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Tsarist Russia

Background info The Land of the Tsars Geography and Population: o 1/6 of Earths land mass o 11 time zones and climates o Moscow and St Petersburg (main capitals) o The Winter Palace main palace o Boundaries insecure o Travel and communication difficult o Only 1/10 of land suitable for farming Government: o Autocracy one ruler with complete control o Tsar and Tsarina o Romanovs ruled for 300 years! Social Structure: o 0.5% ruling class o 12% upper class o 5% working class o 82% peasants highly uneducated Russian Orthodox Church o Traditional form of Christianity o Conservative o Tsar is it head so he head of country AND church Economy o Weak agriculture o Empire in debts o Natural resources exploited by outsiders o Upper class didnt have to pay tax (unfair!)

Reform and Reaction Alexander II

Alexander II was the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had (Lionel Kochan) Acted as Regent(acting Tsar) when father away Well-travelled Strict military training disciplined Educated Known as Tsar Liberator

The end of serfdom In 1857, he created a committee to oppose defenders of serfdom. EMANCIPATION 1861 - private serfs were freed. o Was given a small plot of land for 49 years of redemption tax + 6% interest o Given personal freedom o If unable to pay, had to do 2 years of labour services as payment 1866, state serfs were freed. o Better treatment TWICE amount of land Household serfs were freed with NO LAND AT ALL However, this deeply affected the economic, social and political future of the nation. o Peasants had to pay huge amount so land not worth it o Still farming with poor methods Strip farming o Led to problems Peasant rioting Little incentive Landowners not happy nobles had 40% less land Land shortage Its better to abolish serfdom from above than below. Tsar Nicholas II

Alexanders Other Reforms Military Men over 20 were liable to conscription (if medically fit) Length of service less than 10 years Convicts not in army Officer based on merit Introduction of budget too much spent on Crimean War Prussian model copy GEs good army Introduction of military schools Modernise mobilization Training and discipline of soldiers were more humane and efficient

Governmental In 1864, new bodies were created called ZEMSTVA o Chosen by 3 electoral colleges peasants, townspeople and gentry o Responsible for public health, prisons, roads, education, etc o Problem? 45% of nobility unfair representation In 1870, DUMAS were set up for towns and cities o Only people who paid taxes were granted votes in Dumas New bodies = new opportunity for many people in political life


Introduction of juries Judges well-paid less likely to take bribes Public trials Ability to appeal Introduction of lawyers

Censorship and Press Press openly discussed about issues Less censorship

Educational Rapid growth of schools New regulations common curriculum of religion, reading and writing (Russian only) and math Women offered vocational training Universities o Scholars able to travel abroad

o o o o Economic

Curriculum broadened Liberal professors Poor exempted from fees 2/3 were scholars

Industrial force expanded Banks were set up Growing railway system Textile industry grew Metals imported Oil and coal greatly increased Jews allowed to work in society

Least reform finial policies. Tax increased by 80% over Alexanders reign. The End of Reforms Growth of Opposition o New openness encourage unrealistic expectations for Tsar Study Abroad o Intelligentsia very radical and became very violent turned to terrorism Literature of Opposition o Writers wrote with full freedom, dangerous- shouldnt question status quo First Attempt on Tsars Life o Dmitri shot Tsar, was arrested and executed. He was a landowner who had given away his possession to peasant when they were freed. This caused the undoing of reforms. Guests of the Tsar o Tsars prisons were so full as prisoners had to wait a long time for trials o Arrest began with prison but most ended in internal exile in Siberia. Hard labour sentences undernourished and died Sentenced to exile sent out but problem was you couldnt go back Political Trials o Trial of 50 and Trial of 193 Violence intensifies o Two particular groups Land and Liberty dressed as peasants to help the peasants The Peoples Will people who believed in terrorist tactics

1 March 1881, Tsar was assassinated by bombs.

The Russia of Alexander III and Nicholas II

Alexander III (son of Alex II), moved his family away from Winter Palace in St Petersburg to Gatchina, where he only saw guests twice a week He was more traditional

Undoing the Reforms (Reactionary go back on reforms) Police o all centralised Judges o given clear advice on sentences and verdict Introduction of Land Captains o Authority in local court cases o Gentry in-charge Prisons o severe conditions Censorship o Newspaper warned 3 times to censor before publications o Govt ministers given power to close publications and ban editors and publishers o Libraries restriction on books stocked Universities o Lost power to run own affairs o Students were inspected on their non-academic activities Education o Lower class children banned from secondary education Zemstva o Less peasants o Peasant not elected but appointed Jews o Not allowed to be part of some professions o No say in govt o Quota of how many educated o Pogrom organised violence against Jews.

