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INDEX

A
acceleration, force for, 3-4 Ackermann geometry, 140-141 aerodynamic drag, significance of, 1-6 aerodynamic drag components, 69 aerodynamic drag equation, 1-3 aerodynamic drag measurements, 249-253 direct measurement of, 253 indirect measurement of, 251253 aerodynamic moments, 128-132 pitching moment, 131-132 yaw and roll moments, 128-131 AeroVironment solar bike, 128 AeroVironment think tank, 256 air density, 1 air velocity. See velocity air viscosity. See fluid viscosity airflow. See flow airfoils. See also NACA; streamlined body; 2-D airfoils; XFOIL program ground effect on drag, 119 leading-edge (LE) separation, 64 low drag solar cars, 7-8 perturbances near leading edge of, 48-50 in planview, xii-xiii supervelocity effect, 79 thinness of, and Cp slope, 45 very low ground clearance, 126128 AIRSET program, 104, 105 altitude, 23 angle-of-attack, 226 lift reduction and, 119, 134 models, 223 for vehicle testing, 237, 238 for zero lift, 121 animals

aerodynamic motive efficiency of, 73 denticles, 66-67 appendages, 255. See also canopies; fairings angle with body in front view, 149-150 drag of, 220 fillet radius along side of, 150151 junctions, 147-158, 268 APS Solar/Electric 500, 1991, 15 atmospheric pressure, 1 attached air/fluid flow, 7 attachment-line contamination, 52 average skin-friction coefficient Cf. See total skin-friction coefficient Cf Awet. See wetted area axisymmetric teardrop body (torpedo), xi-xii, 10, 56 axles, lift imbalance between front and rear, 131-132 Aztec College 1995 Pure Energy, 190

B
base area (flow separation), 10, 11 battery ventilation, 210, 212-213 bellypan, 226, 228 fairings mounted to, 149-150 ground clearance of, 116-119, 126 laminar flow and, 116-117, 131, 196-197, 199, 264, 268 lift and, 136, 220 optimal flow for, 65 sanding of, 248 seals, 175-183, 208 supervelocity on, 218 3-D relieving effect and, 104

wheel openings in, for wheel steer, 160-164 Bernoulli, Daniel, 25 Bernoulli Equation, 2 Bernoullis Principle, 106 bicycle wheels, testing of, 158-160 Biel cars, 90, 230 Biel cars 1990 Spirit of BielBienne II, xv, 17, 116, 170, 266 canopy, 184 crosswind drag and, 142-143 surface smoothness of, 199, 249 Biel cars 1993 Spirit of BielBienne III, 170, 193, 249, 266267 crosswind drag reduction, 138139, 142-143 TFT model compared, 97-99, 218 trailing edge, 116 wheel fairings, 175-178 Biel cars 1995 design, 30 bluff bodies, 7, 10, 255 drag proportional to frontal area, 11 negative pressure and, 43 body generating lift, 8-9 body thickness maximum, 268 model, 219 streamlined body drag of, effect on, 78-79 boundary layer, 27-67. See also laminar flow; shape factor H; turbulent flow Cd and, 13 cross-flow effect, 44, 52-56 definition, 25, 28 design and development issues, 64-67 duct placement and, 211 flat plate, plotting thickness over, 34-35

