions,

• By the Italians called N'poli di Malvasia.


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he-returned to Patra in June i806. Having made a short stay at this place, he proceeded through iEtolia and Acarna,nia, to the modem city of Ioannina in Molosm, from whence after crossing the Pindus into Upper lIacedonia, and recrossing it into the Illyrian plains, his further progress in that direction was impeded by a severe illness at Apol1onia, which obliged him to return to Ioannina, through the beart of Southern Albania. He should here remark, that before he had commenced his journey in the Morea, he had seen the part of Albania, which lies nearer the coast, in a journey from Corfu to Tepeleni, by Delvino and Arghir6.Kastro.

In November 1805, he entered Thessal!J by the Southern branch of the past of Metzovo, visited the central plains of The83aly, examined Phocis, Beotia, and Attica in many directions, together with a part of Eubaa, and after some stay at Athens returned from that city by the North of Attica into Beoua, having traversed which, he passed through the districts bordering upon the Corinthian gulf to Salona, and from thence tlirough the mountainous regions of the -Locri OzoUz to E'pakto. From Patra he set out on a second tour in the Morea, and entering Arcadia from the side of Eli8, again traversed that province in different directions, and returning to Patra, made the tour of the Achtean states to Corinth, and at length, in the spring of 1806, sailed from Patra to CorfU.

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In a pauage by sea in the summer of 1800, from Corfu to JlOfMt Atho, in MiJCtdonia, he bad leisure to examine the ialanda of Lefkildba, Thiaki, and Kefalonie, some parts of the South cout of the Morea, which he bad not before seen-the islands of Tlerlgo, Milo, PAro, ADdfparo, Ada, DUi, Miconi, Skiro, and landed upon ~cte or the Peninsula of Mount Athos in October 1806.

After making the tour of this district, he proceeded by.AtmttAu and the canal of XerlEe8 along the Eastern part of Clullcidice. to Otfan., and by A.1Iaphipolil and the pla.ins of the river 8t"",,00 to 86n. and Salonfka. From this city he made the tour of the greater part of both L( and Uppe; MatedMia, and passing from the latter province into Pe~ by the pass of ~rvia, followed the Western foot of Mount Olympus, and entered once more the Thessalian plains. From thence, after some excursions in the vicinity of Larissa, he returned by the pass of Tempe along the coast of the Thermaic gulf to Salonika.

At the close of 1808, having again received from His Majesty the honor of a commission in Greece, the Author employed several intervals of leisure, in the course of the ensuing year, in a more' accurate survey of Acarnania, lEtolia, Epirus, and the mountainous regions to the Eastward of Ioannina and A'rta, anciently inhabited by the Stymphtei, Athamanes, Agrtei, &c., the ruins of Calydon being


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the boundary of his journies to the South, and the modern towns of Paramithia and K6nitza to the North. LastJ y, for" the sake of "examining every part of Thessaly, which he had not already seen; he made another complete tour in that province from" the sources of the Peneus to Mount Ossa, the PagaslZan gulf, and the canal of EublZa.

In this sketch of the Author's travels in Greece, where the want of any perfect map has obliged him to use the ancient or modern name, according as it happens to be the better-known, he has adopted the same method of distinguishing the ancient by the italic print, "to which" he intends to adhere throughout the work; and it is hoped, thatthereader; by referring to D' Anville's Grrecia Antiqua, and to Arrowsmith's last edition of Turkey in Europe, will be able to trace his progress.


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Present power of the Greek ~rs, Vowels and DiphthOngs, CoD8OD1lDtI,



Number, Cue, and Gender, Articles,

Declensions of Substantives, FeminiDell in • aDd 'b Hellenic nouua imparisyllabic,

Hellenic Substantives .ubject to coatrsctioa, Diminutives,



1 i 3 8 9 g

10 11 11 Ii 15 18 19 SO

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Auxiliary verbs, Verbs,

Barytone,-their declension, Circumflex,

Compound Tenses, Formation of the Tenses, Indeclinable Adjunct,

Past Tense or Aorist, Voices,

Anomalous Verbs,


Conjunctions, InterjectiOD8, ate. Prepositions, .

Derivativ ... ad o.q,ouml. Worita, Qrthography. •


Observations 00 the Dialect and Literature Of the MociernOreeb,

Catalogue of ·Authors,



Specimens of" Romaic Compoiition, Poetical Compositions,





Cleantha and Abroeome;

t4 25 25 27 i9 S2 SS M S8 S8 40 40 42 44 49

IIi 77

97 99 101 117 1ft liS lSI

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RtI88-Angl~Gaul, 140
Anacreootica, . '155
Songs, 157
Prose Compoaitioos, ~ 163
nc.yg«41ia Nanp"'~, 172
Kom'. Translation of ~ca,ria, ., 186
~~ njft',n'~, 198 SECrION IV.

Of the Tzakouic Dialect,


lkmarb on the Proooociation of fh:e M~em ~reeb, ,& to the letters of the ~phabet,

,A. to Accents,

,G~oenl Observations OD Educatioo, kc. •

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Outline of Albanian History, .• Gqrapbical Divisiooa of the Country,

237 255


Sounds of the Albanian Language, Esea, of Albanian Grammar, • NoUDI Substantive,




Anomalou. Verb." • Conjunction., Preposition., Vocabulary,

•• 260
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Historical Remarks upon the WallachillDll, ~

And BulgarillDll, 875

Pentaglon Exercise. in English, Romaic, Albanian, Wallachian and

Bulgarian, ess

Appendix 1st. • 40S

Appendix id.

443 461 470

Index of proper Names .. Additions and Corrections,

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SECTION I.-Present fK1tDer of the Greek Lettera-Accenta-Num!Jer, ClUe, . and Gentler-Articles-Declemiom of Subs/anti'0e8-Diminuti'OU-4tfjecti'0e8 - Pronouns- Verhs- AthJerbs - Ccw9unctiona, ttc. - PrepositionsDeri'Oati'PU and CompDUtld Worda-Orthography.

T HE modern Greeks call the ancient language Hellenic, CBU~,1'...j 1'AliWtNI.,) and their own dialect Romaic, (PUJpmi~.)·

• The learned among the modem Greeks, wishing to avoid the word Romaic, apply to their dialect the epithets of xo.~, ,;", ,",I"f'';'' TlIDf'~' xvS«1., &".1.'1, "I"Mu,u.".-but some diatinctive A

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The letters in Romaic are the same as in Hellenic.

CI is sounded as - a
• ... e
7J 1
• 1
0 0
• io i
.. 0
ell • , e
" i
o. - 1
u, i
au u ClU before f', ,)" 8, ~, )., p., II, p, and the vowels - av

bei>retbe o1ber letters .'. af

.u before f', ')', 8,~, )., p., II, p, and the vowels - ev

before the other ietteJ'8 ef

In Italian.·

appellaboDS fQr the two languages being necessary, there seem none more proper than Hellenic aod Romaic.- These two worda will recur so often in the following remarks, that it will be conyement to express them by their initials, H. aod R.- The words, c9mmonl!J, aomdimtl, generally, will also be found of too frequent occurrence, but in speaking of a language, defined by DO rules of grammar, 01' staodards of propriety, it is unavoidable.

: - TIre relatiYe posibonsof Greece aod ltaly-the cenaexion aod intercourse of their iilhabi'canta in all agee-the original a8inity of the 'plIrent lauguages, from which the modem dial~ are derived, and the similarity of the elemental sounds, are 'sufficient reasoDS for comparing the u.p of R. with those of Italian, in preference to any other language, although the inataoces of rellelDblance, which will frequently appear, may be often equally applicable to Ilny of the other modern languages of Europe.

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From the foregoing comparison it appears, that the five Italian vowd,s, being sufficient to express all the vowel-sounds of the Romaic tongue, including the sounds of those combinations usually called diphthongs, are the- fittest to be adopted in writing Romaic words in Latin characters. It must not be asserted, however, that there are no diphthongal sounds in Romaic. 14, II, '0, '0Il, are often proper diphthongs, having the sound of two vowels with the time of one, and are then commonly written with a curved line underneath, thus, 14. In


poetry, two or more vowels are often formed into one syllable .


. "

Of these, x, )., fA-, II, !, W", p, 0-, '1', have in general the sounds of. their. corresponding letters in the English, and many other languages of Europe.


, r

Has the sound of our v. When the modem Greeks WiJh,to'.expr~s· our b in writing, they make use of /W, and sometimes vtr.


Has a soft guttural sound between the English g and y consonant.

From the' nature of the \"o'Wel sounds it. follows, that this BOund of g is softer before I, 'J, I, tI, Of, II, 41, than; before the other vowels and diphthongs, where it is uttered deeper in ·the mouth, and more

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resembles, the g of the rest of Europe, similarly placed. Before '1,. x, !,' x' it has the nasal sound of our ng. When, the modern Greeks wish to express the sound of our g before the slender vowels. they use '1x.

. ~ ..


.The -sound .of this letter is the same as. that of. the .English th, in that, thus, thine. To express our d, the modern Greeks use w. The sound of 8 is one of the chief difficulties, which the natives of France and Italy experience in pronouncing Romaic. 80 little notion have they of this sound, that an It. grammar of the vulgar Greek, now before me, directs the a to be pronounced 'like an 8 between two vowels.


Has the ordinary sound of an English z, and is not like that of the Italians, to express which, the, modern Greeks make use of 'r~. ~, however, before the slender vowels, is more; usually, pronounced like the It. c before. those vowels; or dike. the English' ch .; :t: and 'r~. before the other vowels has the same force as the It. ci, similarly placed, or as the English ch . .".r expresses the It. g before the slender vowels; or English j.

, • Tbissound was probabl, borrowed from the .oatiOD8 of the Eut and: North,' who overran Tbrace, M~oia, and Greece in the. middle agea; and ma, also have been introduced about tJae same period into the IUSUle of Italy, in w~h the mcdem utterance of c before the .Iender vowel., is probabl, the onl, material- de,iation from the mode, in which the RomUJI pronounced Latin.

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Is uttered exactly as our soft th, in the words think, throne.. Like i, it is a great impediment in the way of a right pronunciation o~ Romaic, by most of the continental nations of Europe, and gives the English a great advantage over them in this particular.' Porcius, in his-Grammar of the vulgar Greek, calls it " Littera, a solis fere Greecis pro ferenda. "


After '1 and II, assumes the sound of g, even when the first letter is the final 'Of one word, and the second the initial of the succeeding wordthus t1')'X~" ~,; Kt»1"l" angathi, tin Gritin.


When ). comes before a consonant, in words of H. origin, the modem Greeks often convert it into p,-as Iia,~, 4PP.U~, ~p6G&, ", 'p9-n, fOI ca.).~, U:J..p.u~, ';).6«, •• ).~. The sound and writing of x). and xp, are often used indifferently. On the other hand, the p of Hiwords is sometimes, _ but not so often, converted into ). in R.,as in 7I'Mp7J prow, from H. 1rptDptI, a"JJ."p', plough, from H. I1.po-rPO"; ti.XMa• wild pear, from H. ti.vas, t13os.


When this letter comes before 'It, its sound is changed to m, and that of 1r to b; and this change even takes place, when the former letter closes one word, and the other begins the succeeding word, as ~" n,r4" tim b6rtan, ,.~" 1r4,.lpa.,tom batera,

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. There are some exceptions to the ordinary sound of this letter: 1. When it assumes (as has been already remarked) the sound of our b after II- and ,.-i. When, in Hellenic words, it is followed by 'J", when it is sounded by the vulgar indifferently 4J or so, but more commonly f· Hence the corrupted orthography of f'T for ST. so common in R.-as 4nGJX~' p&4'J"GJ, for 1ITWX~' p41tTw.

Never has the force of z, as occurs in many of the languages of Europe, when coming between two vow:els. When the modem Greeks wish to express our sound of sh, they use tTtT, or tTl, but their articulation of this sound is in general not so harsh as ours.


Whenever this letter follows" it receives the sound of our d, as .,.,.poni, endropi,-and even when the letters are in different words,

as n, "." ton daron.

Is pronounced like our f; butit may be remarked, that the sound of this letter; as well as its kindred sound of v (Fa) is not so harsh as with -us, or the. French, the lips being not 80 much pressed by the teeth in the utterance of them.

.. . ~

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With the exception of 1; this is the only Jetter for which the English have no corresponding sound; but they may learn it very nearly from

the Scotch, Irish, Welsh, and Spanish. The Greek. x, however, seems to be the softest of all the modifications of the aspirated k, . and is one of the chief ornaments of Romaic pronunciation.

Has the sound of our ps.

Among the lower classes, there is a tendency to prefer the sounds of b, g, d, to those of p, k, 1, and to pronounce (especially in the beginning of words) 2', x, 'f', with the sound of the former three letters. .In names of plaees, this is not uncommon with all classes, arising from the custQIQ in R. of expressing names of places in the accusative, with the. preposition .Is, and article 'f'~11 or nj,; whence 'Ir" x, 'f', after the 11 of the article, have the force of b, g, d.

Following the principJes of the foregoing explanation, it seems convenient, when writing R. in Latin characters, to denote the consonants, and their combinations, as follows:

z, x, A, "', II, E, 7r', p, tT, 'f',

by the letters corresponding to them in our own alphabet •


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qs x ,.",


by v
by gh
by g
by db
by th
by f
by kh
by ps
by b
by d
by g
by ng
I t~
by}th '1 before ., '1, I, 'I, 0', II, IIU, '1 before the other letters,



p.7r' - "'

')IX, in the beginning of '1 word,

, p, or 1?', in the middle of a word,

7'~, having the power of the English ch, or Italian c before the slender vowels, - "'~' having the power of the English j, or Italian g before the slender vowels, -

Some of these sounds never occur but in words taken from foreign languages, or in vulgar' or provincial utterance, or in proper names ; but as the necessity of writing proper names in Romaic characters occurs continually to strangers, some rule should be found for performing it correctly.


The modem Greeks make use of these in writing, but take no notice

of them in utterance: thus the word "E),),'1"'s is pronounced by them

, ,

EHines, and the ancient language Elliniki; but I have thought it

better to use the established word Hellenic, even when employing it in the maimer of the modern Greeks.

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In wri~mg; the modem Greek, ~e use of the grave, acute, and circumfIeK aeceats, in the, same Qt&oDer as. .in H.; as, we)) in all radical word. bor.rowed frem the UlQther-toogue, ... in foreign .words •. adapted to R. grammar. The position of the accent, likewise, in all; derivatives and inflexions of declinable words, follows the H. rules; so \hat to a Gr .. k. scholar. familiat With, tbe a~D~atiolJ.. Qf the aneient language, the jJrmmnciation .• R. is not diffiCWt;· noth~ more ~D§ required, tlmn .to ~ the Jette,.-· iq. the manner: .~l~~d, deseribed, andto gire the prominent tone to the accented syIJ .. ble, i~ the s8me man~r as accented syllables are Pl'ono~ced in our own, ,Ot any other modem. language. U naecB8temedt, as we are iB England. to pay any attention to the guidance of: aeceats in readi~8 Greek, and hence often neglecting them altogether, even those among us, who are well acquainted with the ancient language, find the observance of accent the most difficult point in the acquisition of the modem language.

No distinction being maOe by the moderns, in the sounds of tke three accents, they may all be expmsed'; by the .aeute, -when writing R. in Roman characters.


The Romaic has no dual, and only four cases, nom. gen. acc. and voc. distinguished by their terminatiqns; as iuH, The H. dative is sometimes supplied by the genitiYe, bilt mote freqUently by the ace. and the preposition als- The p.; too', is, oftea supplied by the ace, and


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J.7I'O; and in some cases the 4'80 is not inelegantly dropt, as I,"S tTtIJ~ 4.'80 'A.6~14; or, t,,"S tTtIJ~ 'A16~.«, II heap of lionel; 1114 XO~T' +tIJ/41, II bit of bread. The use of the 'proper genitive is confined to expressions strictly possessive, as ,j +url T'oU tb6p,I,'80fl, the ,oul .of man; 1j XoP'4~ T'oil 81"apofl, the top of the tree. The use of the vocative is of rare occurrence, and always formed according to the practice in H.

There are three genders in R. Subs. neuter are most numerous, many H.' nouns, of the masc. and fern. gender receiving a neuter termination in R.; generally nouns of inanimate objects, but sometimes those of animated beings, as XOpIT~IO", or XOplT~', girl. The vulgar also often give neuter terminations to nouns of inanimate substances, when the better classes use the same genders and termi .. nations, which they have in H. - as n ~fI"", the hill, i-nstead of J fjou~.


The definite article a, ,j, T~, is used and declined as in H. except that in the plural number, ti is commonly used for GUO in the nom. and T'tJUS, or 'lis, instead. of T'&s, in the acc. pl.

The modem Greeks, also, make use of an indefinite article, borrowed, as in many of the modem languages of Europe, from the first numeral, and thus declined:

Nom. Gen. Ace.

'''fAS, p./«, '114. t,,~, /4t"S, Ins.

tJ d ,,,

."«", or '''«''', /41«', .,«.

