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Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

Emerald Article: Sprayed Surface COATINGS: PART TWO P.L. HURRICKS

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To cite this document: P.L. HURRICKS, 1974"Sprayed Surface COATINGS: PART TWO", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 26 Iss: 1 pp. 8 - 12 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb053053 Downloaded on: 23-07-2012 To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com This document has been downloaded 365 times since 2008. *

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Sprayed Surface COATINGS


Tribological Performance of Sprayed Coatings (2) Bearing Surfaces It has been stated that sprayed deposits should not generally be used under impact or counterformal conditions, but only in conformal geometrics where a lot of the load is taken in compression. 14,46 This is of course the typical situation of the journal bearing, but even here there is likely to be a load limit placed on the coating for satisfactory operation. Babbits, aluminium bronze, or phosphor bronze are typical coatings for bearings. 46 With bearings in particular, spraying increases the flexibility of product design in addition to a frequent usage in reclamation. Any bearing mixture can be produced by spraying, one such example being AI/20 per cent Sn, which until fairly recently could not be used satisfactorily in solid form. With oxy-actylene and plasma spray deposits, porosity will vary 5-15 per cent depending on material, gun and spray technique. 41 Advantage can be taken of this porosity for oil retention in applications involving wear resistance. 4,10,14,19,30,41,46 The porous structure will retain oil and operate for periods without continuous lubrication, eg as does an oilimpregnated sintered bearing. 30 The case of piston rings has previously been mentioned, sprayed coatings of molybdenum or chromium being particularly successful in replacing chromium plate. 41,47 For lubricated parts, the designer's original intentions may well be improved by using a softer but porous sprayed metal coating. In lubricated conformal conditions, hard bearing surfaces are not desirable as the increased strength reduces the ability of an imperfect surface to adjust itself by wear or flow during running-in. Although individual particle hardnesses may be quite high in some cases of sprayed deposit, the coating as a whole may be soft due to pores.48 However, some sprayed deposits, even though they have oil retention properties, may significantly lack ductility and their use may be confined to the more precise engineering applications. 48 Friction/load carrying tests Fig 2 shows the results of some friction-load carrying capacity tests on sprayed and cast babbitt bearings. The results show that there is a tendency for the coefficient of friction to drop with load increase,

PART T W O
In the first part of this article in our last issue P. L. HURRICKS considered the wear resistance of sprayed coatings when subjected to adhesive and abrasive action. In this part he is concerned w i t h the friction of sprayed coatings on bearing and journal surfaces.

then to rise again at a load limit when boundary conditions break down to promote scuffing. The use of sprayed babbitt results in lower friction and greater load carrying capacity than the cast form. 49 There is also no tendency to stick-slip behaviour with sprayed babbitt. In addition, the static friction coefficient is about one-third of that of cast babbitt, a definite effect of oil entrapment in the pores. With lead bronze, although the sprayed deposit has better frictional properties initially, after running-in the sprayed lead bronze becomes equivalent to the cast lead bronze due to flow of lead on the surface filling the pores.49 Even so, sprayed lead bronze had the highest load carrying capacity. Spraying journals The advantages of a sprayed surface coating may also be incorporated into the bearing system by spraying the shaft. In bronze bearings, the wear of a sprayed steel

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shaft is no greater than a solid steel shaft 34 and w i t h white metal bear ings, the wear on a sprayed steel shaft is actually less.50 Similarly, wear on the bearings is up to 50 per cent less. With sprayed steel journals running in white metal bearings, not only did the load carrying capacity of the system increase but wear was significantly less where intermittent boundary conditions prevailed.50 Disadvantages However, there are certain dis advantages to the use of sprayed deposits in lubricated bearings. As there is generally no alloying of the substrate bond, the rate of heat transfer across the junction is lower than across a junction with some metallurgical bonding. Thus it often happens that sprayed bearings tend to heat up quickly. 48 Sprayed coat ings are also sensitive to dirt in the oil, wearing faster than solid materi als when abrasive particles are present.34 Sprayed metals cannot work in conditions of large lateral or radial play and there is a load and speed limit for each type. 31,48 See also Fig 2. The greater the load carrying capacity of a bearing the more wear it will tend to induce on the shaft, thus the use of some sprayed coatings on the shaft may be restricted with bronze and alum inium-tin bearing alloys. 14 In lubricated wear conditions, practically all the coatings given in Table 1 showed good wear perform ance. Molybdenum in particular had a high dependance on oil to achieve a good wear performance, 31 show ing low friction, ~ 0 1 over a wide range of PV factors. With coating porosity some is interconnected but some is also isolated, allowing not only oil retention but also possible oil stagnation. 10 There is thus the risk of corrosion if oil temperatures are high. 19,51 The porosity can of course be sealed with organic resins but this then removes the main advantage. (3) Lubricant and Low Friction Coatings With the advent of dry bearing technology, it has been realized that the normal porosity present in a sprayed coating can be successfully utilized to provide a degree of permanent lubricity by impregnating with a low friction solid. 24,46 One commercially available product is