Problems Tax collection became corrupt Debts were increasing Absenteeism at assemblies were high

3 Improvements Alexander III made: 1. Poll tax which was only paid by peasants, were abolished 2. Peasants Land Bank created help peasants buy land from landlords 3. Nobles Land Bank created offered loan at cheaper rates to peasants

BACKWARDS METHOD OF FARMING DID NOT CHANGE! Plots of land for peasants became smaller and lower yield from crops.

The 1891 Famine Hit 17/39 provinces in Russia Had an early winter long hot and dry summer which ruined crops Inevitable outbreak of cholera Govt responsible: o Heavily taxed consumer goods o Censorship about famine until situation severe in Aug 1891 Solution to famine: o Govt had assistance schemes get public to help o Alexander III used 2 lotteries to raise money to buy emergency supplies o Nicholas II in charge of Famine Relief o Intelligentsia Prince Lvov organised FR Tolstoy organised soup canteens Chekhov playwright become doctor. Treated cholera We ourselves will not eat but we shall export peasants 350 000 died from starvation or disease HOWEVER, this showed how all social classes were able to work together

Economic Growth
Industrial Growth Rate of growth 8% per annum Highest growth rate in the world Credit given to COUNT WITTE Huge increase in coal, pig iron and coal

Railways Purpose: o Unite country o Open up trade o Growth of RUs industry Vast distance = safety and construction abandoned Centrepiece Trans-Siberia Railway, linking RU with Far East

The Urban Poor Millions of peasants worked in developing industries Lifestyle: o Lived in slums on the outskirts of the cities o Some slept next to factory machines o An apartment housed 16 people o Only a third had running water o Cesspools, piles of human manure and polluted water supply = constant threat o Wages were low o Employement insecure Russia was badly hit with world depression in 1899 o Peasants left for cities and mines to find better lives o Peasants were more knowledgeable and conscious of their surroundings. Not only influenced by Russian Orthodox Church

Government Finances Problems: o Govt forced to print more paper money o Inflation o 1/3 lost in debt interest o Hardly any left for education and social welfare o Debt of 8 billion roubles Solutions: o Reduce imports o Loands from France o Starts FORCED industrialisation o Invite foreign experts to help industrialise o COUNT WITTE created gold currency which turned into paper money o Allow trade union to set up o Allow child labour o Could only work 12 hours a day

The Intelligentsia and the Middle Class

Growth of professional and managerial middle classes Work of zemstva led to expansion of o Educated teachers o Doctors o Experts Large increase in the number of banks Intelligentsia werent mostly noble in uni but wealthy peasants.

Russia had two ways of approaching this: a. Recognize and give independent structure to each nationality b. Try and control and suppress manifestations Russification (under Great Russia) Tsar chose option b Russian language became the only language allowed in schools Ukrainian was banned in all publications Jews o Death of Alexander II = widespread attack on Jews o Jewish houses and businesses were broken into, women raped, men beaten and raped. 47 died o I am always happy when they beat the Jews Alexander III o Alexander III and Nicholas II strong anti-Semites o Had many restrications o Forbidden to own land and be in the army Successful? o Tsar felt it was an essential policy o Believed in Autocracy + Nationality + Orthodoxy o Ignored national differences

The Romanovs faced difficulties from educated and free-thinking middle classes.

In 1887, 5 university students in St Petersburg who were part of The Peoples Will tried to assassinate Tsar Alexander III. Problem not successful So these 5 were publicly hung. One of them was Alexander (Lenins bro). Alexander III died a natural death and taken over by son, Nicholas II.

Land and Libery and The Peoples Will = Populists Believed in a society where all land was held common Chosen method was terrorism and assassination Not doing well o Secret police too efficient o Very little public support o Short of money Set up political party The Party of Social Revolutionaries (SR) o Illegal o HQ in Switzerland o Had propaganda campaigns o Had own combat group


Future Revolution

Mensheviks Spread propaganda Raise awareness of proletariat (working class) Not ready for Marxist revolution Poor economic conditions Proletariat too small By members, after open debate and free voting

Bolsheviks Seize power as soon as possible

Decisions in the Party

Membership Role of Party

As many as possible Educate workers to appreciate jobs Support all forms of protest for better conditions

Believed a dedicated party could lead proletariat into power Bourgeois and proletarian could combine revolutions By party leaders All members would accept and was known as democratic centralism Only genuine reliable revolutionaries Plan for revolution Seize power on behalf of future generations of workers

Secret police considered Mensheviks to be a greater threat more involved and supporting workingclass discontentment.

