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(JUNE JULY 2007)

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements For the 8th Semester Curriculum Degree of

Bachelor of Technology

Electronics and Communication Engineering of

Bharati vidhyapeeths college of engineering, Delhi

Submitted to:

Mrs. Anuradha basu, H.O.D., Electronics and Communication Engineering Department


It is not possible to prepare a project report without the assistance encouragement of other people. This one is certainly no exception. On the very outset of this report, I would like to extend my sincere heartfelt obligation towards all the personages. Without their active guidance, help, cooperation encouragement, I would not have made headway in the project. First, I take this opportunity to acknowledge my institution vidyapeeths college of engineering Where I am pursuing my B.Tech. Bharati

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Hemant Kumar (Sales Engineer L&T, New Delhi) who gave me the opportunity to work with such an esteemed organization. I owe profound sense of regards gratitude towards Mr. Vivek kumar who has continuously guided me supported in all the tasks by giving me valuable suggestions. I owe debt of gratitude to all the employees who has given me enough support, cooperation and guidance in clearing the doubts advising me in the right time to make this project a real learning experience.

Thanking You Bharat Bhushan Verma


The points of study about optical fiber communication and network and other technologies used for communication are:-

1. List of figures.(1) 2. List of tables...(2) 3. Introduction to Larsen & Toubro 4. Introduction of optical fiber. i.

Types of optical fiber

ii. Principle of operation iii. Application of optical fiber iv. Optical fiber communication 5. PDH (Plesiochronous hierarchy). i.

Introduction of PDH

ii. Weaknesses of PDH iii. Implementation of PDH 6. SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous digital hierarchy. i.

Introduction of SDH

ii. Sonnet/SDH rates iii. Structure of sonnet/SDH structure iv. Difference from PDH v. Basic unit of transmission vi. Advantages of SDH

vii. Layered model of SDH viii.

SDH elements

ix. Topologies of SDH x. Usage of SDH element in SDH technology xi. Next generation SONET/SDH 7. Wireless Communication. i.

Introduction of wireless communication

ii. Application of wireless technology 8. Internet i.


ii. Internet vs. web iii. Internet technology iv. Data transfer over internet v. Social impact of internet 9. GPRS i.


ii. Security perspective of GPRS 10. Intranet i.


ii. Characteristics of intranet iii. Benefits of intranet 11. GSM (Global System for Mobile communication). i.

Introduction to GSM

ii. Advantages of GSM iii. Disadvantages of GSM

List of figures

Figure no.
1 2 3

Figure name
single-mode fiber Multi-mode optical fiber
Step index multi-mode optical fiber

Page no.

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Graded index multi-mode optical fiber Propagation analysis Propagation of light in glass with minimum loss Optical fiber communication Chain of Add/drop multiplexer SDH frame STM-1 frame structure Layers model of SDH Terminal multiplexer Add/drop multiplexer Linear bus Dual unidirectional ring Breakdown of one ring Bi-directional Ring Switching of data in breakdown ring Mesh topology Star topology chain topologies of ADM Potentially open Firewall to unauthorized users Using a web based service provider Data transaction through firewall

List of Tables
Table no. 1 2 Table name SDA/SONET rates Comparison of cellular, analog modem Page no.

Larsen & Toubro

Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) is a USD 8.5 Billion technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company. It is one of the largest and most respected companies in India's private sector and is a company that infuses engineering with imagination. Seven decades of a strong, customer-focused approach and the continuous quest for world-class quality have enabled it to attain and sustain leadership in all its major lines of business. L&T has an international presence, with a global spread of offices. A thrust on international business has seen overseas earnings grow significantly. It continues to grow its overseas manufacturing footprint, with facilities in China and the Gulf region. The company's businesses are supported by a wide marketing and distribution network, and have established a reputation for strong customer support. L&T believes that progress must be achieved in harmony with the environment. A commitment to community welfare and environmental protection are an integral part of the corporate vision. L&T was founded in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1938 by two Danish engineers, Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe, L&T rapidly took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication. Today, the company sets global engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity with Operating Divisions covering:
Engineering & Construction Projects (E&C) Heavy Engineering (HED) Engineering Construction & Contracts (ECC) Electrical & Automation (EBG) Machinery & Industrial Products (MIPD) Information Technology & Engineering Services (ITES)


An optical fiber is made up of the core, (carries the light pulses), the cladding (reflects the light pulses back into the core) and the buffer coating (protects the core and cladding from moisture, damage, etc.). Together, all of this creates a fiber optic which can carry up to 10 million messages at any time using light pulses. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. In optical fiber communication, Digital signals are transmitted in the form intensity modulated light signal which is trapped in the glass core. In optical fiber communication the light is launched into the fiber by using the light such as LASER and LEDs. Optical fibers are widely used as the backbone of network. In now days, the Current optical fiber provides transmission rate of 4.5 Mbps to 9.5 Mbps. Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide.


There are basically two types of optical fiber.

Single mode optical fiber Multi-mode optical fiber

Single mode optical fiber: - The optical fiber which supports only one mode is known as single mode optical fiber. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 550 meters (1,800 ft). Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics. Instead, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure, by solution of Maxwell's equations as

reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation. The electromagnetic analysis may also be required to understand behaviors such as speckle that occur when coherent light propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical waveguide, the fiber supports one or more confined transverse modes by which light can propagate along the fiber. Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber (as shown in fig (1)).The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 810 micrometers and is designed for use in the near infrared. The mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used, so that this fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes at visible wavelengths.

Fig (1) The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. 1. Core: 8 m diameter 2. Cladding: 125 m dia. 3. Buffer: 250 m dia. 4. Jacket: 400 m dia. Multi-mode optical fiber: - Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF)(as shown in fig (2)). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted.