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P.orcius, in his Grammar of the vulgar Greek, reckons six declensions of nouns substantive; some of the modem grammars, nine. Instead of enumerating them, it will be sufficient to remark the changes w.hich class of H. nouns has undergone in R~

1. Masculines in fAf and '1,.

Accordiul to the most vulgar usage, these nouns are thus declined :

Sing. nom. "usl"",, gen. aMI"", ace. dl,.,..,

Pl. nom. tai61W~'~ gen. cW8,"ca.,

ace. aM,"a&us· •

By persons somewhat more polished, they are employed with the inftexions of the singular, as before, and with the nom. pI. in's, and the ace. in 4jS, as £H4T'JS, tailor, pL ~'s, ~, A.S·


!. Feminines in A and '1

ha~ their nom. and in f&JS,. as ~rl, soul, pI. +Ux«.ls; the ,remaining inflexions being the same 8S the corresponding cases in U.

• Some of the heft informed modem Greeks are agreed in applying the terminations of I, .. od CIIS, as I have atated; but the .ouads being the same, and the rulee of R. orthography uDae~, the distinctioo cannot be considered a. having obtained any thing like general uae.

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8. Masculines in os-

Neuters In Oil.

These have their oblique cases, as in H.

Feminines in e and 'It masculines in Of, and neuters in .', are adopted in their H. form in greater numbers than any other classes of substantives. Some of them have irregular plurals, as ~, motller, pl, 1'411&&S; ),.~os, flJord, pl. ),.~'". - Many of the masc. and fem. gender change the H. termination into 'Oil, and' become neuters, as .,.pt.b-.~«, table, "'fH1Z1~.0,; r.,.lqs4I1OS, crOWfI, rnqsh.oll. - - The final 0., is generally dropt in speaking, and even" in writing, although the other cases are fOAned as if it. existed. R.nouns; terminating in '0", sometimes C~Dge ·the acute accent of the gen. sing. and p1. into a circumflex upon the last syl1able; as, "'Jrt, island, gen. sing. "'Jrtou, or "'Jr•oU, gen. pl. "'J"t.,;, or "'J .... .,.

4. H. nouns imparisyllabic.

Few of the H. substantives, thus called by grammarians, because they have an increased Dumber of syllables in the gen. case, are aoopteE!.in R~. with unchanged nominatiees, . The most numerous so _opted,'~ the subs. neuter. Of these, neuters-in « have the gen. siqg. in &.,.ou, the H. gen. being often used likewise, as tc),.'i~

• Here it may be remarked, that noUDS in '0', which are diminutives in H. have seldom that meaning in R.

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fline-branch, gen. X"'~fA4'f'OI, or x"'~,..4'f'ou.· The ear olmn determines which form should be employed: thus 4fA4P'"lp4'f'OU can never be used as the gen. of ~P"JfA4'

Imparisyllabic subs. feme take the H. ace. sing. for the R. nom. sing.; as,

H. nom. sing. 41"'W" • vein R. nom. slDg. 41A1~
":'f, night ,
.",.,ls, hope ;A.J&..

, )'UMI'ic4
')'II",], woman
"M.p..,~, torch '-"pz&&x. And are then declined by the vulgar, like other R. nouns fern. in 4, or, by the more polished, with all the oblique cases, as in H. except the acc. pl. which is in "'S; as,

S· • 1 ,... ,...

mg. IAr- s, '60S, ,64.

Some other R. nouns fem., not borrowed from H. in the same regular manner as the foregoing, follow the same mode of declension, as 4PXOii8tJ&, bear, p1. ~s, .&c. Subs. in ou, which form a class of feminines peculiar to R. are declined like the following 4~oii, fos:

Sing. 4""'-oii, oii, ou.

• It is abqost .upedlueus to feDlfrk, that the ~re polite ~ the H. gen. Neuten in.tI, not derived from H. are those which most frequently take the barbaroUl termination; II

":fA4, rill, gen •• ,FOVe

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Sometimes these subs. have their pl. in ~s.

H. subs. in tt'nJs, o'nJTos, do not often follow the same rule of taking the H. acc ': for ~e R. nom., being, when empJoyed in R. more .frequently converted into feminines in 'J - as, 4"~, 'JS, for ~"'~s, ~TOS - thus, 'Il'~~, ~"'OT'J"'ou, to his holiness - or they are declined with the nom. and other cases, as in H. excepting always the ace, pl. in "'s.

Imparisyllabic subs. masculine take the H. ace. sing. with -a s annexed, for the R. nom. sing.; as,

H. nom. sing. ~p, witness R. . ,
nom. SlDg. f'4PTUf"S
s-ranJp, father ""Tl~

"OR, crow ,
--- xoptU~
,,~, 'Vulture ,
~x.tD', leader .,
"pl,0na.s. Those in XfAS are generally thus declined:

S·, "

109. x0p4XfAS, xOp4Xov, x0p4X4.


, I ,

X0p4X0I, x0p4XOJ', xOp4Xous.

The others are sometimes declined in the same manner, but more generally with their oblique cases. as in H •

.Some of them are used by the vulgar with a plural in ·,3.s, or less frequently in ta.s, and many H. imparisyUabic subs. of aU terminations become R. neuters, by changiag the termination of the H. gen.

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into ~II: as, from· IIfJ«!, Jlpa.xos, is formed l,p&_i,oll, and by dropping the final 0', JapcLc, - from O&~, ~n-os - GUn-IO', GUn-., tooth.


These, when used in R., are variously changed.

When in .us, the R. nom. is formed by adding s. to the H. acc. sing. as from {atzfT''A.~, king, ~.'Ma.s i-the other cases being. taken'from ·H.

. Masculines, in 'S, 'tDS, and IJS, IJOS, as they have the same sound in the nom. as subs. of the 1st H. decl. in "s, may be declined in the same manner, as .1f'I'A,xvs, gen. 1f'1"M~u, &c .. ; but the greater part of them are converted into neuters in /3'0', or 1011, as from 'qJ.s, 'IDS--

.". . ~

04"0'0', ~.~ ••

. Feminines, with the same terminations, ,may be declined like the following:

Sing. nom. ~I"'J"'s (motion)

PJ. nom. ~I"'JfT's






acc. X''''JfT''


But the greater part receive some of the customary R. forms, by changing the term, of the H. genitive into ,8'011, or '0'; as, from

• ,. ., u.:»: I

''¥x.'~, UOS-',),X.'AJOII, or '')'x.'I'o', eei,

Subs. of the plass of H. contracted, ending in "s or as, are generally adopted unchanged in the nom.; those in as become masculines, and

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both kinds have their irlftexionslike'other R.nOUDS masc, in"f and ~ .........

, .

The H. neutera pl, may also' b6used to the.houns in ~:: .. ~ .ala,

tI~, jlOflJers. •

H. subs. in I, of this class, are declined in R. like other R. subs.

In I, or 10'.

Of Romaic nouns; not taken from H. those borrowed ft(jni the Turkish language bl..y be divided into-

1. Such 89 end in a TOWel in thatlangaage , theee have a s annexed, to. form the R. nom.. sing.; .the rest of the C8Sm. sing .. are;.fortnad .. itb. out the , •. ~nd the pl .. is in Bas, .• a.-" or'oU3rs, according to· the tehfi. of the Qom. sing., as ftom aga, ci1iS, gen... m,G., pl. t1,.a.G~ gen. «~ •.

2. Such as end in a consonant in Turkish; -1. When expressive of inanio1ste objeets : these have atl • annexed; fur the R. nom.$ing. and fall into that numerous class of R. neuters; as, from menzfl, post, or post-house, "",~I'AI ;-2~ When relating to animated beings, they assume a term. in ",, pl. lit" if rnasc, as from 8u'riln, pdstillitlN, nup;+"s, pl. fTOup''r~~es; w.hen fem;. they end in IfTfT4, as T~IrihlG""4t' f~male g9psey.


Italian subs. fern. take the same gender and term. in R. as in It

as bandiera, .flag, "."vr,I£*; those in e masc, become R. tJOUH~ in 1'J$', as barbiere, barber, ""a.ppJ",s; and those i'n 0 masc, become B:· sUb&. 10 os· All others follow the same me, as those taften &o1n the Turkish.

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--- --- --- - -


There are several R. subs. taken from the Latin, either quite unchanged or with a slight difference. in the termination-as x.u., cradle, x&'P:If'OS, plain, x&.rrpo" fortress,"

Of the most prevalent terminations of R. subs., '0' has already been remarked as the most common of all. In the greater number of instances, this neuter nominative has been formed by changing the term. of theH.nom. or gen. into .o,_in others the H. term. has been converted into-I. ta.o" or 18., as fT'M)Aia., sepukhral stone, from crnJA7J-2. a •• or a., as ,",,,&'8., well, from '"J~-8. &.p.o, or &'p', as xp.6&.p., wheat, from xp.9,j-4. &.~.o, or &.~" as XJ'MI'&.~" gold,Moril VUG"~-the last-mentioned are not numerous.

A class of neuter subs. expressive of actions are formed from a great Dumber of verbs active with terminations ill crp4, m~ 'fAA', as from xoxx.,l~m, xoxx{"crp4, reddening, from 8.~~m, 81t~~.(rp4, reading, from ~oPT6'm, ~6PTmp4, load, from {3ouT{~, ~otn'I!'fAA" droaming, from ~Ip. or ~Ip'm, ~lecr'fAAf/, bearing, conduct, from xIrr. or XO~T" x~'fAA" cutting.

There are some feme sub. in '" derived from verbs, and peculiar to R. 8S 1l'«T7Jcrl«, pace, from 7r«Tti, 'X.fDp.crl«, separation, divorce, from 'X.fDp{~.,

A'P7JS and a.s are masculine terminations, the former partaking of the nature of participles and adjectives, as from "/Ao.of/ and ,,'A&.~fD comes ",&'P7JS or "'A«T~cY7JS, a jocose man, from H. X~A7JS, horse, X~AA~S, horseman-~ is expressive of trades, professions, and qualities, a" from (J"'X.oi"S, R. cr'X.o"l, is formed (J"x.0"~' rope-maker, from X"Al, l"A«s, a man with large lips-these have the gen. in a. and plur. in ~.s, as ~«,,~, glutton, gen. ~(I."ti, plur. ~«"a,s.

• Some Latin word. were in Ute • early u the .. of the Aotoome., ... ppean froID Atbeneus, who use p4T1,l" for the leven of bread, .Dd ,..,,..«os -r6fOS, ~ ,CtuftI, a 001 e

particular kiod of cheete.-Lib. S. Co 79. ed, Scbweigb. ' Digitized by ()


Ifl'lI'a., ITT(*, TptA, "'£1'a., are fern. term. of the same force as the preceding, as ~'fTfI'a., feflUlle gyp,eg; 7r''AfwTffJ', fl)Qsher"fl}oman; ".McrTp'., woma. given to laughter. There are also a few subs. fern. of the same kind,

ending in OU, declined like a'Al7r'ou, as f4UTa.poii, woman fl}ith a large nose.

Many of the subs. taken from H. have undergone a remarkable change of meaning. The use of generals for specifics, of specifics for generals, of attributes and accidents for objects themselves, will account for the etymology of many words in the modern dialect. Thus :.~os, rationi, expers, converted into a R. subs. has become the common word for korte, as being the brute xa.,.' ;';o~Jf. and "4ImpJfW, jI'Ultu/um. now means bread.


The Modern:-Greek tongue (like the Italian) derives much beauty from its diminutives. These are formed-l. By changing the termination of neuns substantive into ~~ for the masculine; 'T~. and OUAt.l for the feminine; and ~, and l&. for the neuter; as, fcom '.dJfT~~ Anthony, '.d",.mll~1'JS, from 7r'~PTa., door, 7r'OPTtT~a., or 7r'op7'oii'Aa., little door, from W'(U8t, child, ftUMx" little cAild.

i. Another class of diminutives is formed by adding 7r'OtlAOs,t 7r'OtlAa., 2r'O"~" to subs.: as, T06PJ'OS, Tllrk, 7btlpx4rOUAos, young Turk, xha., ken, .xOT07r'OUAa., pullet-but the neuter gender is the most common, being applicable to subs. of all genders, as XOP'T~thrOtlAO", little girl •

.Augmentatives are more rare in R.; as, 7r'o9cO"", oehement desire, from .W'69oS •. The masc, term .. a.p~ is also an augmentative, as xop;T~apOS, a great girl.

• lS, has not always the force of a diminutive ill Romaie, aa we have already seen in the -instaoCes of ~rt., and 0"'nI>..i8.; indeed it has but rarely tfIat meaning.

;. '1" Thia is .,videIttly <derive«1 from the H .1fco).o, by a conversion, very common in a, GOf~. I

Into 011. • . • . • Digitized by .oog e


The modem dialect makes a very extensive use of diminutive5t and delights much in xt'li8wr-. or caressing expressions • .,me~mes appli~ to the most hateful ideas; thus N).q" is the .mall-poz. and ~X1. is a common tenn for the plague. •


These, for the most part, follow the H. usage through their four inflexions; but, like R. subs. have the nom. and ace. pl. feme in fUS. The mOlt ordinary terminations of R. adjectives, are a.w, 'HI, and bIOS i the last only is peculiar to R.

The degrees of comparison terminate, for the most part, in ~'r'~, t ~'m'ros, or tin-,pos, tfn.a.'ros i the latter being applied to adj. in 0;, and the former to all others - but this rule is not without exceptions, for ~ has Xa.A~.pos and X«.?.Itfw.f!OI in the comparative; '/t'pJn.os has 1rfHD""4'r'POS and p.rrh.os, p.rrtA~'r'POS - indeed, it is not uncommon, in conversation, to hear both fonn~ used to the same adj. The comparative may likewise be formed by the adverb ft'?JoII, as 'll?Jell .I"..pfos, more handsome; and ".),.10" is also used in the definite superlative, as & nloll ';"..(40s, il piu bello, the kandtJOmelt. H. adj. in 'IS and ''S, adopted without change, have the degrees of comparison in In-.pos, Itrra.ns; superlatives in ItrrtJ:ros are sometimes employed, when the positive form is not in common use, as Ib'l~ltrrtt'ros; tbtj6,~ being used in R. and not 4),.7J~S. Some of the H. adj. ill 'II change this term.

• nlll.wyxM is the proper word, derived, perhaps, (rom .... ,1 and ZAAu,...

t " producing the same sound as ,,; I have not mea&ioDecl ',.,.s. ~"",, wItich u.o __ ia R.

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into os in R. 8S ap'$s for tlxp,~~. The nom. sing. fern. in 4 obtains only when the termination is in 4 pure, and not after p, as in .H.; thus &",os, holy, fern. &,,'4; ~6o~.~, en'DWus, feme ~60"'rnJ' Primitive adj. are formed into diminutives, by changing the termination into O~~.,cos, as X4A~, good; X4AO~~'XOS, pas8able; p.a»pos, black; /A4fJPO~~'xos, blackish.


R. pronouns differ so much in their form and application from those of the ancient language, that it will be necessary to state them at length.

The primitive, or personal, pronouns, are,

1. ;"m, I.

Sing. nODl. q,.,)-gen. fC.Ou-acc. ,...}, i,...~,· i,.../~4.

Pl. nom. ip.a1s, or 1]~rS - gen. and ace, .p.d.s, 1]p.tis, p.4S - gen. sometimes .pM".

~. ;tr~, thou.

S. . , N } • ,

mg. nom. .tru--gen.· trou-acc. tr, .tr •••

PI. nom. 'tr,is-gen. and ace. trlis, 'trlis •

• • Epl-In all cases where H. words are adopted in R. with the adqition of an initial I, they are only used in tha~ form when beginning a sentence, or following a word ending with a consonant; on. other occasions the I is dropt,

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s.· Toii, rij~,' niJ, of' kim, of her, of it.

. .',

Sing. gen. nu, Tis, ~acc. T~', nit', nI. Pl. gen. and ace. TO~,t or Ta$S.

The ~n. case in these. pronouns may be supposed to include the dative; being vulgarly used with verbs, in a dative. sense; t as, tuN. TA. '&.,.. ,a cr.u ~,."ke gaf)e it. to. me to give to you: wherein is also shown. the mode in which the pronoun is usually connected with the verb in R. In the accusative case they often follow it, as 7I'4p«Xa:N» cr_, I

pray you ...

I l'

\. . .,.

There are two .methods of expressing pronouns possessive inR.- 1. By attaching,to nouns. the oblique cases of. the. primitive pronouns as enclitics ; as, 'I). T."." T,OUS, .their hon()l";.'; '1'tlJp.:rJ /IIiU, my opinion;, «Xp.~: /'AU f/'AOI, my dear friends.

2. Tht! other prone pOSSe are alX~, or ia.~, ~ declined lik~ other adjectives, and ~ver used without the oblique cases of the pen. prone attached to them , as,

• This is, in fact, the article used for the third pen. pronoun; it is fonnd employed by Homer ill the IllUDe manner.

t Tci, is used by the more polished Gre~; TcUs is properly a Cretism, thouCh ofteD found ill other parts of the country.

t The Ole of the H. dative not uncommon among the more educated.

~ Formed probably from 131XaSI from ~IOS.

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nun; AU ~~ Y«II' dtlflgAter.

;3"'6' '"is, or .8Uc6 1"7JS nriT', her ·kow~.

