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COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

Name:Lee Chee Kin Class:4 Harmoni Teachers name:Cikgu Azlina

Contents
1.0: Introduction (Computer networks and communication) 2.0: Mobile computing 2.1: Definition 2.2: Specification, services, and frequencies of Mobile Computing 3.0: Internet technology and Services 3.1: VoIP 3.2: BLOG 4.0: Types of network 4.1: PAN 4.2: VPN 4.3: WLAN 4.4: WIMAX 5.0: Conclusion 6.0: References

Introduction
Definition for Computer Network

A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network.

Definition for Communication


Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word "communist", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical to effective communication between parties.

Mobile Computing
Definition: Mobile computing is a form of humancomputer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. The first aspect addresses communication issues in ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats and concrete technologies. The second aspect is on the hardware, e.g., mobile devices or device components. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Specification, services and frequencies of Mobile Computing

iPad 2 Name of Hardware Manufacturer/Developer Model Date/Year Released Operating System iPad 2 Apple Co Wi-fi/Wi-fi and 3G April 2011 iOS 4

Internet Technology and Services


Meaning of VoIP: VoIP which stands for voice over Internet protocol and often pronounced "voyp" is a new technology that will improve the way we communicate. VoIP basically means voice transmitted over a digital network. The Internet, however, isn't strictly necessary for VoIP. What is necessary for VoIP technology is the use of the same protocols that the Internet uses. (A protocol is a set of rules used to allow orderly communication.) Thus, voice over Internet protocol means voice that travels by way of the same protocols used on the Internet. Meaning of BLOG: A blog is a journal (online diary) made available on the Internet/Web by any individual. Most blogs are maintained by people who know nothing about website design or development.

Types of Network

Private Area Network: PAN (Personal Area Network) - A Personal Area Network is typically a
short range communication network among computerized devices such as telephones, fax machines and digital media adapters. While the PAN may extend only a few yards, it can be used to link to other networks such as the Internet. Some don't consider a WPAN to be a separate category

Virtual Private Network: A VPN utilizes public telecommunications networks to conduct private
data communications. Most VPN implementations use the Internet as the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private communications through the Internet. VPN follows a client and server approach. VPN clients authenticate users, encrypt data, and otherwise manage sessions with VPN servers utilizing a technique called tunneling. VPN clients and VPN servers are typically used in these three scenarios: 1. to support remote access to an intranet, 2. to support connections between multiple intranets within the same organization, and 3. to join networks between two organizations, forming an extranet.

Wireless Local Area Netwrok: A wireless LAN (or WLAN, for wireless local area network,
sometimes referred to as LAWN, for local area wireless network) is one in which a mobile user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection. The IEEE 802.11 group of standards specify the technologies for wireless LANs. 802.11 standards use the Ethernet High-bandwidth allocation for wireless will make possible a relatively low-cost wiring of classrooms in the United States. A similar frequency allocation has been made in Europe. Hospitals and businesses are also expected to install wireless LAN systems where existing LANs are not already in place. Using technology from the Symbionics Networks, Ltd., a wireless LAN adapter can be made to fit on a Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association (PCMCIA) card for a laptop or notebook computer.

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access: WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for


Microwave Access) is a wireless industry coalition dedicated to the advancement of IEEE 802.16 standards for broadband wireless access (BWA) networks. WiMAX supports mobile, nomadic and fixed wireless applications. A mobile user, in this context, is someone in transit, such as a commuter on a train. A nomadic user is one that connects on a portable device but does so only while stationary -- for example, connecting to an office network from a hotel room and then again from a coffee shop. Fixed wireless typically refers to wireless connectivity among non-mobiledevices in homes or businesses. According to the WiMAX forum, the group's aim is to promote and certify compatibility and interoperability of devices based on the 802.16 specification, and to develop such devices for the marketplace. WiMAX is expected to provide about 10 megabits per second of upload and download, at a distance of 10 kilometers from a base station. The Forum says that over 455 WiMAX networks have been deployed in over 135 countries. In May of 2008, Sprint and Clearwire announced that they would be combining their WiMAX businesses. Intel, Google, Comcast, Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks combined to invest $3.2 billion in Clearwire. The company has begun deployment of a planned nationwide 4G network in the United States as Clear WiMax wireless broadband services. Comcast and Time Warner Cable have announced that they will resell the service in areas where they have cable coverage.

Conclusion
We can conclude that computer network and communication makes our life easier to communicate with each other and the world using computer

References
http://www.springerlink.com/content/k352871185136267/fulltext.pdf?page=1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_area_network http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_LAN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_area_network http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_private_network