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METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011

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Prepared by: Ali Murat Kayran
Room: A-209 Phone: 7236
E-mail: mkayiran@metu.edu.tr Date: 13/04/2012

ME 308 MACHINE ELEMENTS II
TUTORIAL 5
ANTIFRICTION BEARINGS

PROBLEM 1 A deep groove ball bearing is to be selected for a gearing
application. The bearing operates in normal conditions closed to ideal
conditions. This bearing is subjected to the variable load given in the table. Shaft
diameter must be at least 50 mm. The other features are,

Required reliability: 90% Service life: 20000 hours
Oil used: SAE 30 Oil temperature: 40 C

Radial Force Axial Force Rotational Speed Running Period
(kN) (kN) (rpm) Percentage (%)
2.7 0.3 2000 35
2.4 0.5 2400 40
2 0.2 2600 25

Select the bearing with minimum possible bore diameter.

PROBLEM 2 A bearing is subjected to a radial load of 12 kN and an axial load
of 8.5 kN. Shaft rotating at n = 900 rpm, will have a minimum diameter of 65 mm.
with a reliability of 99% and a life of 1500 millions of revolutions, select the
appropriate bearing. Grease lubrication is preferred due to easier maintenance.
Take a
23
=1.

PROBLEM 3 A cylindrical roller bearing NUP 23 10 E, is selected for a machine
tool support. The radial reaction at bearing location is calculated to be 8 kN with
an alternating axial load of 2 kN. Check if this bearing is suitable for the loading
conditions.. Outer diameter of housing is to be 130 mm.
(Extra: Find re-lubrication time and amount of grease needed. Also determine the
tolerance fields of the shaft and the housing for standard clearance)

Lubrication type: Grease Shaft diameter: 50mm Reliability: 99%
Rotational speed: 1000 rpm Required life: 15000 hours



PROBLEM 4

a) The pinion shaft, transmitting a torque T is shown in the figure schematically. To
provide the overhung pinion with maximum rigidity, two tapered roller bearings are
arranged in O- arrangement. The radial, axial and tangential forces acting on the
pinion are:
W
r
= 2540 N , W
a
= 4500 N, and W
t
= 12000 N.
The bearing K is 323 08 whereas the bearing L is selected as 302 08. The pitch radius
of the pinion is r
p
=36mm. The shaft rotates at 1000 rpm. The bearings are lubricated
by SAE 40 oil and the operating temperature is 60
o
C. Calculate the rating life of these
tapered rolling bearings at reliability of 99%. (Bearings operate in normal
conditions with uncontrolled operating conditions.)

b) If two angular contact bearings (72 08B and 73 08B at the K and L locations,
respectively) in the O- arrangement are used instead of tapered roller bearings,
determine the rating life of angular contact bearings under the same calculated forces.


SOLUTION 1: To select a bearing from the catalogue, an equivalent load which will
have the same effect as the loadings given is to be calculated. Using the formula given
on page 40 in the STEYR catalogue, (the case in question is the one in Fig. 2.2/5).
( )
( )
1
p
p
i i i
i i
F n t
F
n t
(

(
=
(


Where;
p = 3 for ball bearings and 10/3 for roller bearings on page 30 in the STEYR
catalogue
y
x
22.75 mm 86 mm
W
a

W
t

W
r

T
K
L
r
p

O
Pinion gear

METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
2
t
i
= corresponding running period ratio
Radial equivalent load, F
req
;
1
3 3 3
3
2.7 2000 0.35 2.4 2400 0.4 2 2600 0.25
2.408
2000 0.35 2400 0.4 2600 0.25
req
F kN
( + +
= =
(
+ +



Axial equivalent load, F
ael
;
1
3 3 3
3
0.3 2000 0.35 0.5 2400 0.4 0.2 2600 0.25
0.397
2000 0.35 2400 0.4 2600 0.25
aeq
F kN
( + +
= =
(
+ +


These equivalent forces must be modified by load factors suggested on page 38.
Average values like f
z
= 1.2 and f
d
= 1.3 (medium sized shocks) can be used for
gearing applications. The modified gear load is given as

F
eff
=f
z
f
d
F

F
r
= (1.2) (1.3) F
aeq
F
r
= 3.756 kN
F
a
= (1.2) (1.3) F
aeq
F
a
= 0.619 kN

The life equation is:
6
1 23
10
60.
p
ISO
h
m
C
L a a
n P
| |
=
|
\

Where;
p = 3 for ball bearings L
h
= 20,000 hours
P: dynamic equivalent load
a
1
= 1 (from Figure1 for R = 90%)
n
m
= 2000 0.35 + 2400 0.4 + 2600 0.25 = 2310 rpm

a
23
and P are needed but P depends on X & Y (dynamic load factors on page 37 of
the STEYR catalogue) and a
23
depends on v
1
(so d
m
).