;a,x" Teus .1M. Ttl tr~.,.., the thing' an tllar,_

The prone combines in the same manner with an expression of more than one word, as 1 S'~ i"J O"OQ f.'lJc, your friendlhip for ",e. Toii ~ou, &c. nU ~, &c. is another mode peculiar to R. of espressing the pronoun, both of the second and third person •


• BtwnU, or ap.tJ&fl'nii, is used in R. in the gen. and ace. siag. and always with the oblique cases of the pel'S. prone attached, in which maDner they express all the three persons, as ip4f1TOUp.oU, of myself; ;t.W1"6WOUS, tlletueif1lel, &c. The nominative of this pronoun is expressed by ~ or cin&T~, (derived from ~,) with the obliqae cues of the pen. prone aDDexed, as «:IWnw, !}flU !JOf'sel/; ."ToWGtI, of yoauwloe., of !Jour oZlln accord.

As the modem Greeks do not use the possessive pronouns, ~,..;.ryos, &C. the encJitic pronouQs have a very extensive use in R.Their accentuation is the same as in H.; that is to say, the enclitic loses its accent: the accent, if grave on the last syllable of the nOUD, is changed to acute, as in T'fJ--1 p.ou; and if the noun is acuted on the antepenultima, or circumflexed on the penultima, there is a DeW acete accent on its last syllable; as in pij,," fUN, ok, my king; ~ ,..."tJO..,;.r.~ ,_" my mperior. Enclitic pronoulls are joined in the same manner to verbs, as ~ p.ou, give me. It is not uncommon among the modems to write the two words as one, which seems the proper method, because the acute may then be considered as placed according to the law

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which governs it in all ordinary' caseJ, and which requires an acuted penultima, when the last syUable is long.

When two words are formed into one by crtl8is, a figure much used in R. poetry, a change of accent occurs, similar to that observed in enclitics, as ~J,JUU,' for i"al "pm .

.A~, ;xl;HS, and niins, or i'Tou.,.oG, are used in R. and declined like other R. adj.

The prone relative is WOt; indeclinable; but for this inelegant form, which resembles the Italian che, is often substituted 0 doGies, a word corresponding to the Italian il . quale. tOnJ"'os, without the article •

. or vulgarly .. .ros, is the interrogative prone flJM, flJhat. "OnIOS, with the accent on the first syllable, answers to our flJMever. 71, flJhat' and .,.l,os, .1wse' are the only inflexions of the H. 'rIG, used in R.; 'T'Ns, any ORe, some one, is chiefly used like the French on.

The other pronominal adj. peculiar to R. are,

Tta., meh II one. {
K~'T', 101IIe. indeclinable,
K&.8., each,' eoery.
K&:n.os, MIme one.
TI'To,es, or ''TO,oG, such II one.
'.A?l.Al6-r.xoG, tff anotker kind.
Ka.p. .. &ro" some.
KdbtJ'S, xd'p.14, Jed.,,", { t!tJCtY one,
each one. Digitized by Google

K411,1~ or X4111J1t14, X4P.pi4, X4I1lN, nO mte.

H/4, and 7t'li.tTtI. .Ts, eoery one, are chiefly used in poetry •. .AtirAs has, sometimes, besides the H. cases, tWn')JI01, till, o~, in the pl. And in the same manner, TOiiT~, TOIn'OJlOU, pl. TOIn'Ollaill, ou~.

1• H ,

p. OAOllmll, Ous.


The R. auxiliary verbs are taken from SiAm and txm, the inflexions of which are as follow:

9iAm, I will.

Imperfect, Past, Participle,


~9.A-tl., IS, I, ~9IA-tl.p.tIl, IT', ~6.AtI.' or ~91A4J1f.

~9IA1jtT-a, I~, " ~9.A.,jtT.(J.p.411, IT', ";9IA1jtT41I or ~6''''''H. SIAOIITa,s.

"BXm, I haoe.

Indicative present, Imperf. and past, Participle,

fX-m, .'s, eI, 0P..II, 'T', GUll.

,'(X-a, 'S, " 4p.411, fT', 411. or .rXa'l • .,


Of these tenses, the present and imperfect of SlAm, and the past tense of Ixm, are the only foJVls used as auxiliary verbs in R. A1p.a. is not employed as an auxiliary verb; but its inflexions may not improperly be here inserted.

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Il1j.,a.., 1 am •

Indicative-Present, Imperfect,



• 11'4" .T .. 4., .T~, .lj.u6a, .T or am., ..... '

~fAAu", ~"OUII, ~"o"" ~""""" 4 or 1~": ~'I"t1.JI or ~ .. ..,.

• • , L • _,IJ , • .!.L

.tT1"a.1nJX-a., 'S, ., ... ,.cm7JX-~""", ""', 411. or .tT1"_.,XtiW •

• fX4 .. ,.~, AX's .. ,.~, Itc.

Future, Sb.a> ,T .. Sa.., Bl'A"s .Tria.., &c.

Subjunctive-Imperf. ~S''Aa. ,T .. Ba.., "."'g ,Trieu, &C. (111wuJd, ttc. he.)

Imperative, - Participle,


In the indicative present,' H.' verba undergo less change, when transferred into R., than any other parts of speech, and may be divided into barytODe and circum8ex: their teases are as follow:


ActifJe Yoiie.

, i

P' '

resent, - "pa.~-w, "S, !I, e/Ao.II, n"" fMI or e",or ou m,

Imperfect, l"pa.~-a., 's, " e"p&.~-a.pAll or OpAII_ '''', t"pa.~-a." or e"p&.~-a.,. or t1.tT ••

Past, - '"pa.~a., 's, ., ;"p&~a."..." n"f, '7pa."'a.II Of 'qp&.+- ... or t1.tT ••

Future, - "p&.~w, "s, '" 0pA", '''', OUII.

the Ist Aor. pan. of 1""11'1, in the manner whidt.will be sees hena!ter.


• '. • ~ So.

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ImperatifJe Mood.

Present, - Sing: "~~" pl, "~~'T'. Aorist, - Sing. "~" pL ,.(I#fT •.

SubjutICti'Oe Mood.

Present, - "P*"" 11S, 11, tDp.", 'lJT', 01111. Aorist, .. "~~tD, 11S, 11, tDp-'", 'lJr" OUII. Participle, ,.plAqJoJIT«S.

PassifJe Voice.

Indicative Mood.

Present,.. ,.~op.tU, .tI'41, 'T«I, ·,.p«~-~p.rtl'6, or ep.lAAr6., yplAtp,tI'6., or ,./H406tT6., 'tp!AqJOJIT41.

Imperfect, irypO,tp-Op.ollll, 011(1'0111', 'Te, rrp«~oup-'tI'6., 1'1p«~-oOtr6. or oU(f'ftl'6.,

• 11ft


Past, .. ;ypt1~~X-4, 's, " "'p«~&.2x-4p.r", «T', ;"P4~"X411 or (1'«11, or


Imperative Mood.

Aorir.t, - Sing. '1~+OIl. pl. Y~~T'.

• . The inftexions· 01 . the tenses, especially in the paaive voice, .ary ill differeot proYinc:ea.

I baYe inaerted those forma oo1y, which are mo.t in U8e.

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Sulduncti1Je Mood.

Aorist, '1f14f6-ti, fG, ji, oUpA" ~T', oU,.

Participle, '1p«p.pj"S, 7), 0', &c.


These, ~hen in ltD, ti, and 4tu, w, in H. are most commonly used in R. in the contracted form, as, 7rC&TW, 1I"c&T'~, &c. T.p.m, T.pAs : and both conjugations have the R. passive in oUp41t as 7rC&TOUp4" T.p.tWp4'.

H. verbs in ~, ti, are adopted into R. by converting 'OJ into 'fltD, as T''AI,4t., 1finish; R. T''A''~'tD-VU''-' 1 gild; R. XP'Wlfltll.·

The termination of ~ is a favorite in. R.; many verbs in 1m, ., are inflected as verbs in &.m, w, particularly in the passive voice, as, ~o(3li.Tc&', p4PTUp4TC&.; and some even that are not circumflexed at all in H.

The following examples will show the mode of declining these verbs, and the few inflexions, wherein the uncontracted form IS. used.

• The insertion of , between the two final vowels, is aleo practised in other verbs, eoding in '" pure, as 8"", I bind, R. 8"",; and is commonly inserted in a similar mannea' in v.erbs ending in P"" or '""', 8S ~'P"" I bear, R. ~lf''''; flTlMill,, R. fIT''''''''.

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. lUWiD, I mOf}e •

.Active Voice.

Indicative - Present,


XI,..o;, "S, .~ oiiP..II, ""'" oiill.

{, { "St ,,}, { .1'1'. }

;X'"..OUII, OU{l'4p.111... OUtJ"411.

.. S, f' liT.

''''' - IV' , _

fX''''OUtT4, OUtT.S, OU{l", OUtT4P..II, OU{l'I'f", .UtT411.

x.rnl~., &c.

Ixlll7JtT4, &c. Imperative-Present, xlII". Aorist, xlll7JtTf. X'wD, &c. Participle, xlllfi"",4S.

xI",jtJ"m, &c •


Future, -. Past,



. Passive Voice.

Indic, Pres. xI"..oiip.4l, {,itT4,,} {,/T4I,} {,:6p.1tT61,} {,:tr6.,} {,:6"",4' •

• Ura.I, •• ".4'; oup.etr6., "tT6., OU"",4I.

I . {'06p.oUII, lO~OUII'{'kO' 1 {,oflt£4tT6.,} {,oUtrS.,} {'OU"",U.

mperf.·.x.II- .

oiip.oull, oiiCTOUII, "TO, oUp.4tT6., .itT6., oii"",o.


ix,"';~xa., &c. Imperative, Aorist, Sing. x'rnltTOU, Pl. XIII7JSijT'. Aorist, .'1I7J6m, &c. Participle, x,"_o6p.ellos.

Past, Subj.

Active Voice.

Indicative - Present,

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. . · ., {~,} {~S, J{h' }

Imperfect, tx1ar- _,,_

oiiertx,~, c:: .Uf" ..... oucrrrr, oucr.".·

ouer.s, ouer"

Ft ., e,

U ure, tx1tl1.r1JtTcu, Q.C. .


{Pres. ci1ctS"cx. Bec.


Aor. ci1~er" Bec.

Pauive Voice.

{41txr-,06p.4" } {,06I'-'er6.", }

Iodic. Pres. • _ _tx" 4'r.tlU, &ria, OWl-4'.

414'1t'-oup.4', oiip.4crS.,

{;"14r-.06p.oUJl,} , {OUT. 0,· } {,o6p.4(1'6a, } _ Ii _

Imperf. oucrOUJI, 4CJ"11', 0tWT4".

;"1txr-oiip.oUJI, iTO,. oiip.4(1'S"

. OUJlT4J1,

Put, a~s"JC4, Bee. Imperative, ;"14nJO"'OU, &c.

Subj.Aor';"14'"JSW, &c. Participle, ci147nJP.iJlOS.

:The remaining tenses of R. verbs are either compounded of-auxiliary verbs, or borrowed from H.

Tbe future active is supplied by the present tense of 61'AoJ, and the H. first future infin. with the final II elided; as 9~AtD 1~"'''' I shall awite; Sl> ... 'S "~" thou flJilt· mrite, &c. This form is generally employed in written compositions, but in speaking, it is more customary to use the

•. The Author' of ·the Inquiry into the Principles of Harmony in Language haa justly

. .

oblerved, that the proper form of the English future is, I &hall, tlrou a;ilt, he fJlill, a;t .hall,

!It .nU, 'MJ .ill •. The laJDe remark. is found in VaJpy'8 Latin Grammar.

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different inflexions· of the H. future, preceded by the indeclinable SIAl. or S), or sa; as,

SI'> .. " or 6~ ,.~"'op.t~, .e shall write.

S' 41rOXn;G"W, I shall obtain. 8a T~II ,i".,., I ,hall tell him.

he will see.

1'he same particle sa may be used with the imperfect and past tenses, to signify the meaning of our must, though generally in a doubtful sense, as 6a '''p4~f, it surely must be, that he was flJriting, sa f,.p~"'f, he must have flJritten.

The present tense of 'x.w, followed by "~'" X'''';G''II, 4"~G"", expresses our compound perfect, as. fx.m "~~". I have flWitten.

The past tense of 'xm, joined to ;,p""'''' &c. expresses the preterit perfect, as, .rxa. "~"'''' I had written; .'Ix', "~~'" thou had,t .ritten, &c.

The infinitive in R. is supplied by the potential, by prefixing lIa to the H. present and 1st aorist subjunctive, as, .,a "~~fD, 'liS, '11, &c. for the present infinitive; and ,a "~~fD, 1IS, 11, &c. for the fut. infin. The R. infinitive is used as a substantive with the article, in the same manner as in H.; thus".~ TOU ,a b.~, or 1rpA TOU lIa· 'rAn, before he comes:

TA IIll i'l,w, the being.

The same H. subj. tenses already mentioned, are also required after tttl, J~II, 4J1'G"mG"x~1, if, in expressing the conditional form of speaking; likewise after ZTa.JI, when, ds, let, 4"xa.A~~1, although, &c.

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The R. imperfect is used in the subjunctive, as well as in the indicative mood; it may be used in the conditional sense, after d,,:· after ds, "4, "a, p.a.xt¥' "4, it expresses the imperative or optative form of speaking, as «s ,..~p.ou'" ",ould that I ",ere becoming, let me become; pmct1p, '4 a1U"o6p.ou" ",ould that I were belooed; "4 Xa.P.'rjA':'"a." 'r4 ~,a, would that the mountaim were levelling themBel'Oes, levelled be the mountains. .

The imperative and optative, in a present and future sense, are expressed by ~, ,a, yro'r'S "4, p.a.x&.p, "4, with the H. present, and 1st aor, subj. as, ds ,.pt1~, let him mte, (in the present), 514 ,.p~., , mte ye, (in the indefinite) p4Xt¥' '4 ,.~u", would that they would write.

The ·R. imperfect is often employed (like the same tense in It.) to express a sense analogous to that of our imperfect subj. passive, as,

• A, 'r~ .1Xa. Ar1f3" 7r~'r'pa., ~~, .,.pa.~a., If I had recei~ed it before, I should not have mtten: instead of .1Xa. MId", .M~"a. might have been used, which would show another mode of employing the R. imperfect, different from our own. •

The tense called by Dr. Johnson the preterit potential, and expressed in English by might, ,hould, &c. is formed in R. by the

• This mode of employing the imperfect is exactly that of the ancionts, u in the verse of

Aristophanes :

EJ ,...~ '(hi n4ro1W, m l'l o~x ~~P'",OfIdJ'I. And in the following words of Lucian's Timon:

EI 8, IT.cnj la-x«,",f'I n.x.xu~$, iT·ll, lcrxjII,",f'I IquJtD6,...f'lo,.

In general, the enct use of the tenses varies 80 much in di1ferent languages, that it can only be acquired by long practice. See some excellent remarks OD this subject in Mitford', Harmony in Language, Sect. 17.

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imperfect of 61l.e, and the same indeclinable adjullCt used for the . future; as,

~6.,. '¥~~" I ,kottld, 4-c •• rite. ,,6t).,s '¥R'" 4'c,

In the passive voice, the future and preterit potential are formed by the tenses of 61).OJ, and the indeclinable '¥~~, as, 91'Ata '¥~, I ihall be "";tten; .. 6,,. 1'P44S~, I 81&ould hafJe beea .rittea. In the passive voice, the H. future, preceded by G~, or ~ cannot be used as in the active.

The H. present subj. and the R. aor. subj. are used in the passive voice after ,a, and the other conjunctions requiring that mood,


The mode of forming the R. tenses will in general be sufficiently understood from the examples of the three verbs already given.

The future and aor. subj. differ only from the H. tenses, in having the Sd pers. pI. in GUll; and even this form IS seldom used among the more polished. The most anomalous of the tenses are the imperfect, both active and passive, and the imperative passive.

The aor. subj. passive, besides the same form of the 3d pers .. pl. has the circumflexed w of the Ist pers. pl. changed into GU. The conversion of QJ into GU is very common in R.


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The R. participle active i8 formed from the H. in the same manner as imparisyllabic nouns subs. masculine,· by annexing s to the ace, masc. sing.

The most important points in the etymology of the tenses are the formation of the indeclinable adjunct, employed with the auxiliary verbs, and .of the simple past tense or aorist.

Indeclinable atijunct.

In the active voice, this appears to have been formed, (as has been already hinted,) from the H. first future infinitive, by the elision of the final " and in the passive voice, from the 1st aorist infin. by cutting off the final ,til.· Sometimes, the active adjunct is written ,.~, particularly when joined to IXCD, or .1xa.: but the. sounds- of

",,,,,.. and ,,"'~ being the same, the distinction is useless. For -

a person learning to speak the language, it may be sufficient in all

cases to take the adjunct from the Sd pers. sing. of the aorist subj. in

both voices, as he must be well acquainted with those two tenses, the

use of which is so very extensive in R.