Fig (2) There are two types of Multi-mode optical fiber on the basis of the boundary between the core and cladding:

Step index multi-mode optical fiber Graded index multi-mode optical fiber.

Step index multi-mode optical fiber: - In a step-index multi-mode fiber, rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary), greater than the critical angle for this boundary, are completely reflected. The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal reflection) determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and cladding materials. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding, and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber, often reported as a numerical aperture. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. However, this high numerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber(as shown in fig(3)).

Fig (3) Graded index multi -mode optical fiber: - In graded-index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis and the cladding. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather than reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lowerindex periphery of the core, rather than the high-index center. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis (as shown in fig (4)).

Fig (4)

Principle of operation
An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (non conducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber

Index of refraction
The index of refraction is a way of measuring the speed of light in a material. Light travels fastest in a vacuum, such as outer space. The actual speed of light in a vacuum is about 300,000 kilometers (186 thousand miles) per second. Index of refraction is calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum by the speed of light in some other medium. The index of refraction of a vacuum is therefore 1, by definition. The typical value for the cladding of an optical fiber is 1.46. The core value is typically 1.48. The larger the index of refraction, the slower light travels in that medium. From this information, a good rule of thumb is that signal using optical fiber for communication will travel at around 200 million meters per second. Or to put it another way, to travel 1000 kilometers in fiber, the signal will take 5 milliseconds to propagate. Thus a phone call carried by fiber between Sydney and New York, a 12000 kilometer distance, means that there is an absolute minimum delay of 60 milliseconds (or around 1/16th of a second) between when one caller speaks to when the other hears. (Of course the fiber in this case will probably travel a longer route, and there will be additional delays due to communication equipment switching and the process of encoding and decoding the voice onto the fiber).

Total internal reflection

When light traveling in a dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary), the light will be completely reflected. This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core. Light travels along the fiber bouncing back and forth off of the boundary. Because the light must strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle, only light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel down the fiber without leaking out. This range of angles is called the acceptance cone of the fiber. The size of this acceptance cone is a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core and cladding.In simpler terms, there is a maximum angle from the fiber axis at which light may enter the fiber so that it will propagate, or travel, in the core of the fiber. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. Fiber with a

larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA. Single-mode fiber has a small NA.The behavior of waves in the step index optical fiber, graded index optical fiber and single mode optical fiber are shown in fig (5).

Fig (5)

Application of optical fiber

Optical fiber communication Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Additionally, the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by NTT, although 10 or 40 Gb/s is typical in deployed systems. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the perchannel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). The current laboratory fiber optic data rate record, held by Bell Labs in Villarceaux, France, is multiplexing 155 channels, each carrying 100 Gb/s over a 7000 km fiber. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation have also managed 69.1 Tb/s over a single 240 km fibre (multiplexing 432 channels, equating to 171 Gb/s per channel). Bell Labs also broke a 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier (15.5 Tb/s over a single 7000 km fiber). For short distance applications, such as creating a network within an office building, fiber-optic cabling can be used to save space in cable ducts. This is because a single fiber can often carry much more data than many electrical cables, such as 4 pair Cat-5 Ethernet cabling. Fiber is also immune to electrical interference; there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables and no pickup of environmental noise. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment located in high

voltage environments such as power generation facilities, or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes. They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present, without danger of ignition. Wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections, and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. Fiber optic sensors Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. In some applications, the sensor is itself an optical fiber. In other cases, fiber is used to connect a non-fiber optic sensor to a measurement system. Depending on the application, fiber may be used because of its small size, or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location, or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor, or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor. Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the quantity to be measured modulates the intensity, phase, polarization, wavelength or transit time of light in the fiber. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest, since only a simple source and detector are required. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can, if required, provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter. Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable, normally a multi-mode one, to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor, or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter. A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is their ability to reach places which are otherwise inaccessible. An example is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a radiation pyrometer located outside the engine. Extrinsic sensors can also be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature of electrical transformers, where the extreme electromagnetic fields present make other measurement techniques impossible. Extrinsic sensors are used to measure vibration, rotation, displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, and twisting.

Optical fiber communication

In recent years it has become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission. They span the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for many network systems. Other system users include cable television services, university campuses, office buildings, industrial plants, and electric utility companies. A fiber-optic system is similar to the copper wire system that fiber-optics is replacing.

The difference is that fiber-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines. Looking at the components in a fiber-optic chain will give a better understanding of how the system works in conjunction with wire based systems. At one end of the system is a transmitter. This is the place of origin for information coming on to fiber-optic lines. The transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information coming from copper wire. It then processes and translates that information into equivalently coded light pulses. A light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection-laser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the light pulses. Using a lens, the light pulses are funneled into the fiber-optic medium where they travel down the cable. The light (near infrared) is most often 850nm for shorter distances and 1,300nm for longer distances on Multi-mode fiber and 1300nm for single-mode fiber and 1,500nm is used for longer distances. Think of a fiber cable in terms of very long cardboard roll (from the inside roll of paper towel) that is coated with a mirror on the inside. If you shine a flashlight in one end you can see light come out at the far end - even if it's been bent around a corner. Light pulses move easily down the fiber-optic line because of a principle known as total internal reflection. "This principle of total internal reflection states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value, light cannot get out of the glass; instead, the light bounces back in. When this principle is applied to the construction of the fiber-optic strand, it is possible to transmit information down fiber lines in the form of light pulses. The core must a very clear and pure material for the light or in most cases near infrared light (850nm, 1300nm and 1500nm). The core can be Plastic (used for very short distances) but most are made from glass. Glass optical fibers are almost always made from pure silica, but some other materials, such as fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate, and chalcogenide glasses, are used for longer-wavelength infrared applications. There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used: single mode, multimode and plastic optical fiber (POF).Transparent glass or plastic fibers which allow light to be guided from one end to the other with minimal loss(as shown in fig (8)).