282

INDEX
friction, 37-41 introduction to, 27-30 junctions, flowing into, 156-157 momentum-flow dissipated by, 33 non-flat streamlined body, thickness over, 35-37 pressure drag, 79, 88 pressure inside, 224 separation, 33, 59-64 superlayer, 31 surface perturbances, effect on transition of, 46-50 thickness, 24, 31-37 transition location (See boundary layer transition location) viscous friction and, 7-8 wheel openings and, 160-164 boundary layer transition location, 30, 41-59, 62, 63, 74, 77-78, 220 canopy and, 185-188 models, testing of, 223 narrow cars, 99 shear-fluid tests, 246-247 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 82-83, 85 3-D body drag-calculation results, 94-95, 97 brake signals, 202 bubble canopies. See canopies bugs, removal of, 51-52 sealing of, 237 shape changes, effect on drag of, 194-196 on short cars, 184-185, 189, 260267 truncation at rear of, 10 variables, 191-196 yarn-tuft tests, 241-242 catamarans, 155-156, 160-161, 169-170, 179, 185, 203 CD. See drag coefficient (CD) center-of-gravity CG, 128-131 center-of-pressure CP 128-131 , chordwise velocity, 52-53 circular leading edge, 54 Clarkson University 1995 Helios, 14-15, 97, 117, 139141, 179, 198, 218, 231 1997 Solar Knight, 117, 198, 231 coefficient-of-pressure (Cp), 60, 63, 88-89, 153 plots, 43-45, 62, 104-105, 197198, 223, 224-231, 268 shape of curves, 226 combination bodies, xii computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 102, 120-121, 135 models, testing of, 222-223 plots, 224-232 concave surfaces, 50, 231 cone tail, 87-89, 203 corner flow, 56-57 crabbing, 139-140 cross-flow, 44, 52-56, 77 crosswinds, 103, 114-115, 132144, 255 drag reduction, 137-144 lateral edge shape and, 122-123 lift and, 105, 132-137, 136-137, 263 sharp nose in, 154-155 trailing edge design and, 203 yaw stability and, 128-131 Crowder College 1990 2-seater, 185 1984 TSAR, xiv

283

C
Cal-Poly Pomona 1995 car, 179, 181 Cal-State LA 1993 car, 262 camber, xi-xii, 114-121, 268 definition, 106-107 in free air, 107 canopies, xii, 89, 136, 183-196, 227-229, 268 camber effects and, 119 design concepts, 185-186 elimination of, 147-148 flow separation and, 60-61, 64, 190 hatch seams, 204, 207 introduction, 183-191 junctions, 185, 196, 230, 262, 268 length-to-height ratio L/h, 192194 location on car, 192 narrow cars, 99 optimal flow for, 65 sail effect and, 142-143

distortion, rate of, 23 downwash, 114 draft, 58, 173 drag area (CdA), 2, 9-17 comparisons of, 15 flat plate transition point, 78 model vehicle, 217-218 NACA ducts, 211 non-lifting 3-D streamlined body, 101 power data, estimation from, 253-254 sharpened nose and, 56 solar-viscosity ratio, 16-17 3-D body, 95-98 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 85-86 wind-averaged, 253 drag coefficient (Cd). See also drag area (CdA) boundary layer management and, 13 canopy, 194-195 flat plate (Cf), 73-77, 79, 80 reference area, coupled with, 1, 2 rotationally symmetric body (torpedo), 87 of streamlined bodies, 69-73 torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) drag-calculation results, 94-95 2-D and 3-D bodies compared, 103, 105 volume to the two-thirds power, based on, 12 whole body, drag of (Cd, plan), 79-84 drag force skin-friction (See skin friction) total, 3 (See also aerodynamic drag; rolling resistance) drag index. See drag area (CdA) driver, ventilation for, 210, 213 drivetrain efficiency, 3 ducts, inlet and exhaust, 209-216 dynamic pressure, 2

D
Daedalus human-powered aircraft, 212 DAlembert, Jean, 25, 219, 232 denticles, 66-67 development. See testing and development Dexter-Hysol Cheetah, xiii-xiv displacement thickness * (boundary layer), 31-33, 46, 47

E
early car design, xiv effective body shape, 31 Electrathon cars, ix, xiii, 119, 128 electric vehicles, ix, 117. See also General Motors Impact Rumpler design, xiii truncation, effect of, 10-11 ellipses, 91-92 Euler, Leonhard, 25