Popular Violence Strikes Serious disputes Peasant protests

Russian Revolution
Different Factions: Liberals upper class o Most moderate of Tsars opponents o Goal: to have a parliament BUT tsar not overthrown allow everybody (not only rich) to vote Socialist Revolutionaries (SR) Peasants o Biggest group of opponents o Goal: Peasant uprising and overthrow Tsar Set up a republic o No central organisation o Known as populists and peoples will Social Democrats (SD) Working class o Goal: believe in Marxist Revolution working class take over overthrowing Tsar to start Marxist govt o Fight amongst themselves Bolsheviks - use violence to come to power - small group of intellectuals - centralised leadership Mensheviks - less violent - working class - democratic group

Marxism Stages leading to Communism i) ii) iii) iv) v) primitive communism no social class, no govt, no organisations everyone equal futilism serfs most oppressed capitalism ruling class: businessmen, bosses of workers socialism working class would overthrow bosses and run country in EQUAL society communism no social class, no govt, no state control utopian society everyone contributes willingly

Currently, Russian between futilism and capitalism and going to communism big mess!

RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1904-05 Tsar Nicholas II didnt want to be king Liked leisure activities and disliked intellectuals Let things slide and other built up

He felt like Russia needed a small war to boost confidence and make profit. Created more problems than actually solving them. Russia were interested in Manchuria and Korea (which were under the control of China) = better trading. But JP also interested and they were strong. Japanese attacked Port Arthur and Russians stepped in to help. JP beat RU at EVERY confrontation which was VERY embarrassing for a small country to beat a large empire Portsmouth Treaty JP gets Port Arthur and Korea RU got Manchuria and Half a million casualties Huge embarrassment Lost almost entire fleet Spent 2.5 roubles on war

In July 1904, terrorists succeeded in murdering Phleve, Minister of Interior. The man most blamed for the war in Japan. This led to Tsar appointing a new minister with more moderate views who lifted some restrictions on zemstva and press freedom.

As pressure on Tsar grew, Nicholas II issued a manifesto stating his participation in public affairs. HOWEVER, Russians were still dissatisfied. The intelligentsia made the most of the fundamental reforms made by new minister.

BLOODY SUNDAY 9 January 1905 Peaceful demonstration led by Father Gapon (a RU priest) March was officially banned but went on anyways Crowds headed for the Winter Palace to o Present a list of grievances o Ask for radical reforms Better working conditions Representation in govt Crowd carried icons and portraits of Tsar + Tsarina and sang national anthem At first, armed troops tried peaceful dispersion but ended up shooting crowd o Shot many women and children o 200 killed and 800 wounded The day that innocent women and children, who were gunned down in cold blood, as they were simply trying to hand in a loyal petition to the Tsar. Tsar was not even at the Winter Palace o Cannot be blamed o Can be blamed because he heard about it but doesnt handle it.

The October Manifesto Strikes swept the country Peasant revolts broke out in Russia Assassination of Tsars uncle = Tsar created a consultative assembly May Union of Unions set up (creation of Soviets) June Union of Peasants set up October strike at Russian railways and cities By mid-October, Russia paralysed by general strike SUPPORTED by Union of unions.

Tsars opponents from all classes were united and against him

Tsar accepted Cabinet govt

Russias 1st president: COUNT WITTE

17 October 1905 October Manifesto Peasants happy as o No more emancipation payment o Civil freedom o Dumas given more authority

November St Petersburg Soviet of Workers called general strike BUT no support from working and middle class. Thus, govt used this opportunity to arrest soviet.

Bolesheviks wanted to help the SP and so they fought the police (2 weeks long of street-fighting, killing 1000 workers). The tropps then ended peasant uprising and strikes with force. Thus, govt hated and mistrusted.

