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The Past Simple Tense When your wish to say that something happened, took place, or was finished

at some time in the past, you should use the Past Simple Tense. I spoke We spoke You spoke You spoke He/She/It spoke They spoke I travelled to Europe last year I read an interesting book yesterday. We spent last summer at the seaside. We met at the cinema two days ago. He fell off his horse last Monday. When you wish to say that something happened that it was a persons habit to do something again and again in the past, you should use either the Past Simple Tense or the words used to (do something). When I was a boy I studied hard. OR When I was a boy I used to study hard. OR When I was a boy it was my habit to study hard. Years ago men believed that the earth is flat. OR Years ago men used to believe that the earth was flat. OR Years ago it was the habit of men to believe that the earth was flat.

2. The Present Simple Tense When you wish to say that the person does a thing always, sometimes, often, everyday, every week, usually etc, you should use the Present Simple Tense. I go We go You go You go He/She/It goes They go I go to school every morning. (It is my habit to go to school every morning.) I eat my dinner every night at eight oclock. (It is my habit to eat my dinner at eight oclock every night.) Men wear light suits in summer. My father works in an office. I always wake up early in the morning. Lazy boys usually fail in their examinations.

3. The Future Simple Tense When you wish to say that something is going to happen, take place, or finish at some time in the future, you should use the Simple Future Tense. I shall go You will go He/She/It will go We shall go You will go They will go

He will return next week. We shall finish our work in half an hour. Our examination will begin next month. I shall give you what I owe you in a day or two. Will you go with me to the cinema tomorrow? 4. The Past Continuous Tense The Past Continuous Tense is used when we wish to speak of an action which is unfinished at some time in the past. I was speaking We were speaking You were speaking You were speaking He/She/It was speaking They were speaking

I was writing a letter when he entered the room.

The boys were making a noise as I was coming up the steps. She was reading a book when the boy behind her kicked her. While we were travelling to school yesterday, I saw an accident. He jumped off the train while it was moving. 5. The Present Continuous Tense When you wish to say that something is happening now or at this moment, you should use the Present Continuous Tense. I am writing We are writing You are writing You are writing He/She/It is writing They are writing

It is raining (now). (It is raining at this moment.) The sun is shining (now). The sun is setting (now). My father is writing a letter (now). 6. The Future Continuous Tense Just as the Present Continuous Tense is used as a definite immediate future, so the Future Continuous is used as a definite but not-so- immediate future. I shall be seeing We shall be seeing You will be seeing You will be seeing He/She/It will be seeing They will be seeing

I shall be seeing you next week to discuss further. My mother will be seeing the doctor next Friday. The girls will be playing basket ball next Sunday. We shall be starting our third semester in September. He will be coming home for good by the end of this year. 7. The Past Perfect Tense I had seen We had seen You had seen You had seen He/She/It had seen They had seen Look at this sentence:After he had broken the window he ran away. In this sentence there are two actions in the Past:(a) The action of breaking (b) The action of running away The action of breaking took place before the action of running away, and we therefore show this by putting the action that took place first in the Past Perfect Tense 8. The Present Perfect Tense I have seen We have seen You have seen You have seen He/She/It has seen They have seen Look at the following sentences:I have turned on the light This means that I turned on the light some time ago and that it is still on. One result, therefore, of my past action is that the light is on at the present moment. Another result is that you may read a book, if you wish or do anything else, since the room is no longer in darkness. I have opened the window.

This means that I opened the window at some time in the past and that it is still open. As a result of my past action, the window is open now. Also, fresh air can now come into the room through the open window.
9. The Future Perfect Tense I shall have written We shall have written

You will have written You will have written He/She/It will have written They will have written Look at this sentence:I shall have read this book by six oclock tonight.

This means that I have not yet read this book, but at six oclock tonight, that is, at a time in the future, the reading of the book will be past. 10. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense I had been working We had been working You had been working You had been working He/She/It had been working They had been working The past perfect continuous tense is quite like the past perfect tense except it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. Look at the following examples:

The nurse was very exhausted as she had been working a 20-hour shift. It was past her bedtime. She had been waiting to get home since 10 oclock. My muscles ached after yesterdays jog. I had not been running for a while now. 11. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense I have been sitting We have been sitting You have been sitting You have been sitting He/She/It has been sitting They have been sitting When you are using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense in speaking or informal writing you may contract the subject and the first auxiliary verb:For example: Ive, Weve, Youve, Hes, Shes, Its, Theyve or Tonys.

Ive been sitting and reading for nearly 5 hours now. Theyve been working since dawn.

There are 2 uses for the present perfect continuous tense and are usually used in connection to the present and now or an action that started in the past and is still continuing now. a. An action which has just recently stopped

I am sleepy (now) because I have been waking up early these few days. The dog needs some water as it has been running. I am feeling tired. I have been working very hard lately.

b. An action continue till now


I have been waiting for him since this morning. ( I am still waiting) She has been studying for her exam since 6 am (She is still studying now) Peter has been crying for his mother since last night (he is still crying now) (Note here that we always use for and since in the present perfect continuous tense when we use it for (b) the action to continue till now) 12. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense I will have been playing We will have been playing You will have been playing You will have been playing He/She/It will have been playing They will have been playing When you are using the Future Perfect Continuous Tense in speaking or informal writing you may contract the subject and the first auxiliary verb:-

For example: Ill, Well, Youll, Hell, Shell, Itll, Theyll We usually use the future perfect continuous tense for long action before some time in the future. And this tense is used to:

Determine how long the action will be in progress in the future Show the length of time the action will be in the future State the results of the action in the future Indicate a continuous action at a stated point and continue into the future Identify 2 future actions, one after another Some examples of the future perfect continuous tense are:

We will have been staying in this house for 3 years by end of December. By next year, my daughter will have been studying 4 years in the University. In two minutes, we will have been waiting one hour for the bus. Michael will have been working for 5 years next May. The bus driver will have been transporting my children for 2 years end of this month. The children will be tired as they will have been traveling for over 10 hours. My husband will have been working in China 8 years this February.