In order to choose smallest bearing, minimum C
so
should be determined from life
equation. This is possible by using minimum possible P and maximum value of
a
23
.

- Procedure for minimum possible P,
o P=F
r
(X=1, Y=0), if
a
r
F
e
F

o P=X*F
r
+Y*F
a
(X=0.56, Y=1), if
a
r
F
F
>e
- Procedure for most accurate maximum value of a
23

o Choose an average outer diameter among bearings with given
diameter for calculating d
m

o Determine the minimum viscosity of lubricant From Fig.2 of
STEYR catalogue with given n
m
& calculate d
m

o Determine the viscosity, From Figure 12.13 in 8 Ed. or from the
Notes to be used in the Examinations and the density of oil.
o Choose a
23
close the upper boundary of the normal operating
condition region using Fig.4 of STEYR catalogue

i) Minimum possible P,
P=Fr=3.756 kN (X=1, Y=0), assuming
a
r
F
e
F

ii) Most accurate maximum value of a
23


Take outer diameter , D=90mm

d = 50 mm D = 90 mm
2
m
d D
d
+
=
m
d = 70 mm

From Fig.2 of STEYR catalogue with n
m
=2310 rpm & d
m
=70 mm, the required
minimum viscosity of lubricant is
1
= 12 mm
2
/s.

From Figure 12.13 in 8 Ed. or from the Notes to be used in the Examinations :

with SAE 30 and T=40
o
C, = 78 mPa.s. With = 860 kg/m
3
for oil,
3
6 2
7.8 10
10 90.7 /
860
mm s

= = =

Using Fig.4 of STEYR catalogue, with /1 = 7.55 and normal operating conditions,
since we are sure about normal operating conditions a
23
can be taken very close to its
maximum value 3,9.


METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
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Assuming a
23
= 3.8

Now, Cso can be determined by using life equation
1
3
6
.60.
3.9 10
h m
ISO
L n
C P
| |
=
|

\
33.44
ISO
C kN =

With C
ISO
> 33.44 kN, a bearing with bore diameter of 50 mm is to be selected and
checked whether it actually satisfies the life equation. Lets select light series
bearing
63 10 (on page 153 of STEYR catalogue) since C
ISO
= 53.6 > 33.44 kN.
d = 50 mm D = 110 mm
2
m
d D
d
+
=
m
d = 80 mm
C
OISO
= 41.6 kN

0.0148
a
OISO
F
C
= e = 0.1917 (by interpolation table 2.2/2 on page 37)
0.1648
a
r
F
e
F
= < then X=1 & Y=0 that P = F
r
,

P =3.756
kN
Now, a
23
assumption should be checked for specified bearing.

From Fig.2 of STEYR catalogue with n
m
=2310 rpm & d
m
=80 mm, the required
minimum viscosity of lubricant is
1
= 11 mm
2
/s.

For /1 = 8.24 : a
23
=3.8 is valid. Therefore, assumption is correct and no need to
to update a
23
value.

Since, P and a
23
do not updated, C
ISO
will not change

1
3
6
.60.
3.9 10
h m
ISO
L n
C P
| |
=
|

\
33.44
ISO
C kN =

So selected bearing is suitable, since C
ISO
= 53.6 kN > 33.44 kN

Notes:
- If
a
r
F
e
F
condition is not satisfied, minimum P should be updated for
a
r
F
F
>e (P=0.56*F
r
+1*F
a
)
- If /1 for the specified bearing is not be satisfied with the assumed
a
23
=3.8, all the steps should be revisited for new a
23
.


SOLUTION 2: Trying different bearings, if possible, select a bearing with d = 65
mm, if not either use two bearings at this location or increase diameter of shaft in
order to use one bearing.