Electoral Law
Rigged and fixed Richer peoples votes worth more than poor peoples. Issues fundamental laws hes still the ruler of the country. He decides: Law Military Foreign affairs Hire and dismisses ministers Dissolve Dumas (if necessary)

Dumas has 2 houses: o upper house imperial council made up of wealthy RU appointed by Tsar elected by wealthy can veto anything lower house decides o state Dumas 1 vote = 2 000 landowners 7 000 property owners 30 000 peasants 90 000 workers (most revolutionary) Tsar has 4 Dumas until 1914 o 1st lasted 3 months argued about fundamental laws. Thus, dissolved. o 2nd lasted 3 months disagreements o 3rd rigged voting whereby peasant and worker representations were cut down by 50%. Wealthiest 1% controlled seats in elections Lasted 5 years th o 4 interrupted by WW1 Dumas were more right-winged. Looks good to other EU powers = seems democratic

Stylopins Reforms July 1906, Peter Stylopin became Minister of Interior. Firm Ruthless Attracted liberals Greatly disliked (house bombed) Still determined

The land Problem (Peasants) Made up majority of electorate Numbers were growing rapidly

Reforms Introduced Aims Hoped to create new class of well-to-do peasants = kulaks o Peasants could leave commune, extend their landholdings and build independent farms o Try new agricultural techniques and grow any crops they wish o Incentive to improve Success!!!!!!!! HOWEVER, by WW1, almost 2 million had left mirs. They OPPOSED the idea as they appreciated security from the mir. Other Reforms Educational Reforms no. of primary schools doubled Zemstva expenditure doubled on health, agriculture and poor relief Reintroduction of elected magistrate Religious toleration for Jews. Passed by Dumas but vetoed by Tsar Extension of zemstva into non-RU areas All land were available to Peasant Land Bank for purchasing Withdrawal from their commune (mir) without needing consent Peasants who withdrew could still keep their land (instead of strip farming) End to redistribution of land (land = hereditary property)

Stylopins Necktie
Conducted vigorous campaign AGAINST terrorists and revolutionaries Many were arrested and executed hung No judge/jury EFFECTIVE!

This caused... Revolutionary parties to lose support Bolsheviks & Mensheviks failed to unite Membership of RSDLP declined drastically o Lenin had difficult time as he found himself as minority amongst Bolsheviks

End of Stylopin Shot at gala performance in October 1911 Extreme right and left rejoiced Reappointment of Goremykin (aged 74) no commitment to post so basically, Nicholas back in charge.

LENA GOLDFIELDS Serious strike in 1912 Working condition were appalling Bad wages and working conditions Police arrested strike leaders Confrontation ended with troops firing at unarmed demonstrators = MASSACRE o Created a storm of protest throughout RU

This shows how the govt had not reached a new way of living. Workers were denied right to trade unions & no political representation Dumas & State Council did not criticise govt (dominated by landowners)

At the Outbreak of WW1 (Economic Situation) Russia was making a great economical progress o Savings grew o Average annual growth rate very high o National debt dropped HOWEVER, to continue this success, RU needed: o Domestic harmony o Peace with neighbours Which were shattered upon the assassination of Franz Ferdinand

RU Bad Performance in WW1 Public Reaction to Outbreak Display of patriotic feelings o Soldiers and civilians feel to their knees to the Tsar Dumas met a week after outbreak and gave govt little confidence

Military Problems Badly trained and badly equipped soldiers Lost over 4 million in the first year of war Transportation difficulties Tsar decided to take command over armed forces

Problems Caused by WW1 (leading to revolution) Scarcity of food and goods RU burnt and destroyed their own property scorch earth property o GE cant get to them o But also destroying themselves Corruption and crime high no one maintaining law Cost of war escalate year by year, causing overwhelming debts and inflation Military problem publicized causing people to worry Tsar seen as incompetent took control of army Tsars wife (Alexandra) o First cousins o German (big problem!) = thought to be a spy o Disliked by RU o Took control of govt o Converted to orthodox Tsars only son o Sickly (haemophilia internal bleeding : TOP SECRET!) Rasputin (monk) o Stange man o Felt closer to god through sins o Drank a lot o Bad reputation o Had a magic touch Whenever he came near the son, the son felt better o Alexandra did EVERYTHING Rasputin asked of her Followed his orders blindly Most of the time he was wrong! Rumour both Alexandra and Rasputin were having an affair Thus, Alexandra was blamed for RU defeats as Nicholas was very dependent on her and she was dependent on Rasputin. Rasputins murder: o Went to princes house o Wife was beautiful o Food at party was poison a lot but didnt die o Prince so he shot Rasputin, threw the body into basement and left o He somehow escaped, so shot again and threw into freezing rive o Found days later died of suffocation o Before death: he said no hope for Romanov Dynasty and thats exactly what happened!

