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Chapter 4

Motivation of Individuals
The Nature of Motivation Motivation The set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways The Importance of Motivation Job performance (P) depends upon motivation (M), ability, and environment (E) P=M+A+E Figure 4.1 Motivational Framework

The Motivational Framework How Motivational Processes Occur A need is anything an individual requires or wants A need deficiency leads to need to satisfy the need Goal-directed behaviors result from individuals trying to satisfy their need deficiencies Rewards and punishments are consequences of the goal-directed behavior Historical Perspectives on Motivation The Traditional Approach Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor) assumes that employees are motivated solely by money The Human Relations Approach Assumes employees needs outweigh money and that fostering favorable employee attitudes (the illusion of involvement) results in motivation The Human Resource Approach Assumes people want to make genuine contributions; managers should encourage their participation by providing the proper working environment conditions Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation Need-Based Theories of Motivation Assume that need deficiencies cause behavior The Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow) Assumes that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Basic (or deficiency) needs Physiological Security Belongingness Growth needs Esteem

Figure 4.2

Self-actualization The Hierarchy of Needs

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Describes existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G) needs Assumptions: More than one need may motivate a person at the same time Satisfaction-progression and frustration-regression components imply that a person may not stay at the same level of need in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
The Dual-Structure Theory (Herzberg) Assumes that motivation, as a construct, has two separate dimensions:

Figure 4.3

Motivation factors which affect satisfaction Hygiene factors which determine dissatisfaction

Assumes motivation occurs through job enrichment once hygiene factors are addressed Criticisms:

May be both method and culture bound Fails to account for individual differences Factors (e.g., pay) may affect both dimensions

The Dual-Structure Theory of Motivation

Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation Other Important Needs The Need for Achievement (David McClelland)

The desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than was done in the past The Need for Affiliation The need for human companionship The Need for Power The desire to control the resources in ones environment Focus of Process-Based Perspectives Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs How people evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals The Equity Theory of Motivation Focuses on the desire to be treated with equity and to avoid perceived inequity Equity is a perceptual belief that one is being treated fairly in relation to others Inequity is a perceptual belief that one is being treated unfairly in relation to others The Equity Comparison Outcomes (self) compared with Outcomes (other) Inputs (self) Inputs (other) Responses to Perceptions of Equity and Inequity

Figure 4.4

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation (Vroom) Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it Key Components The perceived probability that effort will lead to performance The perceived probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes Anything that results from performing a behavior The degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness (value) that a particular outcome has for a person

Effort-to-performance expectancy Performance-to-outcome expectancy

Outcome Valence

Figure 4.5

The Expectancy Theory of Motivation

The Porter-Lawler Model Focuses on the relationship between satisfaction and performance Assumes that: If rewards are adequate, high levels of performance may lead to satisfaction. Satisfaction is determined by the perceived equity of intrinsic (intangible) and extrinsic (tangible) rewards for performance. The Porter-Lawler Model

Figure 4.6

Guidelines for Using Expectancy Theory Determine the primary outcomes each employee wants Decide what levels/kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible Link desired outcomes and desired performance Analyze the situation for conflicting expectancies Make sure the rewards are large enough Make sure the overall system is equitable for everyone

Learning-Based Perspectives on Motivation Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential resulting from direct or indirect experience How Learning Occurs Traditional View: Classical Conditioning

A simple form of learning that links a conditioned response with an unconditioned stimulus Contemporary View: Learning as a Cognitive Process Assumes people are conscious, active participants in how they learn Reinforcement Theory and Learning Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Behavior is a function of its consequences Reinforcement is the consequence of behavior Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement A reward or other desirable consequence that a person receives after exhibiting behavior The opportunity to avoid or escape from an unpleasant circumstance after exhibiting behavior Decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior An unpleasant or aversive consequence that results from behavior

Negative reinforcement (avoidance) Extinction


Table 4.1

Schedules of Reinforcement

Social Learning in Organizations Occurs when people observe the behaviors of others, recognize their consequences, and alter their own behavior as a result Conditions for social learning: Behavior being observed and imitated must be relatively simple Observed and imitated behavior must be concrete, not intellectual Learner must have the physical ability to imitate the observed behavior Organizational Behavior Modification (OB Mod) The application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings Effectiveness of OB Mod Varying results in organizational applications Lack of real world use

Ethics of OB Mod Individual freedom of choice Employee manipulation Steps in Organizational Behavior Modification

Figure 4.7

Organizational Behavior in Action After reading the chapter opening case:

Which needs does working at Netflix fulfill for its employees? Is it really possible to have an organization where all employees are (or must be) above average? What are the advantages in Netflix employees referring people for employment? Disadvantages