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Propagation Channel Models

1 PROPAGATION CHANNEL MODELS ........................................................................................... 1


2 CHANNEL MODEL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................... 1
2.1 MULTIPATH FADING PROPAGATION CONDITIONS .................................................... 1
2.2 HIGH SPEED TRAIN CONDITION ...................................................................................... 3
2.3 MOVING PROPAGATION CONDITION ............................................................................. 7
2.4 MIMO CHANNEL CORRELATION MATRICES ................................................................ 8
3 EXAMPLES ......................................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 EXAMPLE 1: LTE CHANNEL MODELS IN THE 3G EVOLUTION LAB LTE
TOOLBOX .......................................................................................................................................... 10
3.1.1 Setup Cell-wide settings .................................................................................................. 10
3.1.2 Subframe Resource Grid Generation .................................................................................. 11
3.1.3 Symbol and Indices Generation with Resource Grid Mapping ........................................... 11
3.1.4 OFDM Modulation ............................................................................................................. 11
3.1.5 Constructing the LTE fading channel ................................................................................. 11
3.1.6 Passing data through the fading channel ........................................................................... 12
3.2 EXAMPLE 2: CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE .............................................................. 12

See also:
LteFadingChan, LteHSTChan, LteMovingChan.
1 Propagation Channel Models
The LTE Toolbox provides a set of channel models for the test and verification of UE and
eNodeB radio transmission and reception as defined in documents TS 36.101 and TS 36.104.
The following channel models are available in the LTE Toolbox:
Multipath fading propagation conditions
High speed train conditions
Moving propagation conditions
LTE
Toolbox TT
Start
page pp
D
s
/2 //
D
min mm
eN
odeB oo
D
min mm
Railway
track tt
UE
travelling with
speed vvv
Maximum
Doppler Shift DD
Minimum
Doppler Shift DD
2 Channel Model Description
The following section describes the LTE channel models.
2.1 Multipath Fading Propagation Conditions
The multipath fading channel model specifies three different delay profiles which are
representative of low, medium and high delay spread environment. These are: Extended
Pedestrian A model (EPA), Extended Vehicular A model (EVA) and Extended Typical Urban
model (ETU). The multipath delay profiles for these channels are shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3.
Table 1 - Extended Pedestrian A model (EPA)
Excess tap
delay [ns]
Relative power
[dB]
0 0.0
30 -1.0
70 -2.0
90 -3.0
110 -8.0
190 -17.2
410 -20.8
Table 2 - Extended Vehicular A model (EVA)
Excess tap
delay [ns]
Relative power
[dB]
0 0.0
30 -1.5
150 -1.4
310 -3.6
370 -0.6
710 -9.1
1090 -7.0
1730 -12.0
2510 -16.9
Table 3 - Extended Typical Urban model (ETU)
Excess tap
delay [ns]
Relative power
[dB]
0 -1.0
50 -1.0
120 -1.0
200 0.0
230 0.0
500 0.0
1600 -3.0
2300 -5.0
5000 -7.0
D
s
/2 //
D
min mm
eN
odeB oo
D
min mm
Railway
track tt
UE
travelling with
speed vvv
Maximum
Doppler Shift DD
Minimum
Doppler Shift DD
In addition to multipath delay profile a maximum Doppler frequency is specified for each
multipath fading propagation condition as shown as in Table 4. Note that all taps in Tables 1, 2
and 3 have a classical Doppler spectrum.
Table 4 - Channel model parameters
Model Maximum
Doppler
frequency
EPA 5Hz 5 Hz
EVA 5Hz 5 Hz
EVA 70Hz 70 Hz
ETU 70Hz 70 Hz
ETU 300Hz 300 Hz
In case of MIMO environments a set of correlation matrices is introduced to model the
correlation between UE and eNodeB antennas. These are introduced in Section 2.4.
2.2 High Speed Train Condition
The high speed train condition defines a non fading propagation channel with single multipath
component, the position of which is fixed in time.
This single multipath represents the Doppler shift which is caused due to a high speed train
moving past a base station as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 - High Speed Train Condition
2
s
D is the initial distance of the train from eNodeB, and
min
D is the minimum distance
between eNodeB and the railway track. Both values are in metres.
v
is the velocity of the train
in m/s. The Doppler shift due to a moving train is mathematically described as
( ) ( ) t f t f
d s
cos
D
s
/2 //
D
min mm
eN
odeB oo
D
min mm
Railway
track tt
UE
travelling with
speed vvv
Maximum
Doppler Shift DD
Minimum
Doppler Shift DD
where ( ) t f
s
is the Doppler shift and
d
f is the maximum Doppler frequency. The cosine of
angle ( ) t is given by:
( )
( )
2 2
min
2
2
cos
vt D D
vt D
t
s
s
+