Romanov Dynasty Overthrown

February 1917 o 23 February Strikes became worse Intl Womens Day demonstration Putilov Strikers About 1 million people o 25 February Wide-spread strike across city = PARALYSED! Soldiers joined demonstrators Forced military action taken on demonstrators (some killed more fights) o 26 February Dumas dissolved o 27 February REVOLUTION! Aimed at overthrowing govt of troops joined revolution Winter Palace and govt building seized Prison broken into and police stations burnt down (releasing revolutionaries)

Who led Revolution? Genuinely spontaneous Streets filled with people from every possible social background Lenin shocked by this, o A month before he said We older ones will not live to see the revolution in our lifetime. Leaders emerged released out of prison, respected men

1 March 1917: Dumas leaders took over govt Nicholas never made it to the capital. Disloyal troops blocked him. He signed an abdication for his brother, Grand Duke Michael, who rejected the throne.


February Revolution 1917 Different from revolution of 1905 More range in opposition Quicker Happening in St Petersburg Dumas warned Tsar about unrest in St Petersburg o Everyone was disloyal to him o No honest men left in Dumas Full on strike paralyse work effort 1917 winter o Everything frozen over o Food not getting into cities o Trains couldnt move o 1500 2000 died st 1 Revolution!

1917 A Year of Promise and Turmoil Introduction No one wanted Nicholas back in power not even him a nationwide honeymoon New govt faced same problems Provisional Govt: o Mostly Dumas o Govern country volunteerily o Not elected o High expections from people o KERENSKY (leader of govt!) Russia = anarchy & lawlessness October Bolsheviks take over PG even though they were a small minority of 23 000 people

March 1917 (government) Provisional Govt not representative of the people Their principles: o Any political prisoner are forgiven and freed by the state o Freedom of speech and right to strike o Abolish privileges o All soldiers could keep weapons and dont necessarily have to fight Problems o Helped Bolsheviks reorganize o Had weapons o Freedom of speech continuous complaints

The System of Dual Authority

2 political bodies o The Petrograd Soviet Created at the end of February after revolution Wide variety of people representing them Only appeared in major cities authentic body of people elected and mixture of both genders Variety of political ideas o The Provisional Govt Member of ex-Dumas: didnt disband after Tsars departure Ok with political changes BUT not ok with social changes Mostly nobles and basically upper class Temporary until elections CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY o Ensure votes o Get power o Not a good time at beginning to elect people

Relationship between these 2 groups were good o Good communication o Happy to kick out Tsar sense of optimism o The Soviets didnt want to run country, wanted to just supervise others o If PG went against PS, then everyone would be against each other Theyll have had no army, police, workers... nothing! Provisional Govt... why they became popular? o Success Freed prisoners Allowed personal freedom Abolish death penalty Improve working conditions Replace old and corrupter ministers and police under Tsar o Failures Continued to fight WW! Everyone was suffering and losing already Afraid Allies would feel betrayed Land problems in countryside People expected better quality and quantity of land but nobles didnt give any

Minorities felt that they could take over RU Wanted INDEPENDENCE!!! Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus Did not fix econmy Delayed Constituent Assembly people felt no right no rule

April Thesis Lenins Speech!!! o Lenin returns from Switzerland o GE govt smuggled him back Knew he was radical Had to create total unrest, overthrow govt and pull out of WW1 Lenin had imperial west o Preached that a revolution needed to happen Response? People thought he was crazy and too radical o His two famous slogans ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS PEACE, BREAD AND LAND

The Kerensky Offensive July 1917

Kerensky believed that only a successful war would stop the disintegration of RU BUT RU army was a) inadequately equipped and b) had low morale. Initial success against Austrians o 400 000 men loss o Armies worse MORE CHAOS!!!!

JULY DAYS Armed demonstations supported by workers, soldiers and sailors o Mostly Bolsheviks and anarchist(dont want govt) o 200 000 sailors mutiny 3rd July o Beginning of demonstrations o Called on PS to take power o Chanted Bolshevik slogans of PEACE, BREAD AND LAND and ALL POWER TO THE SOVIETS! th 5 July o Bolshevik press closed down

o Loyal troops cleared the streets o Govt saved th 8 July o Kerensky became Prime Minister Lenin fled to Finland and 800 leading Bolsheviks were imprisoned July days gave Bolsheviks a bad impression though Mensheviks were blamed and Bolsheviks fled the country.

The Kornilov Coup Aim at overthrowing govt 26 Aug : Kornilov ordered troops to march to the capital to hang GE supported and spies and close down the Petrograd Soviet FAILED bcoz unable to advance, blocked by railways workers This showed how workers and soldiers still against PG

Lenin = >:) = YES! TIME TO SEIZE POWER MUAHAHAHA Kerensky supported Kornilov at first but later saw him as a threat, wanting to take over PG, so instead, Kerensky let all Bolsheviks out of jails with weapons (STUPID MUCH?!)