The application of the adjunct to the auxiliary 'X"" cannot so easily be traced to Hellenic, as its application to Gl~, but seems to be

• In old boob, the passive adjunct is sometimes written "'Plll~'# ooe Jetter nearer the origioal. The gradual neglect of the futare, and the growiug use of its substitute, ",. with the iufinitive# may indeed be traced up to the earliest periods of the decline of the Greek language. The fo))owing lines, from an old R. author, exemplify the formation of these adjuncta :

61).", Xlllgij, XIII1 '1"/0'11'" XIII1 C~cr", XIII1 d.oIlTWn"

, '1.....' ~ .. 1 II' ,

XIII' 1'011; ¥"; 11"011 nil' Mlr-' 1I''''''f XOITIn'III'nJITf".


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nothing more than an imitation of the habits of other modern European languages.

Past Tense or Aorist.

In all verbs taken from H. whether the pres. indica active undergoes. a change in R., or is adopted unchanged, the H. 1st aorist is the only simple R. past tense j " as, X4AcD, I call, past. ;Xh...tT4; 81,m, I bind, p. l3.tTtx; tTTJp.aJ,IlJ, I note, -fc. p. ;nffll'Jws; XA.tx(,., I warm, p. ;XAltxlltl.; 6a.p.rJ,w., I astound,- am giddy, from 6txp.~IIlJ, p. ;6~#I"tx; 'ir.pwS, I pass, p. "lpa.trtx; 7rlf<rID, I fall, p. ....#1"4; tlTb.fItlI, I send, p. rG'TflAtx; nrlpfItlI, I ,,.,, p. r ....... pcc.

The augment, however, is in some cases differently disposed, and in others is not employed at all.

Ex. Gr. 1. Compound verbs generally take the augment at the beginning, 81, _TtI1ftxnD, I tread doam, i>. i_f'tx""nj#l"4; xtJ.X·vowl~OJ,

.t. In words beginning with 4, there is no augment, as "')'tx7rcU, I looe, p. tly~n&; 4fltxxt»pcO, p. "lItI.x~na .

8. The. augment is sometimes converted into 'J, and in poetry very commonly; as ~f'pa. for 'f'ptx. -

• It is remarkable that tbe Latin language borrowed its past from the same H. tense; thus - Latin verba in co have tbeir perfect in xi, and those in bo, pto, in psi, in the same manner as the H. 1st aoriats are formed from the same terminations in the present.

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The augment of the imperfect is regulated in the same manner as that of the past tense.

The H. 1st aor, is in general adopted for the R. past, even in verbs which have changed their signification in R., as, • ." I make, p. rx«p4, being the same as the Ist aor. of the H. X~lItD, laboro; ~, 1 deslroy, p. 'Xtb.«G"4, being the 1st aor. of the H. X"'~# or x~~., dimitlo, laao.

R. verbs taken from the H. verbs, called by grammarians anomalous, also take the H. 1st aor. (subject to the privation of augment in the cases already mentioned,) for the R. past, as, "fU¥1"'"'., I sin,- p. G;~G"«; «u;«;,., I increase, p. «~~G"«: and if the H. verb is defective, and has no 1st aor., the R. past is then formed from the 2d aorist, as fr;,., I drink, p. 1 ... 41 ~.l,.,. 1 take, p. :~; 'tt4XaJ,tD, I attain by accidmt, p. b«x,.; p.d«Jvm, I learn, p. 'p.d«; (M."tD, or ~~., I put, p. IB«A4.

Whenever the R. verb is taken from an anomalous H. verb, which bas its present tense with an active, and its future with a pass. term. or the reverse, the R. past tense is equally formed from the H. 1st or 2d aor.; as, G;"~, I ascend" p. ,,,I!'rJX4 t: 'IPZO,ux,.; I come, p. ~~6a..

• ~,at.l,~ k. or, u the, may ~ ikeRle Wnu.m, 114..., ""'_. IeI!JlI to lave been formed from the ancient H. forma, M{JI", trill., by the insertion of , be'ween the t .. vowels, in tile manner already instanced in 8o", XlINOII.. Thus abe R. "~ &pJ.., x-, ,flo", ¥«fT«tll", &c. bave been formed from the old H. tlTpICf, &,.0'" Xo., ~"#

~'''' &C.

t The rale f~r forIIJiag tbis R. te ... from ~ H. eriel ftI be- &eeIl i~ •..

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In. the passive voice, the past tense is deduced from the H. 1st aor. indic., or, when that is deficient, from the 2d aor. indic, by changing the final II into xrx.; as,


Ind. pres. act. Ind. 1st aor. pass.

Romaic, ~uMtrcrm, -Ind. pres. act. i4JuAt.ix97,,,,-Ind. past pass.

The H. aorist is also in frequent use in R. among the more polished.

The rules regarding the augment exist in the passive 8$ well as in the active voice; as,

41tJ1rcO ----p·ast pass. ~1txnj~¥tJ. ----past pass. 4xo6cr97,XtJ.

. ,


The participle pass. is the same as that of the H. perfect pass. except that it does not take any augment; thus,

nrlpllm, I SOfl) part. pass. nrtxppJWJS.

a,~m, I select - part. pass. 8,tJArrpJJ/OS.

In some cases, the moderns make use of a participle in t.ip.aJlOS, instead of ~p.a"S; as,

IpXtl.p.aJlOS, coming, '&Xt.iI"JIOS, receiving, ".p.p.J.p.a"os, t1·embling.

The tenses of verbs, not taken from H., are formed, in most cases, according to the mode applied in H. to the respective .termina-

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tions of their presents indic.j but subject to the exceptions and modifications already mentioned :-thus the past tenses of the following verbs are,

I'4Up{~(JJ, I blacken, from the R. l'4upos,-p .• p.a~PlfTa.. XO#T'r{~aJ, I cost, from the Italian costare,-p. ;X,"".fTa..

, II become thick, or} ,. ,

xo""'pa.."OJ, . from the R. xo""'pos,-p. axo""'p'rjJIa..

. make thick,

q)X.r1~CD, or q)'r.r1~OJ, I construet,-p. 'q)x~a.tra., or 'q)'r'a.tra.. XOUpd~CD, . I fatigue, am tired,-p. ixoupa.tra..,. I imbroil,-p. fp.".Ip8aufTa., or "'a..

, {I become, }from the Turkish muflus,-· p. ;p.ot4AoU~'-UfTa.t ~AoU~'UOJ,

bankrupt, or ~

a~!".,..w., from the Latin defendo,-p. i8.a.qIl".,.t+, or UfTa.. JlUXT':'IIf1, it is night,-p. 1Ji6x'rOJfT' ..

Some of the verbs in ~OJ and ':',OJ have the past-in ;a., as ~r1~. p. i{Mtrra.;a.; p.a~':'''OJ, I collect, from the Romaic adverb, p.a~, together, p .• ~CDea..

The term. in ¥a is chiefly used in verbs taken from the Italian, as· X01f"¥a, I copy, from eopia; p.~.x&.p.; I hazard, from risehio; these have the past in 1JfTa., as ipp,~'x~fTa..

Verbs in P'OJ have the past in p'fTa., or (l7JfTa., as 8Ip,OJ, I beat, i3Ip.fTa.; those in X"OJ, in ;a., as fT7rpJ,X"OJ, I push, lfT7rptlJ;a..

• This may perhaps be a corruption of ... ,.8;".

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The most common terminations of R. verbs are I~., ~J .vc., '; •• , ,J,. or '"., I,. or ,f",m; and these are applied to words, both of H. and foreign origin.


In R. verbs, the active termination contains, as in H.t both the active and neuter verbs.

Most neuter verbs in R. may be employed actively; thus '"I)'t.J,m, I go, is often taken to signify I cmue to go, conduct, .fe.; "~JI(D, I MIl near, approach, means also, I bring together, IJring near, make to approach.

The passive termination includes both the passive and midd1e voice, the latter comprising the verbs called by the French reflective and reciprocal. B'&'~ofA44, Je me force; AMp.tu, I flJash myaelj; and ;X.«>.Iw~'CfS'. in the following verse of Erotocritus:

But here 9°U luroe ruined !JOur#/[, and!lOU have ruilWl me also ;

are examples of the reflective verbs. Ha."A,,)opA', I wrestle with another, who at the same time wre$lles hth me, is an example of the reciprocal.

The following are the anomalous verbs of most ordinary occurrence :

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~AW., I see, p .• n4, Subj. 18cD.

3lScu or 8111111, I gioe, p. 18tvX4 or 18111a-cc, imperate &s, pres. pass. 81JlOfA41, perf.

pass. '~X4, Subj. aor. Wei, part. pass. 8oG"p.I"os or &p.;JIOs • • ~II. or ip.raJ"lII, 1 enter, p. 1P.'7r4 or ip.7iiX4, imperate 'P.'7r4. i~., I illtrotiuce, p. 'p./3tm4, part. past ;~a.s.

WytJWJI· I go out, p, 'Jl$r4 or f~X4, Subj • .u,.ti, imperate '~)'4e

,~,,~ or .u,.""., I put out, p. d)'4A4, Subj, .• u,-"AIII, part. pass .• u,,4Ap.l"S.

• , Ifi d " ., S bi ., r-

wp,a-xm, n , p. 'JUp4 or 'JtlptlX4, u~. 'UptV.

. , I . · ,

"'TUX",II., acqwre, p. W.TUX4.

AJorm, I SO!}, p •• f".4, Suhj. ';2I"ei, imperat. rls. ;IPIIIII, I 'OOm;I, p. i;Ip4(T4e

;'X"'Im or ;'Xw, Iforget, p. i!IXtl.fT4.

rlp"m, I take, p, iJriP", Subj. '7r~, p. pass. ;'-"tA'lx4, participle pass, 'JI'4P-



, ,.1 f'I . " ....

2I"'J)'",IIm or 'JI'4),",II. or ""'£I)'. or 21"4"., go, Imp. .a"'J)'tUN, p, ",,),ca.

. .

or cnn;-)'", imperate ~p.I, &p.lT., Subj. 2I"«)'m, participle '"1)'4111«p.lros


o~ '"J)'tull.Wa.s.

a-Tlxop.4l, I stand, p. m~,"" imperat. rrlxou or ITTUOU, Subj. a-T49 •• a-lII'JI'aJ",., I am silent, p. 'a-_tl.fT4, imperate a-aw4.

, -

. TF1ID, I eat, gnaw, conmme, 1st pers, pI. TPtfrrofU~ or 'f'pWp.I"J Sec. p.

fql4,),cc, imperat. ql«)," Subj. f«),ID.

~'~III, I.flee, p. IqlU)'4, imperate ql~'.

qllpe.or qllplllll, I bear, p. ~ql.p" or 1qlfptx, p. pass. iqllp8'JX4J participle pass.


There are likewise many defective Romaic verbs, in which only one· or two tenses are in use.

• From 1./3«1,,,,, or evenio, perbaps.

t fl., 1. pen. pl. flWyo'_ or ..,_, &C.

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Adverbs may be-formed fromR. adjectives by 'changing the term us into U4; asfrom p.(X.Xp~~, p.rx.xPU4, Jar, and from os intos, as from Xtl&A~, xt&Aci, well. H. adverbs' in ms are generally used in R. with the termination of tl&, as H. 8UtrX~AlOS, R. 8utr1COAt%, though sometimes the sound leads to a preference of the termination in lOS; thus xtl&Aci x." .. s,

, _

you do well, Xt&Aa}~ ~A6ES, you are welcome. The. "neuter sing. of

R. adj. is in some instances used adverbially as in H.; as rOA~, much, ~Al)'o', a little; and the ace, case of subs. with the article; .as .,.~ Aolr~', therefore, in ~hort,Jor the rest; ""',IIUX.,.tl&, by night, at night ; .,.~ roup'~I1· or . .,.~ ~tl&X~' in the morning; p.ltl&, ~A4j, or :~opa", once _; .,.pfis ~ptzls, thrice ; trux"tUs foptUs,JrtlJuently. 'o"Au"mptz, quickly, seems to be formed either from the H. dative,~AI)'1'l i3pt!-, or from )'ffloplm.

Diminutives are formed from adv. by changing the term into OJ"'~IXtl&, a~ .,.tl&xou.,.~'Xtl&, rather early, at dawn oj day.

Other adverbs peculiar to R. together with the greater part of the


conjunctions will be found in the remarks on the Albanian Ian-



co.-oU is used like the Italian ehe and French que, as, EUO~ orou, mbito ehe, ",&.p..trtl& OroU .op.b.J., while he was speaking.

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'ncra", (1'a", as, like as. In vulgar discourse, (1'«" is sometimes used with the force of liflce, if, and at others of wh:en with. the subjunctive mood; as va." ~ e1r,6u".iisJ since YOfJ, de~ire it; (1'." .,:~, j~s, when you, see Aifll.

N. contracted from the H. 1,,, has the extensive use, already mentioned in treating of verbs; but it is also an intetjection, thus employed, "~T'o", there he iB;· "_0,"0, there it is for you,; ,I. ni, ')'fWCI&iic4J behold the fI)Oman; "a x41 .li4, lo l I saw.

" On's, whence, therefore, IS used relatively to something that has preceded. The interrogative tlIMnCe' is expressed by tZn nii I

HoT'), neoer, is used like the French jamaia and Italian maa-sometimes with the negative 8~", and sometimes without it. Tlrons or T'11t'0T''', nothing, seems to be a corruption of ouatnT".

H~T"; with the accent on the first syllable, is the interrogative fJJhen' as in H.

·Ax&".., «X6p.a., like the It. ancora, is used to signify both yet, and not yet.

M~e, neither', nor, is more used than p.~ ••

• In vulgar speech, TO, it often used after HI, for all the ioftttxioo. or the Sci perl. pJ'OoO



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Ki~,·but, at least.

y n, ,,~~ou,- are used in calling out. to a. person; and IU"pe or p:zp_, you fellow, friend, is frequent in vulgar discourse; U$q)ou, m,f'- or aiXClf'E, Qlas; the first borrowed from Turkish; the second from Italian ..

M1t'd., ~, iR4eed~ surely.·

nlp~, ti.1t'&rE~, ooer the uJay, on the opposite side.

"Baal, here; ix.i,there ; . '.pz~, before; t~{J) or. :~{J), out; """"(8, above; X"'TtD, below; are used in composition with ti.1t'~, to signify this way, that way, 4-c.-and with 1t'''P~, to mark the original. meaning in excess, as 1t'~~1t'''''tD) higher up. ·A1t'.8wO. and ti.1t'ex.i8.-ti.r~~O,~ and ti.1t'OX~'TtDO,~, are used -with the same, meaning. as a.-.StU, &c.

Hal or x~) ~d., is sometimes substituted for g'TI,:that,. as AOl""~tD' x~l 'T~ f~,s, I suppose you have heard of it; tfT'TOJI'TtI.G x~) lid. fTOU :"p~"'~, being toot I wrote to ,you; .li«. M44 l~ptiB!J4fTe, I saw and (that) it was evening.


The R., though it has borrowed an its prepositions from H. often employs them very differently; and they may be considered, in the vulgar language, as all governing an .accusative case, although the politer classes often use the cases required in H.

~s-supplies: the place both .of lis and i~, signifying-both in·.aud.- to; thus lis ~., 'Ao,r,,~~, means both in Athens and to Athen«.

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r ·A1I'~,from,. of; by ;Jas 'T~ Ea;m~a. .11'6 'T~ nri'TI, I drot~e him from. .tke kO.tlle;

., r., .!.l:., ~ hari if . · , A..._ .,. '" h la'

.,14 4,.......' 47r'O tT'07JPO, a c ariot 0 fron;.· WXOT'(}I)fRII5'. 47r'a. .'XfJpovs, e: 'was } .~ .n·

. by enemies.

A,a, sometimes corrupted 'r,a, ·for, by, through, .on: account .. of, .and analogous to the It. per; as a'4'T}, percke? flJhy' a.a 'lrb.:Nus rUT/flUS, per molte ragioni, for many reasons; 8,tl''TO;'-G, per questo".on this :account. ·..4,.,.)s au}" has the force of instead of.

K4'Ttl, according to, towards, about; as X4'Ttl~" tTU",,6..4J1, according to custom; VclllrJtTl X4Ta .,.." r~AJJI, he mooed towards tke city; . X4'Ttl ~, ""n,pj(4J1, about mid-day.

II~, to, towards;; as ,; ql'Al4 (TGU 7r'~ epJwx.J your friendShip towards


M, or p.1'T·, before a vowel, with; as tU TO~ luous, .with the other«: IUT" ip1r«; with me.

Xmp1s or atxms, fllithout; as xmp1s t1p.ql.~)J4",. without. doubt; . X.p}s or atX.s I.AAo,· without doubt or fail, inevitably.


. ens or ~tVS, until, as far .. lU, up to;. as cDs ~1I XOPU~JI, up: to. the top;

IDs ~II njp.apotl, until this day.

n4pa, beyond, abooe.. contr.ary to; as 'll"4pd..qlUtrI'; .. beyond . (or above) what is natural; 7r'4P &'11.11'18«, contrary to that, which was hoped for; 3},1xfU rapti t,l4, 1 hooe but one.

• This is precisely the Italian expression, senza altr»,

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H';" s-'w, 41.,.1, ",pi, ;""'0-, trip«, .~ or ix, are often used in written composition, with the genitive case.