284

INDEX
rate of distortion, 23 shear rate, 23-24 force (Newtons), 3 Ford of Australia 1993 Aurora, 130 1996 Aurora 101, 117, 130, 149, 156, 179, 199, 205, 231 form drag. See pressure drag four wheelers center-of-pressure and, 129-130 chassis configuration, 173-175 wheel drag compared to three wheelers, 169-175 free air, lift in, 105-109 freestream body-contour angles and flow of, 61 turbulence, 58-59 velocity, 54 frontal area as Cd reference area, 2, 10, 11 narrow cars, 100 streamlined bodies, 13-14, 69-71 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 84-85, 86-87 3-D body, 96-97 fuel-economy-record cars, ix Fusion human-powered vehicle, 198 trailing edge of, 201-202 wheel design, 159 wheel drag, 169, 171 wheel openings, 160-162 GM Sunraycer Case History, vii ground clearance, 114-121, 226, 268 minimum, 118 very low, 126-128 ground effect, 105-128, 220, 226 camber and ground clearance of land vehicles, 114-121 induced drag, 109-114, 124-126 lateral-edge shaping, 121-124 lift in free air and in proximity of ground, 105-109 rolling resistance and, 124-126 very low ground clearance, 126128

F
fairings, 13-15, 18, 224. See also wheel fairings definition, 13-14 fillets, 230 gaps and seams, 204 half-fairings compared to full fairings, 179-181 leading edge designs, 153-154 stability, effect on, 238-239 winglets, 126 fastbacks, xii, 118 fillets, 230 leading edge, 152-155 radius along side of appendage, 150-151 trailing-edge, 158 flat plate drag calculation results, 73-78 model, 219 plotting boundary layer thickness over, 34-35 flat spots, detection of, 51 flat tail, 87. See also torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) flow distortion, 64 inviscid, 27, 28, 31 flow separation, xv, 7-8, 59-64, 152, 268. See also pressure drag avoiding, 10 body thickness and, 79 flow distortion, 64 at front of body-appendage junction, 60-61 lateral-edge shaping and, 103 leading-edge separation, 64 local separation, 64 minimizing, 60 at rear of body, 61-64 shear-fluid tests, 249 turbulent separation, 61-62 yarn-tuft tests, 241-242 fluid density, 21-23 aerodynamic drag, effect on, 1 altitude, effect of, 23 humidity, effect of, 22 Fluid Dynamic Drag, vii fluid kinetic energy, 2 fluid mechanics fundamentals, 21-27 fluid viscosity, 7, 23-25. See also boundary layer dynamic viscosity and temperature, 24 history, 24-25 inviscid air flow and, 27, 28, 31 no-slip condition, 28-29

H
half-fairings, 164-169, 179-181 head wind pitching and, 131 velocity relative to road (Vwind), 1, 2 heat-shrink film, 209, 247-248 Heliotrope, 1996 (France), 170 Hibbs, Bart, vii high spots, detection of, 50 history of streamlined land vehicles, xi-xvi Hoerner, S. F., vii Honda 1990 CRX, 203 Honda 1990 Dream, 14, 180, 257258 crosswinds effects, 136 vent inlets, 213 wheel openings, 160-162 Honda 1993 Dream, 14, 15, 17, 258-260 crosswinds effects, 136 drag area, 218 vent inlet, 213 wetted area, 73 wheel openings, 161-162 Honda 1996 Dream, 17, 259 bellypan, 175 crosswind effects, 136 fairings, 178 leading edge junction geometry, 152, 155 lift of axles, 132 models, 259 seals, 210 trailing edge junction geometry, 158

G
gaps, 204-208, 237, 268 General Motors Impact 1990 EV1 prototype, 4, 11, 303 General Motors Sunraycer ducts in, 210-211 empirical drag equations, 87, 88 laminar flow and, 55, 204 lateral edges, 122 lift of, 112, 125 nose shape and canopy of, 199 rudders at tail of, 130 sailing thrust of, 142, 199 surface perturbances on nose of, 48 unibody shape, 147, 170 vent inlet, 213 General Motors Sunraycer 1987, xiv-xv, 4, 17, 99, 218, 226, 256257 Awet/2D plan ratio, 102 crosswind lift, 133-135 lift of, 115 nose of, 54, 90, 197 separation of, 64 solar array, boundary layer thickness over, 207

INDEX
wheel drag, 169 wheel openings, 163, 169 wheel well housing, 182 winglets, 126 yaw of, 143 Honda Motor Company wind tunnel tests, 171 Hookes Law, 23 horseshoe vortex, 108-109, 152155, 195, 230-231 Huber, Chris, xiii human-powered aircraft, 212 human-powered vehicles (HPVs), ix, 119, 128 200 meter land-speed record, xiii-xiv Rumpler design, xiii trial-and-error design, xiii humidity, 22 hybrid electric vehicles, ix hysteresis losses, 4, 6