, v D t
s
0 (1)
( )
( )
2 2
min
5 . 1
5 . 1
cos
vt D D
vt D
t
s
s
+ +
+

, v D t v D
s s
2 < (2)
( ) ( ) ) 2 ( mod cos cos v D t t
s
, v D t
s
2 > (3)
For eNodeB testing two high speed train scenarios are defined which uses the parameters
listed in Table 5. The Doppler shift fs(t) is calculated using equations 1, 2 and 3 using the
parameters listed in the Table 5.
Table 5 - Parameters for high speed train conditions for eNodeB
testing
Paramete
r
Value
Scenario 1 Scenario 3
s
D
1000 m 300 m
min
D
50 m 2 m
v
350 km/h 300 km/h
d
f
1340 Hz 1150 Hz
These scenarios result in Doppler shifts as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 and are applicable
to all frequency bands.
Figure 2 - Doppler shift trajectory for scenario 1
Figure 3 - Doppler shift trajectory for scenario 3
For UE testing the input parameters listed in Table are used to calculate the Doppler shift using
Equation 1, 2 and 3.
Table 6 - Parameters for high speed train condition for UE testing
Parameter Value
s
D
300 m
min
D
2 m
v
300 km/h
d
f
750 Hz
These parameters result in the Doppler shift shown in Figure 4 and is applied to all frequency
bands.
Figure 4 - Doppler shift trajectory for UE testing
2.3 Moving Propagation Condition
The moving propagation channel in LTE defines a channel condition where the location of
multipath components changes. The time difference between the reference time and the first
tap is:
) sin(
2
t
A
(4)
where A represents the starting time in seconds and represents angular rotation in
radian/sec. Note that relative time between multipath components stays fixed.
The parameters for the moving propagation conditions are shown in Table 7. Doppler shift is
only applicable for generating fading samples for scenario 1.
Table 7 - Parameters for UL timing adjustment
Parameter Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Channel model ETU200 AWGN
UE speed 120 km/h 350 km/h
CP length Normal Normal
A 10 s 10s
w 0.04 s
-1
0.13 s
-1
In scenario 2 a single non fading multipath component with AWGN is modelled. The location of
this multipath component changes with time according to Equation 4.
An example of a moving channel with a single non-fading tap is shown in Figure 5. The LTE
specific parameters have been scaled up to produce this plot.
Figure 5 Moving Propagation Condition with scaled parameters
2.4 MIMO Channel Correlation Matrices
In MIMO systems there is correlation between transmit and receive antennas. This depends on
a number of factors such as the separation between antenna and the carrier frequency. For
maximum capacity it is desirable to minimise the correlation between transmit and receive
antennas.
There are different ways to model antenna correlation. One such technique makes use of
correlation matrices to describe the correlation between multiple antennas both at the
transmitter and the receiver. These matrices are computed independently at both the
transmitter/receiver and are then combined by means of a Kronecker product in order to
generate a channel spatial correlation matrix.
Three different correlation levels are defined in the LTE specification TS 36.101: (i) low or no
correlation (ii) medium and (iii) high correlations. The parameter and are defined for each
level of correlation as Shown in Table 8.
Table 8 - Correlation Values
Low correlation Medium Correlation High Correlation