made by spraying stainless steel, sometimes with molybdenum, onto the metal surface and the porous matrix is then impregnated with PTFE.52 The results are impressive, the material having quite a low wear rate with none of the problems of bulk PTFE. This particular combina tion has the added advantage of also providing corrosion resistance. In principle there is no reason w h y the idea cannot be extended to phenolics and to other thermo plastics. Fretting Fretting is a form of wear which is more of a nuisance than a major cause of material destruction or removal. It is a very difficult type of wear to anticipate in a system and often quite difficult to remove. To reduce its intensity, either very hard surfaces are used or the surfaces can be protected by self-lubricating

Plasma sprayed solid composites

lubricant

Some plasma sprayed solid lubric ant composites which have been evaluated are shown in Table 3. The main problem in spraying these has been thermal degradation of the lubricant, 22,53 but this can be over come with composite lubricant powders by coating the solid lubric ant with metal prior to spraying. 54 The most promising systems are shown in Table 3 but their perform ance is greatly affected by the rubbing geometry. With counterformal hertzian conditions where film adherence is a critical factor in this type of load distribution, it was found that the lubricant composites readily flaked off.54 However, w i t h conformal conditions, the wear lives of the tested systems in Table 3 are comparable to solid lubricant films applied by other methods.

TABLE 3 Performance of Some Plasma Sprayed Solid Lubricant Film Composites in Oscillating Spherical Bearings. (Kremith et al 54 )

Material 4 5 % C u ; 55% MoS 2 4 5 % C u ; 55% MoS 2 35% C u ; 65% graphite 85% N i ; 15% graphite 38% A g ; 62% M0S 2

Speed (rpm) 9 260 260 9 260

Load Kgf 453 1360 1360 453 1360

Coefficient of Friction 03 03 03 04 03

No. of Cycles Before Failure 100 8250 1940 5260 1150

sprayed deposits. 24 For example, the use of a sprayed coating im pregnated w i t h colloidal graphite prior to assembly can do a lot to increase fretting resistance.14 Shafts or bearings thus prepared are ideal for receiving rolling element bear ings. A copper alloy deposit with the pores impregnated with M0S2 has also been used. 24 The spray process also offers a unique method for the application of a wide variety of solid film lubricants. The technique has several advant ages over conventional application methods in that it does not incorpor ate solvents or suspensions and so application and curing are accom plished simultaneously. It is current ly used to apply a resin bonded solid lubricant on a production line basis.53

Concluding Remarks In all systems, a flame spray deposit is created from solid rod or powder which is heated, atomized and then projected in the molten or semi-molten condition on to the surface of the workpiece. On impact, particles flatten, workharden and overlap to form the coat, the degre of interlocking depending on the par ticle and its plasticity. The deposit structure is not homogenious and cohesion is mainly due to mech anical interlocking, some point to point metallic fusion and some oxide-oxide bonding. 19 The tensile strength of the deposit is low, com pressive strength is fairly high and all deposits are somewhat porous. The sprayed particles in many deposits are very hard, which is to be expected of ceramics but the hard-

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ness of metal coatings is sometimes surprising. The rapid quench rates produced on impact plus some degree of work hardening both contribute to high microhardnesses. Thus in considering the properties of a coating it is clear that the mechanism by which it is produced is itself quite complicated, there are many variables to take into account and it is by no means easy to dismiss a coating in any evaluation. In purely general terms, low tensile strength is a disadvantage for wear resistance. On the microscale, in the early stages of sliding, an equilibrium condition is set up whereby individual contacts are plastically deformed and the true bearing area increases, so spreading the full operating load. It is by no means clear how a sprayed deposit will behave in the initial critical stage but there is likely to be a load limit as well as an acceptable surface finish for the mating component. The situation can of course be improved with subsequent fusing of the deposit. Alternatively, better mechanical properties can be obtained by greatly accelerating the projected particles, as in detonation spraying. To resist abrasive wear, high hardness is not the main criterion but the surfaces must be capable of undergoing significant work hardening. With composite microstructures this is mainly confined to the matrix where in dealing with a fairly soft abrasive, an initial hardness of ~ 5 0 0 Vpn is required. 3 It is significant to note that this applies to the spray and fuse deposits,27 which as a group, have fairly good abrasion resistance. Of all the surface coatings considered, the major part of their wear resistance is due to an interstitial phase present, usually a carbide. This, however, is only the starting point for obtaining overall wear resistance. The problem resolves itself into one of carbide shape and form, carbide size, carbide type as well as the suitability of its support within the coating structure. Porosity may bea disadvantage in some applications, if for example the wear process involves impact or fatigue, but in others it is an advantage. The structure of a sprayed metal coating is such that a machined face provides an ideal