285

L
Lake Tuggeranong College, 156 laminar flow (boundary layer), 3037, 79, 228-229 bellypan and, 116-117, 131, 196197, 199, 264, 268 Biel-type body, 230 concave surfaces and, 50 corner flow and, 57 flat plate, plotting layer thickness over, 34-35 junction geometry and, 156-157 lateral-edge shaping and, 103 models, testing for, 223 Morelli body, 231 negative pressure gradient and laminar flow, 45-46 nose shape and, 44, 196-199, 268 nose-sweep angles and, 54-56 optimal amount, determining, 64-65 seams and, 204-205 separation at rear of body and, 63-64 shear-fluid tests, 232-236, 245249 skin friction coefficients, 37-41 skin friction reduction and, 64, 72 supervelocity effect, 78 surface fairness and, 50-52 surface finish and, 29, 208-209, 223 torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) drag-calculation results, 95, 97 transition to turbulent flow (See boundary layer transition location) 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 83-84, 86-87 laminar sublayer, 30-31 land-speed-record vehicles, ix, 128 lateral edges crosswinds and, 122-123 height of, and lift, 115 induced drag, effect on, 121 shaping, 103, 121-124 wetted area, 123 leading edge boundary layer at, 28, 34 circular, 54 junction geometry, 152-157 optimal flow for, 65 perturbances near, 48-50 separation, 64 sharpness at junction, 154-155 swept, cross-flow due to, 53

I
Ideal Gas Law, 22 indicator lights, in trailing edge, 202 induced drag (Dind), 6, 8-9, 109114, 121, 124-126. See also vortex shedding interference drag (Dint), 6, 9, 64, 147-158, 185, 220 inviscid flow, 27, 28, 31

LED light, 202 Lexan, 189-190 lift, xv, 8-9 crosswinds and (See crosswinds) elimination of, 220 in free air and in proximity of ground, 105-109 horseshoe vortex and, 108-109 minimizing, 263, 268 uneven, on front and rear wheels, 105 line-of-sight, 121 Lissaman, Peter, vii, 105 local Reynolds numbers (Rex), 26, 35 laminar state for, 46 surface perturbances based on, 47-48 local separation, 8, 64 local skin-friction coefficient Ct, 35, 37-41 local velocity, 24 low spots, detection of, 50-51

M
maintenance of surface, 51-52 Mana La car, 1987, 137, 139 mass-acceleration effect, 3-4 Messiah College 1997 Genesis solar car, 90 MIT, 152. See also XFOIL program APS Solar/Electric 500 design, 15 Aztec, xii, 97, 118, 198, 203, 231, 239 electric car, 117 Galaxy, xv, 99, 184-185, 188-189, 260-261 shear-fluid tests, 59 wheel-fairing wind tunnel study, 164-169 MIT 1995 Manta, xv, 14-15, 17, 218 camber and lift, 112, 120, 124125 canopy, 185, 189-190 chassis testing, 236-237 Cp curves, 226 cross-flow instability, 55-56 crosswind lift, 135 drag of, 99 empirical drag equations, 87-89 goals of, 262-264 junction flows, 148 lateral edges, 123 nose shape, 197-198, 199

J
Jaray and Klemperer, xi-xii, 114 junctions angle between appendage and body in front view, 149-150 canopy, 185, 196, 230, 262, 268 drag at, 262, 268 flows, 147-158 leading-edge geometry, 152-157 minimizing number of, 147-148 negative drag increments, 148 solar array and body, 208 trailing-edge junction geometry, 157-158 wheel fairings, 228

K
kinetic energy per unit volume, 2 Klemperer. See Jaray and Klemperer Konig-Fachsenfeld, xii