Fig (6) Fiber optic cable functions as a "light guide," guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable through to the other end. The light source can either be a light-emitting diode (LED)) or a lasers. The light source is pulsed on and off, and a light-sensitive

receiver on the other end of the cable converts the pulses back into the digital ones and zeros of the original signal(as shown in fig (9)).

Fig (7) Even laser light shining through a fiber optic cable is subject to loss of strength, primarily through dispersion and scattering of the light, within the cable itself. The faster the laser fluctuates, the greater the risk of dispersion. Light strengtheners, called repeaters, may be necessary to refresh the signal in certain applications. While fiber optic cable itself has become cheaper over time - a equivalent length of copper cable cost less per foot but not in capacity. Fiber optic cable connectors and the equipment needed to install them are still more expensive than their copper counterparts.

Plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH)

The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fiber optic and microwave radio systems. The term plesiochronous is derived from Greek plesio, meaning near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different parts of the

network are nearly, but not quite perfectly, synchronized.PDH is typically being replaced by Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) or Synchronous optical networking (SONET) equipment in most telecommunications networks.PDH allows transmission of data streams that are nominally running at the same rate, but allowing some variation on the speed around a nominal rate. By analogy, any two watches are nominally running at the same rate, clocking up 60 seconds every minute. However, there is no link between watches to guarantee they run at exactly the same rate, and it is highly likely that one is running slightly faster than the other. The development of digital transmission systems started in the early 70s, and was based on the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) method. In the early 80's digital systems became more and more complex, yet there was huge demand for some features that were not supported by the existing systems. The demand was mainly to high order multiplexing through a hierarchy of increasing bit rates up to 140 Mbps or 565 Mbps in Europe. The problem was the high cost of bandwidth and digital devices. The solution that was created then, was a multiplexing technique, allowed for the combining of slightly non synchronous rates, referred to as plesiochronous, which lead to the term plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH).

Weaknesses of PDH were:

No world standard on digital format (three incompatible regional standards - European, North American and Japanese). No world standard for optical interfaces. Networking is impossible at the optical level. Rigid asynchronous multiplexing structure.
Limited management capability.

Implementation of PDH
The basic data transfer rate is a data stream of 2048 Kbit/s. For speech transmission, this is broken down into thirty 64 Kbit/s channels plus two 64 Kbit/s channels used for signaling and synchronization. Alternatively, the entire bandwidth may be used for non-speech purposes, for example, data transmission. The data rate is controlled by a clock in the equipment generating the data. The rate is allowed to vary by 50 ppm of 2.048 Mbit/s. This means that different data streams can be (probably are) running at slightly different rates to one another. In order to move multiple data streams from one place to another, they are multiplexed in groups of four. This is done by taking 1 bit from stream #1, followed by 1 bit from stream #2, then #3, then #4. The transmitting multiplexer also adds additional bits in order to allow the far end receiving multiplexer to decode which bits

belong to which data stream, and so correctly reconstitute the original data streams. These additional bits are called "justification" or "stuffing" bits. Because each of the four data streams is not necessarily running at the same rate, some compensation has to be introduced. The transmitting multiplexer combines the four data streams assuming that they are running at their maximum allowed rate. This means that occasionally, (unless the 2 Mbit/s really is running at the maximum rate) the multiplexer will look for the next bit but it will not have arrived. In this case, the multiplexer signals to the receiving multiplexer that a bit is "missing". This allows the receiving multiplexer to correctly reconstruct the original data for each of the four 2 Mbit/s data streams, and at the correct, different, plesiochronous rates. The resulting data stream from the above process runs at 8,448 Kbit/s (about 8 Mbit/s). Similar techniques are used to combine four 8 Mbit/s together, plus bit stuffing, giving 34 Mbit/s. Four 34 Mbit/s gives 140. Four 140 gives 565. 565 Mbit/s is the rate typically used to transmit data over a fiber optic system for long distance transport. Recently, telecommunications companies have been replacing their PDH equipment with SDH equipment capable of much higher transmission rates. 2.048 Mbit/s 8.448 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s Multiplex levels

Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is an international standard for high speed telecommunication over optical/electrical networks which can transport digital signals in variable capacities. It is a synchronous system which intends to provide a more flexible, yet simple network infrastructure.

SONET was developed in the United States through ANSI T1X1.5 committee. ANSI work commenced in 1985 with the CCITT (now ITU) initiating a standardization effort in 1986. The US wanted a data rate close to 50Mbps. But the Europeans wanted the data rate to be around 150 Mbps. A compromise was reached and the US data rates were made subset of ITU specification, known formally as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). SONET/SDH networks are configured as linear networks, where SONET/SDH nodes knows as Add Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) are hooked together in a line as shown in figure-1. There may be two or four fibers between the two consecutive ADMs with one set serving as protection or back up. Add/drop multiplexers (ADMs) are places where traffic enters and leaves(as shown In fig (10)). The traffic can be at various levels in the SONET/ SDH hierarchy (see Table-1). We will learn more about ADMs later.

Fig (8) Also SONET network elements can receive signals from a variety of facilities such as DS1, DS3, ATM, Internet, and LAN/MAN/WAN. They can also receive signals from a variety of network topologies. We will study how all this is done in subsequent sections. In addition SDH signals may also be connected with a SONET and vice versa. In this case, circuitry translates specific SDH information into its SONET equivalent, and vice versa. SONET/SDH Rates: The SONET frame in its electrical nature is called Synchronous Transport Signal-level N (STS-N). The SDH equivalent is called Synchronous Transport Module level N (STM-N). After conversion into optical pulses it is known as Optical Carrier level N. The line rates for different levels of SONET and SDH signals are shown in Table-1 below.

signal Designation SONET SDH

Line Rate (Mbp Optical s)

STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 STM-0 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-18 OC-192 51.85 155.52 622.08 2488.32 9953.28 Table-1:

You need not worry about the different levels of SONET /SDH at this stage. I had given detailed explanation of these levels later. I feel, to understand SDH easily, it is better to have knowledge of SONET initially. This is the reason I devoted major portion of this article to SONET. Except in terms of terminology there are no major differences between the two. Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Lower rates can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber wire without synchronization problems. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253-CORE. Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other transmission systems (e.g., asynchronous fiber optic systems or digital radio systems) are found in Telcordia GR-499-CORE.