0 0 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.9
The independent correlation matrices at UE and eNodeB (i.e. ReNB , RUE respectively) are
shown as in Table 9 and 10 for different set of antennas (i.e. 1, 2 and 4).
Table 9 - eNodeB Correlation Matrix
Table 10 - UE Correlation Matrix
Correlatio
n
One antenna Two antennas Four antennas
UE
1
UE
R

,
_

1
UE
R

,
_

1
1
1
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
*
9
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
9
4
9
1
*
9
1
9
4
9
1




UE
R
The channel spatial correlation matrix (Rspar) is expressed as:
Correlat
ion
One
antenna
Two antennas Four antennas
eNode B
1
eNB
R

,
_

1
eNB
R

,
_

1
1
1
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
*
9
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
9
4
9
1
*
9
1
9
4
9
1




eNB
R
UE eNB spat
R R R
where represent the Kronecker product. Table 11 defines the channel spatial correlation
matrix (Rspat).
Table 11 - R
spal
correlation matrices
1x2
case
1
]
1


1
1
*

UE spat
R R
2x2 case
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
* * * *
* *
* *
* *



UE eNB spat
R R R
4x2 case
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1


1
1
1
1
1
1
*
9
1
9
4
*
9
1
9
1
9
4
9
4
9
1
9
1
9
4
9
1
* *
* *
*





UE eNB spat
R R R
4x4 case

,
_

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
*
9
1
*
9
1
*
9
4
9
4
9
1
*
9
1
9
4
9
1
9
1
9
4
*
9
1
9
1
9
4
9
4
9
1
9
1
9
4
9
1
* *
* *
*








UE eNB spat
R R R
3 Examples
3.1 LTE Channel Models in the 3G Evolution Lab LTE Toolbox
This example is designed to aid understanding of the use of LTE channel model in a simulation.
In this example cell specific reference signals are generated and mapped onto a resource grid.
The resource grid undergoes OFDM modulation and is passed through a fading channel.
3.1.1 Setup Cell-wide settings
Cell-wide settings are specified in a structure. A number of the functions used in this example
require a subset of the settings specified below.
enb.NDLRB = 9; % No of DL-RB in total BW
enb.CyclicPrefix = 'Normal'; % CP length
enb.PHICHDuration = 'Normal'; % Normal PHICH duration
enb.CFI = 3; % 4 PDCCH symbols
enb.Ng = 'Sixth'; % HICH groups
enb.CellRefP = 1; % 1-antenna ports
enb.NCellID = 10; % Cell ID
enb.NSubframe = 0; % Subframe number 0
enb.DuplexMode = FDD; % Duplex mode
antennaPort = 0; % Antenna port 0
3.1.2 Subframe Resource Grid Generation
A resource grid can easily be created using toolbox function LteDLResourceGrid. This creates
an empty resource grid for one subframe.
subframe = LteDLResourceGrid(enb); % Create empty resource grid
3.1.3 Symbol and Indices Generation with Resource Grid Mapping
Cell-specific Reference symbols (CellRS) are generated and then mapped onto the Resource
Elements (RE's) of a resource grid using linear indices.
cellRSsymbols = LteCellRS(enb,antennaPort); % Cell reference
symbol
% generation
cellRSindices = LteCellRSIndices(enb,antennaPort,{'1based'});
% Indices generation
subframe(cellRSindices) = cellRSsymbols; %Resource grid mapping
3.1.4 OFDM Modulation
Perform OFDM modulation of the complex symbols in a subframe according to cell wide
settings enb

[txWaveform,info] = LteOFDM(enb,subframe);
where txWaveform are the transmitted OFDM modulated symbols and info is a structure
contain details of the modulation process. The field info.SamplingRate provides the
sampling rate of the time domain waveform, and is given by
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
Receiv
e Antennas
Antenn
as aa
Impulse
spacing
of 300
samples ss

T
ime[s] ii
LTE
Multipath
Fading
Channel CC
Input
Impulse Stream II
Impulses and
corresponding response cc
T
ime[s] ii
1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

T
x 1 xx
T
x 2 xx
Output
Stream
Waveform WW
|
H| HH
bbb
aaa
fff
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
l
m
n
1
o
.
.
p
0
r
.
.
.

a
b
c
d
.
.
.
f
0
g
.
.
.

