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Ervina Junaidi Lecturer Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering Department Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

To identify the different types of gears. To identify and use the standard gear geometric features. To define the terms and definitions associated with spur gears. To calculate center distance, contact ratio, interference limitations, backlash variations and etc. To calculate the velocity ratio to determine the kinematic properties of mating gears.


A gear is a toothed wheel that is usually, but not necessarily, round. The teeth may have any of an almost infinite variety of profiles. To transmit motion from one shaft to another. This motion transfer may or may not be uniform and may also be accompanied by changes in direction, speed, and shaft torque.

Function of gear

Gear types

Spur gears

Spur gears are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel shafts. Have teeth parallel to the axis of rotation. Efficiency = 98 to 99%

Spur gears are the most common type of gears.

Spur gears (cont.)

Limitations: Cannot be used when a direction change between the two shafts is required Limited to low to moderate speeds because of their low contacts Advantages: Easy to find, inexpensive, and efficient. Applications: Electric screwdriver, washing machine, wind-up alarm clock, dancing monster and widely used in machine construction (simplicity & economy).

Spur gears (cont.)

a) Washing machine b) Wind-up alarm clock

Helical gears

Helical gears are used to transmit motion between parallel and non-parallel shafts Have teeth inclined to the axis of rotation When two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full engagement. Efficiency = 96 to 98%

Helical gear (cont.)

This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car transmissions.

Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load. One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees.

Helical gear (cont.)

Limitations: Expensive Difficult to find. Less efficient than a spur gear of the same size Advantages: Can be used on non parallel and even perpendicular shafts Quieter Suitable for high-speed and heavy load operation Greater strength due to the fact that several teeth are in mesh at the same time Application: 10 Automobile transmission

Herringbone gear

Are formed by joining two helical gears of identical pitch and diameter but of opposite hand on the same shaft

Limitations: Expensive Advantages: No thrust bearings required


Worm gears

Worm gear sets are used to transmit rotary motion between non-parallel and nonintersecting shafts Have spiral teeth and shafts at right angles. Worms can be made with single, double, triple or more threads. The teeth of the wheel/gear envelop the worm threads and give line contact between the mating parts.


Worm gears (cont.)

Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive spur gears or helical gears. Worm gears, like helical gears, allow two nonintersecting 'skew' shafts to mesh. Normally, the two shafts are at right angles to each other. A worm gear is equivalent to a V-type screw thread. Another way of looking at a worm gear is that it is a helical gear with a very high helix angle. Worm gears are normally used when a high gear ratio is desired, or again when the shafts are perpendicular to each other. Efficiency = 40 to 85%

Worm gears (cont.)

Limitations: Low efficiency. The worm drives the drive gear primarily with slipping motion, thus there are high friction losses. Advantages: Will tolerate large loads and high speed ratios. Meshes are self locking (which can be either an advantage or a disadvantage). Application: This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems, in which the locking feature can act as a brake for the conveyor when the motor is not turning.

Bevel gears
Spiral bevel gears Straight/Plain bevel gears

Hypoid/Hypocycloid bevel gears


Bevel gears (cont.)

Bevel gears are used to transmit rotary motion between non-parallel intersecting shafts. Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

Bevel gears (cont.)

Have teeth formed on conical surfaces. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid Spiral bevel gears is the one having teeth curved in the form of a spiral around the conical surface. These spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively smoothly spreads across the whole tooth. Speeds up to 8000ft/min (AGMA Standard 2005B88)

Bevel gears (cont.)

Straight/Plain bevel gears are the simplest form of bevel gears where they have teeth that are straight and tapered, and these teeth if extended inward would intersect at a common point.
Considered the best choice for systems with speeds lower than 1000 ft/min (AGMA Standard 2005-B88) and they commonly become noisy above this point. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth: as each tooth engages, it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once. Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth.

Bevel gears (cont.)