SONET and SDH, which is basically the same, were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications (e.g., T1, T3) from a variety of different sources. The primary difficulty in doing this prior to SONET/SDH was that the synchronization sources of these different circuits were different. This meant each circuit was actually operating at a slightly different rate and with different phase. SONET/SDH allowed for the simultaneous transport of many different circuits of differing origin within one single framing protocol. In a sense, then, SONET/SDH is not itself a communications protocol per se, but a transport protocol. Due to SONET/SDH's essential protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames. It quickly evolved mapping structures and concatenated payload containers to transport ATM connections. In other words, for ATM (and eventually other protocols such as TCP/IP and Ethernet), the internal complex structure previously used to transport circuit-oriented connections is removed and replaced with a large and concatenated frame (such as STS-3c) into which ATM frames, IP packets, or Ethernet are placed. Both SDH and SONET are widely used today. SONET in the U.S. and Canada and SDH in the rest of the world. Although the SONET standards were developed before SDH, their relative penetrations in the worldwide market dictate that SONET is considered the variation. The two protocols are standardized according to the following:

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standard was originally defined by the ETSI or European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) standard as defined by GR-253-CORE from Telcordia and T1.105 from American National Standards Institute

We can use SDH when:

When networks need to increase capacity, SDH simply acts as a means of increasing transmission capacity. When networks need to improve flexibility, to provide services quickly or to respond to new change more rapidly. when networks need to improve survivability for important user services. When networks need to reduce operation costs, which are becoming a heavy burden.

Structure of SONET/SDH signals

SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or functions. This can cause confusion and exaggerate their differences. With a few exceptions, SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET. The protocol is an extremely heavily multiplexed structure, with the header interleaved between the data in a complex way. This is intended to permit the encapsulated data to have its own frame rate and to be able to float around relative to the SDH/SONET frame structure and rate. This interleaving permits a very low latency for the encapsulated data. Data passing through equipment can be delayed by at most 32 microseconds, compared to a frame rate of 125 microseconds and many competing protocols buffer the data for at least one frame or packet before sending it on. Extra padding is allowed for the multiplexed data to move within the overall framing because it being on a different clock than the frame rate. The decision to allow this at most of the levels of the multiplexing structure makes the protocol complex, but gives high all-around performance.

Difference from PDH

Synchronous networking differs from Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) in that the exact rates that are used to transport the data are tightly synchronized across the entire network, using atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows entire intercountry networks to operate synchronously, greatly reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the network. Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards, such as the PDH standard, or used directly to support either Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or so-called packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves, but rather as generic and all-purpose transport containers for moving

both voice and data. The basic format of an SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its virtual container (VC) because it is bandwidth-flexible.

The basic unit of transmission

The basic unit of framing in SDH is a STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module level 1), which operates at 155.52 Mbps. SONET refers to this basic unit as an STS-3c (synchronous transport signal - 3, concatenated), but its high-level functionality, frame size, and bit-rate are the same as STM-1. SONET offers an additional basic unit of transmission, the STS-1 (synchronous transport signal - 1), operating at 51.84 Mbps - exactly one third of an STM-1/STS-3c. That is, in SONET the associated OC-3 signal will be composed of three STS-1s (or, more recently in packet transport, the OC-3 signal will carry a single concatenated STS-3c.) Some manufacturers also support the SDH equivalent: STM-0.

In packet-oriented data transmission such as Ethernet, a packet frame usually consists of a header and a payload. The header is transmitted first, followed by the payload (and possibly a trailer, such as a CRC). In synchronous optical networking, this is modified slightly. The header is termed the overhead and instead of being transmitted before the payload, is interleaved with it during transmission. Part of the overhead is transmitted, then part of the payload, then the next part of the overhead, then the next part of the payload, until the entire frame has been transmitted. In the case of an STS-1, the frame is 810 octets in size while the STM-1/STS-3c frame is 2430 octets in size. For STS-1, the frame is transmitted as 3 octets of overhead, followed by 87 octets of payload. This is repeated nine times over until 810 octets have been transmitted, taking 125 microseconds. In the case of an STS-3c/STM-1 which operates three times faster than STS-1, 9 octets of overhead are transmitted, followed by 261 octets of payload. This is also repeated nine times over until 2,430 octets have been transmitted, also taking 125 microseconds. For both SONET and SDH, this is normally represented by the frame being displayed graphically as a block: of 90 columns and 9 rows for STS-1; and 270 columns and 9 rows for STM1/STS-3c. This representation aligns all the overhead columns, so the overhead appears as a contiguous block, as does the payload. The internal structure of the overhead and payload within the frame differs slightly between SONET and SDH, and different terms are used in the standards to describe these structures. Their standards are extremely similar in implementation making it easy to interoperate between SDH and SONET at particular bandwidths. In practice, the terms STS-1 and OC-1 are sometimes used interchangeably, though the OC-N format refers to the signal in its optical form. It is therefore incorrect to say that an OC-3 contains 3 OC-1s: an OC-3 can be said to contain 3 STS-1s.

SDH frame

Fig (9) A STM-1 Frame. The first 9 columns contain the overhead and the pointers. For the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns and 9 rows but, in practice, the protocol does not transmit the bytes in this order.