surface for oil retention. 14 It is a well known fact that surface porosity is useful in dealing with boundary lubrication conditions 55,56 and in fact some surface treatments are deliberately produced with this aim in view. 55 It has been stated 50 that for most lubricated bearing purposes, metal sprayed journals are superior to ordinary steel journals and the use of such journals in standard new products is worthy of every consideration. Certainly the building up of worn bearing parts by this process need cause no doubt that from the technical point of view, the process is eminently suitable. In reviewing the subject of sprayed coatings it is obvious that very little quantitative data exists, especially design data. Although surface coatings have received considerable attention in engineering literature, wear situations involving them are frequently not clarified to any degree. Some reasons for this are probably the complexity of wear as a phenomenon and lack of knowledge on the capabilities of individual coatings. Thus no means are yet available for selecting a guaranteed wear resistance.57 Some attempts have, however, been made at a classification system.36 In conclusion it can be said that the type of sprayed coating employed will greatly depend on the actual tribological situation. This paper has defined these areas insofar as it is possible to do so at the present time.

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References
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"Hardfacing by Spraying," Brit. Weld. J., 10, 5, 1963, 205. Bradley, E. F., "Improving Frictional Behaviour with Surface Treatments," Met. Eng. Q., 7, 2, 1967, 29. Caubet, J. J . , "New Parameters playing a part in the use of surface treatments against Wear," Conf. Journee's d'Etudes, G.A.M.I. sur L'Usure, Paris 1970. Jesper, A. C., "How good Tribological Practice will help you to reduce Maintenance and Replacement Costs," Symp. Savings from Tribology, PERA, 1969. Mansford, R. E., "Surface Coatings Pt. 4 ; Sprayed Coatings," Tribology, Oct. 1972, 220. Onion, G. A., "Flame Spraying for Maintenance," 2nd Conf. Metal Spraying and Plastic Coating Div., IWeld., London, 1967. Forrester, P. G., "Bearing Materials," Met. Rev., 5, 20, 1960, 507. Niemann, G., "The effect of different Lubricants on the Pitting Resistance of Gears," Proc. IMechE, 179, 3D, 1964/5,192. Stiles, B., "Metal Spraying in Maintenance and Repair Work," Int. IWeld. Conf, Opatija, 1959. "Metal Spraying in Maintenace and Repair," Weld. and Metal Fabrication, 38, 10, 1970, 387. Fahy, E. A., Delgrosso, E. J . , Quinn, D. J., "Lightweight Gearbox Development for Propulsion Gearbox Systems," AD 729839, 1971. "Six Ton Roll Flame Sprayed," Brit. Weld. J., 14, 1967, 665. Rabinowicz, E., "Advances in Wear Resistant Materials," ASME Paper 72-DE-28, 1972. Ed. Phillips, A. L., AWS Welding Handbook, Pt. 111, Cleaver-Hume, 1965. Rabinowicz, E., Friction and Wear of Materials, Wiley, London, 1965. Johnson, R. L., Buckley, D. H., "Lubrication and Wear Fundamentals for High Vacuum Applications," Proc. IMechE, 182, 3A, 1967/8, 479. Kremith, R. D., "Plasma Spray Coatings," Machinery, 117, 3008, 1970, 58. Helmut, H., Zabett. K., "Wear of Plasma Sprayed Tungsten Carbide Coatings," 6th Int. Metal Spraying Conf., Paris, 1970. Hermanek, F. J . , "Coatings Lengthen Jet Engine Life," Met. Prog., 97. 3, 1970, 104. Coatings Technology 2, Union Carbide UK Ltd, Jan. 1971. Nadler, R. M . , "Plasma Flame Spraying Equipment Development," ASME Paper 59-A-236, 1959. Bell, G. R., "Sprayed and Fused Metal Coatings," Weld. Metal Fabrication, 30. 10, 1962, 398. Bell, G. R., "Hardsurfacing assists the Oil Industry," Brit. Weld. J.,