Deep groove ball bearing:
The life equation expressed in revolution is
1 23
p
ISO
h
C
L a a
P
| |
=
|
\

where,
L = 1500 (because this equation gives L in millions)
a
1
= 0.21 (R = 0.99)
a
23
= 1 (given in the problem statement)

8.5
0.708
12
a
r
F
e
F
= = > for all deep groove ball bearings

X = 0.56 & Y = 1 gives min. P.
P = 0.56 12 + 8.5 1 = 15.22 kN C
ISO
= 293.1 kN
For d = 65 mm, heavy series deep groove ball bearing, 6413 has C
ISO
of 103 kN. But
for 64 13, X = 0.56, Y = 1.5 and e=0.29 for F
a
/ C
OISO
= 8.5 / 89.4 = 0.095.

So recalculating C
ISO

0.708 0.29
a
r
F
e
F
= > =
P = (0.56) (12) + (1.5) (8.5) = 19.47 kN
C
ISO
= 375 kN


METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
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Assuming uniform distribution of load to all bearings, one must use four of 6413;
therefore deep groove ball bearings are not suitable.

Single row angular contact ball bearings:

Since F
a
/F
r
= 0.708 < e = 1.14 P = Fr = 12 C
ISO
= 231.1 kN
For d = 65 mm, heavy series one is 73 13 B with C
ISO
= 77.9 kN.
If only one bearing is to be used, 73 30 B C
ISO
= 231 kN with d = 150 mm should
be selected.

Four point contact ball bearing:

0.708 0.95
a
r
F
e
F
= < = P = Fr = 12 C
ISO
= 231.1 kN
With d= 65 mm, maximum available C
ISO
is 155kN with QJ 313. Two of them
would be needed. If one bearing is to be used, QJ 318 with d = 90 mm would be
appropriate with C
ISO
= 238 kN.

Double row angular contact ball bearing:

0.708 0.86
a
r
F
e
F
= < = X=1 & Y=0.73
P= (1) (12) + (0.73) (8.5) = 18.205 kN C
ISO
= 350.6 kN

For d = 65 mm, 33 13 is available with C
ISO
= 110 kN. Maximum available C
ISO
is
249 kN of 33 22, having d = 110 mm.

Tapered roller bearing:
0.708 320 13 , 302 13, 303 13,
32213, 323 13 65
a
r
F
e for tapered bearings X
F
of d mmclass
= <
=

Selecting X = 0.4 & Y = 1.35 gives min. P. C
ISO
=233kN .

For d = 65 mm, 323 13 series(maximum capacity) is available with C
ISO
of
229kN. For this bearing X = 0.4 & Y = 1.75.So minimum C
ISO
required becomes
282 kN which is larger than the tapered bearing series capability for 323 13 series.

If two of the tapered bearings selected from d=65 mm series, two 303 13(C
ISO
=170
kN and X=0.4&Y=1.75) will be adequate since minimum C
ISO
required becomes 282
kN. However tandem arrangement is not a feasible option for tapered roller bearings.

Trying d=75 mm bearing class (323 15) of C
ISO
=295 kN and of X = 0.4 & Y = 1.75,
one can see that minimum C
ISO
required is 282 kN which makes this bearing
adequate.

Self-aligning ball bearings
0.708
a
r
F
e
F
= > for all available bearings. Take X = 0.65 and Y = 1.55
for smallest P.

P = (0.65) (12) + (1.55) (8.5) = 20.97 C
ISO
= 404 kN

For d = 65 mm, C
ISO
= 73.7 kN is available with 23 13.
404 kN is not available with a single bearing. Even if 2 of bearings are used they are
required to have C
ISO
> 202 kN and for type 23 26 C
ISO
= 212 kN but d = 130 mm.

Cylindrical roller bearing:

For cylindrical roller bearings, axial force does not enter into the
calculations; but since F
a
/F
r
= 0.708 > 0.4; it isnt appropriate for this application if
used alone. (Page 44 of STEYR catalogue)


Cylindrical roller bearing with a thrust bearing:
Cylindrical roller bearing will carry only radial load and thrust bearing will
carry only axial load.
For roller bearing,
P = F
r
= 12 kN C
ISO
= 171.9 kN

With d = 65 mm, NU 23 13 (C
ISO
= 176 kN) is available. Speed limit should also be
checked. For NU 23 13, limit is 4200 rpm which is higher than the rotational speed of
the shaft. Therefore speed limit is not violated.