286

INDEX
NACA 0010 airfoil, 44, 102 NACA 0012 airfoil, 49 NACA 0015 airfoil, 102, 127-128 NACA 4412 airfoil, 128 NACA ducts, 210-212 narrow cars, 77, 99-101 Nissan 1990 Hoxan, 56, 179, 181 1993 Sunfavor, 64, 123-124, 171 Northern Essex Community College 1995 TNE-3, 15, 63, 128 Northern Territory University (Australia) 1996 Desert Rose, 150, 158, 177, 198, 242, 252 nose, 196-200, 228 airfoil thinness and Cp slope, 45 boundary layer thickness and, 47 canopy, bluntness of, 195 crosswinds, wrap for, 103 ducts, 212 favourable pressure gradient, 42-43 laminar flow and, 44, 268 lateral edges and, 122-123 optimal flow for, 65 radius of, and cross flow, 53-55 rounded, 44, 77, 90 sharp, 77, 154-155 smoothness, maintenance of, 5152 surface perturbances on, 29-30, 48, 249 wetted area, reduction of, 77 nose-sweep angles, 54-56 nose-up/nose-down pitch, 131132, 237 no-slip condition, 28-29, 52 Prandtl, Ludwig, 25 pressure drag, 6-7, 9, 11, 37, 64 boundary layer (Dpres,BL), 8, 79, 88 horseshoe vortex, caused by, 152 streamlining to minimize, 69 pressure gradient, 224 adverse, 45-46, 59-60, 65, 152, 153, 185-186, 197, 231 boundary layer thickness and, 36 favourable, 42-43, 45-46, 48, 65, 228 negative, 52, 65 positive, 198 pressure-recovery region, 43 profile drag, 8 pure electric vehicles, ix pushing, 173

separation at rear of body, 63, 64 solar array, 206 surface smoothness, 29-30 3-D relieving effect, 104 ventilation, 210 wetted area, 73, 89-90 wheel housings, 182 wheel openings, 136, 160 yarn-tuft tests, 240-241 MIT 1997 Manta GT, 14, 15, 17, 102, 218-219, 223, 264-265 bellypan, 228 boundary layer thickness over, 36 camber and lift, 120, 123, 124 canopy, 189, 207, 227-229 Cp curves, 226, 227 Cp plot of, 227-229 cross-flow instability, 56 crosswind lift, 136 fairings, 155, 180, 239 indirect aerodynamic drag measurements, 253 laminar flow, 228-229 nose shape, 228 separation at rear of body, 64 shape-factor plots, 231 solar array, 206 3-D relieving effect, 105 ventilation, 210, 213 wetted area, 73, 89 wheel housings, 182 wheel openings, 163 yarn-tuft tests, 240-241 MIT 1998 Manta GT, 17 shear tests, 246, 249 yarn-tuft tests, 241 Mitsubishi Materials 1996 Sun Challenger, 180, 190 model vehicle construction of, 217-221 outline, 219-221 momentum thickness Q (boundary layer), 31-35 momentum-flow dissipated by boundary layer, 33 Morelli body, xii, 117-118, 198, 231 ground effect on drag, 119 tail truncation and, 203 TFT model compared, 97, 99 Mylar, 209

Q
QUADPAN program, 43, 102, 104, 222, 224-225 Queens University 1997 Dawn Treader, 90 1995 team, 64

R
rear body and lift reduction, 137 rear-wheel steering, 139-140 reference area A. See also drag area (CdA); frontal area; planview area; wetted area drag coefficient, coupled with, 1, 2 streamlined body, 11-14 Reynolds, Osborne, 25 Reynolds number (Re), 25-27, 220, 223 aft-body separation, 64 canopy drag coefficient, 194 cross-flow instability, 53 derivation of, 26-27 drag experiments at high numbers, 1 flat-plate drag calculation, 73-78 laminar boundary layer and, 46 local Re (Rex) (See local Reynolds numbers (Rex)) minimizing pressure drag at running, 69, 71-72 torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) drag-calculation results, 94

P
pitching moment, 105, 131-132 planform area. See planview area planview airfoils in, xii rounding of nose in, 44 sharpened nose in, 56 short cars, 90 solar-array areas, 16 tail shape, 194 very curved nose in, 52 planview area, 12, 14-15 comparisons of, 15 narrow cars, 99-100 streamlining examples, 69-70 potential flow. See inviscid flow power, 3 power test, 251, 253-254