Fig (10) For the sake of simplicity, the frame is shown as a rectangular structure of 270 columns and 9 rows. The first 3 rows and 9 columns contain regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the last 5 rows and 9 columns contain multiplex section overhead (MSOH). The 4th row from the top contains pointers
The STM-1 (synchronous transport module level - 1) frame is the basic transmission format for SDH or the fundamental frame or the first level of the synchronous digital hierarchy. The STM-1 frame is transmitted in exactly 125 microseconds, therefore there are 8000 frames per second on a fiber-optic circuit designated OC-3 (Optical Carrier-3). The STM-1 frame consists of overhead and pointers plus information payload. The first 9 columns of each frame make up the Section Overhead and Administrative Unit Pointers, and the last 261 columns make up the Information Payload. The pointers (H1, H2, H3 bytes) identify administrative units (AU) within the information payload.

Carried within the information payload, which has its own frame structure of 9 rows and 261 columns, are administrative units identified within the information payload by pointers. Within the administrative unit is one or more virtual containers (VC). VCs contain path overhead and VC payload. The first column is for path overhead; its followed by the payload container, which can itself carry other containers. Administrative units can have any phase alignment within the STM frame, and this alignment is indicated by the pointer in row four, The section overhead of a STM-1 signal (SOH) is divided into two parts: the regenerator section overhead (RSOH) and the multiplex section overhead (MSOH). The overheads contain information from the system itself, which is used for a wide range of management functions, such as monitoring transmission quality, detecting failures, managing alarms, data communication channels, service channels, etc.

The STM frame is continuous and is transmitted in a serial fashion, byte-by-byte, rowby-row. STM1 frame contains

1 octet = 8 bit Total content : 9 x 270 octets = 2430 octets overhead : 8 rows x 9 octets pointers : 1 row x 9 octets payload : 9 rows x 261 octets Period : 125 sec

Bitrate : 155.520 Mbps (2430 octets x 8 bits x 8000 frame/s )or 270*9*64Kbps : 155.52Mbps Actual payload capacity : 150.336 Mbps (2349 x 8 bits x 8000 frame/s)
The transmission of the frame is done row by row, from the left to right and top to bottom.

Transport overhead
The transport overhead is used for signaling and measuring transmission error rates, and is composed as follows:

Section overhead - called RSOH (regenerator section overhead) in SDH terminology: 27 octets containing information about the frame structure required by the terminal equipment.

Line overhead - called MSOH (multiplex section overhead) in SDH: 45 octets containing information about alarms, maintenance and error correction as may be required within the network. Pointer It points to the location of the J1 byte in the payload.

Path virtual overhead Data transmitted from end to end is referred to as path data. It is composed of two components:

Payload overhead (POH): 9 octets used for end to end signaling and error measurement. Payload: user data (774 bytes for STM-0/STS-1, or 2340 octets for STM-1/STS-3c)

For STS-1, the payload is referred to as the synchronous payload envelope (SPE), which in turn has 18 stuffing bytes, leading to the STS-1 payload capacity of 756 bytes.[1] The STS-1 payload is designed to carry a full PDH DS3 frame. When the DS3 enters a SONET network, path overhead is added, and that SONET network element (NE) is said to be a path generator and terminator. The SONET NE is said to be line terminating if it processes the line overhead. Note that wherever the line or path is terminated, the section is terminated also. SONET regenerators terminate the section but not the paths or line. An STS-1 payload can also be subdivided into 7 VTGs (virtual tributary groups). Each VTG can then be subdivided into 4 VT1.5 signals, each of which can carry a PDH DS1 signal. A VTG may instead be subdivided into 3 VT2 signals, each of which can carry a PDH E1 signal. The SDH equivalent of a VTG is a TUG2; VT1.5 is equivalent to VC11, and VT2 is equivalent to VC12. Three STS-1 signals may be multiplexed by time-division multiplexing to form the next level of the SONET hierarchy, the OC-3 (STS-3), running at 155.52 Mbps. The multiplexing is performed by interleaving the bytes of the three STS-1 frames to form the STS-3 frame, containing 2,430 bytes and transmitted in 125 microseconds.Higher speed circuits are formed by successively aggregating multiples of slower circuits, their speed always being immediately apparent from their designation. For example, four STS-3 or AU4 signals can be aggregated to form a 622.08 Mbps signal designated as OC-12 or STM-4.The highest rate that is commonly deployed is the OC-192 or STM64 circuit, which operates at rate of just under 10 Gbps. Speeds beyond 10 Gbps are technically viable and are under evaluation. [Few vendors are offering STM-256 rates now, with speeds of nearly 40Gbps]. Where fiber exhaustion is a concern, multiple SONET signals can be transported over multiple wavelengths over a single fiber pair by means of wavelength-division multiplexing, including dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM). DWDM circuits are the basis for all modern transatlantic cable systems and other long-haul circuits.

Advantages of SDH

First world standard in digital format. First optical Interfaces. Transversal compatibility reduces networking cost. Multivendor environment drives price Flexible synchronous multiplexing structure. Easy and cost-efficient traffic add-and-drop and cross connect capability. Reduced number of back-to-back interfaces improves network reliability and serviceability. Powerful management capability. New network architecture. Highly flexible and survivable self healing rings available.


Backward and forward compatibility: Backward compatibility to existing PDH Forward compatibility to future B-ISDN, etc

Layered model of SDH

The layers of SDH according to the OSI model:

Fig (11)

SDH elements
The most common SDH elements are :

The terminal multiplexer is used to multiplex local tributaries (low rate) to the stm-N (high rate) aggregate(as shown in fig(11)). The terminal is used in the chain topology as an end element.

Fig (12) The regenerator is used to regenerate the (high rate) stm-N in case that the distance between two sites is longer than the transmitter can carry. The Add and Drop Multiplexer (ADM) passes the (high rate) stm-N through from his one side to the other and has the ability to drop or add any (low rate) tributary (as shown in fig (12)). The ADM used in all topologies.