Problems in RU Peasants dissatifisfied with land; began to seize it themselves Elections finally fixed for November Command structure of army collapse! Wanted self-govt; eg. Ukraine and Finland Workers saw no change in going on strike

Bolsheviks Formed new govt in Petrograd in October Stayed loyal to working class Lenin felt Bolsheviks would take over govt alone 7 October Lenin returned to RU (wanted an immediate rising!)

The October Revolution, 23-25 October Led by Trotsky 3 days to take over capital Took over railway stations, buildings and Winter Palace! Kerensky escaped Only 5 deaths 500 loyal troops who could stop uprising, disappeared! :o Almost no opposition, no real violence and all PG captured 1/6 Russians supported Bolsheviks

Provision Govt lose support The Soviets o Petrograd controlled by Soviets mostly o PG lacked authority The War o Didnt want to let allies down o BUT soldiers didnt want to fight anymore Peasant Committees o Cut rents and increased wages Armed forces o Soldiers and sailors undermined/destroyed power of officers o Unpopular officers killed Unrest in factories o Horrible working conditions o No action taken to change that Inflation o Price bad: winter 1916-17 o Made EVERYTHING worse Nationalities o Wanted self-govt

Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets (25 October) Soviet meeting to discuss what to do 670 members Mostly Bolsheviks Non-Bolsheviks walked out. Trotsky said Go where you belong to the rubbish bin of history!

Bolshevik Strength Control Petrograd Soviet union protecting people Gained peoples trust after Kornilov Policies support o End war o Peace, land and bread Trotsky led Red Army Party leadership organized Ruthless & destroyed enemies Military and economic collapse benefitted Strong leadership skills

Provisional Govt Weakness Its nature flawed Lose peoples trust after Kornilov Failed to gain popular support Underestimated Bolsheviks Defence half-hearted Had to share power with Soviets Kerensky not as determined as Soviets

Communists won because of their strength and PGs weaknesses.

Why Bolshevik Able to Stay in Power? How Bolshevik establish dictatorship?

PG wasnt getting much support Bolsheviks quickly seized power October Revolution at first, it was seen as a Bolshevik takeover

Sovnarkom a one party government bourgeoisie title of ministers abolished, replaced with peoples commissar Lenin believed that only Bolsheviks could rebuild Russia o Refused to invite other socialist parties o Leaders protested to Lenins narrow view in politics

The Army Cheka Sovnarkoms secret police Hunted down oppositions bourgeoisie, anarchists executed them without trial Strong support Killed 50 000 people in 1918 Promised to end war An officer was ordered to sign an immediate armistice with GE but he refused. He got murdered by his own troops. Younger officers ordered to sign. He signed. Officers returned to civilian life or moved to non-Bolshevik Russia

The death of Constituent Assembly ELECTIONS o Finally held in November o SRs got most amount of vote (mostly from peasants) o 47/80 million RU voted most representative body of RU ever! o Bolsheviks got 23.2% (2nd place!) o Non-Bolshevik Assembly formed SR leader Chernov (president) Third All-Russian Congress of Soviet held o Bolshevik = majority o And thus, formed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR)

How Bolshevik govt try to change Russia? 1) Decree on Peace a. a peace without annexations and indemnities 2) Decree on Land a. Abolish landlords right of property b. Land confiscated from large states and redistributed to peasant soviets 3) Decree on Nationalities a. Allowed self-govt to any national groups 4) Housing in cities removed from private owners 5) Civil marriage and divorce introduced 6) Schools not under church anymore 7) Titles abolished everyone referred to as comrade 8) Institution for the Protection of Mothers and Children was formed

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)

Peace treaty between Russia and her allies Lenin wanted to sign it because RU could not fight anymore Trotsky wanted to adopt strategy of NO PEACE, NO WAR o Hoped itll inspire GE army to mutiny and take revolution back to Berlin o GE tired of strategy, ended armistice & went to Petrograd o Dropped bomb!!!! o RU govt move to Moscow o Lenin persuaded party to accept GE terms o Agreed to harsh terms Lost 1/3 of EU land Lost of industry Lost Ukraine o People blamed them for betraying Mother Russia

The Suppression of Opposition October 1917 to July 1918 Decrees of Sovarkom Banned all bourgeoisie parties and their newspapers Used Cheka and loyal troops to prevent anti-govt demonstrations Opposition groups were disbanded by force or went underground