N
NACA 7 airfoil, 86 NACA 66 airfoil, 44, 62, 80 NACA 006 airfoil, 102

INDEX
total plate length Re (ReL), 26, 35 2-D body affected by, 82 riblets, 57, 65-67 robustness studies of body shapes, 224 roll axis, 130-132 rolling resistance, 3-6, 124-126 coefficient (Crr), 5-6 vehicle mass and, 18-19 rotationally symmetric body (torpedo), 87-89 rounded body, volume-to-Awet ratio of, 102-103 rudders, 130 Rumpler vehicle, xii-xiii laminar and turbulent flow and, 30, 72 separation and, 7 supervelocity effect, 78-79, 219220 surface roughness, effect of, 208209 skin-friction coefficient flat plate (Cf), 73-77, 79, 80, 220 in junction, 152 local (Ct), 35, 37-41 total, 37-38 solar array, 99, 255, 268 application of cells, 222 cooling of, 227-228 gaps and seams, 204-208 heat-shrink film to smooth surace of, 209 optimal flow for, 65 placement of, 263, 264 in short cars, 184, 185 Sunrayce rules, 99 solar bikes, ix, xiii, 128 solar-viscosity ratio, 16-17, 268 Solectria-4, pre-1987, 255-256 Solectria BRLS-8, 213 Solectria Flash, 1992, 203 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology 1995 car, 170 spheres, 72 spined aftbody, 135-136 spoke covers, 134 stability during testing, 238-239 Stanford University 1995 Afterburner I, 179 1996 Afterburner II, 64, 192-93, 241-242 1997 Afterburner III, 179, 189 steps, forward or backward, 207208 stiffness of body, 222 Stratford Criteria, 64 streamlined body, 8 body thickness, effect on drag of, 78-79 boundary layer thickness over, 35-37 construction of simple model of, 217-221 examples of, 69-73 reference area, 11-14 skin drag reduction, 65 successful, 255-267 surface temperature, effect on drag of, 57-58 TFT model, verification of, 97-99 3-D bodies, empirical drag equations for, 87-97

287

S
sail battens, 51 sailing land vehicles, 9, 137-144, 242 sailplane study, 153-154 sanding, 50-51, 200, 248 Santa Cruz 1996 Pumpkin Seed, 139, 242 seals. See also seams bellypan, 175-183, 208 canopy, 237 Honda 1996 Dream, 210 vent hole, resealable, 213 wheel wells, 180-181, 204, 208, 224, 237, 264 seams, 64, 204-208, 237, 268 separation pressure drag. See pressure drag shape factor H (boundary layer), 33, 61-63, 231-232 shear rate, 23-24, 28, 30, 77, 200 shear stress, 24, 29, 37, 59, 231 shear-fluid tests, 59 on-road testing, 245-249 wind tunnel tests, 232-236 shearing action, 7, 8 shear-stress coefficient. See local skin-friction coefficient C Shell Marathon vehicles, 128 short cars, 55-56, 90, 129-130, 184-185, 230, 260-267 center of pressure and center of gravity, 129-130 nose shape, 197-199 3-D body, example of, 95-97 skin friction (Dskin), 7-9, 25, 37, 64, 85, 219 drag (Df), 24, 37-40, 64-67, 71, 72

3-D bodies, examples of drag of, 99-101 2-D airfoils, empirical drag equations for, 80-87 2-D vs. 3-D bodies, 101-105 Sunrayce. See also specific vehicles 1990, 184-185 1997, 185 four wheelers in, 169 rules, 99 superlayer, 31 supervelocity, 78-79, 87-88, 103, 107 on bellypan, 218 skin friction, effect on, 219-220 3-D relieving effect, 104 surface fairness, 50-52 maintenance of, 51-52 perturbances, 29-30, 46-50, 8889, 204, 249 roughness/smoothness, 199-200, 208-209, 223, 246 temperature, effect on drag of, 57-58 texture, 50-52 suspension kinematics and pitching, 131132 motorcycle-strut type, 179 for testing, 238 swept leading edge, 53

