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Animal Science
Submitted By : Mubeen Iqbal 11-Arid-476

Submitted To: Dr. Moeen Ud Din

PMAS University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi

Microscopic organism, such as a bacterium, virus or parasite (excluding the large ones). Micr
obes are so small that you need to use a microscope and special staining techniques to see them. The word microbe is often more convenient to use than the word microorganism, and it pretty much means the same thing. In many situations, though, microbe refers to just the harmful microorganisms (the ones that cause disease), whereas microorganisms refer to all microscopic life.

Microbe Types
Archaea Viruses Bacteria Fungi Protista
EM1 has a great range of application in agriculture such as soil conditioning that benefits prod uction up to final use of waste residues coming from industrialization . The use of EM Tec hnology is simple and very much adaptable to actual conditions of agricultural production systems .

The following informs of the benefits of EM Technology . 1. Soil Improvement and conditioning 2. Nursery, Transplant and Direct Planting 3. Plant Health and Production 4. Management of Organic waste 5. Effluent Treatment SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND CONDITIONING : EM1 can be used to better the physio-chemical and micro-biological conditions of soil; it also helps in accelerating natural decomposition of organic residues that remains in the field after harves ..

Mode of Use and Considerations 20 to 40L per ha of activated EM1 at 4 to 8 applications per year. For a better and speedy result, the following application and dosage can be applied: Year 1 40L per ha of activated EM1 at 8 applications per year. Year 2 30L per ha of activated EM1 at 6 applications per year. Year 3 and onward 20L per ha of activated of EM1 at 4 applications per year. If irrigation system exists, there should be no cost of application since activated EM1 can be applied through the system at a direct dilution within the holding tank . Benefit : Accelerate natural decomposition of residues left in the field after harvest . Promote the formation of soil aggregates and increase resistance to soil compaction. Stimulate root growth thereby improving absorption capacity of water and nutrients by the plant . Increase the viability and availability of nutrients in the soil . Improve production quality: size, color and peel (skin) resistance etc . Better the structure and porosity of the soil . Maximize the conversion of organic matter into humus . Increase the natural production of humus and favors the production of beneficial organic substance that promotes growth and improves nutrition of the plants due to soluble phosphorus and potassium availability . Increase the population of beneficial microorganisms that helps in suppressing disease causing microorganisms consequently reducing the use of pesticides . Aid in the cleaning of irrigation system .


EM can be used in the first step in the establishment of any crops; that is, from the establishment of nursery to transplantation of young plants or direct seeding . The objective of using EM in sexual or asexual propagation and in transplanting of young plants is to form a protection of the seed material against diseases as they come in contact with the soil or substrate . The use of EM also improves seed germination and the re-growth plant, etc . Mode of Use and Considerations 1. Nursery Wash vegetative material and leave to dry in the shade. Select vegetative material that will be propagated (seeds , sticks , rhizomes, etc.). Prepare a clean container with a solution of water and activated EM at 2% (e.g. 0.5L of activated EM in 25L of water) . Submerge vegetative material in prepared solution and leave to the corresponding time related to the seed size . Do not expose material to direct sunlight . Large seeds : 1 hour .

Medium seeds: 30 minutes . Small seeds: 20 minutes Stakes , rhizomes, etc: 30 minutes Remove material from solution and dry in the shade for 30 minutes . Plant and irrigate with a lot of water . 2. Direct Planting Prepare a clean container with a solution of water and activated EM at 2% (e.g. 0.5L of activated EM in 25L of water ). Apply the solution over the seeds before planting . 3. Transplanting Prepare a clean container with a solution of water and activated EM at 2% (e.g. 0.5L of activated EM in 25L of water). Transplant with substrate: apply the EM solution over the plants within the planting trays 2 to 3 days before planting. Transplant of bare-rooted plants: submerge the young plants in the EM solution for 30 minutes before planting . Benefits: Increase the velocity and the germination percentage of seeds due to the hormonal effect of gibberelic acids . Increase vigor and growth of roots and shoots from germination to the emergence of the plants due to the presence of rhizobacteria that promote vegetative growth. Increase the probability of plant survival due to its increase vigor.

PLANT HEALTH AND PRODUCTION: To improve plant health and production, its necessary to realize a different activation process that consists of the addition of natural products such as molasses, fruit vinegar and or alcohol ( 40% proof ). The activation procedures are similar to the activation of EM1 . The process is as follows : How to make EM5 To prepare a one-liter solution: o Clean non- chlorinated water.600ml (60%) o Molasses100ml (10%) o Fruit vinegar..100ml (10%) o Alcohol 40% proof100ml (10%) o EM1 ...100ml (10%) Dissolve molasses in water in a plastic container that allows a hermetic seal (i.e. sealed from