Fig (13) The synchronous digital cross connect receives several (high rate) stm-N and switches any of their (low rate) tributaries between them. It is used to connect between several topologies.

Topologies of SDH
The linear bus (chain) topology used when there is no need for protection and the demography of the sites is linear(as shown in fig (13)).

Fig (14) The ring topology is the most common and known of the sdh topologies it allows great network flexibility and protection. The protected ring topologies are:-In fig (14) we can see Dual Unidirectional Ring . The normal data flow is according to ring A (red). Ring B (blue) carries unprotected data which is lost in case of breakdown or it carries no data at all.

Fig (15) In case of breakdown rings A & B become one ring without the broken segment, as shown in fig(15).

Fig (16)

The Bi-directional Ring allows data flow in both directions. For example if data from one of the sites has to reach a site which is next to the left of the origin site it will flow to the left instead of doing a whole cycle to the right as shown in fig(16).

Fig(17) In case of breakdown some of the data is lost and the important data is switched. For example if data from a site should flow to its destination through the broken segment, it will be switched to the other side instead the broken segment, as shown in fig (17).

Fig (18) The mesh topology allows even the most paranoid network manager to sleep well at nights Because of the flexibility and redundancy that it gives

Fig (19) The Star topology is used for connecting far and less important sites to the network

Fig (20)

Usage of SDH elements in SDH topologies

The Terminal multiplexer can be used to connect two sites in a high rate connection. The Add and Drop Multiplexer (ADM) is used to build the chain topologies in the fig (12). At the ends of the chain usually a Terminal Multiplexer is connected. The Add and Drop Multiplexer (ADM) is used to build the ring topology. At each site we have the ability to add & drop certain tributaries, as shown in fig(18).

Fig (21)

Next-generation SONET/SDH SONET/SDH development was originally driven by the need to transport multiple PDH signals like DS1, E1, DS3 and E3 along with other groups of multiplexed 64 kbps pulse-code modulated voice traffic. The ability to transport ATM traffic was another early application. In order to support large ATM bandwidths, the technique of concatenation was developed, whereby smaller multiplexing containers (eg, STS-1) are inversely multiplexed to build up a larger container (eg, STS-3c) to support large data-oriented pipes. One problem with traditional concatenation, however, is inflexibility. Depending on the data and voice traffic mix that must be carried, there can be a large amount of unused bandwidth left over, due to the fixed sizes of concatenated containers. For example, fitting a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet connection inside a 155 Mbps STS-3c container leads to considerable waste. More important is the need for all intermediate NEs to support the newly introduced concatenation sizes. This problem was later overcome with the introduction of Virtual Concatenation. Virtual concatenation (VCAT) allows for a more arbitrary assembly of lower order multiplexing containers, building larger containers of fairly arbitrary size (e.g., 100 Mbit/s) without the need for intermediate NEs to support this particular form of concatenation. Virtual Concatenation increasingly leverages X.86 or Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) protocols in order to map payloads of arbitrary bandwidth into the virtually concatenated container. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) allows for dynamically changing the bandwidth via dynamic virtual concatenation, multiplexing containers based on the short-term bandwidth needs in the network.The set of next generation SONET/SDH protocols to enable Ethernet transport is referred to as Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EoS).

Wireless communication
Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of enhanced electrical conductors or "wires. The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or long (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear, the term is often shortened to "wireless". Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. The term "wireless" has become a generic and all-encompassing word used to describe communications in which electromagnetic waves or RF (rather than some form of wire) carry a

signal over part or the entire communication path. Common examples of wireless equipment in use today include:

Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities. Consumer Two Way Radio including FRS (Family Radio Service), GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios. The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio). Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios.

Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business. Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth. Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless. Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones. Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels. Wireless gaming: new gaming consoles allow players to interact and play in the same game regardless of whether they are playing on different consoles. Players can chat, send text messages as well as record sound and send it to their friends. Controllers also use wireless technology. They do not have any cords but they can send the information from what is being pressed on the controller to the main console which then processes this information and makes it happen in the game. All of these steps are completed in milliseconds.

Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi devices) is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:

To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling, To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, To link portable or temporary workstations, To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or To remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Applications of wireless technology

Security systems: - Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings.

Television remote control: - Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote control units. Now radio waves are also used. Cellular telephone (phones and modems): - These instruments use radio waves to enable the operator to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments. Wi-Fi: - Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi hot spots have been popular over the past few years. Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods. Wireless energy transfer: - Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires. Computer Interface Devices: - Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter, many manufactures of computer peripherals turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. Originally these units used bulky, highly limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse, however more recent generations have used small, high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals. Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts, however the gap is decreasing. Initial concerns about the security of wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the maturation of the technology.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support mail. Most traditional communications media, such as telephone and television services, are reshaped or redefined using the technologies of the Internet, giving rise to services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper publishing has been reshaped into Web sites, blogging, and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking sites. The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s when the United States funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault-tolerant and distributed computer networks. This research and a period of civilian funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation spawned worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies and led to the commercialization of an international network in the mid 1990s, and resulted in the following popularization of countless applications in virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching

definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a nonprofit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Internet vs. Web The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. Internet technology The complex communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[9] The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications, each called a Request for Comments (RFC), freely available on the IETF web site. The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies. The Internet Standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122, RFC 1123). The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the Application Layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications, e.g., a web browser program. Below this top layer, the Transport Layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., clientserver model) with appropriate data exchange methods. Underlying these layers are the core networking technologies, consisting of two layers. The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and allows them to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks. Lastly, at the bottom of the architecture, is a software layer, the Link Layer, that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link, such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. The model, also known as TCP/IP, is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. Other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, but they are not compatible in the details of description, nor implementation, but many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking.