R
x 1 xx
R
x 2 xx
SR = 30.72MHz / 2048 * Nfft
where Nfft is the size of the OFDM IFFT.
3.1.5 Constructing the LTE fading channel
The following function generates an LTE multipath fading channel as specified in TS 36.101.
First the channel parameters are setup by creating a structure channel:
channel.Seed = 1; % Random number generator seed.
channel.NRxAnts = 1; %

Number of receive antennas
channel.DelayProfile = 'EVA'; % Delay profile model

(EPA,EVA,ETU)
channel.DopplerFreq = 5; % Doppler frequency
channel.CarrierFreq = 2.6e9; % Carrier frequency
channel.MIMOCorrelation = 'Low';%

Correlation between UE &
eNodeB
channel.SamplingRate = info.SamplingRate; % Input sampling rate
channel.InitTime
= 0;
% Fading process time Offset
Note that the sampling rate within the channel model (channel.SamplingRate) must be set to
the value created by LteOFDM (info.SamplingRate).
3.1.6 Passing data through the fading channel
The txWaveform is an array of LTE transmitted samples. Each row contains the waveform
samples for each of the transmit antennas. These waveforms are filtered with the delay profiles
as specified in the parameter structure channel using the following function:
rx
Waveform = LteFadingChan(txWaveform,

channel);
rxWaveform is the channel output signal matrix, where each row corresponds to the waveform
at each of the receive antennas ( since we have defined 1 receive antenna, the number of rows
of rxWaveform matrix is one).
3.2 Channel Impulse Response
The following example demonstrates the use of LTE channel modelling toolbox in a MathWorks
Matlab environment. This example shows how the impulse response of a 2x2 MIMO system
can be achieved.
The input is a matrix of impulses where each impulse is separated by 300 samples. Each
column (where the column size represents the number of transmit antennas) in the matrix is the
input waveform to the channel model function and is therefore a series of impulses. This series
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
Receiv
e Antennas
Antenn
as aa
Impulse
spacing
of 300
samples ss

T
ime[s] ii
LTE
Multipath
Fading
Channel CC
Input
Impulse Stream II
Impulses and
corresponding response cc
T
ime[s] ii
1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

T
x 1 xx
T
x 2 xx
Output
Stream
Waveform WW
|
H| HH
bbb
aaa
fff
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
l
m
n
1
o
.
.
p
0
r
.
.
.

a
b
c
d
.
.
.
f
0
g
.
.
.

R
x 1 xx
R
x 2 xx
of impulses allows the changing impulse response of the channel to be viewed over time. For
clear visualisation the impulse spacing should be greater than maximum delay spread of the
channel).
The Input waveform is passed through the channel. Here the LTE Multipath fading channel
model is used. The output matrix has complex samples corresponding to each receive antenna.
This process is shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 - Channel impulse response
The pre configuration of LTE multipath fading channel is done using a structure which could be
parameterise through a simple structure. The following Matlab code shows how to parameterise
the fading channel.
%Channel Parameterisation
channel.Seed = 1; % Channel seed
channel.NRxAnts = 2; % No of receive antennas
channel.DelayProfile = 'EVA'; % Delay profile
channel.DopplerFreq = 300; % Doppler frequency
channel.CarrierFreq = 2e9; % Carrier frequency
channel.MIMOCorrelation = 'Low';% MIMO Correlation
channel.SamplingRate = 1/10e-9; % Channel sampling rate
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
Receiv
e Antennas
Antenn
as aa
Impulse
spacing
of 300
samples ss

T
ime[s] ii
LTE
Multipath
Fading
Channel CC
Input
Impulse Stream II
Impulses and
corresponding response cc
T
ime[s] ii
1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.