For thrust bearing;

P = Fa = 8.5 kN C
ISO
= 163.7 kN
With 65 mm diameter,
514 13 is available, single acting, with C
ISO
= 171 kN.

METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
5
524 16 is available, double acting thrust bearing, with C
ISO
= 193 kN.

Checking speed limit for thrust bearing with grease lubrication,
For 514 13, speed limit is 1100 rpm and for 524 16 it is 850 rpm. Since 850 rpm is
lower than the shaft rotational speed, it is not appropriate to use double acting
thrust bearing. If the axial load changes direction, which will force to use a double
acting thrust bearing, oil lubrication should be used with speed limit of 1200 rpm
with 524 16.

Spherical roller bearing:

Using X = 0.67 & Y = 2.4 to yield to minimum P,
P = 0.67 12 + 2.4 8.5 = 28.44 kN CISO =407.5 kN

For d = 65 mm, C
ISO
=224 kN with 223 13 C. Nearest larger C
ISO
= 443 kN is
available with 223 19 C with d = 95 mm.

The same option exists here as was the case in cylindrical roller bearing. Spherical
roller bearing to carry purely radial load and a thrust bearing to carry axial load.
P = Fr = 12 kN C
ISO
= 171.9 kN

With d = 65 mm, C
ISO
= 224 kN with 223 13 C. Selecting the same thrust bearing
514
13 or 524 16 whether axial load is changing direction or not.

The results are as follows;

Although deep groove ball bearings are cheap and widely used, 4 of them are
needed which is not acceptable. For single row angular contact ball bearings, 3 of
them are required with d = 65 mm, rejected. Taking one with d = 150 mm is
unacceptable because the difference with the shaft diameter is too high. With four
point contact ball bearing, one has two options: 2 of them with d=65 mm (QJ
313), or one bearing with d = 90 mm (QJ 318) which means 25 mm increase is
shaft diameter (acceptable). For double row angular contact ball bearing, either 3
of them with d = 65 mm would be used or 2 of them with d = 110 mm would be
used. For tapered roller bearings, two 323 13 with d=65 mm shaft or one 323 14
with d=70 mm shaft is adequate. Multiple roller tapered bearings mounted in
tandem arrangement are not generally used therefore a single 323 14 is more
suitable. Generally tapered roller bearings should be used in pairs with direct or
indirect mountings.

Although self aligning ball bearings tolerate misalignments more, they are
not suitable for high loads as seen. No reasonable solution exists with this kind of
bearing. Cylindrical roller bearing is not suitable since axial to radial load ratio is
greater than 0.4. But it can be used with a thrust bearing. When this is the case NU
2313 will be the choice. The thrust bearing will be 51413 with grease lubrication if
axial force does not change direction. If it reverses, 52416 is the choice with oil
lubrication due to low speed limits for grease lubrication. Spherical roller bearing is
not an alternative alone but it can be used with the thrust bearings above. But most
probably, it is more costly to use spherical roller bearings than using a cylindrical
roller bearing.



SOLUTION 3: For NUP 23 10E (from the STEYR catalogue page 217):
C
ISO
= 150 kN C
OISO
= 113 kN
d = 50 mm D = 110 mm dm = 80 mm
For %99 reliability a
1
= 0.21 from Figure 1,
a
23
can be taken as 1 for grease lubrication (safe approach)

2
0.25 0.43
8
a
r
F
e
F
= = < = then X = 1 & Y = 1.45
(Also general rule 0.4
a
r
F
F
< in page 44 is satisfied)
So . . 8 1.45 2 10.9
r a
P X F Y F kN = + = + =

Then,

1 3
10
6 6
.60. 15000.60.1000
10.9
1 0.21 10 1 0.21 10
| | | |
= =
| |

\ \
p
h m
ISO
L n
C P
133.98
ISO
C kN =

As C
ISO
= 150 kN > 133.98 kN the bearing is suitable from the dynamic loading point
of view.

In order to check if the axial load can be carried by the selected bearing, formula in
page 44 must be used:
Grease lubrication: . n E = 1000.97= 0.97.10
5
< 1.2.10
5

Here E = 97 mm (from the STEYR catalogue page 217)

METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
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Starting calculation of C
ISO
neglecting axial force, this results in smallest C
ISO
,
P =F
r
= 12 kN a
1
= 0.21 (R = 99%)
For grease lubrication, one can take a
23
= 1 (safe approach)
2
max 5
.
2
10
a a b
n E
F f f E
| |
=
|
\


f
a
= 0.4 for variable & temporary thrust load
f
b
= 0.35 for NUP 23E series

2
max 5
1000 97
0.4 0.35 97 (2 )
10
a
F

=
6
max
1.326 10 13.26
a
F daN kN = =

Since axial load is 2 kN < 13.56 kN axial load is safely carried by selected
bearing.