B,S, when added to certain adverbs, forms other prepositions of a compound kind; thus, "GII1"~ or fTup.p.a .~, near to; ;p:8porr«, or op.r";'s .i.s, before.; ~U "'s, around;. 4flT/xpu or eJl4J1T/." .is. opposite to; p.ffT4 .is, _Inn; ~""fTtII. 'is, in the Midst of.; W/(1'(1'1I) ,ls, beAi"d.

·.A.r~ is joined to others in the same manner; thus, XQJ(1'Tti or xp'4ti _~, "Part from, j" secre: from ; :~., cir~, without from; .~,; tJUrdtIAt .... ~, ~ this side of; cir.x,;6e cir~ on the other side of; 1rlfJtll. u~, across, over; p.a.xputi d7r'~, far from.

Jf' is only used after ,_t~ or ci~, to denote together uljth; as I£4~ I£} J.AAOUS,· together with others •

.dla, ~s, xcupls, 1rP;, or rplx,ou, ~J arc often used with the infinitive after them; as ~ja "a p.~" ~6'A4, through my being unwilling; 1rpl" "ti ql6~<rCD, before 1 arrive; X~AjO" ,ti '"f)'«l"!Js r4pti .ti I£.tY[JS, better .ftlr !J6U to go tian to stay.

Most of these adverbs may also be used without the preposition, when ob1ique cases of the personal pronouns are annexed to them enclitica11y; as, ep.rpo<rTuou, before you; X,QJtrr~p.ou, fmknorm to me.


These are numerous in R., and being one of the chief peculiarities and ornaments of the language, it will be right to give a few examples,

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for the purpose of showing the mode of their formation from the radi£al words.

MaDY of the derivatives which follow are purely H .. in diM rorm., ... are ltere inserted, aome because they have lJoW'a diftereat aeceptatiol! from that which the, formerly bore, and others, because they are among the words of most ordinary occurrence in the modem dialect.- These eamples at least serve to slaow, that die modem dialeef ia not remarkable for its poverty.

When the primitive word is a noun.

I1&.trT'p4,. 'It'lHrTprJ, ".«tITp~, IIeatnul, cleanlinesl; 7rfM'T'P-UC~, clean, -.x«, neatlJl; -~, I clefltlle; 1t'&.trT'P'fA4, 'It'~fJ'Tp"".g, tile act'!f cleansing.

AoUAoS, ~>.",. '1erDIlnt: &uA-U~~, 6tT'Oik; -.x,. or _,.~, ~, j-6(,; - .. a, !nuinul, affair; -';'''''' I subjugate, make 1tr'Oi1e: 8ouAlUm, I fIJOrk; 3ou>.atW's, 3ou>'0G"~, leroice, leroittlde: -&u>.-~" ttJOrlcman, lertJtmt; plur. -fWD.s;-,{wpltS, 'Working-man, 'WMTUltI-Ier'Dtmt; -fUT'.x~, like a 8eroan', laboritlus; 306'Afup4, the O£t td flJorkin8 ;. W>.cuns, tile reducing to leroitude.

H. ~.>..~, R. ~.>.l~, king; ~wr{>"fJ'fF", gueen: ~.>.-'x~, lJelonging 10 tr k,"K; -.X4, in a kingl!J manner: -,u., I rule; -"'" (the 1UtI) Ittl; 'UoUfJ'e&, capital city. It. dominante; -,Ie&, reign; ~(>'-"GJI, kiRgdwR; -'Uf4", ~iM, wt;"g f!f Ike 11m; -II" (plur.) court, palace; ~.1J,rGU>'G", young prince; ~I>.oroU>.e&, princeu.

H.~, R. ~UlI,. (plur.)ftar; ~G~l~(f', Ifrigkten; -oufA4', IJear; -~~. krribll .. -,,., terribly; -lpe&, "lmOCe; -fpl~tD; I threaten; -iPlfFp.a., (tile) IkrtlllcttiRe. -'p«ITa, in {I tMuteRing maaer; -'P'fJ'~', threatener; -,p{trrpe&, flmaU: threatener; -,~a., terror; -I~P', Icart-erorv; -1JT'~s, timid, cfJflJtlrd~ •. -1JT'~"pla, timid fIJOman; -,,-r~U¥'Xe&, timidly; -1J1"~'c¥ucos, timid; ql~~'fFp.a., intimidat;on.

• Perhaps (rom the H. "arm. 6r00na.

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. H. XJ,p4, region, culti'Oattd fold, R. cit!}, to'flJn j XtIJ"&.~II, culti'Oated fiekl j -'&'T1JS, -tltNs, petUallt; -'tltV~OfJ'AO', peasant-hoy; -'&'TIfTtTtlt, -,tltn}, p«uant-flJ01lltln;

-'tltP01l'W'Aa.,pell8tmt-g;rl; -'&'TUCOS, rustic, unpolilhed; -'&'TUCa., in a ""tic 1IIIItme'r;

.;.tltTOcd~"UZ, rather ""tieall!}; -'ctT'6a" -tltTt~tIJ, I act tAe rustic; -.&, action '!f'a rtl8tic; -,tltTw6,.", nuticity; -a.T.6eo, I am facetious, satiriCllI; -tltT"a, -&'T,up.a.,joke, satire; -a.Ta, jokingly; -a.TaunJS, -tltT.6T,~jolcer, etc.; -'~" 'lJilIage;

-,Mx" hamlet.

B"p-~, or ~.p-~, dry; -a, drily; -a, terra:/irmo, continent; -al,tIJ, I dry ; cUcx, -4a'l~ -~T~ dryness; ~p4p.a., desiccation; f~,tlt or !lpa., quiclu"nd.

"HpApGS, gentle; -';""p-'6a" -';',tIJ, I mak« or become gentle; -&n,T4, -w6,.", gentlenus; -,;",Ip-tlJtT's, -fDp.4, (the) laming.

H.ltT".-tlt, -4T'a, -tltT'X~', obstinacy, spite, anger; -J"tIJ, -a.T.Um, -tltTI~tIJ, I am obstituzte, ~c.; -a.T&.tnJs, -tltT~S, obstinate, ~c; -tltT&.pa., obstinate, ~c. woman; -tltT&.p,XOS, gifJm to obstinocy, ~c; ...., f the) being obstinate, ~.

M~ gold; p.4Aa.",-a.T'XO', price of gilding; -tltT'''OS, golden; -tltTtb'tIJ, I gild ; -&.TtIJ~ gilding; -&'TOW'S, the action of gilding; -a.TtIJ~S, gilder.

M~, t f'IO#; "'UT.p-~, pointed, 'I08t78Aaped; -a, with tile point; -';'VtD, I "",ke pointed; p.w&.ptz, great nose; p.UT-tltpO.s, man flJith a gretzt 1IOIe j -tltpou, 'lD011Ian with a great nose.

n.p&..., falcon; ,,"p4X&.tnJs, falconer.

When the primitive word is a verb ..

rp«.ftD, I write; "p4H writing, letter; -'X~S, belonging to flJriting; -T'X~, that f7Ul!I be mltm; -,&,prJs, writer, scribe; ,.p«.",,,,«, II thing 'lDf'itten; "pa.p.p.4-TI~tD, I ""'ke lettered; -T'X~, scribe; ",&.,fI,p-o", (tke) writing; ,,~tT~«' billet, note j "pa.",p.l,,4, (adv.) in writing.

K,wi, I mtJIrIe; xl'-7JtT's, motion; -7Jp.4, mO'Oef'lle1lt; X'P-7J~S, fIIO'Oer; --/rrp4, ftmole muoer; -7JT'X~, belonging to mO'Oement; -7JT~S, 11IO'f)table.

• This word is analogous in etymology to the H. Icntltu0floll" or .f1T.ft0flolJ&l, and the same in

meaning. .

t Tbia word bu the laDle etymon as y.uE., viz.~, comprimendo ,laudoDigitized by Google


H. ~uM"'Gt, I guard, R. ~!JM"CD, I guard, erpecl; ~U~t.lCxtlS,: ~u~.t.ICX.n,S', -tI;x&:ropa.G, keeper, guardian; .-«~, place of keeping.; -&.xTp«,-&.xTP't.IC, -femate keept:r; -a.x~P'OIl) place W security; -t.lCXT~', charm; -t.lCXJ,'lIlJ, I imprison; .-t.lCXlD'M)s, one who imprisollS; -&.xmp.ix., (tke) imprisoning; ~u~~'" custody.

'A - I'" 1 P • l._ 1._1 ..1 , , • ,

.n.'¥t.IC'lraJ, force; t.IC'¥«w--", tooe, eacei t.IC'¥t.IC'Ir-"TUj", ucwvc;a; -"'!'1J', -"fT't.IC(J7JS', t.IC"«~TIXO"

Iuoer; -"fT«p,a, lorcer ([em.); -'rJTa, -"1-'111«, 10'Oingl!J; -1')T',x." amiable; -"T'X~S, amatory; -1')T'X1), mistress; -1~CD, I pacify, reconcile; a,¥~1r1'JfT'" (the) lo'Oing, recom:iliation.

Bplxw, I sprinkle, moisten; (?Iplx", it rains; (?Ipl;'p.oJl, (tlle) raining; (?IpoX-~' rain; -~at.IC, slimtJer or succession if' rain , -,~S', belonging to rain , -E~S; "ainy; -(T~t.IC, . ¥fJrinkling if' rain; -ou~, fine rain .

• '~-aJ, I j/ee; ~.tJ')'-I~, or -t.lCTI~, or -~T!!Jp.«, j/igllt; -"TO" fugitive.

It is almost superfluous to add, that verbs in l~aJ, substantives in Gtp.«, 71fT.S, ~ adjectives in.xos, 1',OS,t.lCTOS, are often formed for the occasion, . like our verbs in Is. and subs. in ness, &c. but with a more elegant effect.

Words compounded with the H. prepositions siS', ar~, 8,a, Xt.lCTa, w-~,

~'l 1 \ ")""<\" 1 d

fU'Z"t.IC, t.lC1I'T , r.p , rpo, rt.ICp«, I1r , .. , t.lCSlt.IC, fTUII, !J1rep, 'J7I"O, are a so numerous; an,

the preposition generaUy gives to the compound word the same force, which it does in H.

IIt.lCpa has often a superlative sense, as 'lrt.iCpt.lC'lro~M, very muck; 'lrAp«~, very heavy; (?I'~JI 8~1I '", property he has not overmuch. &Ta has sometimes the same force; as xa.T~POS,. totally bJqck. -

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Verbs, and their derivatives, may also form compounds with;. and !&"4, the former analogous to the Latin e or ex in composition. and the latter to re; as, ;41rAtfJ'tfJ, I 'Unfold; ;,rrpe"", 1'1), 'r'p-'~u, I umtrerv, i. e. take the cloth, .fc. off from the table; ;4'a.r.':',W, I rene».

Verbs compounded with X4XO and X4AO are very numerous j asX4XOp,e'r4X!'P;~0I'4" I ill-treat; X4Xo~a.l,0I'4" I am displeased; X4Xof~p1~Q), I defame; xa.Ao8.xol'4" I give ~ good reception to; x4Aoxa.p8l~w, I make joyful, am gay.

In short, compound ye~bs of all kinds are in very general use 'in R. and' often composed for the occasion, with a very expressive effect.

The following examples may serve to show their nature:

~P'~'XUPOII, fnr,p64UpmrrOS,




• • • • • • • • • • •• r!Je-straw.

• •••• • • • • • •• super-miraculous.

• • • • • • • • • • •• chiif tff the elder«. · • . • • . • • • • •• holy fat her.

• ••••••• 0 0 0 0 offspring of a Turk.

o • 0 0 0 • • • • • •• cooered with intlumerable dead bodies.

p.oAU~trX~1r'4tr'rO" ••••••••••••• cooered '(oitk lead.



a;,ox4'r4"~(hJ'rO, , '1t'4A'~POUXO", "'4~'rO'1t'O"

. '''U'lt'OXI'r(;III'.,W,

• •••• 0 •• 0 0 •• a woman with black e!Jes. ••••• 0 • • • • •• wort 1i!J tff blame.

• ••••••• 0 • •• 'Worn out cloth, plur. old cloaths.

• • • • • • • 0 • • •• place abounding in fish, •••••••• 0 • •• I make or appear yclluwish.

X4'r~(Jp84, (adverb) . o. • •• •• in the 'Oery heart. xa.9,Aoyij" (adv.) .•• o •••••••• of e'Oery kind.

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• • • •• • • • • •• . I look ll'lI»'!J, squint •

• Pr~X"PO'" ~ • • • • • • . • • •• tlumufacture.

xu,,~.tpo;,phos., . . . . . . . . . . .. tirest in Sunday c/otbu.

It is-necessary to remark, in conclusion, that the foregoing observa'tiona-are by no means intended· to embrace an' entire system. of R. grammar : much less, it is' hoped, 'will they be construed into .an ambitious attempt to . reduce. its' Irregularities .Jnto .order.·,-- The uncertainties and .variations, to which a. dialect 80 unmethodized is liable, would, perhaps, render vain any such endeavour; even. in .a native of Greece. In the verbs and nouns, particularly , . there are very many exceptions to the rules here stated, which must only be considered as pointing out the prevailing customs.of the dialect.


In the corrupted dialect of an ancient language, written in the same character, but deprived of its refinements of sound and tlexion, and spoken by .an ignorant people, it is natural. to expect a great uncertainty in the rules of orthography.

. The modern Greeks acknowledge, indeed, DO other 'r~es than.the Hellenic in-words taken from the.ancient language·; but,·, in the practice .of the-uneducated and in·vulgar poetry, almost.~y'lllode!of writing is allowable, which expresses the sound, or suits the convenience of poetical metre. It is this vulgar deviation from the real orthography, that so.much-disfigures the written.Romaic.iand.induces many, persons, who : are unacquainted with modern pronunciation, to I conclude, :that it. has scarcely any resemblance to Hellenic, but in its '.being.w..ritten


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with the same alphabet, Having already stated the kind of corruption, which H. words have undergone in their adoption into ~., in conse. quence of the usages of R. grammar, it may DOW be useful to notice so~e of the most customary corruptions in writing.

1. Cutting oft" a letter or syllable from the beginning, . middle, or end of a word - as J'To.os for s-l-roMlS;' /A:r"JJxt» for ip.r"AflCtD; 'I'p.crl~. for 1tt*r1~,,'I; . r'~"A. for ry.(36'AJo,; p.a.'f" for "'T"o,. - \Vhen the: .initial • or « of words beginning with .u .or tJIU, ~. dropped, the u is conv.erted into ~. in writing, as ~T'urp.4 for alrrlJ.r.(I'p.4, im:rt!G,e.. The omission of fA- before .11 .is common, as ,",'CD for ",.IICD,. I .,ake.

2. Adding a .vowel at the beginning or end of a word, or inserting them in the middle, as ~rl'r~ for r.T'~,; inUres for 'ToiiT'o~; rlO'J"~' for rw_; ix,.«,. for i"I~(I'«'; ~)'. is often added in this manner, as )'U,A~ for ui~; x"Aa.l,.m for x"Aa.ICD; n&II.f14 for '1.,111'114.

, 8. Changing .one vowel .for another, as :;eu for .16.; '2.tJ,,~ fpl' l"ru~ ;--one consonant for another, when they are kindred sounds, as wX"'« for WX'T«; 4np.l« for a..8p.t«; qbJxtY' for ~xrl.p" 6QSe, from ,H. &,jx1J; r«pa<pup' for 7t'a.pduPI, window; <PT'a/)'CD for 7rT'a/m; xAl<p'T1J~ for *~s; (MBpaxos for ~'Tpa.x.os ;-or a vowel for a diphthong, as Ip.op<Pos for dt£6p<Pos; or any other change producing a similar, or .nearly similar, sound; as a<pl,.,."s for cWSl,.,."s; 'X4T'~' for ;x«6.(I"; alldA"'1S for ,b_IJUCT's.

The substitution of • and 0 for each other, and the omission of the

. .

88ortvowels, at the.beginning of words, are the most frequent among

the aberrations of R. orthography.

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4. The inversion of letters by the figure metathesis, is also common in R. as 'If'plx4 for 'If'lxp4; bitterness, griif " 1pm,I~(D for 1'.pl~(D; and


sometimes accompanied with a change of consonant, as .,,~..r for 'lis.

5. The elision of a final or initial vowel, when coming before, or after, another. Sometimes, the two. words are then written as one, as ' 'If'.rrl;, five 'or Iii;,' an 'exJ>fessioD often used for' any indeterminate small number.

- ,

6. The final" of all words ending with that letter, may be inserted,

or omitted, as the sound requires it. The use of the paragogic • is very common, and is sometimes used even before a consonant, as nil ''If'¥» for 6. 1t'¥-, I shall take.