Reasons for Civil War in Russia 1. The collapse of Russian Empire Many territories declared independence 33 sovereign(independent) govts in RU Patriotic RU wanted to stop disintegration and keep RU, one and indivisible. 2. Political Opposition Union for the Defense of Motherland and Liberty i. Organized revolts Other opponents gathered at the edge of Bolshevik-controlled Russia 3. Allied Opposition Caused direct military action against Bolsheviks Trotsky published secret treaties signed by Tsar with former allies i. Showed Allies planned to seize territory when GE defeated ii. Not actually fighting for democracy Bolsheviks seized foreign property and cancelled Tsars vast debts Because of Brest-Litovsk Treaty, FR and BR left to fight Western Front alone 4. Breakdown of law and order Growing lawlessness in country No govt strong and determined enough to restore law and order 5. Food Requisitioning Peasants had no incentive to sell products inflation soards Lenins solution: i. Send soldiers, worker and Cheka to look for grains from kulaks ii. Urged poor to seize food from neighbours Successful BUT cause more enemies for Bolsheviks

The Civil War Fighting broke out as Bolsheviks seized power: October 1917 Continued until 1922 more misery and hardship Ukrainian capital, Kiev, change hand 16 times.

Phase 1 Early resistance Kerensky failed to get army to fight Bolsheviks defeated Cossack Army and Volunteer Army

Phase 2 war with Whites Whites = imperialists (wanted Tsar). Right winged. No central leadership Traditional conservatives: landowners, businessmen, army officers August 1918, Red Army forced to abandon Kiev Winder, Red Army advanced on all fronts Jan 1920, they got Kiev back April, Polish army successfully attacked RU October 1920, Treaty of Riga ended Russo-Polish War

Phase 3 war with Greens Greens = anarchists. No political ideology. Bandits Peasants who resented Bolshevik policies Ended in 1921

Allies (BR, FR, USA and JP) also involved FR had helped RU modernise BUT Bolsheviks nationalized FR companies JP wanted more territory USA and BR wanted someone to be there at Eastern Front All anti-communists But did not engage in much fighting


Geography: o Petrograd and Moscow densely populated with Bolsheviks Thus, easy to recruit army o Good transportation o Had weapons Unity and Organisation o Led by only one general Trotsky o Clear indication of what to do o One military strategy, one aim Support o People were happy with decrees o Good in countryside, had food Propaganda o Visual images for peasants who cant read o Striking colours Leadership o Trotsky Politically intelligent Good military leader Goes to the front himself Propaganda spread Good motivation for soldiers Lived in train Defended capital well Strict in discipline Red Terror o Bolsheviks imposed strict control o Cheka ensured discipline o Shot anyone who deserted them or were unfaithful Red Army o Did not exist in 1918 but 5 million strong by 1920 o Introduced conscription o Limitless human resources o Had experienced officers tsars former officers but Bolsheviks ensured loyalty o Red Cavalry disrupted enemies communication lines Lenin gives orders to kill Tsar Nicholas and family to stop whites from getting back into power.


Allied help o Portrayed as puppets of allies o Made recruiting for Red Army easier RU patriotism o Foreign forces rarely involved in fighting though White divisions o No common purpose o Many fiercely territorial and would not advance from area Lack of co-operation o Differing goals o Mutual suspicions o Geographical distance meetings in Paris! Lack of commitment o Difficult to recruit and keep solders

Effects of Civil War

Violent Bolsheviks very militaristic 2nd civil war in history leading to famine, deaths and diseases. Utter devastation No world revolution only in Russia

The Economics of Survival After Lenin seized power, he announced: In 6 months, we will build communism in Russia

State Capitalism (1917-18) Set up after October Revolution Bolshevik used existing economic structures during transition period Problem: not the communist way/went against their ideology After Brest-Litovsk, RU didnt get grain from Ukraine. White armies controlled rich farming areas o EXTREME FOOD SHORTAGES o RATIONING: Based on social classes Army and govt got most to eat Professionals (doctors, skilled workers) 2nd Aristocrats ate least

War Communism (1918-1921)

June 1918 a decree nationalized all industries All production concentrated on war effort Needed to keep Red Army fed and supplied o Grain Requisitioning: Soldiers got grain from countryside and brought into city Either offer little money or not at all Farmers not bothered to produce grain Less grain, less food Kulaks hoarding grain made them the scapegoats by Lenin Ban private trade o Result? A black market is formed o People barter amongst themselves Nationalisation of industry o Workers committee eliminated o Bosses called specialists o Labour discipline reinstated more strict than before o Spies o Workbook = to stamp if work and thus, this gave food o Paid workers by amount of work done and not time o Internal passports

All this led to MAJOR INFLATION and: a. Famine (1920) Worse than Tsarist times Cannibalism corpses were stored to be eaten by their families Lenin told them to steal from churches took advantage of situation b. Kronstadt Mutiny (1921) Sailors mutiny against Bolsheviks They wanted Soviets Rebellion!! even though they were loyal supporters before 10000 killed Lenin blamed other political parties (Mensheviks) c. Tambov Rising Uprising in countryside by disgruntled peasants Red army sent to put down revolts Lenin realised War Communism not working.