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10, 4, 1963, 150. (29) Bell, G. R., "Hardsurfacing Alloys and Technology," 5th Int. Metal Spraying Conf., Warsaw, 1966. (30) Gagnet, W . J . , "Flame Sprayed Coatings for Wear," SAE Paper 690483, 1969. (31) Hyde G. F., Cromwell, J. E., Arnold, W . C , "Piston Ring Coating for High Performance Diesel Engines," SAE Paper 670935, 1967. (32) Prasse, H. F., McCormick, H. E., Anderson, R. D., "Heavy Duty Piston Rings 1968," SAE Paper 680238, 1968. (33) Fedorchenko, I. M., Chiaka, B. I., Krasnov, A. N., Sharivker, S. Y., Alekseenko, V . I., "Increasing the Wear Resistance of Piston Rings by Plasma Spraying," Poroshkovaya Met., 5, 53, 1967, 46. (34) Pashin, Y. D., "Investigations into the Wear Resistance of Sprayed Metal Deposits," Vestnik. Mashinostr, 7, 65, 1959. (35) Taylor, D. E., Waterhouse, R. B., "Sprayed Molybdenum as a protection against Fretting Fatigue," Wear, 20, 1972,401. (36) Evrard, M.,Sauvegrain, G.,"Study of the Abrasion Resistance of Metallized Deposits with a view to Classification," Soud. Tech. Conn. 25, 5/6, 1971, 219. (37) Shesternenkov, V. I., "Detonation Coating," Poroshkovaya Met., 1 , 37, 1968.

(38) Evrard, M . , "Application of Surfacing Techniques in Construction," Soud. Tech. Conn., 2 1 , 7/8, 1967, 211. (39) Hasui, A., "Surfacing with super alloy powders by Plasma Jet," Trans. Nat. Res. Inst. Metals, 7, 4, 1965, 44. (40) Evrard, M . , "Testing Certain Properties of Sprayed Metal Coatings," 5th Int. Metal Spraying Corf., Warsaw, 1966. (41) Ingham, H. S., "Flame Sprayed Coatings from Composite Engineering Laminates," MIT Press, 1969. (42) Kitahara. S., Okane, I., Hasui, A., "Press Sintering of Sprayed Coating," Trans., NRIM, 13, 4, 1971, 214. (43) Blanpain, E., "Hardfacing Alloys in the Fight against Wear," Pract. Ind. Mec., 8/9, 1969, 233. (44) Parsons, M . C., "Characteristics of a Flame Sprayed Nickel Base Alloy Hard Surface Overlay," Proc. 1970 Fall Powder Met. Conf., Metal Powder Ind. Fed., 1971. (45) Deumens, L. G. M., "Some Examples of Resurfacing by Metallization with the Aim of Increasing Abrasion Resistance," Rev. de la Soudre, 20, 1/2, 1964, 116. (46) Mock, J . A., "Flame Sprayed Coatings," Mat. in Des. Eng., 63, 2, 1966, 89. (47) Walton, A. J . , "Case Histories of Surface Coatings," Symp. Surface Coatings for Savings in Engineering,

Weld. Inst., 1971. (48) Ballard, W . E., Metal Spraying, Griffin, 1963. (49) Shaw, H., Metal Sprayed Bearings. Ass. Metal Sprayers, March, 1939. (50) Shaw, H., Metal Sprayed Surfaces for Bearings, Ass. Metal Sprayers, Oct., 1937. (51) Lansdown, A. R. L., Hurricks, P. L., "Interaction of Lubricants and Materials," Trans, IMarE, 85A, 7, 193, 157. (52) Maden, T. A., "Composite MetalPTFE Coatings," Metal Finishing J., 16, 190, 1970, 312. (53) Hopkins, V., Hubbell, R., Kremith, R., "Plasma Spraying Solid Film Lubricants," Lub. Eng., 24, 2, 1968, 72. (54) Kremith, R. D., Rosenbery, J. W., Hopkins, V., "Solid Lubricant Coatings Applied by Plasma Spray," Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 47, 9, 1968, 813. (55) Hirst. W., Lancaster, J . K., "The Influence of Oxide and Lubricant Films on the Friction and Surface Damage of Metals," Proc. Roy. Soc, A223, 1954, 324. (56) Matveevsky, R. M., Lozovskaya, O. V., "The Influence of Alloying on the Antifriction Properties of Binary Alloys under Boundary Lubrication Conditions," Wear, 1 1 , 1968, 69. (57) "Surface Coatings," One Day Symposium at Manchester, Ind. Lub. and Tribology, 23, 8, 1971, 280.

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