T
tail cone, 87-89, 203 tail incidence, 119 tail truncation, 10-11, 203. See also bluff bodies; short cars tail wind, 1 tandem wheel assemblies, 171-174 tangential fluid molecules, shearing of, 7 TASCFlow models, 137 teardrop. See axisymmetric teardrop body (torpedo) testing and development, 222-254. See also shear-fluid tests; wind tunnels; yarn-tuft tests of actual car, 236-254 aerodynamic drag measurements, 249-253 CFD plots, 224-232 outline of development cycle, 222-224 power test, 251, 253-254

288

INDEX
thickness of, 200-203 turbulent boundary layer at, 79 truncation, 10-11, 203. See also bluff bodies; short cars turbulent flow (boundary layer), 30-37, 61-62, 65 to cool solar array, 227-228 corner flow and, 57 duct placement and, 211 flat plate, plotting layer thickness over, 34-35 flat-plate drag calculation, 77 freestream turbulence, 58-59 lateral-edge shaping and, 103 nose shape and, 197-198 separation at rear of body and, 63-64 shear-fluid tests, 232-236, 245249 skin friction coefficients, 37-41 supervelocity effect, 78 surface finish and, 29, 208-209 at trailing edge, 79 transition from laminar layers, 41-59 turbulent wedges, 246 turn-signal lights, 202 2-D airfoils (streamlined bodies) Cp plots for, 43 empirical drag equations for, 8087 lift in, 115 reducing drag of, 86-87 3-D vs., 100-105 wetted area, 102, 103 2-D body portion, 63 University of Waterloo (Canada) 1990 Midnight Sun, xv, 99, 136, 144, 179, 184, 261 1997 Midnight Sun IV 137, 144, , 148, 177, 179, 186-188, 226, 230-231, 265

successful streamlined bodies, 255-267 vehicle stability, 238-239 texture, surface, 50-52 TFT body. See torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) three wheelers, 255 center-of-pressure and, 129-130 chassis configuration, 173-175 wheel drag compared to fourwheelers, 169-175 3-D body portion, 63 3-D relieving effect, 104-105 3-D streamlined bodies drag area (CdA) of non-lifting, 101 empirical drag equations for, 8797 examples of drag, 99-101 two-dimensional vs., 100-105 wetted area of, 89-94 tires, 130 relieving weight on, 124 rolling resistance and, 4-6 scrubbing, 140-141 stability, effect on, 238 testing size, 238 Tollmien-Schlicting waves (T-S waves), 34, 42, 45, 46, 59 top view. See planview torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body), 87, 88, 217-221 3-D body drag-calculation results, 94-97 verification of model, 97-99 torpedo-shaped body, 255. See also axisymmetric teardrop body (torpedo); rotationally symmetric body (torpedo) ground effect on drag, 119 solar race cars, xiv very low ground clearance, 128 total drag force, 3 total expended power, 3 total plate length Reynolds number (ReL), 26, 35 total skin-friction coefficient Cf, 37-38 Tour de Sol, 3 trailing edge, 226 angle, and lift, 116 of bellypan, 117 crosswinds, design to reduce drag in, 203 horseshoe vortex beyond, 152 indicator lights in, 202 junction geometry, 157-158 shape factor H curve and, 232

V
vehicle mass, tradeoff with aerodynamic drag of, 18-19 vehicle speed aerodynamic drag as function of, 3 fixed speed, propelling car at, 251 velocity. See also supervelocity boundary layer and, 28 car relative to road (Vcar), 1 curvature, velocity-pressure relationship around, 42-43 head wind velocity relative to road (Vwind), 1, 2 local, 24 square of, aerodynamic drag proportional to, 1 velocity profile, 28 chordwise, 53 in cross-flowing boundary layer, 52-53 fuller, 30 negative pressure gradient and, 46 spanwise, 53, 110 ventilation, 207, 209-216 analysis, 213-216 vent hole, resealable, 213 vibration, 58-59 viscous friction, 6-8 volume to the two-thirds power (Vol2/3), 12 Von Karman, Theodore, 25 vortex generators, 190-191 vortex shedding, 25, 64, 150, 228, 268 lateral-edge shaping and, 85, 103 lift and, 112-113, 121 nose shape and, 55 wing tip drag due to, 85-86 vortices, 7. See also horseshoe vortex induced by lifting body, 8-9 kinetic energy dumped into, 111112, 114 separation, 59-60 VSAERO program, 223-226 Awet / 2Aplan ratio, finding, 102, 105