The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion which is estimated to enter its final stage in approximately 2011. A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mid 1990s which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. IPv6 is currently in commercial deployment phase around the world and Internet address registries (RIRs) have begun to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion. IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. It essentially establishes a "parallel" version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for every networking device that needs to communicate on the IPv6 Internet. Most modern computer operating systems are already converted to operate with both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructures, however, are still lagging in this development. Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Data transfer over internet File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passedusually fully encryptedacross the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. Streaming media refers to the act that many existing radio and television broadcasters promote Internet "feeds" of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where usually audiomaterial is downloaded and played back on a

computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide. Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. Social impact of internet The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. Social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace have created a new form of socialization and interaction. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to their personal pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find a large circle of existing acquaintances, especially if a site allows users to represent themselves by their given names, and to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like exist to allow wider announcement of groups which may exist mainly for face-to-face meetings, but which may have a variety of minor interactions over their group's site. In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations.

General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), as the name implies it is a packet based data bearer service. GPRS applies a packet radio principle to transfer user data packets between GSM mobile stations and external packet data network. Data is split into packets, transmitted separately and then reassembled at the receiving end. Uses the same network infrastructure as GSM. Data speed ranges from 14.4Kbps (using one radio timeslot) to 115Kbps and provides continuous connection. However average data speed is up to 56Kbps. Security perspective of GPRS
Using mobile data raises a number of security issues, not just with the technology, but also with the user practices. Accessing company data from a mobile device encourages different work practices. These have their own inherent risks such as being overlooked while working on a train. Having a laptop or phone stolen after it has been logged onto your secure network will give the thieves access to your data until they are kicked off, or the system times out! Though inconvenient for users having a short time out on your GPRS access will help with this. Overlooking - Using mobile devices in public places will put you at risk of this always consider who may be watching. It is possible to purchase laptop computers which have a particularly narrow viewing angle preventing others from seeing the screen. Loss of access device - Using a flashy phone or PDA in public, especially with a always-on link to your company network, invites theft. If you have Bluetooth you can keep your phone/PDA locked away out of site, and communicate through a Bluetooth headset. Loss of device with unsecured copy of data - Make sure all data stored on your laptop or PDA is encrypted with password protection - native windows 9x security is not good enough - at least use Windows 2000/XP with NTFS - this provides security of the disc file system such that the disc is unreadable without your password (though not impossible to crack). An alternative is not to store any sensitive data on your hard disk - use a secure 'Webmail' service to view emails using your browser and do not store them locally. Hacking from the Internet - Your GPRS network supplier will provide a network based firewall to help prevent this, but it cannot be totally secure as it is difficult to differentiate between legitimate users and would-be malicious parties. - Always run a personal firewall, and virus scanner. Company networks should be accessed using encryption such as SSL or VPN for Internet based data and WTLS for WAP based data. Running of Trojan software - Letting malicious software (albeit unknowingly) onto your machine from either a web site or Email attachment will provide someone access

to your data - always run a Virus scanner and personal firewall (I recommend Zone Alarm and use it on all my machines as it provides a good compromise between ease of use and strong security) - to help prevent this happening. There are two key areas of concern & nbsp The security of the mobile device and laptop.

The security of the source data, as this will have to travel over the Internet unless you have a direct connection to the GPRS network.

Device security
Having an 'always-on' Internet connection is a potential security problem. Your GPRS network provider will usually try to help by providing a Firewall between the GPRS network and the Internet, but this must be configured to allow valid services to work, and hence may be exploited by third parties to gain access to your machine. If you are using a PC you should utilise at least a virus scanner and Firewall. Zone alarm is one of the best I have come across, download and try the free version now.

Network security

Your business network will have a firewall protecting it from unauthorized access from other Internet users. GPRS users will require permanent access to your LAN from the Internet, and this raises serious issues as it could potentially open up the Firewall to unauthorized users, as shown in fig (19).

Security of the data - including access usernames and password. Security of the LAN from unauthorized users

Areas where your machine is at risk include:

Accessing web sites with malicious code Downloading 'executable programs' e.g. exe, vbe, com extensions Downloading documents with malicious macros - e.g. .doc, xls. Hacking by other Internet users looking for weaknesses in your machine.

Fig (22)
WAP access WAP access should not be dismissed out of hand because of the overselling of consumer WAP Internet access. New devices such as Mitsubishi's Trium Mondo display WAP data on a large screen -with a very web-like user experience.The problem is still how to get data securely through the company Firewall and into the mobile - the answer here is a new type of firewall which connects on one side to your Exchange or Notes server and on the other with WAP over the Internet. Switch on WTLS (the WAP standard encryption) on the Internet side and you will have a end-to-end secure solution to mobile Email. Have a look at Peramon for this type of solution,

Using a web-based Service Provider fig (23) Another solution is to store your emails on a WEB based server which independently provides WEB and WAP access. A basic solution comprises redirecting company emails to a Pop (Internet) Email account - this is relatively insecure but adequate for many businesses. Users Email addresses do not need to change and they can gain access from anywhere on the Internet using POP, Webmail or WAP, as shown in fig(21). Choose an ISP carefully to maintain a quality service.