air entering container ). Combine vinegar, alcohol and EM1 . Shake well to dissolve ingredients until a ho mogeneous solution is formed. Close container well to prevent air entering. Maintain container in a place where temperature ranges between 25 and 40o C over a period of 4 to 7 days to allow for fermentation . At day 2 of the fermentation process , gas is produced . Open container to eliminate excess air when necessary . EM5 is ready to be used as of day 4 through 7 when the pH of the solution is below 4 or when there is a fermented odor and change in color from dark brown to light brown. EM5 should be used during 35 days following the activation process . Store EM5 in a well ventilated area away from children and domestic animals . If the solution has a pungent odor or the pH rises above 4 it means that the solution has become contaminated and must be discarded . ATTENTION: at activating EM5 do not use containers that can be confused with drinking containers . Mode of Use and Considerations: Prepare a solution of 0.1 to 1L of EM5 to every 10L of water . Apply after germination or before pests and diseases start affecting plantation . Apply regularly, preferably in the morning or after the rains . As EM5 is not a pesticide, the method of application and expected results will be different from chemical application . Agro-chemicals are used to resolve problems quickly and are applied at specific intervals . EM5 should be applied regularly after germination and before pests and diseases begin to infest the plants . If this is not realized and pests and diseases become apparent , EM5 should be applied daily until the problem disappears . In annual crops, apply weekly and in perennial crops , apply every 15 days including when there are no pests and disease problems . NOTE: EM5 is used as a preventative measure for disease and pest control. Benefits Accelerate the process of seed germination . Increases the natural resistance of the plants against pests and diseases . Helps reduce the incidents of nematodes and diseases at the root level . Its low cost . Its a natural product that is 100% safe to human, animal and environmental health . MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE: Residues from harvest or from industrial transformation process (oils , flour , skins, fruits, leaves, branches , etc . ) can be transformed into fertile compost called Bokashi in a period of 2 to 3 weeks. The word Bokashi is of Japanese origin and means fermented organic matter . Mode of Use and Consideration 1L of activated EM1 per 1m3 or 1 ton of material. Dilute 1L of activated EM1 in 18L of water .

If its possible , add to the mixture calcium carbonate at a rate of 10kg per m3 or ton to help in retaining nitrogen . Add animal manure ( cattle , goats , chicken or pigs ) up to 40% of the total mixture to be composted . It is best that the organic residues are in small portions to enable the acceleration of the ferm entation process . While mixing the material, apply the activated EM1 solution over the material. Its only necessary to apply activated EM1 once . Form beds of 1.5m high x 3m wide to facilitate the management of materials . For a better fermentation, maintain humidity at 40 % and if possible cover material with a pla stic covering ( 40 % humidity is optimal when material can be squeezed by hand and water does not drip through the fingers ) . Check temperature: when temperature reaches 60o C the materials should be mixed to reduce the temperature ( temperature above 60o C will cause bacteria responsible for decomposition to slowly become inactivated ) . Depending on the size and type of material used , the compost should be ready to use in 2 to 3 weeks ( Bokashi ) . Apply the compost directly in the field at a dosage of 1kg per m2 . Benefits: Increase the fermentation process of organic residues between 2 to 3 weeks . Increase the availability of nutrients present in the organic residues ( principally, nitrogen and phosphorus ) . Accelerate the conversion of organic matter into humus . Enrich organic material with beneficial microorganisms . Reduce cost of transportation of residues destined for the field due to decrease in its volume after composting . This decomposition process is odorless hence eliminating the presence of insects (e.g . house flies ) . Optimize the physical space necessary for the elaboration of organic compost and con sequently reduce the use of machines and the cost of infrastructure necessary. EFFLUENT TREATMENT One of the best tools for the natural treatment of effluent is the use of EM1 . The use of E M1 reduces the need to construct expensive installations and the high maintenance costs in treating effluent . It also reduces labor stress and reestablishes good relations with neighbors as t hey will not be inhaling noxious gasses that are detrimental to their health . Before indicating the dosage and mode of use, it is important to consider the follow factors : EM1 is not compatible with protozoan . Effluent with BOD greater than 2,000mg per L , consult our specialized technical personnel for assistance . EM1 is not compatible with chemical re-agents , principally oxireducers , surfactants and chlorine-based solutions , creoline and silver sulphate . The use of chemical substances should be suspended at least one month before initiating treatment with EM1 .

The treatment of effluent with EM1 should be realized in two phases: Inoculation phase and Maintenance phase . Mode of Use and Considerations: 1. INOCULATION PHASE:

Systems with BOD between 2,000 and 1,000 mg/L, use dosage of 1L activated EM1 for every 500L of total volume of water in lagoons or treatment tanks. Syste ms with BOD below 1,000 mg/L, use dosage of 1L activated EM1 for every 1,000 L of total volume of water in lagoons or treatment tanks. Lagoons and sediment tanks ( aerated or non-aerated ), use the following application: Month 1: 3 applications weekly of the recommended dosage as according to the BOD of the system . If, at finishing the treatment there is no significant result, repeat the dosage for another month . 2. MAINTENANCE PHASE:

Weekly maintenance of the system by application of 1L of activated EM1 for every 1,000L of effluent. After six weeks of maintenance, applications of the system can be trimestrial (every three months) at the above dosage . Maintenance of the system will be necessary always when there are daily discharges in within the systems . Benefits: Efficient reduction of bad or noxious odor within the system (ammonia, sulphuric and methanogenic gases . Rapid digestion of organic matter and consequently reduction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand ( COD ) . Efficient reduction in the concentration of coliforms, e.coli and other water-borne bacteria . Eliminate the construction of expensive treatment systems and high maintenance of treatment effluence . Significantly reduce sediment load . Reduce the necessity of chemical products . Reduce significantly operational cost of the system .