All these irregularities of orthography are carried to a greater extent in poetry, where they are convenient to versification. Sometimes, entire syllables are omitted in the middle of a word; sometimes, an addition is made at the end of a word, for the sake of helping the metre, or changiJJg the accent, ,as i1~' for Jy'_' :Sometimes, 'but more JWelYJ acc~ts .are changed, arbitrarily·; ~ words are often, 'written ~nformuble . to the: vulgar prODUIlCiatioo. instead of the real orthogt~pby;. and two .Qf three '!OnU are -sometimee joined into· ODe, witbw.t any apostrophe. ~ mark their separation, as ..nn-.,- 'for lis r6 ;Jtr<t:'po".·


. • It is ~ 1ic~o~ 'of poetical orthosrapbYJ that ,left ~ author of the Priamplea of Harmony ~ Language, p. 824. and p. 4M. iu his welHelected specimen. of R. yenificatio~~ in doubt ai to the 'meaning of "ySij, ,.'r., and p.".; which, in their propel' (orlDl, are M j~~

.a e;y,~ and ""1"/"..' ' I

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Obleroatifms on the Dialect and Literature td' the modern Greeks - Catalogue of modern Authors, and their Works_

T HB preceding sketch of the peculiarities, which distinguish modem from ancient Greek, has been chiefly formed from the spoken language. Every boy, :who learns to .mte, imbibes some notion of Hellenic: his lessons and exercises are generally in a style superior to the vernacular speech, and the most illiterate persons insensibly acquire a slight knowledge of the ancient language by hearing t~e churchservice performed in it: so that most modern Greeks, in writing,


deviate in proportion to their education and acquirements, in.a greater

or less degree, from the vulgar grammar and idiom, and 'intermix ancient phrases, moods, and inflexions, with the Romaic syntax and idiom.

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It follows, that there are almost as many idioms as writers in R., and, that it is impossible to fix any boundaries to the different shades, which unite the ancient language with the vulgar. dialect, If any distinction of this sort were attempted, it might be said, that the first style is that of the colloquial language, of the illiterate natives of Greece, who have never had any communication with foreigaers , the only specimens of which are to be found in the popu1ar poetry; all 'prose compositions, . even those used in the common transactions Dr business, being the production of scribes ('1pa.fA.fJ.4T',xoi).·

The most ignorant of these scribes, having had some little tincture of H. education, employ expressions seldom used in vulgar discourse; and their writings, and those of the lower order of priesthood, and men of business, may therefore form a second kind of R.

A third is very much in use at the present day among the writers of original prose-compositions, and the translators of European works of reputation. These persons, who, for the most part, have been educated, or long settled in Italy, or the Southern Provinces of


Germany, are in general familiar with the languages of those

countries, and very imperfectly practised in that of their own ancestors: whence the idiom of their compositions in R. closely resembles the modern Italian.


1* may-here be remarked, that R. compositions must have had a

tendency to resemble, those' of Italy, ever since that country began .to reflect a part of the light of its revived learning upon Greece; and that this tendency mnst have been considerably increased by the tircumstance of Greece having no presses of its own, which rendered

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it difficult for any but a Greek. settled in Italj, and consequently translating or copying from Italian authors, to commit hii compositions to the press.

There is a variety of the most inodern Romaic, which deserves to form another exception to the vulgar speech, and to be eonsidered 8.1 a fourth kiad, Being the production of men of real learning and judgment, it furnishes the ·most favorable of all the eDlDples of R. composition, and shows the form and character, which R. prose is likely to assume, when the nation is more advanced in civilization. Some of the best specimens of this style may be found· in tbe Prefaces of Korats editions of H .. authors, printed at Paris, allowance being made for ·some little inclination to the Gallic idiom, in the R. diction of this patriotic and accomplished scholar, arising from the circumstances of his long absence from Greece, and his intimate acquaintance with the French language.

This style may, with tolerable accuracy, be defined to consist in H. words, arranged. in the syntax of modern Europe, with a grammar partly H. and partly modern. Jnversions and traaspositions occur with about the same degree of frequency as in Italian, and the.arrangement, in genera), is not much more complex than that of our own language.

,. .A fifth style of writing .is that called the'mixa.barbarous, (n ;.ufo~~") which studies to employ H. phrases, :Usumes many ·of the habits of ancient syntax, and endeavours to' imitateIts invelution8, but is still combined with so many expressions of modem Of. foreign etymology, that the style instantly betrays itself, for that of men half

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learned in the literature of their ancestors, who, unable to express themselves with purity in the ancient: language,. have yet been sufficiently acquainted with it, to write in a manner unintelligible. to the vulgar.

The appellation of mblC~barbaroU8 became current at Constantinople, in the same ages, in which R. was first formed into a written dialect. It was applied to the vulgar· dialect in general,' by those Greeks, who still cherished the last remains of Hellenic learning.

. .

During those darkest periods, which followed the (all of Constan-

tinople, the mixo-barbarous was the mode of writing, adopted by the few persons, (chiefly ecclesiastics,) who then received any kind of literary education. Their studies not being guided by taste or philosophy, they derived no other adv.antage from them, than ~n unmeaning knowledge of .the words and grammar of the ancient tongue,. of :which they made a pompous display in this style of pedantic ignorance: and

. .

thus the mixo-barbarous assumed a character, different both from

Hellenic and the common dialect. Since the corruption and effeminacy of the Turks, and the' increasing weakness of their government has unwillingly or unconsciously 'afforded an opening for the light of civilized Europe into Greece, . this style has given way to those already mentioned, and is gradually falling into deserved contempt.

. ' .

. I~ would .0ccuPy too much space' to give examples of tbe different idioms

just mentioned, which are so much blended with intermediate shades, that the attempt could not be attended with any practical utility. The reader will perhapsbe better satisfied with a short specimen of a R. translation from ancient Greek.. As the language of the New·Tesq.ment

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resembles: the "modern' dialect in the simplicity,of its arrangement, the following extract 'from 'a R. version of the New Testament, with the H. text adjoined, will be the best kind of 'example-that can be given.

BTMTBAlON JUTA, AOT~N, u •. , ·J9.

S Ktal i~,j-r.. la.1, ,.~, 'I'JfJ"o~, TlS

. \ .. \ ., .. ~~ . \ -" .,

'fJ"T," XCII OUX '100'4,.0 4'1r0 T'OU 0XAOU 0,.,

'r1i 'I)"".xl, p.ixp6s ~II"

S Kttl i~,fT4 ,a 1&n ,.6' · I'lfJ"oiill roros .'1'4" xtal' a., -r.p.nprr. ti,rA ,.~ rA~Sos,

.,.. ,,' , •• 1

0,., ''1),.0' xonos liS ,,.0 xop,.....

4 Kct1 r~~' Wp.rpwSn ti,lf3tJ 4 Ktal I,.p.;" o~rpotrra xtal J..,l~

.1 fJ"UXop.mpala.lI, 1114 ~ GWT'~II" ~T" a," tin-hID -as p.!411 fJ"UXOp.opI4' a.a ,a n,

. t 71 " 1 IJ '~IN" "" \ I '(

II'I "'l~ fJl"AAI OltpX.'fJ"f14'. 'ar" OT" 42rO .Xll"'l' T'l' fJ""pct,.4', • x.'

,a 'Ir.p~,

5 Kt.Xl cDs ~A9" en-l "~If T6n-0" 4114- {3A*",ctS 0 'I'lfJ"oiiS .n," 4,"~1I, 1'41 .7'1r! n-~$ 4,"~1I, Za.xx.a.i., fJ"S"UfJ"ctS x4T'~6,' ~l"pOIl "tap elf ",p o't'"[l fJ"ou a.i p.i p.aiIl4'.


5' K \ ., .. 8 • Or. - • \

CII IDfJ"411 'I A III 0 ~'JfJ"OUS liS TOil

,.-. , \~ 1

TorOIl 'X"!f01I a.1la.JlT'Pa."'lfJ'" xcu ,,6.T'0' 1'4

.'Ir.' Za.xx.a.i, xa.,.I/3ct "t"1Jropct· aJ4,.1


fJ"'1M)T 1fJ"0!) "

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7 ze.l ;"'''IS hfl.n., a~~o" 7 x.l .,1,,.:, f3tu ~. i~,

~o,"" "Or. ".capa ~.).~ 4J3pa xta1I~, ,,", .~ .wp~ IAp.apf'tII"IM

.irij).S. XClT~UcrC¥,. i+ ,a xo~.

8 .tTd.)~ a~ Za.xx.a.i~ .Tr. r~s T~' 8 K«) 3 Za.xx.a.ios Irr~ xtal .7ft'"

K6plO'J • ~ Ta 'tfpin "'ID' UtTC¥px.I",,,,, .~ .,.~, K6plO" ,a, tJAI""J, .,.cl ~fAW'I .,.., tAAo, X(,p", 818w/Ao' .,.o~ '"''''x.0'ii xcd.1 UtmpXln- fIAU ll&. ,Ig Tolts ""'GJXo:.s, .,.,rIs TI WvxofhnJerc¥" 4~lacul" T''''(HIII" xta1 .. , Icnnc~erc¥ ""Ns Ttftll'.g, n

nou,. 8t'a. wtcr. .,.wertApll a",,~.

9 B7rl a~ r~~ ~~, 3 • I1Jerous, "Or,

, ,.."" I

G"YJJUPO' erlDnJpU& "'ep 0'.., t'Ow«p ')I'VITO,

xa.U.,., xed cams uAs .~ "'rIP.

10 ., lh.6. 14, 0 uJ~S Toii &.r6ptfnrofl ~'J"""tu xGll er_a., T~ ",."AI,.

9 Ktd 0 'l1JeroUs Tot; .Tr." 3r, ~p.tPO'

tI ._.I""'~ • e :

.,.." eru,. w-c¥ liS .,.0 fnrIJT' .~ liS .a-o,

.1,.. _ In&ros v~ nii .~ ••

10 .,d,c¥") , uJ~ TOU a.,splnrou ~"AS. ,a ~'1"in.J ,.) ,a .. _,," ~,.

11 '~., ~ __ ....u..., r~ 11 KG) Uo6wr.g h.7"., iniIr4, 1".pW-

6,)s .7r. "'«p~o).~" a,a T~ ;~ ~~, xtal .rr. pi«, ftt~).~' pl ~ 1(~

.T,", ·1,poU(l'4).~p., x41 Sox.;, ~o~ gT' rapa.xRp4 p.I'A'AI, 'tf (,).,lc¥ T'OU BIGU ,b«f4l"er6«,.

Ii B7r" 03,· ".A~panro~ ",(S ~."" wop,6~ "S x.tlJp«, fl4Xpa, >,,~,;, ic¥wp fJtw,).,t«" xc¥l WOG"f'p~4'.

1 S K4"J..1tr4S 31 3/x4 &6"J..ous ;4Uf'O; Rmx" "thO;S 81X4 "."ti~, X4) ,T"., ".~

• \ rr , Il!#"

4UT'o~, -p41P-""'IJG"4G"fI' lIDS 'px..0JUlo"

.T,", xon-a .Is n), tl'poU(l'c¥>"~p., x41 ,a "J..o-r,'~ou" :T" "'«P'uS~ poI"J..>.. .. ,;'Allc¥ Tot; BIOU ,a "'"f4vfi.

Ii .tf.OIr~' .T".,,· "as l.,sponroS .~mis lrii1" .,s XJ,p4' fl4Xptl" ,a ".~ a.a "J..4)'OUf'OU ~G",>...Ic¥'J xGll ,a '1UptG"'fj.

1 S Ll Ixpocf. 3.X4"OU &u"J..'UT'tU's, xtll TO~ f8cux. 8lxc& p.'~, xcd TO~ .T".,· Na, "'p4"II4"'~'G"6.lms d-otl ,a ."J..6 ••


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14 0; 8~ 1rOA;T4. tWrou ipJ#I'OU1 tWT~lI,

___ \ • , a.' ., ...

xaJ 41r'#I'T!lA411 1rPWp"4' 01r.#I'. twTOU,

11.1,,0"'6, otJ 6IAop." TM01 ~.'AlU#l'4I i~' 7j~.

J5 V'_\ ., • ... A" • \

.&Ufo' '"IIIITO .11 T#p 11r411'AfI'" 41JT01

~",4 .,.,)1 ~IAlI4', x41 .7r. qlCOft)-

, T'1J(J'4TO.


14 &1 0; '1I'O'AlTa .... T.U nil ;/-"(1'_411, x41 IcrTClAU 1rplcr~.s tl1r01rltl'tDT'OU xc&l 'Aly4' 8~1I T~" 8111.01'-" ,a ~'A'Urn lis

. ..

. .pas.

15 K4l ~T4' i"up,tI'. xc&l i1rip' n)II ~'A.14ll, .• 71r1 "a ",ou A4A~tI'OUII 1"0~ &UAfUT~'S ixei".~s, .ls TO~ /nrolous r3cux. n tln}/-"TOU' a.,1 ,tl ~ T~ ixl~cr"

.. fI ., I

.. 4tI'4.,«s CIS '"I" 7I'p«"p.4Tfl4" TOU.

16 Ha.p.".11l1"o a~ , ,,(HMos,. ')Jy.'" 16 &U ~A8" i "P-Tos xc&l .7ft,·

K~p .. , _ tj p.1a. _ cr.u "potr"nU4TO 31xa. .AU61"'"J'; p.14tr.ou p.,ti I~a.p.t "4p41r~.

p.'&'. 81x4 p.,tis.

11 Ked .71rlll M,p, B~ &',.B) BoGA" 11 K4l A.,.""u· ",uou W'AI .,,(6),

:T. .11 i'A4x1tI'Ttp 1r.tI'ns iylrou, ttl'6, i1r"~ .is T~ o).t"o" I"."s iP.1rWT.pAIfOSJ

1;01J(J't4' ;X.JI, i1r~"cu 81x41ro'Al.,. 'x. i;OtWkc, &. .. ~ .Is 31xa. "'A,,s.

The following extract from one of the writings of Dr. Koral, will serve to exemplify the recent Romaic, as written by one of the most polished and learnedof the nation; and it includes a short specimen of the mixo-harbarous of the present day. It is . taken from the author's letter to Alexander Vasiliu: at whose expense his edition of the

• Alexander, the len of Buil.-The Greeks, .trictly speaking, have no 8urnames, but use the same distinction as their ancestors, - the name of the father, in the genitive case. There are many exceptions, howeyer, to this rule: Some families at Constantinople, and elsewhere, to preserve the memory of a real or pretended aftinity with the great houses of the Lower Empire, have adopted their lumames; and, ill some c:ua, uick-aames, often in the Turkish

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JEthiopic~ of Heliodorus was printed j the letter serving as a preface to the book. Korai exhorts his countrymen not to attempt to write Hellenic, in which he thinks they can never succeed, and draws a Jive1y contrast between two persons, the one laboring to compose in the ancient, the other writing with ease in the modem, dialect. He then proceeds to the following remarks upon the mixo-barbarous writers. It must be remarked, that in all his writings, addressed to his countrymen, Korai studies to adapt his language to the unpolished state of the-greater part of them.

" • A_" N ~R "" ...l.' ,_f. ,.,

.JDJ"O T'"U'n'JtI, T'aw >'>''''',.,OtlT'.1I TlJII ",...'411'IT'"' TWO' crrorfDT"PO"

.7,,". I, l.uo .DOS' tronpex~i.", .,.o~ I.olous, a,el ,~ auucplll'" _~ T'O~ ~T'GJf

OR '''' I ~., _t:: .... , I", ••• N ~.

).).7J".,OtlT'tJ;, fTII'1XtDP7Jtro" ,~ O"p.cxtrtlO ~r.&l"'AA'J""OllT'4S 'J "'I ",),4rfS XC&l\).H,

M'~of3cxp~s. ~O trxorOs T'cUll T'0,06r., .1114. ~if3cx,«. i1r4l'~ .,,3,} rpo6up.oGlIT'fU "Ii tr'pMwtIJtr,,,, Itroll 8U'4T'~' a,.,.u.r.po" ~, t1"'llA-'p'~, ~tr411 .Is nItI p.'JT'lpex ~s

, CR ' t~ •• ~ , .., J.'''' , ~

T"J' >'>''1'''''''''' n>'). nil.,., rfHIY"J T'OU ')'~tIT'OS' GpaT"l 11114. '1 tr4~"II"", ~".,

~ , • , ., ~ ~_ .. I:l'" .,' ~ ~ , ., , _,

,~ ,,~.'S T'poro" tlJtrT'a ,~ X4T'4,_.,..,.-'1T'4' an T'Ous o,~ T'GUS orOlGUS "pa.~'" XfU

p.tT" czU.ri" a.IJT';pa. ,Ii ')'p"~ p.~ .u~~'"II, p.~ T'O~' ~>'OM' trUlIT'~" x«1

, N It:: O.,~ t::... _\ C~.' • , ., ,,,

tTUp.rAoX'J' T'tlJII ).1.'(011, " oro," IIG rpo .. '''1l XfU "ooll'JlI .'S T"l" ""07J", xp'" OT"

, , , ,. \ II ., ~ ., ., 1.3._

14'JT" 'MJII P.'"' p.'JT" '"1" ").).71' 4p'T'7J' 'Xou" otro. ""P'T'tIOS tTUp.r>..xoUtr. T'..-

'&>',,"x~ tTUlIT'~.'G p.} T'as XO'II~, xcxl tTU,siT'ou~ ;X or'" 360 trXOT'fI~lI, T'pa.xJ-, ."aij .is ~II tlx~lI, T"pa.T',J,a" x"l 4A"S.S °Rpp4~pOa.T'O' MrQJJ X4fHUriipex. a.,poUtlT'4I .is T'tftr4 .tl7j, 'tro. .71141 oJ a.4q)0po, T'pho. ~s &tTU"....>.lxT'oU T'46r"s

- • .. _. 1 - , ~ ,., tI , ~

frUp.r'Aox7js. nIX .. I1r T'OU r4(lOlIT'OS' ,~ t1"'l1A-'.trHTtIO 'X,,"US, otro. 1rO.XJ).AoUtr' T'~

ntlT'qp.4T'&'T'tIJ" X4T'1i pApOS p.} pJA" fp4trUl .,j r.,lo&lI tlxp«T'IIJS cR>.>."»,x-,J,, x«1 p.}

Iauguap. haye become family names for a few geoeratioDl. Among the middJiug and lower cIuses, an individual, when at home, is distinguished by his baptiamal Dame, of which a variety of distinctions is formed by means of diminutives and abbreYiatioDl, u amo~ the Italians. WheD be travel. abroad,. he adds. to it the Dame of bit native place.