U
unibody super streamliner, 256257 University of Maryland 1990 Pride of Maryland, 132, 135-136, 142, 150, 161-162, 226, 229-230 University of Michigan 1990 Sunrunner, 16-17, 132, 161-162, 169-170, 179, 203 1993 Maize & Blue, 16-17, 169 1995 team, 126 1997 Wolverine, 120, 143, 190, 230 University of Minnesota 1995 Aurora 2, 80, 105, 116, 160, 205, 210, 213 1997 Aurora 3, 103, 105, 116, 175, 202, 205, 210, 213 University of Queensland (Australia) 1996 team, 176

INDEX
boundary-layer thickness comparison, 36 camber and lift, 120, 122, 124 canopies, design of, 186-187 Cp plots, 43, 56, 60 crosswind lift tests, 137 ptiching moment, determination of, 132 Shape H plot, 63 skin-friction coefficient plot, 41 wheel wells, sealing of, 180-181, 204, 208, 224, 237, 264 wheels. See also four wheelers; three wheelers design, 158-160 drag of system, 158-183 rear wheel placement, 171-172 tandem assemblies, 171-174 uneven lift on front and rear, 105 wind. See also crosswind head wind velocity relative to road (Vwind), 1, 2 pitching and head wind, 131 tail wind, 1 wind-averaged drag area (Cd A), 253 windshields, 121, 189-190, 207 wind tunnels aerodynamic drag measurements, 249-253 crosswinds tests, 132-137, 141142, 144 models, testing of, 222 nose shape tests, 197 shear-fluid tests, 232-236 3-wheeler and 4-wheeler drag compared, 171-172 trailing edge thickness of main body, testing of, 201-202 ventilation system, testing of, 211 wheel openings, testing of, 161162 wheel-fairing study at MIT, 164169 Worden, James, 255, 260 World Solar Challenge, 3. See also specific cars 1987, 137, 257 1990, 56, 179 1993, 175 1996, 156, 242 four wheelers in, 169

289

separation flow, demonstration of, 8, 88, 135, 137 vortices, test for, 112-113, 121 yaw, 114-115, 191, 223 yaw and roll moments, 128-131 yaw sweep, 132-133

W
wake rake, 253 Waseda University (Japan) 1996 Waseda II, 181 weight of vehicle (W), 5-6, 255 Western Ontario University 1996 team, 182-183 Western Washington University 1990 Viking XX, 139-140, 170 wetted area, 12, 14, 37 comparisons of, 15 flat plate, 73-78 lateral edges, 102, 123 model, 218, 220 reduction of, 65, 72, 77, 99, 262, 268 rotationally symmetric body (torpedo), 87 of rounded body, 102-103 sharpened nose and, 56 in short cars, 184-185 of solar array, 16-17 spined aftbody and, 136 streamlining examples, 69, 71 of 2-D airfoils, 102, 103 of 3-D bodies, 89-94 wheel fairings, 15, 163 angle of mounting, 149-150 center-of-pressure and, 130 crosswinds and, 133-136, 139, 142-143 examples of, 175-183 flow separation and, 60-61 full fairings, tests of, 164-169 half-fairing configurations, tests of, 164-169 junctions, 147-148, 148, 158, 228, 268 MIT wind tunnel study, 164-169 optimal flow for, 65 separation and, 64 wheel steer rear-wheel, 139-140 wheel openings in bellypan for, 160-164

X
XFOIL program, 81, 104

Y
yarn-tuft tests, 237, 239-245 canopies, tests of, 192-193 crosswinds, effect of, 135, 137 fairings, tests of, 158 lateral-edge shaping, tests of, 123