Fig 24

Intranet is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. An intranet uses network technologies as a tool to facilitate communication between people or workgroups to improve the data sharing capability and overall knowledge base of an organization's employees.
Intranets utilize standard network hardware and software technologies like Ethernet, Wi-Fi, TCP/IP, Web browsers and Web servers. An organization's intranet typically includes Internet access but is firewalled so that its computers cannot be reached directly from the outside. A common extension to intranets, called extranets, opens this firewall to provide controlled access to outsiders. Many schools and non-profit groups have deployed them, but an intranet is still seen primarily as a corporate productivity tool. A simple intranet consists of an internal email system and perhaps a message board service. More sophisticated intranets include Web sites and databases containing company news, forms, and personnel information. Besides email and groupware applications, an intranet generally incorporates internal Web sites, documents, and/or databases. The business value of intranet solutions is generally accepted in larger corporations, but their worth has proven very difficult to quantify in terms of time saved or return on investment. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure. It may host multiple

private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INTRANET An intranet is built from the same concepts and technologies used for the Internet, such as clientserver computing and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). Any of the well known Internet protocols may be found in an intranet, such as HTTP (web services), SMTP (e-mail), and FTP (file transfer). Internet technologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hosting corporate data. An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization. The first intranet websites and home pages began to appear in organizations in 1990-1991. Although not officially noted, the term intranet first became common-place among early adopters, such as universities and technology corporations, in 1992.Intranets are also contrasted with extranets. While intranets are generally restricted to employees of the organization, extranets may also be accessed by customers, suppliers, or other approved parties.[1] Extranets extend a private network onto the Internet with special provisions for access, authorization, and authentication (AAA protocol).Intranets may provide a gateway to the Internet by means of a network gateway with a firewall, shielding the intranet from unauthorized external access. The gateway often also implements user authentication, encryption of messages, and often virtual private network (VPN) connectivity for off-site employees to access company information, computing resources and internal communications. BENEFITS OF INTRANET

Workforce productivity: Intranets can also help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities. With the help of a web browser interface, users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available, anytime and - subject to security provisions - from anywhere within the company workstations, increasing employees' ability to perform their jobs faster, more accurately, and with confidence that they have the right information. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users.

Time: Intranets allow organizations to distribute information to employees on an asneeded basis; Employees may link to relevant information at their convenience, rather than being distracted indiscriminately by electronic mail.

Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization, vertically and horizontally. From a communications standpoint, intranets are useful to communicate strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve, who is driving the initiative, results achieved to date, and who to speak to for more information. By providing this information on the intranet, staff has the opportunity to keep

up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization. Some examples of communication would be chat, email, and or blogs. A great real world example of where an intranet helped a company communicate is when Nestle had a number of food processing plants in Scandinavia. Their central support system had to deal with a number of queries every day (McGovern, Gerry). When Nestle decided to invest in an intranet, they quickly realized the savings. McGovern says the savings from the reduction in query calls was substantially greater than the investment in the intranet.

Web publishing allows cumbersome corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies. Examples include: employee manuals, benefits documents, company policies, business standards, newsfeeds, and even training, can be accessed using common Internet standards (Acrobat files, Flash files, CGI applications). Because each business unit can update the online copy of a document, the most recent version is always available to employees using the intranet.

Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the internetworked enterprise.

Cost-effective: Users can view information and data via web-browser rather than maintaining physical documents such as procedure manuals, internal phone list and requisition forms. This can potentially save the business money on printing, duplicating documents, and the environment as well as document maintenance overhead. "PeopleSoft, a large software company, has derived significant cost savings by shifting HR processes to the intranet". Gerry McGovern goes on to say the manual cost of enrolling in benefits was found to be USD109.48 per enrollment. "Shifting this process to the intranet reduced the cost per enrollment to $21.79; a saving of 80 percent". PeopleSoft also saved some money when they received requests for mailing address change. "For an individual to request a change to their mailing address, the manual cost was USD17.77. The intranet reduced this cost to USD4.87, a saving of 73 percent". PeopleSoft was just one of the many companies that saved money by using an intranet. Another company that saved a lot of money on expense reports was Cisco. "In 1996, Cisco processed 54,000 reports and the amount of dollars processed was USD19 million".

Promote common corporate culture: Every user is viewing the same information within the Intranet. Enhance Collaboration: With information easily accessible by all authorized users, teamwork is enabled. Cross-platform Capability: Standards-compliant web browsers are available for Windows, Mac, and UNIX.

Built for One Audience: Many companies dictate computer specifications. Which, in turn, may allow Intranet developers to write applications that only have to work on one browser (no cross-browser compatibility issues)?

Knowledge of your Audience: Being able to specifically address your "viewer" is a great advantage. Since Intranets are user specific (requiring database/network authentication prior to access), you know exactly who you are interfacing with. So, you can personalize your Intranet based on role (job title, department) or individual ("Congratulations Jane, on your 3rd year with our company!").

Immediate Updates: When dealing with the public in any capacity, laws/specifications/parameters can change. With an Intranet and providing your audience with "live" changes, they are never out of date, which can limit a company's liability.

Global Systems for Mobile Communication (GSM) is the main technology used by the international digital wireless systems and cell phones. Global Systems for Mobile Communication (GSM) is the main technology used by the international digital wireless systems and cell phones. GSM timeslots are smaller than TDMA, they hold less data but allow for data rates starting at 300 bits per second. Thus, a call can use as many times slots as necessary up to a limit of 13 kilobits per second. The architecture used by GSM consists of three main components, a mobile station, a base station subsystem, and a network subsystem. It is 2nd Generation (2G) technology. We can compare the communication aspects of GSM and Analog technologies, shown in table (2).

Table (2) Advantages of GSM

GSM technology facilitates with high speed integrated data, voice data, fax, mail.

GSM also make sure that all the communication made between networks are secured and protected from intruders and frauds. GSM actually brought the concept of being Mobile way beyond the limits. GSM supports multiple frequency levels like 900 MHz, 1800 MHz It is possible to receive alarm messages. Alarms are sent within 2-3 seconds. It is also possible to acknowledge the alarms Alarm acknowledgement can be used for escalation procedures This results in shorter response time, improve service level and prevent loss/damage

Disadvantages of GSM

GSM supports voice, fax and circuit data -- but not packet. Relatively older technology GSM has a maximum data speed of 9.6Kbps.

Based on Circuit switching technology means that a separate channel (an amount of network capacity) is reserved for each conversation.


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