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_'01.1 p.'f"fI.~ •• g leal '~a. ;X,;II4. aJ "",",oM1J .,.tiW a1ro/aJII ti J1!~a?.~ _1,] ,up4 n-MT1"on-a. ·B'AA7Jr.,c~, ,.a a~ a.a pj(J'ou ,.';;pA "TOA;~'1"t.IU $$ 84; .. 1"'" (J'un~la, pJPO'S p.l T~II .... 7r'AoII <ris ·,..t61J"tis, p.JfO$ ".) Ta P4x"l Tau "lpou. ·Op.of~" T~·trQII T,"a ?j 1"O,,,,u,.,, O"UP.~AoX~ fI-~ Ta ·OP.7jPUCOII ;xe',Io TI(N%S,

... , , I t""

.6""'011 • • • • • • •• 1nJPOS p..'OS a.fl0p.IIIOlG,

'AAAa ~""jll xa~ 4~r~~opoll 4'IJ3tall. AU1"ol 0"2rou3c1~oUII, WS ,Tra, "r). ~;IAA'YjIl{O"mO".

, , If"'..... t.l , t.. t~' ,,,

'r'IJ' XO'II7J' '1AIII all• a",,,, rrll<fll _1"4),"'0111'«1 liS rp4)'pA 40ulla1"OIl, P.'lJII • X.0If1"'S

. .

T~ 3.xatwpA ,. d'AA&.;tlJO". TOU ~SIlOUS ~II ),AW(J'0"411, d,"')'x~~oJITa. ~, ·E>.A'lJIIUC~"

,~ 3JaG"TplqlfIJO"', xal nil' XO'~II, nj, Grot"" ,. d2r~~,",' 8~" .P.2r0poUII, f34p~ptTlp4" ",l ~, 1.,..,,011 7rUp~S'O"'" T"'~II ,~ x&'""tDtT"'. Tl,os 4x~, '1f'4pa.8,:),pA1"OS x.~p", 3~,I4Ta, ,r). Wroqll(l'l1 n;, '1f"ptolo" "",~,,; "·B7r"~, X4Ta tlA~S"4", .f1'" O~,I ~ 6.~s .7x.' 1"~' irax4'AlO"'1J1"CU, .fT. O~, oJ l."sptmf'O. XP'tlJO"TouO""" d. "U, 'x.tlJO""', dlla,),xa.lCfls ,a 4xOAou6w(J" TaS· ~TOU .i~O" .. s· xal oUr a, ".ou" Q.!ttIJpA, O7rOO"O'OUII ;x,,,,o 3UII4Ta. rIa irlxn xal IIa ;xqlo~, ~p.rop.j ,a TO~ rotjj .,,;. .... O"T.~O"." dtrT"4trOUII dpx~, -4 ,~ xptllmO"u, d;tas ";"'x4TdiG"ams UTU'4trOUII rp~ .. s OT4 i.xalas xal

9 A' -.. • -, .,,, 6"' •

• UfllltXS, 4I1"'''S 1114f'¥tlJS p.aX.0If1"4I .x."'~. p. 'If.

" From this absurdity of the Hellenizers, it may be conjectured,- how much more absurd

i. another kind of writers, whoDl, to distinguish from the pure Hellenizers, pardon me if J call Mixed-Helleuizers, or, if you like it better, Mixo-barbarous. The design of these men is indeed laudable, because they strive to bring the modern language as near as possible to ita !pother the Hellenic. But since the first virtue of a writer is perspicuity, or to write in such

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c==::=---- --- ----


• manDer a. to be understood by those, for whom he writes i and the second, to write witb elegance, or with that order and arrangement of words, which may give pleasure to the ear ; I think that such men have neither the one nor the other of these merits, who involve Hellenic with modern syntax, and form, out of the two, an obscure, barsh, inharmonious, monstrous, and truly Hermaphrodite .tyle of diction. These writers are divided into as many kinds. as there are different modes of that patchwork style of phraseology. It suffices for the present, lh.t I notice such as variegate their compositions with· phrases and periods purely Hellenic, and with others, either of the modern dialect, or totally vulgar. 10 this description may be included maoy new translations, and all those epistles, of which the head and tail are constructed in Hellenic, and the. middle is adorned, according to the fmcy of the writer, partly with the robe of Minerva, and partly with the rags of Irus, Sitch a composition resembles, in some measure, that monster of Homer, II. Z. v. 509.-IIot breathing, as the Poet 1a18, but a dreadful and intolerable stench. These writers study to hellenize the common speech, but Dot having it io their power to alter the language of the natioD, they attempt impossibilities, aod are therefore obliged to distort the Hellenic, and &0 make the common dialect, which the, cannot evade, more barbarous with their absurd innovations. What ears, for example, can bear such Ii period as this ? It Since" in truth, whether God shall caD upon him or not, men must, if they have sense, necessarily follow his impolses, and no power whatever, however it ma)' be able to oppre81 ad frigbtea, am aake thelll believe any priocipleJ, or judp worthy of IIpprobation any practica, II jut aad,.ht, which are evidently ad ...... to him."

The spoken Romaic is more or less mixed with Turkish or Italian words, or more or less free from those impurities, according to the geographical position, or political state of the district where it is spoken; and these causes often produce a difference in whole expressions, as well as in single words. In the Ionian Islands, most ideas above the ordinary usage of the vulgar, and even many of the most common phrases, are denoted by Italian words with R. terminations and inflexions; and thus the language of these islands is one of the ~ost corrupt in Greece. Many Italian words also prevail among the maritime Greeks of the Continent, all whose improvements in naviga-


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tion, since they ventured to build large vessels, and sail upon distant voyages, have been derived from the Italians. On the contrary, the boatmen and fishermen of the islands, and coasts of the Archipelago, where the nautical customs of their ancestors remain unchanged, have preserved the use of many ancient terms, unknown to the rest of the nation. The same observation will apply to other technical phrases, belonging to arts and professions, which are now practised exactly in the same manner as in the times of antiquity, and the same unaltered traces of the ancient language are. frequently found in the names of animals, and other objects of nature.

111 those districts of Greece, where the Mahometans are numerous, Turkish words are proportionally common, for although the Turks of Greece generally use the R. dialect, being, in some 'parts, incapable of speaking their own language, and every-where possessed of a very. slight knowledge of it; yet tbey take a pride in interspersing Turkish words in their discourse. Hence a dialect inclining to Turkish in those places where the population contains a large proportion of


Mussulmans, as throughout Macedonia, and in Egripo, Tripolitsa,

Larisa, Patra, and the towns of Southern Albania.

At Constantinople, the language being spoken by men of superior manners and education, has a more H. grammar, and a more adorned arrangement and phraseology; but it abounds in Turkish" words •

• Or rather, in words derived from Arabic ad Persian: (or the Turkish, being of itself one of the poorest languages that was ever spoken by a nomade nation, wu quite unfit for the refinements o( a court and capital, without borrowing ·largely from those nations, from whence the rude intruders received their religion and policy, in the course of their pusage from the wilds or 'fartary to the capital of the Greek Empire.

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which, although sometimes necessary to the expression of objects and ideas, for which the Greek language has no corresponding terms, are often used. in cases, where the rude provincial dialects, notwithstanding their vulgar grammar and syntax, approach much nearer in their customs to H. purity.

Attica, having been for SOO years under the government of Franks, and at a later period over-fun and colonised by Albanians, possesses a dialect extremely corrupted by the languages of those nations. Athens, as far as my observation extends. is the only place where x, before the vowels and diphthongs: which produce the Italian sounds of e and i, is sounded like the Italian c in the same circumstances; thus ;XIWoS is pronounced by the Athenians, as the Italians would pronounce ecinos, and not as the Italians would pronounce echinos, the sound given to ,x";"os by the other Greeks.

The corruption of the Athenian dialect was remarked 240 years ago, by two natives of Greece, (Theodosius Zigomala. and Symeon KavasUa,) whose letters have been preserved in the collection of A-{artin Crusius.t When Constantinople was taken by the Franks, in

• Viz. f, I, 'I, II, 01, II, ell; but the Atheniana sound x in tbis manner less frequently before ! and IIU, than before the vowels and diphthongs, which produce the sound of I.

. I

t Crusius was Professor of Greek and Latin at Tubingen. Being desirous of obtaining information with regard to the state of Greek literature in its native land, he entered into a correspondence with the very few men of learning, who were then to be found at Conatantinople, or in other parts of Greece, and at length publiahed a collection of all the Greek letters in his poaseaion; together with an account of the Turkish in ... ion of Greece and conquest of Constantinople, by Theodosiua Zigoma~, of Argos; a history of the Patriarcba of Constap-

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the beginning of the 15th century, Athens attracted a great number of settlers from various nations, but particularly French, as appears from a Catalonian author: who says, that in his time, about the year 1500, the French language was as well spoken in that part of Greece as at Paris. The modern Athenian mode of pronouncing Ie before the slender vowels, indicates, however, that when the Venetian power extended over Greece, the Italian language obtained the ascendancy at Athens.

The Cretan t dialect seems to have adopted much fewer of its forms or phrases from the Italian, than might have been expected, consider .. ing its long connexion with Venice. With the exception of some provincial words, it seems to be genuine Hellenic, in a state of extreme corruption, or more nearly formed into a systematic modern

tinople, to the year 1577, by Manuel Maluua ; IOII1e acholutic Exercises for renderiJIg Romaic into Hellenic; a Romaic version of the Batrachomyomachia; and many cunory remarks UPOD the modem language. This collection WI8 publiabed UDder the title of Tatto-Gnecia, in one TOl. fol. at Basil, in the year 1.584, and is valuable, as ful'Dilhing an authentic estimate of the general condition of the Greeb in the darkest period of their ignorauce and adversity.

• Ducange-Pm. ad Glosa. med. et info Latinit.

t It has been our cUltom to call this Candia, from the name of its chief town; but the Greeks still name it KriTl.-1n this error we follow the Italians, who have corrupted many names in instances wherein, among tbe Greeks, tbey preserve the ancient form, either unchanged, or very little altered; thus Patrasso, N egroponte, Modone, Corinto, are now, H«-rf., Eup.n, or "EyPI1rO~, Mo6wIIIJ, The Venetians have been more destructive than the Turks in obliterating the traces of antiquity in Greece.

The natives derive Candia &oat the ArUic lOwMIeil, intrellduneat, beca.. here tJae Saracens iatrenched theJDJelva apinlt ... Emperor Michael the Sec:ODd. See Vo,.. d'Olinc:r, kc. Vol. u. p.270.

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language, .bearing the same relationship to H. that ItaliaD Dears' to Latin, than any of the other dialects' of Greece.

The Cypriotes are more distinguishedfroin the .Cretans by tone than dialect; but in employing occasionally the H. infinitive in common discourse, they preserve the remains of, ODe very important feature of antiquity. The dialect however, in general, is very corrupt.

KavasUa. says, there are upwards of seventy 'mOdem dialects, but he does not pretend to enumerate them; and-ii is evident-there was little difference among them, as- ZigomaIa remarks, that he who can speak like the inhabitants of Constantinople, or Nauplia, will have no difficulty 'in being understood any-where. t' "These obServatioDs, made in the 16th century, will ettually applj' to the present time. The dialects of modem Greece have not 80 marked a difference, as those of distant provinces in France or 'England, although few Greeks ate at a loss to'distinguish a fellow;.OOuntryman"s origin, from the·t.ooe or structure· of his speech.

• Turc:o-gneeia, L. Vlt. Epiat.18.


t T,"~ L. III •• " 216. It would appear by ZigomaU, that Nauptia, <DOW caIlecl A_pli,) bouted at this time the only H. school in Greece proper. It was the seat of dae Veoetiao Government iu the Morea, and.till contains many remuna of the buildiuga beloagiug to the military eatabliahmenta of the republic. It is DOW the chief Turkish fortresl, aod wu the capital of the Peninsula" till' witlaio a few years, when the residence of the P .... wu traaaferred to the more ceatnl poIition of Tripolitza.


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The dialect of Tzakonia, •. a small" district, situated in the mOUD~ tains between Argos and Spll,.t(J~ is the only one I am acquainted with, which differs materially from that of the rest of Greece. It is a corrupted palau, containing, besides some slight traces of the ancient Doric, several H. words, not used in common R.; a peculiarity, however~ which may be observed, in. a smaller degree, in many other of the more secluded districts of Greece. , These eircumstaaoes, magnified by the lively imagination and inaccuracy of a Greek, may have prompted Kav_lila t to assert, that. the four ~ncien~ dw.lects were atill distinguishable in Greece. With the exception just mentioned, no such distinction can DOW be . traced ; and it· is .pretty . well known, ~t so.long ago as the. earli~ periods of the R~aD Empire, the. new Atti~~.llellenic came to be univ~tsa)ly received btMh i. ~iag aad writipg. " 4' ' t. " •


The purest dialects, or tk~ which most rc;semble the a,ncient ~ae, in every thhlg but· their. rudeness 'an~ poverty, are ·to be found in the more unfrequented islands of the ~rcbipdago, as ~ikaria. San~~in,. Karpatho, &c. and in the most mountainous and independent districts of continental Greece. Some towns in the last-mentioned

. situations, have the advantage of containing schools , for teaching Hellenic, and _ of numbering among their citizens, persons who have acquired, by a residence among the civilized nations of Europe, more enlightened arid libeml sentiments, than are in vegue in other parts of the country.

. '

• Some .pecimeoa Qf it will be found in a 8Ublequeo~ chapter.

. ,

t. Tuaeo-graaa, L ... n. Epitt. 18.

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The establishnlent of Hellenic schools in Greece, at Constantinople.: and on the shores, and in the islands of the Arcbipelago, has, during I the last half century, much extended the knowledge of the ancient language among the . better ClasgeS ; notwithstanding the little encourageD1t~ it t~ei~· from the ~ralit.1 of Greeks in power, who find' the ·ll1oral and political degradation of ·their rello1'l-couritrymen ~ ~ni.l.1rith the maintenance of tbat" authority, which they derive by deputation trow the Turkish government, aad the objects ()f which ~ CO"~DtI" extortiori~ and the oppralion of their inferiors. '

But, although Turkish despotism has thus operated to repress the . elasticity of the Greek, by its effects upon the leading Christian' inhabitants of Greece, it may perhaps, in another way, have more than counterbalanced these consequences of the Oriental sptem. . Great. numbers- of ,the inhabitants of Greece have been forced; ·by the oppression of the Porte, aad, ill Greece proper. b.t it. p~gressively-iDcreasiDg weak.Dess.,which readen it less and leD able· to defend the inhabitants from the lawless incursions and avidity of tbe Albanians, to darrt··ttirir( native' countl"J~ and settle in Rucllia, HUD88ry, Italy,. and tbe~thtofGermaJJ.1' It is probable, there are not less than fifty thousand families of Greeks in those countries, some of· the 'ri~ of. wJaB,; .. e.n~batned by their residelu:e in a eitiJised country, and moved by that pBtriotic.a6Ction,.which still'dis~ltiJhes: the natives of Greece, have had the sagacity to pursue the surest road, .tbat ooDW 1I8lre beea pointed eut for. amelioratiDg die cOlKiition cJf t:l'eir. '..,.,.~ by endowillg HelIeQie schools, fum.i8hing ftmdSl for t1le·paJlUeot of te'aclen, aind. the maildemlDCe· of poor scholars,. and: lawar'in~ the ~ of prindwg editious of, _ dafMiaft alld

.' ..

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. '


qther useful books, which are either distributed as prizes to scholan, or sold at a low price in the country.

Though it may be regretted, that in some instances theee perIOns have shown more patriotism and. liberality " than learning and . .judgment, in selecting the books translated~ or printed, and dispersed in. Greece; yet it must be acknowledged, that under the actual.circ.uPl-_ stances of Greece, it was the only judicious, indeed the oaJy. practicable, plan, that could have hem adopted, for conferring any essential or lasting benefit upon the nation.

The reader must already have observed some of the. features of similarity between the R~ grammar, and 'that of the modern languages. of Europe, which' derive their descent from the Latin.