This section is for your own study:

Relubrication time is calculated using equation on page 108:
K = 75 c = 18 type coefficients (Table 6.2/2)

6
10 .
fn
k
t c d
n d
=

in hours
6
10 .75
18 50
1000 50
t =

in hours
9856
n
t hours =

Amount of grease needed is calculated using formula on page 110 and from the
STEYR catalogue for NUP 23 10E.

.
200
D B
G = grams B= 40 & D= 110
110.40
22
200
G grams = =


Now, specifying the tolerances. Considering Fig. 3.2/1 on page 67
d
i
= 0 (solid shaft) D
i
= E = 97 mm d = 50 mm D = 110
mm
d
a
= F = 65 mm (page 217 STEYR catalogue)
D
a
= 130 mm (outer diameter of housing, given)

In tolerance specification, the aim is to specify tolerances such that there will be no
interference between raceway and rotating elements creating pre-stresses which will
reduce the life of bearing considerably. Hence, the expansion of inner ring and
contraction of outer ring will be calculated and the sum should not exceed the
minimum clearance of the unmounted bearing so that after mounting no interference
exists.

Expansion of the inner ring,
For d = 50 mm and precision ground shaft G
i
=6 m (page 66).
Effective interference is evaluated using d
eff
= d
th
-G
i


From Fig. 3.2/2 (page 68), with
1
50
0.77
65
a
d
C
d
= = = &
2
0
i
d
C
d
= =
gives, 0.77
i
eff
L
d



So, 0.77 ( 6)
i th
L d =
Contraction of the outer ring,
For D = 110 mm and precision turned housing surface G
o
=10 m.
Effective interference is evaluated using D
eff
= D
th
- G
o


From Fig. 3.2/3 (page 69) with,
3
97
0.75
130
a
D
C
D
= = = &
4
110
0.85
130
a
D
C
D
= = = gives, 0.35
a
eff
L
D


So, 0.35 ( 10)
A th
L D =

Total reduction in clearance is the sum.
i A
R L L = + 0.77 ( 6) 0.35 ( 10)
th th
R d D = +

Standard clearance ranges are given for cylindrical roller bearings in Table 3.2/2 on
page 62. for d = 50 mm with paired rings, Rmin= 30 m and Rmax =45 m. So
R < 30 should be satisfied.


METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
7

Looking at recommended tolerance fields for solid shafts (Table 4.1/1 on page
76):

10.9
0.073
150
P
C
= = P / C < 0.08 with d = 50 mm, j6 is recommended for
shaft.

For housing, J7 is recommended; point load on outer ring, outer ring not
displaceable and split housing (page 78).

Table 4.1/2 (page 77): d = 50 mm (j6) d
min
= -5 m d
max
= 23 m

Table 4.1/5 (page 79): D = 110 mm (J7) D
min
= -37 m D
max
= 13 m

Checking
0.77 ( 6) 0.35 ( 6)
th th
R d D = +
30 0.77 (23 6) 0.35 (13 10) 14.14 = + = satisfied.

Tolerances are specified as j6/J7. If it wasn't satisfied, one would change
tolerances for surfaces: j6/J6, j5/J6... calculates R and change tolerances until R
< 30 is satisfied.




SOLUTION 4

a) Lets first determine the position of the bearing reactions .Examining table
2.2/2 in page 37 of STEYR catalogue for e, X, Y values and page 236 of STEYR
catalogue for C
ISO
, d , D, a and T values:

Designation e X Y C
ISO
d(mm) D(mm) a(mm) T(mm)
323 08(K) 0.34 0.4 1.75 101 40 90 23 35.25
302 08(L) 0.38 0.4 1.6 53.6 40 80 16 19.75


L
1
=22.75 + (T
1
-a
1
)=22.75+(35.25-23) mm=35 mm for bearing K
L
2
=22.75 + 86 - (T
2
-a
2
) - L
1
= 108.75 - (19.75-16) -35 =70 mm

Let us first make a static analysis to determine the radial forces acting on the bearing
K & L.