NEP, New Economic Policy (1921)

Lenin realised that peasant = key to communists retaining power A compromise between capitalistic and communist elements Had to ensure survival of revolution: o Grain requisitioning ends: Farmers only give 10% of crops to govt Extras could be sold Thus, incentive for farmers to produce more o Small businesses can reopen Motivate farmers to grow and earn more $$ o Private trade resumes o Rationing ends o State controls heavy industry Lenin said this policy would be temporary o One step forward but two steps backwards Capitalism Communism + Capitalism o Some Bolsheviks dont agree. Fight. NEP statistics not as high as State Capitalism o Not so efficient and productive

Lenins First Problems

i) Coalition with other govts He decided no. He didnt want to combine Bolsheviks with other left-winged party Russians unhappy that Bolsheviks run country because they thought PS would take over Constituent Assembly Delayed again until January 1918 Bolshevik soldiers at gun-point closed down/eliminates assembly No democracy Lenin shot! By a woman 3 times but he survived i. Woman supported Lenin but he eliminated democracy so she >:( ii. Lenins health deteriorated in 1918 onwards Set up government Trotsky commissar of war and foreign affairs Stalin commissar of nationalities (speak on behalf of minorities) Central Committee made of 21 members and part of Politburo



Power (in decreasing order): 1. 2. 3. 4. Lenin Politburo Central Committee Communist Party

Decrees (law made by Lenin) not democratic

Peace decree signed Brest-Litovsk treaty o Trotskys strategy of no peace, no war Hoped GE will have their own revolution, overthrowing Kaiser, causing RU to ok o Lenin wanted treaty to be signed quickly To restore order Soldiers and ammunition could be used in civil war o Lenin needed $$ from GE. GE promised $$ if RU out of war o GE advancing. Afraid GE would overthrow Lenin if he doesnt deliver his promise o Lenin threatened to resign, thus they finally agreed. Land decree o Communal land land belonged to everyone o This was happening but he legalized it o Wealthy people had peasant families living their house Workers Control decree o Workers take more control over job o They can run the factories and create unions o 8-hour work day o 48-hour work week o Allowed holidays o Paid overtime Rights of the People of RU o Promises self-determination for minorities Press decree o All non-Bolshevik press banned Cheka o Secret police of Bolsheviks o Keep control, spy on people o Take over judicial system Abolishment of titles o comrade = everyone equal

Lenins Role in History


Lenins importance in October 1917

Lenins arrival in Petrograd in April 1917 o Transformed Bolshevik attitude to PG o Inspired October coup o April Thesis was initially received badly but Lenin persuaded Bolshevik revolution Lenins adaptation of Marxism HOWEVER Research shows that there wouldve been a workers revolution without Lenin, which would end with a coalition of all parties o THUS, Lenin hijacked the opportunity to set up a one-party state Lenins rise to power was accidental o Result of blunders of others o Growing chaos in RU Came to power under false pretences o Demanded Constituent Assembly BUT closed it down when it was finally set up o Called for All Power to the Soviets BUT set up narrow Bolshevik regime Thus, Lenin = duplicitous and lucky

Was Lenin a dictator? Trotsky acknowledged Lenins enormous personal authority Lenin unable to persuade Sovnarkom to sign treaty immediately o Only when capital threatened by GE and Lenin threatened to resign, then they signed.

Why Lenins govt ruthless? Many innocent people died under the Bolsheviks Normal rules of law & justice disappeared Lenin saw political terror as revolutionary justice o freeing all from bondage However, those who shared Lenins ideology saw no wrong in harsh-ness

Lenins Legacy
According to Krushchev, October Revolutions opened a new beginning for oppressed ppl Others blamed him for millions of death and imprisonment o Demanded one-party govt o Set up Cheka o Put end to interparty debate o Created powerful bureaucracy

From summer 1921 onwards, he was increasingly absent.

By JANUARY 24 1924, Lenin died.