In particular-I. Nouns in R. and. ltalia.n have lost 1IJ00t of the oblique' cases; and have substituted the prepositions tl .. ~, di; .~, G.

2. An indefinite article, unknown to the parent .Janguap, is intra. duced and supplied from .the first numeral lTg, IIfIO.

3. Imparisyllabic nouns, derived from the ancient luguages, take the augmented.form, both in.R. and Italian; as i""~,,~, Thus also Italian. D~UD8, DOW accented on the last syllable, were, fonnerly Used in the augmented form, and ar~ still. so ~ployed in poetry; as. libertade, servitude.

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. " 4 .. , The use -of. diminutives is ·the lame in R4 ·and It.

'.'.'5:.. The', personal pronouns are attached to verba, in the same _nDer··in. .both languages, and equally: ddferent from the practice pf the ancients •

.. l6~ The,same said of' most of the prepositious.

1,~ ._

'7. The use of the· auxiliary 'p, Ro,.is the same in R. and It. and· _.. modem innovatioDi ... ,

: •• :. ...\It .'

.: .. 8.· . The ; simple teDJeS . of verbs. are reduced nearly to the same number, audJihe,mode of applying. them is nearly. the same..

I '. ~.. .'

... To;.~ might be added many UOQQDDectfd ~umpl~,of resem-

biDee; as,.' 0lrcaU, fT., .and 3'(1,,1, ~cAe, which .are pure Italisms in the. idiOJJi: of: their. :applicatiQD; . 2W~ and ~."." employed like fJIGi and .• ~~. the. usc: of, "f,p. .. .In many caseS, as .,_ ..... x,-tt&, ,..,.. ..,n, f~ 611Q§fU1;, xGpwai .• ,._~ fa fnddD. fee; but t~ perhaps, may rat~r 'be considered· as lICCidents,' derived from. the frequent iatereourse .of the two nations in latter ages, and posterior to the formation of the two languages.

~ are many iQatances, in which R. approacbee much more nearly than It. tp its pare." language. and ~D8equently ~ a great s~periprit.J ~n~er it:, . for the whole of the passive voice, ,,~ieh is e~pr~4 ~n I~, by the aqxiliary' verb, in th~ unchanged fonn of some ~ the tenses of v~bt, and ~ the use and force of the ddioite Mtic)e. But it. is, ufficient to rde~,fo.aD.Y passage in Ule moat vulgar A!:to. be:- co~vi~ce<l.that many of tbe:wC)ro% areH, unaltered, which

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is never the case in ltaliatt. . In tbe future tensej::R. is lOOfe d~ti\'e

than It.; but, on the. other band, in the practice of attaching the personal pronouns to oouns,' as enclitics; the R. g06&..farth~r·,tban JUly of the modern Jaugua~s~: and. esceeds . them all. in eJepnee. sod


.1 .

. It is not difficult to awp tile cause. of., this pa~ioular. dissimilarity between modern Greek and modem Latin, if Italian may be so termed for the sake. of the eomparisOn. Latin was 'lost· as 'a:'livlng language as early as the sixth or seventh century, '!'hile H.' was ,.ritteD and spoken, by the learned of Greece, until the recent period of the Turkish conquest e ,w henee 81 much larger· pcrti.oct of: their· ancient. language bas. descimded t(}; the· ·G~mk~·tltan to ;dae.Jtalians· of the present day. Even the degraded condition of Greece since the Otto!'laft . cmlques«,' has' operated," in . ~1De de~,~·:tO maiDUin the aftinity of the! atl'cient· . and m0dern.· ·dialtct., .• y ,prevebtigg I that methedising tmdrefinemeflt:of the Jarrgage,·\il the -Italian as a distinet:tongne,at the~'.of the reri¥al of' leetel'l in Ital1,'wbile the barbarlsm -of tl\e· n8*ion mYi~. ~ntetf ··aa,.''SUeh\ ph>CelJs' iD r~ni to the Janguage.Gf Gr~e,.- the Datives- Mt.e boon~bHged,·· when d~sirous ;of .improting their St-il8; to borroW! words ,·and· 'expresaiobS,

unchanged, from the ancient language .. ·.

. ", • f, « » ') •• ' ~ • '. I


.:,' t

Romaic, . notwithstanding; ,mk.1' -be', said:. t& ~lit the same gtfitral aftinit.r to Hellenic; thqt;I1trHan:,bea,s',to.·Lati1f; . and 'itis natural; therefore,' to ascribe the ebanges, :,,;bc'dt ·the an~~nt iG'reek haunder': gone,' to the"same,cQuse9,~ wbidi·bav-e·trandlrmed tatin:-iftto ita1ia11·. Ii ~u}d'be impessible-to-fix the peliod of the·'ftrst~operatio., of·the~~ eaases, orto traee ilieir'ckatV;progtess: but' there is· eter_r -reason :u, thin'k~ that the'ir#l!ptiod of ;tlfe:'batbcitofis: liatibits-·n¥·ttre', East 1111ci

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North into Greece and Italy • .corrupted the ancient languages of both countries, nearly at the same time, and in the same manner,. by forcing the conquered people, already speaking a dialect, corrupted in phrase, and simplified in arrangement, to accommodate it still farther to the forms used in the barbarous countries, from whence the invaders came; to adopt the use of articles and auxiliary verbs, instead of the more elegant discrimination of inflexions, moods, and declensions; together with a syntax and construction, deprived of those transpositions 'and inversions, which distinguished ancient Greek and Latin, for elegance, expression, and harmony. Accent, the 1l6gulator of articulation among the barbarous conquerors, became that of the corrupted Greek and Latin, to the exclusion of quantity; and in poetry, the structure of ancient prosody forgotten, and gave way 00 the accentual versification.

The prevaleace of accent in Latin poetry began to be felt as early as the 1ifth century, when it was often preferred to quantity, by some

• A modem Greek author, who bas published a comparative grammar of the two laoguages, would not subscribe to this opinion: he conceives, that he has sO incontrovertibly proved the _al desceut of die modem speech from tIae lEolic and Doric dialects, that he bas intitlcd the book, wherein he endeavours to establiah tbis fact, a Grammar of the lEolo-Doric Tongue. I could 'only obtain a basty perusal of it wben in Greece; some of tbe resemblances, upon which be insists, are the rejection of the rough aspirate, as ~,JP" for ~",:p«; the preference of C to I, as tOfxGil. (rom H. 3ofX«s, 1A4~(UtID and ~u from H. l,.cs, op.a30s; tluS' for tICS' as genefftlly in the lICe. ~m. plor.,; in verbs, the conversion of O"cr. illto ~., and of the 1 st aor. in ... into Ecc, as "fO"¥ for 1rf"T«crcrCIG, and '~ITTr+& for i{3tln«".. XTMOV, the imperative of lTT'xo"."" I Itand, Ilop, and fJgt1xoS', a p,.~cipice, are also lEolo-Doric forDts: but in general it would be equally easy to trace the R. from either of the other ancient dialects: and in some instances, the R. usage is directly the reverse of the Doric-thus the Doric often changed ou into« and 11', whereas ou is a favorite in R. and often substituted for 'I and tID in H. but particularly for tID.

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of the more ignorant versifiers i nor was it until the revival of letters, that quantity became again strictly attended to in the construction of Latin verse. - In Greek, the prevalence of accentual versification cannot be traced higher than the twelfth century, though it is then found already formed into a complete system, in the verses of Manasses and Tzetzes.

The earliest specimens of the modern dialect, of which there is any certainty as to the date, are the poems of Ptochoprodromus, of which there are manuscripts in the National Library at Paris: one of them

. is addressed to the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, and was consequently written about the middle of the twelfth century. The language, as appear!' from the specimens of it given in the Glossary of Ducange, is nearly that of the present day, and the m.etre is the same accentual verse of fifteen syllables, now in common use, except that it is without rhyme. This ornament seems not to have been introduced until much later i an anonymous poem upon the wars of the Franks in the Morea, which must have been written towards the beginning of the fourteenth century, being also in blank verse.

In the commentaries upon Homer, by Eustathius, in the twelfth century, and in many of the early scholiasts, R. words are found in abundance. From' the time the Franks were in possession of Constantinople, in the 14th century, until the Turkish conquest, metrical romances, and similar poetical productions, in R. verse, seem to have

. been much favored by the vulgar taste. After the fall of Constantinople, Romaic poetry was chiefly confined to the island of Crete,

• See Harris's Philological Inquiries, Part~, chap. ~

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where these poor relicts of Grecian literature were preserved from total.extinction. under the protection of Venice.

This connexion between Crete and Venice gave the Cretan authors an advantage over the rest of their countrymen, by rendering it more easy for them to print their works. Hence the greater part of. the old R. poetry, now found in print, consists of the com positions of Cretan authors, although they 'seem generally less interesting than.the productions of Constantinople before the . dissolution of the Greek Empire, if we may judge from the titles and specimens, extracted from manuscripts in the library of Paris, which may be found in tho Glossary of Ducange.

Crusius, in his Turco-Grrecia, says, that the only modem Greek books he could procure from Venice, in 1564, were ·.AAI!4~ • M~", in vulgar verse, by Demetrius Zenus, of Zante, published in 1529- The Homilies of Rbarturus-A translation of Homer's Iliad ·-and a few smaller tracts. At the time .Ducange compiled his .Glossary, (about 1680,) the only other R. poems in print were-The Nuptials of Theseus and lEmilia, in twdve books, by an anonymous author, printed at Venice, in 1~29 -. The Batrachomyomachia, translated by Demetrius Zenus-The history of Apollonius of Tyre, translated from Latin into Romaic, written in the year 1500, and printed at Venice,

• This Diad is undoubtedly the lIame, of which the 'r8t line. may be found ia Harris', Philological Inquiries, p. 78. and Mitforcr. Harmony in Language,· p. SSi. It wu revised and abridged by Nicolas Lucaous, and priated as Venice in 15i6. Being ill blank .ene, and in a corrupt Hellenic, like that of the Chronicle of Manaaes, it ma, be conjectured, tlaat it was origiaall,. composed in.the twelfda or tbitteea.tb ~tUI'J'


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In i60S-A translauon of the Pastor Fido of Guarinivby Michael Sumakhi, of Zante, printed at Venice, in 1658-The fable of .the Fox and Wolf-and some tracts on ecclesiastical affairs.

- . In the work of the indefatigable Ducange, specimens of R. poetry will be found, extracted from several manuscript works; . most of which are in the National.Library at Paris, crin other.libraries, now equally inaccessible to an Englishman. The following are some of. those, whidl appear to be the most curious of their compositions in vulgar verse. Their names are extracted from. a very long list of books of the lower Empire, upon Astronomy,' Botany, Medicine, Agriculture, the Art of War, Music, Ecclesiastical Affairs, &c. &c.; from whicb Ducange compiled his Glossary.



1. Concerning his poverty, addressed to .th~ Emperor Manuel Comnenus,

2. Against the Abbot of his Convent, (.~'r.

'r~" 1".u/4PO",)

3. Verses, addressed to }Ianuel Comnenus. Advice to his nephew S~Dea8. Constantinople. .

The Plague of Rhodes, (in ] 478.)

Alexius Comnenus, 4ngelophorus, ~manuel Georgillas,

George Lapithas, of } .

Moral Sketches.


Manuel Holobolus, Verses on Michael Paleeologus.

Anonymous Author, The Wars of the Franks in the Morea, from

1204 to 1300.

Anon. . The Loves of Lybistrus and Rhodamna.

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Anon. Anon.

History of Belisarius.

History of Beltrandus Romanus, and of his loves with Khrisatza, daugbter of the King of Antioch.

Lamentation on the taking of Constantinople. Advice of Solomon to his sOD. Roboam.

Anon. ,Anon.

From the specimens given by Ducange, there appears to be IOmo humor in Ptochoprodromus, whose poems would give a perfect idea pf· the monastic manners of the 12th century •

The wars of the Franks, &C. would also throw some light upon the history and comparative geography of the Morea.

Crusius had seen a MS. of the Loves of Lybistrus and Rhodamna, , adorned with cuts, and apparently of the date of the 14th century,"

• The story of the fable was as {ollows: Lybistrus, a Christian and Latin king, wanderiDg in tearch of his lost wife, Rhodamna, meets Clitophon, to whom he relates his story, viz.that having conquered his rival Frederic, king of Egypt, and succeeded, after many 8tratagem81 and two years' courtship, in carrying off Rhodamna, the daughter of a Pagan king, ChrySUI, whOle capital was called Argyr6-Castro, he had the misfortune, in consequence of the tricks of a witcb, set 00 by Frederic, to lose his wife. Clitopbon relates bis bistory in turn.- By the , prudence of Clitopboo, Rhodamna, who had been persuaded by the witch, tbat Lybistrus was dead, is found. Tbey return to the place from whence they set out, and find the hundred servants of Lybiatrus, who" like himaelf, had been wandering for two years in search of

. .

Rhodamna, and had returned without any tidings of her. The two lovera and their friend then

return to Argyr6-Castro, where the fidelity of Clitophon is rewarded with the hand of Melmthia, sister of Rhodamna.

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The more recent progress of the literature of the modern Greeks, and its present state, will best be understood from. a lIst of authors, and their publications. The following Catalogue contains only such as have been printed or republished within the last fifty years; those anterior to that date, being few in number, and very little worthy of attention. This list must not be considered as complete. Several theological and ecclesiastical publications, books for the "education of youth, and translations from foreign languages, -have been purposely neglected , and perhaps some respectable publications upon other subjects have been omitted, which might to have found a place here, So rapidly have Romaic books multiplied of late years, that no catalogue could be long comp1ete.

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Where and 'tlJken 'printed.

Eugeoiua B6Igari, hoi'll at 1. A Treatise of Logic, com-

Corfti, in 1716, wu ~s piled from ancieot aud modem

in several IChools in Greece; in 1775 wu made Archbiahop of Cbenon, by the Empress Catherine; resigned it in fayor ofhi~ friend Nicephonu Theot6ki, and died at Petenburg in 1806.

w~ ••••••••••••••••

8vo. Leipsic, 1766.

i. Traoalation of Segner'.

EIemeots of Mathematics. •• 8vo. Leiplir, 1763.

S. Elements of Geometry, with the Nota of WhiIton, traMlatecl from -the Latin of

Tacuetius. •••••••••• ..... V.

4to. JeDDa, 1804.

4. Traoal. -of the Metapby-

ai~ of Genuenaius.


8vo. Vielma, 1~ •

5. Elements of Met.pby-

sics .•••••••••••••••••• a 10 ,~.

~ YO ••• YO. yemc:e, 1804.

·Eageaiul WU abo the au- 6. The Opinions of Philo-

thor of several poetic:U and sopben, or Elements of Na-

Proee worb, of .maller DOte, tara! Philosophy. •••••••• "t V·

• o. JeDDa, 1806.

IQd of many tranalatiom, uad 7. TraDII). of the Tbeolo-

boob for theuee ofh. church. gical Questions of Adam Zler-


M.o.t of his worb have been

distributed gra,", at the ex,_.. of the Za8im6a.

nicaviu, agam.t the Doctriaea of the Latia Church, with

Il~ ••••••••••••••••

i voll. fo1. M'oecow.

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Where tmd .." printed.

8. Comparative View of the

three SysteD1'lJ of Astronomy. 4to. Venice.

~. "~O! "A30~~. or

Tbeo.logica1 amulemeota. •• ·9 yoU. avo. MOICow. 10. Hellenic translation in

heroic verse of Virgil'. Geor-

gica aDd iEoeia, with a dedica-

. ..

tion to the Empl'ell Catherine. 4 vot.. fol. Petersb~.

Nicepborus Theot6ki, born 1. 'The Elements of Natural

at CorfU, in 1736; educated PhilolOphy, collected {rom

at Bologna' and Padua', be- modem writers. .0·· •• 0 •• 0 a VOl. 8vo Leipllia 1766

Zo 'III. • -'" •

came Head·Master of the i. Elements of MathemaSchool of Jusy, in Molda- tica, compiled &om ancient via; in 1779, was rai~ 'to and modem writers. .' ••••• the Bishopric of Cherson, by S. A Defeuce of the Old

the Empl'ell ; trans-lated to that of" Astrachan ; reaigned, and retired to Pete rsburg, where he died in 1800.

au..d New TeatameDt, iD answer

to Voltaire. • • •. • • • • •••••

4. FJ~ts of Geography, for the use of schoola. •••• 5 ... Commentarie. on the Book of Job. • ••• 0 ••••• 0 • 2 vola. fol. MOICow. -

S vols. 8vo. Moscow, 1799, at the expense of the brothers Zosim', and diatri. bated grGtil in Greece.

·4to. Vielllla, 1794.

Leipeig, 1770.

.Witb several other theological tracts, and rhetorical and philosophical diIcourses.

Constantine Karaianni, of Trikala, in TAeual9.

4 ~.ammar of aucieot Greek, compoaed abOUt 1770,

but ~oq)lidted till. 1796 ..... 0 i vola. 8vo. Buda.

Demetrius Ka ... Usi, of

1. A Discourse on Phlebo--

Siatista, in Macedonia, phy- tomy, whichrecerted'the priie


at • 0.· Halle in ·Suooy, 1'160. . ;

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