T
x 1 xx
T
x 2 xx
Output
Stream
Waveform WW
|
H| HH
bbb
aaa
fff
Tran
smit
Antennas AA
l
m
n
1
o
.
.
p
0
r
.
.
.

a
b
c
d
.
.
.
f
0
g
.
.
.

R
x 1 xx
R
x 2 xx
channel.InitTime = 0; % Initialise channel time
%The subsequent line of code creates two identical input streams
of data which are passed through two transmit antennas as in
Figure 6
nAntIn = 2; % Number of Transmit antennas
impulseSpacing = 300; % Greater than max ch delay spread
noImpResponse = 150; % no of impulse responses to be calculated
nInputSamples = impulseSpacing * noImpResponse;
in = zeros(nInputSamples, nAntIn);
onesLocations = 1:impulseSpacing:nInputSamples;
in(onesLocations,1) = 1;
% Channel filtering
out = LteFadingChan(in,

channel);
% Plotting receive waveform
for (antNo = 1:

channel.NRxAnts)
figure
mesh(squeeze(abs(reshape(out(:,antNo),impulseSpacing,noImpRespon
se).')));
titleStr = ['Rx Antenna' num2str(antNo)];
title({'Channel Impulse Response for LTE fading
channel',titleStr});
ylabel('number of impulses');
xlabel('Impulse spacing [no of samples]');
zlabel('|H|');
end;
Figure 7 shows the channel impulse response at receive antenna 1.
Figure 7 Channel impulse response
Copyright 2009-2010 Steepest Ascent Ltd.
A ZadoffChu sequence is a complex-valued mathematical
sequence which, when applied to radio signals, gives rise to an
electromagnetic signal of constant amplitude, whereby cyclicly
shifted versions of the sequence comprising the signal do not cross-
correlate with each other when the signal is recovered at the
receiver. A generated ZadoffChu sequence that has not been shifted
is known as a "root sequence".
The sequence then exhibits the useful property that cyclic-shifted
versions of itself remain orthogonal to one another, provided, that is,
that each cyclic shift, when viewed within the time domain of the
signal, is greater than the combined propagation delay and multi-
path delay-spread of that signal between the transmitter and
receiver.
The complex value at each position (n) of each root ZadoffChu
sequence (u) given by
where
ZadoffChu sequence is known as a CAZAC sequence (constant
amplitude zero autocorrelation waveform).
1.Properties of Zadoff-Chu sequences
1. They are periodic with period N
ZC
if N
ZC
is prime.
x
u
(n + N
ZC
) = x
u
(n)
2. Given N
ZC
is prime, Discrete Fourier Transform of ZadoffChu
sequence is another ZadoffChu sequence conjugated, scaled and
time scaled.
where is the multiplicative inverse of u
modulo N
ZC
.
3. The autocorrelation of a prime length ZadoffChu sequence with a
cyclically shifted version of itself also has zero auto-correlation. i.e. it
is non-zero only at one instant which corresponds to the cyclic shift.
4. The cross correlation between two prime length ZadoffChu
sequences, i.e. different u, is constant
2.Usages
ZadoffChu sequences are used in the 3GPP LTE Long Term Evolution
air interface in the definition of Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS)
(so called primary synchronization channel), random access preamble
(PRACH) , HARQ ACK/NACK responses (PUCCH) and sounding
reference signals(SRS). The ZC sequences are used in LTE because
they provide an advantage of having a lower Peak-to-Average-Power
(PAPR) ratio as compared to Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM).
3.References

http://www.quintillion.co.jp/3GPP/Specs/

S. Beyme and C. Leung (2009). "Efficient computation of DFT of


Zadoff-Chu sequences". Electron. Lett. 45 (9): 461463.
doi:10.1049/el.2009.3330.

Zadoff Chu (ZC) Sequences


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