Hypoid/Hypocycloid bevel gears are a special type of spiral gear that will allow non-intersecting, non-parallel shafts to mesh.
Have spiral teeth The pinion axis is offset above or below the axis of the gear If there is sufficient offset, the two shafts may pass one another Can engage with the axes in different planes.
Speeds up to 8000ft/min (AGMA Standard 2005-B88)


Bevel gears (cont.)

Hypoid gears


Bevel gears (cont.)

Limitations: Cannot be used for parallel shafts. Noisy at high speeds. Advantage: Excellent choice for intersecting shaft systems.

Rack and Pinion

Rack and pinion gears are used to convert rotation into linear motion or vice versa. A perfect example of this is the steering system on many cars. The steering wheel rotates a gear which engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the rack either to the right or left, depending on which way you turn the wheel. Rack and pinion gears are also used in some scales to turn the dial that displays your weight.


Spur Gear Terminology


Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)


Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

1) Pitch circle The circle represents the size of the corresponding friction roller that could replace the gear. 2) Pitch point The point of contact of the two pitch circle. 3) Pitch diameter, d The diameter of the pitch circle. 4) Number of teeth, N The total number of teeth on the gear.


Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

5) Circular pitch, p The distance measured along the pitch circle from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth of the gear. ( d ) = = m p= N Pd 6) Tooth thickness The arc length measured on the pitch circle from one side of a tooth to the other side.

p t= = 2 2 Pd

Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

7) Base circle The circle from which the curved shape of the gear tooth is construct. 8) Base diameter, db The diameter of the circle from which the gear tooth profile is derived. 9) Face width, F The length of the gear tooth parallel with the shaft axis 10) Addendum, a The radial distance from the pitch circle to the top of a gear tooth 11) Dedendum, b The radial distance from the pitch circle to the bottom of gear tooth

Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

12) Whole depth, hT The height of a gear tooth and is the sum of the addendum and dedendum. 13) Clearance, c The amount that the dedendum exceeds the addendum. 14) Backlash, B The amount that the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of a gear tooth, measured on the pitch circle.
Pd = N d

Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

15) Diametral pitch, Pd Refers to the tooth size. N Pd = d Mating gears must have the same diametral pitch. 16) Module, m Ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth in a gear. d 25.4 m= = N Pd For meshing gears, m is constant.

Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

17) Pressure angle,
Pressure angle is the angle between a line tangent to both pitch circles of mating gears and a line perpendicular to the surface of the teeth at the contact point. When two gear teeth are in mesh and are transmitting power, the force transferred from the driver to the driven gear tooth acts in a direction along the pressure line or line of action. The actual shape of the gear tooth depends on the pressure angle. Most gears are standardized at 14 , 20 and 25. Affect the shape of the tooth, so two mating gears must have the same pressure angle.

Spur Gear Terminology (cont.)

Pressure angle

Pressure angle influence on tooth shapes


Involute Tooth Profiles


Involute Tooth Profiles (cont.)

Involute refers to the curved shape of the faces of the spur gear teeth. Gear teeth have involute profile between the base circle and addendum circle. To achieve smooth motion, a gear tooth must have a shape that keeps the driven gear rotating at a constant velocity throughout the engagement and disengagement process.


Involute Tooth Profiles (cont.)

The relationship between the pressure angle, pitch diameter and base circle is expressed by db = d cos
where db = base circle diameter d = pitch diameter = pressure angle

Any portion of tooth profile inside the base circle is not an involute. The portion of the tooth inside the base circle is not designed to be contacted by a mating gear tooth. Such contact would result in interference.

Involute Tooth Profiles (cont.)

Construction of an involute
1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

Draw the base circle. Divide the base circle quadrant into equal number of parts (say six). Mark the points 0 to 6 on the circumference of the circle. Draw tangent at points 1 to 6. Cut off 1a=01 on tangent 1, 2b=02 on tangent at 2 and so on. Join 0, a, b etc. by a smooth curve to obtain the involute profile.

Involute Tooth Profiles (cont.)

Construction of an involute (cont.)


Standard gears