The free body diagram of the shaft in x-y plane is;


_ _
0
y r K y L y
F W R R = = +

Eq. 1
_ 1 _ 2
0
K z r L y
M M W L R L = =

Eq.2
From Eq.2
1
_
2
1044.3

= =
r
L y
M W L
R N
L
and from Eq.1;
_ _
1495.7 = =
K y r L y
R W R N

The free body diagram of the shaft in x-z plane is;
y
x
T
K
L
O
22.75 mm 86 mm
a
1

T
1

L
1
L
2

a
2

T
2

y
x
R
K_y
W
r
R
L_y

L
2
L
1

M

METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
8


_ _
0
z t K t L t
F W R R = = +

Eq. 3
_ 1 _ 2
0 = + =
K y T L Z
M W L R L Eq.4

From the Equation 4

1
_
2
6000
t
L z
W L
R N
L

= =
and from the Equation 3,
_ _
18000
K z t L z
R W R N = =

The resultant radial forces acting on the bearings K&L are
2 2
_ _
18062 = + =
K K y K z
R R R N
2 2
_ _
6090 = + =
L L y L z
R R R N
These equivalent forces must be modified by load factors suggested on page 38.
Average values like f
z
= 1.2 can be used for gearing applications.
7308 = =
L z L
R f R N
and from the Equation 3,
21674 = =
K z K
R f R N
5400 = =
a z a
F f F N

As the radial forces are known, now let us designate the bearings.

From the STEYR catalogue, page 42, bearing A is defined as that bearing which
has to absorb the external force. If one looks at the figure it is easily seen that the
bearing located at K should absorb the external axial force, W
a
. Therefore bearing
K is designated with A, and L is designated with B.

Rewrite the axial and radial forces with the new designation.



Note that each external radial force acting on the tapered roller bearing gives rise to an
induced axial force, due to taper angle, which again turns into an external force for the
opposing bearing. The equivalent axial loads acting on the bearings K&L can be
found from the formulas in Figure 2.2/8 of STEYR catalogue (Page 42).

Induced axial force due to F
rK

21674
6193
2 2 1.75
= = =

rK
K
K
F
N
Y

Induced axial force due to F
rL

7308
2284
2 2 1.6
= = =

rL
L
L
F
N
Y


It is seen that
K L
>
Also 5400 3909 = > =
a K L
F N

This means that for the selected bearings for K &L, the net axial shaft force is acting
on bearing K.

Then the resultant axial forces acting on the bearings K&L are,
0
aL
F =
7684 = + =
aK L a
F F N

The estimated dynamic equivalent loads at bearings K&L are

22.12
( 0.4& 1.75 sin
7684
0.355 0.34)
21674
7.31
K rK aK
aK
rK
L
P X F Y F kN
X Y ce
F
e
F
P kN
= + =
= =
= = > =
=


For bearing K:

p=10/3 for tapered roller bearings.

z
x
R
K_z
W
t
R
L_z

L
2
L
1


METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
9
Life adjustment factor a
1
for 99% reliability is 0.21, from Figure 1 of
STEYR catalogue.
Life adjustment factor a
23
depends on the viscosity of the oil.

Dynamic viscosity of SAE40 oil at 60
o
C; 36 . = mPa s (from Figure
12.13 of Notes to be used in Examination)
The density of the SAE40 oil:
3
860 / kg m =
The kinematic viscosity is
3 6
2 2
2
3 9
3
36 10 10 .
41.86 ( )
860 10 10
N
s
mm mm
cSt
s N s
mm
mm



| |

|
\
= = =
| |
|
|
|
|
\

From Figure 2 of STEYR catalogue, find the required minimum viscosity,
1
, for
n=1000 rpm and mean diameter for the selected bearing 323 08
2
1
40 90
65 , 1000 17 /
2 2
+ +
= = = = =
m
d D
d mm n rpm v mm s .
The viscosity ratio
1
41.86
2.46
17 v

= = =
From Figure 4 of STEYR catalogue, for normal operating conditions which we
are not sure about, choose the lower side of the yellow region, then life adjustment
factor is; a
23
=1.8

Life equation

6
1 23
10
60
p
ISO
h
C
L a a
n P
| |
=
|

\

For bearing L:

Dynamic viscosity of SAE40 oil at 60
o
C; 36 . = mPa s (from Figure 12.13 of
Notes to be used in Examination)
The density of the SAE40 oil:
3
860 / kg m =
The kinematic viscosity is
3 6
2 2
2
3 9
3
36 10 10 .
41.86 ( )
860 10 10
N
s
mm mm
cSt
s N s
mm
mm



| |

|
\
= = =
| |
|
|
|
|
\

From Figure 2 of STEYR catalogue, find the required minimum viscosity,
1
, for
n=1000 rpm and mean diameter for the selected bearing 302 08
2
1
40 80
60 , 1000 18 /
2 2
+ +
= = = = =
m
d D
d mm n rpm v mm s .
The viscosity ratio
1
41.86
2.33
18 v

= = =
From Figure 4 of STEYR catalogue, for normal operating conditions which we are
not sure about chose the lower side of the yellow region, then life adjustment factor is;
a
23
=1.7

Life equation

6
1 23
10
60
p
ISO
h
C
L a a
n P
| |
=
|

\


10/3
6
10 53.6
0.21 1.7 4561
60 1000 7.31
| |
= =
|

\
h
kN
L hour
kN


b) Same forces are assumed to act on the bearings.
7308
L
R N =
21674
K
R N =
5400
a
F N =

Designation e X Y C
ISO
d(mm) D(mm)
72 08 B(K) 1.14 0.35 0.57 24.4 40 80
73 08 B(L) 1.14 0.35 0.57 34.3 40 90


METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
10
In order to determine axial force distribution, the same procedure in the tapered
bearings is used.
21674
19012
2 2 0.57
rK
K
K
F
N
Y
= = =


7308
6410
2 2 0.57
rL
L
L
F
N
Y
= = =



It is seen that
K L
>
Also 5400 12602
a K L
F N = < =

This means that for the selected bearings for K &L, the net axial shaft force is
acting on bearing L.
Then the resultant axial forces acting on the bearings K&L are,
0
aK
F =
19012 5400 13612
aL K a
F F N = = =

The estimated dynamic equivalent loads at bearings K&L are

10.32
( 0.35& 0.57 sin
13612
1.86 1.14)
7308
21.67
L rL aL
aL
rL
K
P X F Y F kN
X Y ce
F
e
F
P kN
= + =
= =
= = > =
=


For bearing K:

p=3 for (angular contact) ball bearings.

Life adjustment factor a
1
for 99% reliability is 0.21, from Figure 1 of
STEYR catalogue.
Life adjustment factor a
23
depends on the viscosity of the oil.
The kinematic viscosity is
2
41.86 ( )
mm
cSt
s
=

From Figure 2 of STEYR catalogue, find the required minimum viscosity,
1
, for
n=1000 rpm and mean diameter for the selected bearing 72 08 B

2
1
40 80
60 , 1000 18 /
2 2
m
d D
d mm n rpm v mm s
+ +
= = = = = .
The viscosity ratio
1
41.86
2.32
18 v

= = =
From Figure 4 of STEYR catalogue, for normal operating conditions which we are
not sure about, choose the lower side of the yellow region, then life adjustment factor
is; a
23
=1.7
Life equation

6
1 23
10
60
p
ISO
h
C
L a a
n P
| |
=
|

\


3
6
10 24.4
0.21 1.7 8.5
60 1000 21.67
h
kN
L hour
kN
| |
= =
|

\



For bearing L:

From Figure 2 of STEYR catalogue, find the required minimum viscosity,
1
, for
n=1000 rpm and mean diameter for the selected bearing 73 08 B

2
1
40 90
65 , 1000 17 /
2 2
m
d D
d mm n rpm v mm s
+ +
= = = = = .
The viscosity ratio
1
41.86
2.46
17 v

= = =

From Figure 4 of STEYR catalogue, for normal operating conditions which we are
not sure about, choose the lower side of the yellow region, then life adjustment factor
is; a
23
=1.8

Life equation

METU ME 308 Machine Elements II Spring 2011
11

6
1 23
10
60
p
ISO
h
C
L a a
n P
| |
=
|

\


3
6
10 34.3
0.21 1.8 231
60 1000 10.32
h
kN
L hour
kN
| |
= =
|

\

The life of angular contact ball bearings is much shorter than the life of tapered
roller bearings for this application. Angular contact bearings having higher C
so

should be preferred.